(ebook - PDF) Linux Complete Command Reference

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addftinfo reads a troff font file and adds some additional font-metric information that is used by the groff system. The font file with the information added is written on the standard output. The information added is guessed using some parametric information about the font and assumptions about the traditional troff names for characters. The main information added is the heights and depths of characters. The res and unitwidth arguments should be the same as the corresponding param- eters in the DESC file; font is the name of the file describing the font; if font ends with I, the font will be assumed to be...

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  1. Introduction i LINUX COMPLETE Command Reference Compiled by J. Purcell Red Hat Software, Inc. 201 West 103rd Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46290 For more information on the Linux operating system and Red Hat Software, Inc., check http://www.redhat.com.
  2. COPYRIGHT © 1997 BY RED HAT SOFTWARE, INC. Acquisitions Editor FIRST EDITION Grace M. Buechlein All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval Development Editor system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, Brian Proffitt recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No Software Development Specialist patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained Jack Belbot herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Production Editor Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the Kitty Wilson Jarrett information contained herein. For information, address Sams Publishing, 201 Kate Shoup Welsh W. 103rd St., Indianapolis, IN 46290. Copy Editors International Standard Book Number: 0-672-31104-6 Kimberly K. Hannel Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 97-66202 Carolyn Linn Kristine Simmons 2000 99 98 97 4 3 2 1 Indexer Interpretation of the printing code: the rightmost double-digit number is the Christine L. Nelsen year of the book’s printing; the rightmost single-digit, the number of the book’s printing. For example, a printing code of 97-1 shows that the first printing of the Technical Reviewer book occurred in 1997. Bill Ball Composed in AGaramond and MCPdigital by Macmillan Computer Publishing Editorial Coordinators Printed in the United States of America Mandie Rowell Katie Wise TRADEMARKS Technical Edit Coordinator All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service Lynette Quinn marks have been appropriately capitalized. Sams Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded Editorial Assistants as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Carol Ackerman Andi Richter Rhonda Tinch-Mize Karen Williams President Richard K. Swadley Cover Designer Publisher and Director of Acquisitions Jordan Gold Karen Ruggles Director of Product Development Dean Miller Book Designer Managing Editor Kitty Wilson Jarrett Ann Jones Indexing Manager Johnna L. VanHoose Copy Writer Director of Marketing Kelli S. Spencer David Reichwein Associate Product Marketing Manager Jennifer Pock Production Team Supervisor Marketing Coordinator Linda Beckwith Beth Lewis Production Team Erin Danielson, Bryan Flores, DiMonique Ford, Julie Geeting, Kay Hoskin, Christy M. Lemasters, Tony McDonald, Darlena Murray, Julie Searls, Sossity Smith
  3. Overview Part I User Commands 2 Part II System Calls 738 Part III Library Functions 892 Part IV Special Files 1064 Part V File Formats 1104 Part VI Games 1210 Part VII Miscellaneous 1214 Part VIII Administration and Privileged Commands 1258 Part IX Kernel Reference Guide 1424 Index
  4. Linux Complete Command Reference iv Part I User Commands Introduction ......................................................................................................... 2 addftinfo ............................................................................................................... 2 afmtodit ................................................................................................................ 2 ansi2knr ................................................................................................................ 4 anytopnm ............................................................................................................. 4 appres ................................................................................................................... 5 ar .......................................................................................................................... 5 arch ....................................................................................................................... 8 GNU as ................................................................................................................ 8 asciitopgm ........................................................................................................... 10 atktopbm ............................................................................................................ 10 bash .................................................................................................................... 11 bdftopcf .............................................................................................................. 47 beforelight ........................................................................................................... 47 biff ...................................................................................................................... 48 bioradtopgm ....................................................................................................... 48 bitmap, bmtoa, atobm ........................................................................................ 49 bmptoppm .......................................................................................................... 57 brushtopbm ........................................................................................................ 57 cal ....................................................................................................................... 58 cat ....................................................................................................................... 58 chattr .................................................................................................................. 59 chfn .................................................................................................................... 60 chgrp................................................................................................................... 61 chkdupexe ........................................................................................................... 61 chmod ................................................................................................................. 61 chown ................................................................................................................. 62 chsh .................................................................................................................... 63 ci ......................................................................................................................... 64 cidentd ................................................................................................................ 69 cksum ................................................................................................................. 70 clear .................................................................................................................... 70 cmuwmtopbm .................................................................................................... 71 co ........................................................................................................................ 71 col ....................................................................................................................... 76 colcrt ................................................................................................................... 77 colrm .................................................................................................................. 77 column................................................................................................................ 78 comm.................................................................................................................. 78
  5. Introduction v convdate .............................................................................................................. 79 cp ........................................................................................................................ 80 cccp, cpp ............................................................................................................. 81 crontab ................................................................................................................ 84 csplit ................................................................................................................... 85 ctags .................................................................................................................... 87 cu ........................................................................................................................ 88 cut ...................................................................................................................... 90 cvs ....................................................................................................................... 91 date ................................................................................................................... 106 dd ..................................................................................................................... 108 depmod, modprobe ........................................................................................... 109 df ...................................................................................................................... 112 dig .................................................................................................................... 113 dnsquery ........................................................................................................... 117 domainname ..................................................................................................... 119 dsplit ................................................................................................................. 119 du ..................................................................................................................... 120 editres ............................................................................................................... 121 elvis, ex, vi, view, input ..................................................................................... 126 elvprsv ............................................................................................................... 128 elvrec ................................................................................................................. 129 emacs ................................................................................................................ 130 emacstool .......................................................................................................... 134 etags .................................................................................................................. 135 expand .............................................................................................................. 137 find ................................................................................................................... 137 fitstopnm .......................................................................................................... 142 fmt .................................................................................................................... 143 fold ................................................................................................................... 143 free .................................................................................................................... 144 fsinfo ................................................................................................................. 145 fslsfonts ............................................................................................................. 145 fstobdf............................................................................................................... 146 fstopgm ............................................................................................................. 147 ftp ..................................................................................................................... 147 fuser .................................................................................................................. 154 g++ .................................................................................................................... 155 g3topbm ........................................................................................................... 160 gawk ................................................................................................................. 161
  6. Linux Complete Command Reference vi gcal ................................................................................................................... 173 gcc, g++ ............................................................................................................. 174 gemtopbm ........................................................................................................ 201 geqn .................................................................................................................. 202 getlist ................................................................................................................ 206 getopt ................................................................................................................ 207 giftopnm ........................................................................................................... 208 gindxbib ............................................................................................................ 209 glookbib ............................................................................................................ 210 gnroff ................................................................................................................ 210 gouldtoppm ...................................................................................................... 211 gpic ................................................................................................................... 211 gprof ................................................................................................................. 216 grefer ................................................................................................................. 217 grep, egrep, fgrep .............................................................................................. 224 grephistory ........................................................................................................ 226 grodvi ............................................................................................................... 227 groff .................................................................................................................. 228 grog .................................................................................................................. 230 grops ................................................................................................................. 230 grotty ................................................................................................................ 235 gsoelim .............................................................................................................. 236 gtbl ................................................................................................................... 236 gtroff ................................................................................................................. 237 gzip, gunzip, zcatgzip, gunzip, zcat .................................................................... 248 gzexe ................................................................................................................. 252 head .................................................................................................................. 253 hexdump ........................................................................................................... 254 hipstopgm ......................................................................................................... 256 host ................................................................................................................... 257 hostid ................................................................................................................ 258 hostname .......................................................................................................... 259 hpcdtoppm v0.3 ................................................................................................ 260 httpd ................................................................................................................. 261 icontopbm ........................................................................................................ 262 ident ................................................................................................................. 262 ilbmtoppm ........................................................................................................ 263 imake ................................................................................................................ 264 imgtoppm ......................................................................................................... 267 inews ................................................................................................................. 267 info ................................................................................................................... 269 innconfval ......................................................................................................... 270 insmod .............................................................................................................. 271 install ................................................................................................................ 272 installit .............................................................................................................. 273
  7. Introduction vii ispell, buildhash, munchlist, findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin ......................... 274 join ................................................................................................................... 282 kill .................................................................................................................... 283 killall ................................................................................................................. 284 ksyms ................................................................................................................ 284 last .................................................................................................................... 285 lbxproxy ............................................................................................................ 286 ld ...................................................................................................................... 287 lispmtopgm ....................................................................................................... 292 lkbib ................................................................................................................. 292 ln ...................................................................................................................... 293 lndir .................................................................................................................. 294 locate ................................................................................................................ 295 logger ................................................................................................................ 295 login .................................................................................................................. 296 look ................................................................................................................... 297 lpq .................................................................................................................... 298 lpr ..................................................................................................................... 299 lprm .................................................................................................................. 301 lptest ................................................................................................................. 302 ls, dir, vdir ......................................................................................................... 303 lsattr .................................................................................................................. 304 lsmod ................................................................................................................ 305 lynx ................................................................................................................... 306 macptopbm ....................................................................................................... 309 make ................................................................................................................. 310 makedepend ...................................................................................................... 312 makestrs ............................................................................................................ 314 mattrib .............................................................................................................. 315 mbadblocks ....................................................................................................... 316 mcd ................................................................................................................... 316 mcookie ............................................................................................................ 317 mcopy ............................................................................................................... 317 md5sum ............................................................................................................ 318 mdel .................................................................................................................. 318 mdeltree ............................................................................................................ 319 mdir .................................................................................................................. 319 merge ................................................................................................................ 320 mesg .................................................................................................................. 321 mformat ............................................................................................................ 321 mgrtopbm ......................................................................................................... 322 mkdir ................................................................................................................ 323 mkdirhier .......................................................................................................... 323 mkfifo ............................................................................................................... 323 mkmanifest ....................................................................................................... 324
  8. Linux Complete Command Reference viii mknod .............................................................................................................. 325 mlabel ............................................................................................................... 325 mmd ................................................................................................................. 326 mmount ............................................................................................................ 326 mmove .............................................................................................................. 327 more ................................................................................................................. 327 mrd ................................................................................................................... 329 mread ................................................................................................................ 329 mren ................................................................................................................. 329 mtest ................................................................................................................. 330 mtools ............................................................................................................... 330 mtvtoppm ......................................................................................................... 333 mtype ................................................................................................................ 333 mv .................................................................................................................... 334 mwrite .............................................................................................................. 335 namei ................................................................................................................ 335 newaliases .......................................................................................................... 336 newgrp .............................................................................................................. 336 nl ...................................................................................................................... 337 nlmconv ............................................................................................................ 338 nm .................................................................................................................... 339 nntpget ............................................................................................................. 340 objcopy ............................................................................................................. 341 objdump ........................................................................................................... 342 oclock ............................................................................................................... 344 od ..................................................................................................................... 345 passwd .............................................................................................................. 346 paste .................................................................................................................. 347 pbmclean .......................................................................................................... 348 pbmfilters .......................................................................................................... 348 pbmlife ............................................................................................................. 352 pbmmake .......................................................................................................... 353 pbmmask .......................................................................................................... 353 pbmpscale ......................................................................................................... 354 pbmreduce ........................................................................................................ 355 pbmtext ............................................................................................................ 355 pbmto10x ......................................................................................................... 356 pbmto4425 ....................................................................................................... 357 pbmtoascii ........................................................................................................ 357 pbmtoatk .......................................................................................................... 358 pbmtobg ........................................................................................................... 358 pbmtocmuwm .................................................................................................. 358 pbmtoepsi ......................................................................................................... 359 pbmtoepson ...................................................................................................... 359 pbmtog3 ........................................................................................................... 360
  9. Introduction ix pbmtogem ........................................................................................................ 360 pbmtogo ........................................................................................................... 360 pbmtoicon ........................................................................................................ 361 pbmtolj ............................................................................................................. 361 pbmtoln03 ........................................................................................................ 362 pbmtolps ........................................................................................................... 362 pbmtomacp ....................................................................................................... 363 pbmtomgr ......................................................................................................... 363 pbmtopgm ........................................................................................................ 364 pbmtopi3 .......................................................................................................... 364 pbmtopk ........................................................................................................... 364 pbmtoplot ......................................................................................................... 365 pbmtoptx .......................................................................................................... 366 pbmtox10bm .................................................................................................... 366 pbmtoxbm ........................................................................................................ 367 pgmtoybm ........................................................................................................ 367 pbmtozinc ......................................................................................................... 367 pbmupc ............................................................................................................ 368 pcxtoppm .......................................................................................................... 368 pfbtops .............................................................................................................. 369 pgmbentley ....................................................................................................... 369 pgmcrater .......................................................................................................... 370 pgmedge ........................................................................................................... 371 pgmenhance ...................................................................................................... 371 pgmhist ............................................................................................................. 372 pgmkernel ......................................................................................................... 372 pgmnoise .......................................................................................................... 373 pgmnorm .......................................................................................................... 373 pgmoil .............................................................................................................. 374 pgmramp .......................................................................................................... 374 pgmtexture ........................................................................................................ 375 pgmtofs ............................................................................................................. 376 pgmtolispm ....................................................................................................... 376 pgmtopbm ........................................................................................................ 377 pgmtoppm ........................................................................................................ 378 pi1toppm .......................................................................................................... 378 pi3topbm .......................................................................................................... 379 picttoppm ......................................................................................................... 379 pjtoppm ............................................................................................................ 381 pktopbm ........................................................................................................... 381 pnmalias ............................................................................................................ 381 pnmarith ........................................................................................................... 382 pnmcat .............................................................................................................. 383 pnmcomp ......................................................................................................... 383 pnmconvol ........................................................................................................ 384
  10. Linux Complete Command Reference x pnmcrop ........................................................................................................... 385 pnmcut ............................................................................................................. 385 pnmdepth ......................................................................................................... 385 pnmenlarge ....................................................................................................... 386 pnmfile ............................................................................................................. 386 pnmflip ............................................................................................................. 387 pnmgamma ....................................................................................................... 387 pnmhistmap ...................................................................................................... 388 pnmindex .......................................................................................................... 388 pnminvert ......................................................................................................... 389 pnmmargin ....................................................................................................... 389 pnmnlfilt ........................................................................................................... 390 pnmnoraw ........................................................................................................ 391 pnmpad ............................................................................................................ 392 pnmpaste .......................................................................................................... 392 pnmrotate ......................................................................................................... 393 pnmscale ........................................................................................................... 393 pnmshear .......................................................................................................... 394 pnmsmooth ...................................................................................................... 395 pnmtile ............................................................................................................. 395 pnmtoddif ......................................................................................................... 396 pnmtofits .......................................................................................................... 396 pnmtops ............................................................................................................ 397 pnmtorast ......................................................................................................... 398 pnmtosgi ........................................................................................................... 398 pnmtosir ........................................................................................................... 399 pnmtotiff .......................................................................................................... 399 pnmtoxwd ........................................................................................................ 400 ppm3d .............................................................................................................. 400 ppmbrighten ..................................................................................................... 401 ppmchange ....................................................................................................... 401 ppmdim ............................................................................................................ 402 ppmdist ............................................................................................................. 402 ppmdither ......................................................................................................... 403 ppmflash ........................................................................................................... 404 ppmforge .......................................................................................................... 404 ppmhist ............................................................................................................. 408 ppmmake .......................................................................................................... 408 ppmmix ............................................................................................................ 408 ppmnorm .......................................................................................................... 409 ppmntsc ............................................................................................................ 409 ppmpat ............................................................................................................. 410 ppmquant ......................................................................................................... 411 ppmquantall ...................................................................................................... 412 ppmqvga ........................................................................................................... 412
  11. Introduction xi ppmrelief .......................................................................................................... 413 ppmshift ........................................................................................................... 413 ppmspread ........................................................................................................ 414 ppmtoacad ........................................................................................................ 414 ppmtobmp ........................................................................................................ 416 ppmtogif ........................................................................................................... 416 ppmtoicr ........................................................................................................... 417 ppmtoilbm ........................................................................................................ 418 ppmtomap ........................................................................................................ 419 ppmtomitsu ...................................................................................................... 420 ppmtopcx .......................................................................................................... 421 ppmtopgm ........................................................................................................ 421 ppmtopi1 .......................................................................................................... 422 ppmtopict ......................................................................................................... 422 ppmtopj ............................................................................................................ 423 ppmtopjxl ......................................................................................................... 424 ppmtopuzz ........................................................................................................ 424 ppmtorgb3 ........................................................................................................ 425 ppmtosixel ........................................................................................................ 425 ppmtotga .......................................................................................................... 426 ppmtouil ........................................................................................................... 427 ppmtoxpm ........................................................................................................ 427 ppmtoyuv ......................................................................................................... 428 ppmtoyuvsplit ................................................................................................... 428 pr ...................................................................................................................... 429 ps ...................................................................................................................... 430 psbb .................................................................................................................. 433 psidtopgm ......................................................................................................... 433 pstopnm ............................................................................................................ 434 pstree ................................................................................................................ 435 psupdate ........................................................................................................... 436 qrttoppm .......................................................................................................... 436 quota ................................................................................................................. 437 ranlib ................................................................................................................ 437 rasttopnm ......................................................................................................... 438 rawtopgm .......................................................................................................... 439 rawtoppm ......................................................................................................... 439 rcp .................................................................................................................... 440 rcs ..................................................................................................................... 441 rcsclean ............................................................................................................. 443 rcsdiff ................................................................................................................ 445 rcsfreeze ............................................................................................................ 446 rcsintro ............................................................................................................. 447 rcsmerge ............................................................................................................ 449 rdist .................................................................................................................. 451
  12. Linux Complete Command Reference xii reconfig ............................................................................................................. 454 ref ..................................................................................................................... 455 reset .................................................................................................................. 456 resize ................................................................................................................. 456 rev ..................................................................................................................... 457 rgb3toppm ........................................................................................................ 457 rlog ................................................................................................................... 458 rlogin ................................................................................................................ 460 rm ..................................................................................................................... 461 rmdir ................................................................................................................ 462 rmmod .............................................................................................................. 462 rnews ................................................................................................................ 463 rpcgen ............................................................................................................... 464 rsh ..................................................................................................................... 466 rstart ................................................................................................................. 467 rstartd ............................................................................................................... 468 rup .................................................................................................................... 472 rusers ................................................................................................................ 472 rwall .................................................................................................................. 473 rwho ................................................................................................................. 474 script ................................................................................................................. 474 sed .................................................................................................................... 475 sessreg ............................................................................................................... 480 setterm .............................................................................................................. 482 sgitopnm ........................................................................................................... 483 shar ................................................................................................................... 484 shlock................................................................................................................ 487 showrgb ............................................................................................................ 488 shrinkfile ........................................................................................................... 488 sirtopnm ........................................................................................................... 488 size .................................................................................................................... 489 sldtoppm ........................................................................................................... 490 smproxy ............................................................................................................ 491 sort .................................................................................................................... 492 spctoppm .......................................................................................................... 494 split ................................................................................................................... 494 spottopgm ......................................................................................................... 495 sputoppm .......................................................................................................... 495 sq ...................................................................................................................... 496 startx ................................................................................................................. 496 strings ............................................................................................................... 498 strip .................................................................................................................. 499 subst ................................................................................................................. 500 sum ................................................................................................................... 501 SuperProbe ....................................................................................................... 501
  13. Introduction xiii tac ..................................................................................................................... 503 tail .................................................................................................................... 504 talk .................................................................................................................... 505 tcal .................................................................................................................... 506 telnet ................................................................................................................. 507 tfmtodit ............................................................................................................ 513 tftp .................................................................................................................... 514 tgatoppm .......................................................................................................... 515 tifftopnm .......................................................................................................... 515 tin, rtin, cdtin, tind ........................................................................................... 516 tload .................................................................................................................. 533 top .................................................................................................................... 533 touch ................................................................................................................ 536 tr ....................................................................................................................... 536 tset, reset ........................................................................................................... 539 tsort .................................................................................................................. 542 twm .................................................................................................................. 542 txt2gcal ............................................................................................................. 558 ul ...................................................................................................................... 558 unexpand .......................................................................................................... 559 uniq .................................................................................................................. 560 unshar ............................................................................................................... 560 updatedb ........................................................................................................... 561 uptime .............................................................................................................. 562 userlist ............................................................................................................... 563 uucp .................................................................................................................. 563 uuencode .......................................................................................................... 565 uustat ................................................................................................................ 566 uux .................................................................................................................... 569 uuxqt ................................................................................................................ 572 w ....................................................................................................................... 573 wall ................................................................................................................... 574 wc ..................................................................................................................... 574 whereis .............................................................................................................. 575 write .................................................................................................................. 576 x11perf.............................................................................................................. 577 x11perfcomp ..................................................................................................... 585 xargs .................................................................................................................. 586 xauth ................................................................................................................. 587 xbmtopbm ........................................................................................................ 592 xcmsdb .............................................................................................................. 592 xclock ................................................................................................................ 593 xclipboard ......................................................................................................... 595 xconsole ............................................................................................................ 597 xcutsel ............................................................................................................... 598
  14. Linux Complete Command Reference xiv xdm .................................................................................................................. 599 xdpyinfo ............................................................................................................ 614 Xf86_Accel ....................................................................................................... 614 XF86_Mono ..................................................................................................... 624 XF86_SVGA .................................................................................................... 627 XF86_VGA16 .................................................................................................. 631 xf86config ......................................................................................................... 633 xfd .................................................................................................................... 633 XFree86 ............................................................................................................ 636 xfs ..................................................................................................................... 641 xhost ................................................................................................................. 643 xieperf ............................................................................................................... 645 ximtoppm ......................................................................................................... 654 xinetd ................................................................................................................ 655 xinit .................................................................................................................. 664 xkill ................................................................................................................... 666 xlogo ................................................................................................................. 667 xlsatoms ............................................................................................................ 668 xlsclients ............................................................................................................ 669 xlsfonts .............................................................................................................. 670 xmag ................................................................................................................. 671 xmkmf .............................................................................................................. 672 xmodmap .......................................................................................................... 672 xon .................................................................................................................... 676 xpmtoppm ........................................................................................................ 677 xprop ................................................................................................................ 677 xrdb .................................................................................................................. 681 xrefresh ............................................................................................................. 684 Xserver .............................................................................................................. 685 xset .................................................................................................................... 690 xsetroot ............................................................................................................. 693 xsm ................................................................................................................... 694 xsmclient ........................................................................................................... 698 xstdcmap ........................................................................................................... 699 xterm ................................................................................................................ 700 Xvfb .................................................................................................................. 717 xvidtune ............................................................................................................ 719 xvminitoppm .................................................................................................... 720 xwd ................................................................................................................... 721 xwdtopnm ........................................................................................................ 722 xwininfo ............................................................................................................ 722 xwud ................................................................................................................. 725 ybmtopbm ........................................................................................................ 726 ytalk .................................................................................................................. 727 yuvplittoppm .................................................................................................... 730
  15. Introduction xv yuvtoppm ......................................................................................................... 731 zcmp, zdiff ........................................................................................................ 731 zeisstopnm ........................................................................................................ 732 zforce ................................................................................................................ 732 zgrep ................................................................................................................. 733 zmore ................................................................................................................ 733 znew .................................................................................................................. 734 Part II System Calls intro .................................................................................................................. 738 exit .................................................................................................................... 739 accept ................................................................................................................ 740 access ................................................................................................................ 741 acct ................................................................................................................... 742 adjtimex ............................................................................................................ 742 alarm ................................................................................................................. 744 bdflush .............................................................................................................. 744 bind .................................................................................................................. 745 brk, sbrk ............................................................................................................ 746 cacheflush ......................................................................................................... 746 chdir, fchdir ...................................................................................................... 747 chmod, fchmod ................................................................................................. 748 chown, fchown ................................................................................................. 749 chroot ............................................................................................................... 750 clone ................................................................................................................. 751 close .................................................................................................................. 752 connect ............................................................................................................. 752 dup, dup2 ......................................................................................................... 753 execve ................................................................................................................ 754 fcntl .................................................................................................................. 755 fdatasync ........................................................................................................... 756 flock .................................................................................................................. 757 fork, vfork ......................................................................................................... 758 fsync ................................................................................................................. 758 getdents ............................................................................................................ 759 getdomainname, setdomainname ...................................................................... 760 getdtablesize ...................................................................................................... 760 getgid, getegid ................................................................................................... 761 getgroups, setgroups .......................................................................................... 761 gethostid, sethostid ........................................................................................... 762 gethostname, sethostname ................................................................................. 763 getitimer, setitimer ............................................................................................ 763 getpagesize ........................................................................................................ 765 getpeername ...................................................................................................... 765 getpid, getppid .................................................................................................. 766 getpriority, setpriority ....................................................................................... 766
  16. Linux Complete Command Reference xvi getrlimit, getrusage, setrlimit ............................................................................. 767 getsid ................................................................................................................ 768 getsockname...................................................................................................... 769 getsockopt, setsockopt ....................................................................................... 769 gettimeofday, settimeofday ................................................................................ 772 getuid, geteuid .................................................................................................. 773 idle .................................................................................................................... 774 ioctl................................................................................................................... 774 ioperm .............................................................................................................. 788 iopl ................................................................................................................... 788 ipc ..................................................................................................................... 789 kill .................................................................................................................... 790 killpg ................................................................................................................. 790 link ................................................................................................................... 791 listen ................................................................................................................. 792 llseek ................................................................................................................. 793 lseek .................................................................................................................. 793 mkdir ................................................................................................................ 794 mknod .............................................................................................................. 795 mlock ................................................................................................................ 796 mlockall ............................................................................................................ 797 mmap, munmap ............................................................................................... 799 modify_ldt ........................................................................................................ 800 get_kernel_syms, create_module, init_module, delete_module ......................... 800 mount, umount ................................................................................................ 802 mprotect ........................................................................................................... 804 mremap ............................................................................................................ 805 msgctl ............................................................................................................... 806 msgget............................................................................................................... 807 msgop ............................................................................................................... 808 msync ............................................................................................................... 811 munlock ............................................................................................................ 811 munlockall ........................................................................................................ 812 nanosleep .......................................................................................................... 813 nice ................................................................................................................... 814 oldfstat, oldlstat, oldstat, oldolduname, olduname ............................................ 814 open, creat ........................................................................................................ 815 outb, outw, outl, outsb, outsw, outsl ................................................................. 816 pause ................................................................................................................. 817 personality ........................................................................................................ 817 phys .................................................................................................................. 818 pipe ................................................................................................................... 818 profil ................................................................................................................. 819 ptrace ................................................................................................................ 820 quotactl ............................................................................................................. 821
  17. Introduction xvii read ................................................................................................................... 822 readdir .............................................................................................................. 823 readlink ............................................................................................................. 823 readv, writev ...................................................................................................... 824 reboot ............................................................................................................... 825 recv, recvfrom, recvmsg ..................................................................................... 826 rename .............................................................................................................. 828 rmdir ................................................................................................................ 829 sched_get_priority_max, sched_get_priority_min ............................................. 830 sched_rr_get_interval ........................................................................................ 831 sched_setparam, sched_getparam ...................................................................... 832 sched_setscheduler, sched_getscheduler ............................................................ 833 sched_yield ....................................................................................................... 835 select, FD_CLR, FD_ISSET, FD_SET, FD_ZERO ......................................... 835 semctl ................................................................................................................ 837 semget ............................................................................................................... 839 semop ............................................................................................................... 840 send, sendto, sendmsg ....................................................................................... 842 setfsgid .............................................................................................................. 843 setfsuid .............................................................................................................. 844 setgid ................................................................................................................ 845 setpgid, getpgid, setpgrp, getpgrp ...................................................................... 845 setregid, setegid ................................................................................................. 846 setreuid, seteuid ................................................................................................ 847 setsid ................................................................................................................. 848 setuid ................................................................................................................ 848 setup ................................................................................................................. 849 shmctl ............................................................................................................... 849 shmget .............................................................................................................. 851 shmop ............................................................................................................... 853 shutdown .......................................................................................................... 855 sigaction, sigprocmask, sigpending, sigsuspend.................................................. 855 signal ................................................................................................................. 857 sigblock, siggetmask, sigsetmask, sigmask .......................................................... 858 sigpause ............................................................................................................. 858 sigreturn ............................................................................................................ 859 sigvec ................................................................................................................ 860 socket ................................................................................................................ 860 socketcall ........................................................................................................... 862 socketpair .......................................................................................................... 862 stat, fstat, lstat ................................................................................................... 863 statfs, fstatfs ....................................................................................................... 865 stime ................................................................................................................. 866 swapon, swapoff ................................................................................................ 866 symlink ............................................................................................................. 867
  18. Linux Complete Command Reference xviii sync ................................................................................................................... 869 sysctl ................................................................................................................. 869 sysfs................................................................................................................... 871 sysinfo ............................................................................................................... 871 syslog ................................................................................................................ 872 termios, tcgetattr, tcsetattr, tcsendbreak, tcdrain, tcflush, tcflow, cfgetospeed, cfgetispeed, cfsetispeed, cfsetospeed, tcgetpgrp, tcsetpgrp ............................... 874 time .................................................................................................................. 878 times ................................................................................................................. 878 truncate, ftruncate ............................................................................................. 879 umask ............................................................................................................... 880 uname ............................................................................................................... 880 none .................................................................................................................. 881 afs_syscall, break, gtty, lock, mpx, prof, quotactl, stty, ustat .............................. 881 unlink ............................................................................................................... 882 uselib ................................................................................................................ 883 ustat .................................................................................................................. 883 utime, utimes .................................................................................................... 884 vhangup ............................................................................................................ 885 vm86 ................................................................................................................ 885 wait, waitpid ..................................................................................................... 886 wait3, wait4 ...................................................................................................... 888 write.................................................................................................................. 889 Part III Library Functions Intro ................................................................................................................. 892 abort ................................................................................................................. 892 abs .................................................................................................................... 892 acos ................................................................................................................... 893 acosh ................................................................................................................. 893 alloca ................................................................................................................. 894 asin ................................................................................................................... 894 asinh ................................................................................................................. 895 assert ................................................................................................................. 895 atan ................................................................................................................... 896 atan2 ................................................................................................................. 896 atanh ................................................................................................................. 897 atexit ................................................................................................................. 897 atof ................................................................................................................... 898 atoi .................................................................................................................... 898 atol .................................................................................................................... 899 bcmp ................................................................................................................. 899 bcopy ................................................................................................................ 900 bsearch .............................................................................................................. 900 bcmp, bcopy, bzero, memccpy, memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memfrob, memmem, memmove, memset ......................................................................................... 901
  19. Introduction xix htonl, htons, ntohl, ntohs ................................................................................. 901 bzero ................................................................................................................. 902 catgets ............................................................................................................... 902 catopen, catclose ............................................................................................... 903 ceil .................................................................................................................... 904 clientlib ............................................................................................................. 904 clock ................................................................................................................. 905 closedir .............................................................................................................. 905 confstr ............................................................................................................... 906 copysign ............................................................................................................ 907 cos .................................................................................................................... 907 cosh .................................................................................................................. 908 crypt ................................................................................................................. 908 ctermid ............................................................................................................. 909 asctime, ctime, gmtime, localtime, mktime ....................................................... 909 difftime ............................................................................................................. 911 div ..................................................................................................................... 911 drand48, erand48, lrand48, nrand48, mrand48, jrand48, srand48, seed48, lcong48 .............................................................................................. 912 drem ................................................................................................................. 913 ecvt, fcvt ........................................................................................................... 913 erf, erfc .............................................................................................................. 914 execl, execlp, execle, exect, execv, execvp ........................................................... 914 errno ................................................................................................................. 916 exit .................................................................................................................... 917 exp, log, log10, pow .......................................................................................... 917 expm1, log1p .................................................................................................... 918 fabs ................................................................................................................... 919 fclose ................................................................................................................. 919 clearerr, feof, ferror, fileno ................................................................................. 919 fflush, fpurge ..................................................................................................... 920 ffs ...................................................................................................................... 921 fgetgrent ............................................................................................................ 921 fgetpwent .......................................................................................................... 922 floor .................................................................................................................. 923 fmod ................................................................................................................. 923 fnmatch ............................................................................................................ 924 fopen, fdopen, freopen ...................................................................................... 924 fpathconf, pathconf ........................................................................................... 925 fread, fwrite ....................................................................................................... 926 frexp .................................................................................................................. 927 fgetpos, fseek, fsetpos, ftell, rewind .................................................................... 927 ftime ................................................................................................................. 928 ftok ................................................................................................................... 929 ftw .................................................................................................................... 930
  20. Linux Complete Command Reference xx gcvt ................................................................................................................... 930 getcwd, get_current_dir_name, getwd ............................................................... 931 getdirentries ...................................................................................................... 931 getenv ............................................................................................................... 932 getgrent, setgrent, endgrent ............................................................................... 932 getgrnam, getgrgid ............................................................................................ 933 getlogin, cuserid ................................................................................................ 934 getmntent, setmntent, addmntent, endmntent, hasmntopt ............................... 935 getnetent, getnetbyaddr, getnetbyname, setnetent, endnetent ........................... 936 getopt ................................................................................................................ 937 getpass............................................................................................................... 940 getprotoent, getprotobyname, getprotobynumber, setprotoent, endprotoent .... 941 getpw ................................................................................................................ 942 getpwent, setpwent, endpwent .......................................................................... 943 getpwnam, getpwuid ......................................................................................... 944 fgetc, fgets, getc, getchar, gets, ungetc ............................................................... 944 getservent, getservbyname, getservbyport, setservent, endservent ....................... 945 getusershell, setusershell, endusershell ............................................................... 946 getutent, getutid, getutline, pututline, setutent, endutent, utmpname ............... 947 getw, putw ........................................................................................................ 948 glob, globfree .................................................................................................... 949 hosts_access, hosts_ctl ....................................................................................... 950 hcreate, hdestroy, hsearch .................................................................................. 951 hypot ................................................................................................................ 953 index, rindex ..................................................................................................... 953 inet_aton, inet_addr, inet_network, inet_ntoa, inet_makeaddr, inet_lnaof, inet_netof ....................................................................................................... 953 infnan ............................................................................................................... 954 initgroups .......................................................................................................... 955 inndcomm ........................................................................................................ 956 insque, remque .................................................................................................. 957 isalnum, isalpha, isascii, isblank, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit ..................................................................... 957 isatty ................................................................................................................. 958 isinf, isnan, finite .............................................................................................. 959 j0, j1, jn, y0, y1, yn ........................................................................................... 959 killpg ................................................................................................................. 960 labs ................................................................................................................... 960 ldexp ................................................................................................................. 961 ldiv .................................................................................................................... 961 lgamma ............................................................................................................. 962 libinn ................................................................................................................ 962 libpbm .............................................................................................................. 966 libpgm .............................................................................................................. 969 libpnm .............................................................................................................. 970
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