2D Artwork and 3D Modeling for Game Artists- P5

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2D Artwork and 3D Modeling for Game Artists- P5

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  1. 174 6. U-V Mapping the Slogre with DeepUV Figure 6.33 After stacking the hand parts, unwrap the cuffs of the arm using Interactive: Cylinder mapping. Y FL AM TE 20. Relax the arm. 21. Repeat steps 18–20 for the other arm. 22. Stack these two arm pieces on top of each other (one side will have to be flipped to match). Figure 6.34 Unwrap the arms using Interactive: Cylinder mapping. ® Team-Fly lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  2. Unwrap the Slogre’s U-V’s 175 That completes the arms. Just move the components away for now, and at the end you’ll organize the map neatly. Before you continue, choose File, Export, Send UV Update to transfer your work back to 3D Studio Max. It would also be a good idea to switch back over to Max and save your file so you won’t lose your work. Now let’s move on to the head portion of the slogre, which represents the most detail of the model. Step 3: Unwrap the Head and Body Normal human characters have fairly spherically shaped heads, and therefore an Interactive: Sphere mapping would suffice. However, ‘tis not this case for this lovely beast, which will require a combination of Interactive: Sphere mapping plus some cutting and stitching to get it just right. I also want to get more of the neck in there because, according to the sketches in earlier chapters, the underside has a very snake-like appearance. 1. In a Top view, lasso one of the tusks as shown in Figure 6.35 and cut it away. Be sure to deselect any points of the head that you may have accidentally grabbed; if you cut the wrong points, however, you can always re-join them with the rest of the head’s U-V mesh and try again. Figure 6.35 Select a tusk in the Top view. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  3. 176 6. U-V Mapping the Slogre with DeepUV 2. Once the tusk is cut away, apply Planar 2 mapping. Because the tusk won’t get much detail other than a cloudy, off-white texture, you don’t have to unwrap or relax it. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 the other tusk, stack them, and set them aside (see Figure 6.36). 4. The remaining cluster of points at the top-left of the Material map represents the entire head and body. Select that, and apply Planar 2 mapping (see Figure 6.37). This will give you a nice profile of the character with which to work. 5. Use the Lasso tool to select the forward portion of the head, which will require the most detail on your behalf. Zoom in to the neck region and select the points that spill downward from the head as well (see Figure 6.38); just be sure to uncheck the Back Faces option when doing this or you’ll grab points through the mesh. Once it is selected, cut and move the head away. 6. Apply Interactive: Sphere mapping to the head, again centering it on the selection. Align the mapping technique along the +z axis, and align the seam along the −y axis. (Don’t do this manually; use the alignment control panel in that mapping section!) Figure 6.36 Apply Planar 2 mapping to the tusk. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the other tusk, and stack them. lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  4. Unwrap the Slogre’s U-V’s 177 Figure 6.37 Select the remaining points on the Material map and apply a Planar 2 mapping. Figure 6.38 Select the forward portion of the head and cut it away. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  5. 178 6. U-V Mapping the Slogre with DeepUV 7. Relax the selection (see Figure 6.39). 8. The lower portion of the map has points that could be joined, so select them and click the Join button. Then, reselect the entire head and relax it again (see Figure 6.40). 9. The face in the center of the map may be a little scrunched, even after relax- ing. This is due to the fact that there is a sharp transition between the face points and the rest of the head, and DeepUV is doing its best to relax it all proportionally. This is why I kept the top portion of my map unjoined, so DeepUV didn’t have to wrestle with it. Zoom into the face area and select it, and click the Relax button again to see it smooth out a bit (see Figure 6.41). Figure 6.39 Apply an Interactive: Sphere mapping to the head and relax the selec- tion. Figure 6.40 Join the broken portion of the neck area and relax the head again. lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  6. Unwrap the Slogre’s U-V’s 179 Figure 6.41 Select the face portion of the map and relax it. 10. You’re finished with the head and face; move that map out of the way for now. 11. Select the rest of the body in the Left view, with Back Faces unchecked (this allows you to select just one half of the body, as shown in Figure 6.42). 12. Cut the selection away from the other half of the body and relax it. 13. Select the other half, and relax it as well. Stack the two pieces together (see Figure 6.43). Figure 6.42 In the Left view, select one half of the body with Back Faces unchecked. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. 180 6. U-V Mapping the Slogre with DeepUV Figure 6.43 Cut, relax, and stack the two body halves together. Pack the Map As I mentioned in the previous chapter, it’s best to pack these maps manually so you can give preference to items that need more detail. The logic is thus: The larger the scale of an individual map item on the Material map, the more texture detail you’ll be able to apply to it. If you were to scale the head portion of the map down to a tiny little piece, how much texture detail TIP would show up once the texture skin was When you place and scale the reduced to 256×256 pixels? Not a lot, my pieces on the map, use Edit, friend. So in this case, the pieces that need Free Transform in conjunction the most detail are the head, followed by the with the Shift key to scale the body, arms, legs, and so on. Figure 6.44 shows pieces uniformly. my map, packed with preferences to those pieces mentioned. Update and View the Results in Max Once your map is packed, choose File, Export, Send UV Update to send your com- pleted work back to 3D Studio Max. Then, switch back to Max and click on the Modifier tab to see all the stacked updates you’ve sent. The topmost update is the lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  8. Update and View the Results in Max 181 Figure 6.44 The completed slogre U-V mapped, packed, and ready to texture. latest—to view it, add an Unwrap UVW modifier to the stack, and in its panel, click the Edit button (see Figure 6.45). Now you’re ready to texture the slogre. To com- mence this process, save your scene in Max, then skip to Chapter 12. Figure 6.45 Export the final ver- sion of the map back to Max.View the completed mapping in Max using an Unwrap UVW modifier. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  9. 182 6. U-V Mapping the Slogre with DeepUV Summary In this chapter, I showed you how to import your slogre mesh from Chapter 4 and complete it using 3D Studio Max attaching, optimizing, and smoothing techniques. The U-V coordinates, which represent the way the skin texture for the model will be wrapped around it, were exported to DeepUV. This program allowed us to iso- late and unwrap individual portions of the slogre’s U-V’s, thereby generating a two- dimensional and easily texturable skin map. The combination of Max and DeepUV rendered this entire operation painless and swift and prepared the model for its texturing phase, which is covered in Chapter 12. lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  10. PART THREE Texturing the UV’s with DEEPUV se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  11. 7 Game Texturing 8 Inorganic Texture Tutorials with Photoshop Y 9 Advanced Texturing Examples 10 FL Organic Texture Tutorials AM with Photoshop TE 11 Skinning the RF-9 Plasma Gun with Deep Paint 3D and Photoshop 12 Skinning the Slogre with Deep Paint 3D and Photoshop ® Team-Fly lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  12. CHAPTER 7 Game Texturing se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  13. 186 7. Game Texturing I n this chapter I’ll introduce you to the vast world of game texturing. This will be a primer, so to speak, for the chapters that follow. Specifically, this chapter covers ■ The game texturing arena ■ Different types of textures ■ Texturing techniques ■ Application of textures Introduction to Game Texturing I think you’ll find that the art of designing textures for games has become a field in itself. (In fact, my next book might be solely about game textures.) I wish I had more room in this book to cover every gritty detail, but I’m going to do my best to show you the median of what you should be familiar with in each of the texturing categories. You see, a good game (especially a 3D one) has quite an amalgam of different types of textures, from ones made from scratch, to “scripted” ones via fil- ters, to photo-based . . . all to deliver some eye candy to the player. Types of Textures Even though we’re headed towards pure photorealism in games (hmmm, I’d say around the year 2012), not every game that’s developed now or in the future will require an environment that appears purely photorealistic. In fact, sometimes it’s cool to create a game that appears cartoon-like or bizarrely unreal—so don’t panic too much when trying to make things look perfectly real. I’ll be covering many dif- ferent types of textures as this book progresses, many of which simulate the real world, but also others that would fit nicely with Hanna-Barbera! That said, let’s dis- cuss the various texture categories: ■ Hand-drawn textures ■ Seamless textures ■ Photo-based textures ■ Animated textures ■ Compositing textures lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  14. Types of Textures 187 Hand-Drawn Textures For the most part, I’ll show you how to create textures from scratch using either Photoshop versions 6 or 7 (both are nearly identical in general functionality and tool locations). Of course, it’s easier to get a picture of something real, clean it up, and make a texture out of it; however, I want you to be able to make just about any- thing by hand should the need arise. Inorganic Versus Organic Throughout this book, I tend to categorize models and textures as inorganic and organic. By inorganic, I mean that, whatever it is, it’s most likely portraying some- thing carved from steel, wood, or even rock—mostly inanimate objects. By organic, I mean objects or other entities that have fluidity to their shape, or are in fact alive. Organic, to me, are things that relate directly to living things. Rock-based textures I like to contain within the inorganic category, despite their worldly origins, because they represent materials used more for building things. I believe inorganic textures (rocks, metals, walls, floors, and the like) to be the easiest and most fun, as well as being the most realistic. For example, I made the Mars rock texture shown in Figure 7.1 in under a minute using only a handful of the default filters that come with Photoshop. I couldn’t believe how realistic it was; I honestly didn’t expect it to look that good (I’ll show you how to make it in the next chapter). Figure 7.1 A quick Mars rock texture. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. 188 7. Game Texturing Organic textures—that is, any living (or once alive) carbon-based life form or part of something living—can be either unbelievably easy or a total pain to create. Animal and reptile skins are usually easy to make by hand because they take the same path as rock-texture creation—usually you can achieve a great base texture for them using only a handful of Photoshop’s filters. Textures for humans, insects, or anything else with complex detail, however, can be a real challenge for someone like me who has limited freehand artistic ability. Figure 7.2 shows a weak example of a texture map I made for a butterfly . . . I’ll show you how to make skin textures for the Slogre model later on in Part III. Photo-Based Textures No doubt you’ll encounter many occasions when using a photograph of a brick wall, tree bark, a rusted pipe, or whatever to create your texture will be easier than creating it from scratch. A good example would be if your game called for you to create a texture for the side of an old train car. Just get a really good snapshot of the car in broad daylight, clean it up a bit, and slap it on the side of a 3D model— it’s much easier than spending a couple hours trying to make something real. The most common case of photo-based texture usage probably is with brick walls. Games sometimes have a gazillion of them, and you want the widest variety possi- ble. So grab your digital camera, head into the big city, and go nuts. Figure 7.3 shows a seamlessly tiled brick wall texture I made from a picture I took of the side of a building. I toned it down and cleaned it up a bit so it would be more appropri- ate for a video game. Figure 7.2 A free- hand texture map applied to the skin of a butterfly model. lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. Types of Textures 189 Figure 7.3 A brick texture created from a photograph. Compositing Textures Compositing is simply mashing two or more textures together, but typically it’s the careful combination of a photo and a hand-drawn image. I like to make compos- ites, often because a flat-out photo can be too, well, dorky. Integrating a part of a live picture with something you’ve created by hand or adding some layer effects to a picture can make a texture work very well in a game. Check out Figure 7.4—I took the brick texture from Figure 7.3 and, in Photoshop, applied a stucco look to parts of it. Now it looks like someone tried to cement over the wall, and over time it broke away. Figure 7.4 Compositing a real picture with a hand- drawn image to make a viable texture. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. 190 7. Game Texturing Seamless Textures Seamless textures are an art form in themselves. I don’t think there’s a 3D video game out there that doesn’t have hundreds of seamless textures—that is, textures that can be tiled side-by-side (and sometimes above and below) each other without a noticeable seam. The basic technique for making a texture seamless is to first cre- ate the texture, and then offset it evenly using the Offset filter in Photoshop. But here’s the trick: A good seamless texture has little noticeable repetition in the over- all pattern. That is, when the texture is tiled, nothing stands out to make you say, “Oh, I see. It’s just a simple brick wall copied over and over again.” Making a 256 × 256-pixel wall texture for a game is fairly easy—however, a good artist will spend time weeding out the “sore thumbs” in the image. For instance, the top seamless brick wall texture in Figure 7.5 has obvious shadows that stand out as its tiled—every other row seems much darker and has a brick with stains where its ends meet. After playing with it a bit, toning down some of the colors here and there, I managed to make the wall look nice, smooth, and even. Figure 7.5 A seamless brick wall fixed for proper continuity. lease purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. Summary 191 Animated Textures Often in games you’ll see random belches of steam coming out of a pipe, or a flow of water gushing down a drain. Both are cases of texture animation, but the first might be considered a sprite, or a series of 2D textures (with transparency, meaning that all areas surrounding the smoke are transparent in a game engine) chained together to give the illusion of steam. The latter could simply be a flat-out AVI of rushing water that’s overlaid onto a 3D object in the shape of water, then looped ad infinitum. Animated textures can also be as simple as a blinking light on a con- trol panel–two textures are created; one for the light being on, and one for off. The game engine will handle alternating the two during game play (see Chapter 9, “Advanced Texturing Examples,” where I show a simple on-off animation of two textures that creates the illusion of a power switch being activated). Summary The texturing world is truly divided between two different categories: inorganic and organic. Inorganic textures are those that represent man-made objects in this world, such as metal, whereas organic textures are those that represent living or natural things. As most artists paint images based on real life, textures are many times the result of compositing photographs with filtering effects in Photoshop. Whether your texture is seamlessly tileable for a large wall, or animated as a sprite to simulate steam, the next few chapters will guide you through these detailed processes so you can generate your own outstanding game textures. se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  20. CHAPTER 8 Inorganic Texture Tutorials with Photoshop se purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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