# 3DS Max 6 Bible P1

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## 3DS Max 6 Bible P1

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Kelly’s new book indeed deserves to be called a Bible. Its comprehensiveness and level of detail are quite remarkable.” Chris Ford, Director of Product Management, 3D Animation, Discreet/Autodesk

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1. 100% “Kelly’s new book indeed deserves to be called a Bible. Its comprehensiveness and level of detail are quite ONE HUNDRED PERCENT remarkable.” —Chris Ford, Director of Product Management, 3D Animation, Discreet/Autodesk COMPREHENSIVE AUTHORITATIVE WHAT YOU NEED ONE HUNDRED PERCENT Plunge right into 3ds max with the exciting Quick Start project in Part 1 Explore reactor 2, mental ray, Particle Flow, BlobMesh, and other revolutionary new features Master the use of inverse kinematics, space warps, raytracing, and other techniques BONUS 3ds max 6 ™ CD-ROMS Including a demo version of 3ds max 6, tutorial files, 3D models, and a searchable PDF version of the book Kelly L. Murdock showing all examples in color
2. 3ds max 6 Bible ™ Kelly L. Murdock
3. 3ds max™ 6 Bible Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, N.J. 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright  2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 0-7645-5763-7 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1B/SU/QT/QU/IN No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4447, E-Mail: permcoordinator@wiley.com. THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: 2004103174 Trademarks: Wiley and the Wiley Publishing logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates. 3ds max is a trademark or registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. is a trademark of Wiley Publishing, Inc.
4. About the Author Kelly Murdock has been authoring computer books for many years now and still gets immense enjoyment from the completed work. His book credits include various Web, graphics, and multime- dia titles, including three previous editions of this book, 3ds max 6 Bible. Other major accomplish- ments include Master VISUALLY HTML and XHTML, JavaScript Visual Blueprint, gmax Bible, Adobe Atmosphere Bible, and co-authoring duties on two editions of the Illustrator Bible (for versions 9 and 10). With a background in engineering and computer graphics, Kelly has been all over the 3D industry and still finds it fascinating. He’s used high-level CAD workstations for product design and analysis, completed several large-scale visualization projects, created 3D models for feature films, worked as a freelance 3D artist, and even done some 3D programming. Kelly’s been using 3D Studio since version 3 for DOS. In his spare time, Kelly enjoys the outdoors while rock climbing, mountain biking, or skiing. He has recently formed a design company with his brother, Chris, called Logical Paradox Design.
5. Credits Acquisitions Editor Project Coordinator Tom Heine April Farling Project Editor Graphics and Production Specialists Martin V. Minner Carrie Foster Lauren Goddard Technical Editor Joyce Haughey Chris Murdock Jennifer Heleine LeAndra Hosier Copy Editor Michael Kruzil Gwenette Gaddis Goshert Kristin McMullan Lynsey Osborn Editorial Manager Robyn Siesky Quality Control Technicians John Greenough Vice President and Executive Group Susan Moritz Publisher Angel Perez Richard Swadley Senior Permissions Editor Vice President and Executive Carmen Krikorian Publisher Robert Ipsen Media Development Specialist Greg Stafford Vice President and Publisher Barry Pruett Proofreading and Indexing TECHBOOKS Production Services Cover Image Anthony Stuart Special Help Adrienne Porter
6. I tweak the light settings for weeks, but it still doesn’t match the light in your eyes. I scan and layer a hundred photos, but it still doesn’t capture the details of your soft skin. I apply every controller and animation technique, but it still can’t portray the intricacies of your tiny smile. I load hundreds of sound files, but it still isn’t equal to the synchronization of your little laugh. I render thousands of times, and still I’m amazed at the work of the Master Animator. To Max, 2003
7. Preface Whenever I withdrew to the computer room, my wife would say that I was off to my “fun and games.” I would flatly deny this accusation, saying that it was serious work that I was involved in. But later, when I emerged with a twinkle in my eye and excitedly asked her to take a look at my lat- est rendering, I knew that she was right. Working with 3D graphics is pure “fun and games.” My goal in writing this book was to take all my fun years of playing in 3D and boil them down into something that’s worthwhile for you — the reader. This goal was compounded by the fact that all you Max-heads out there are at different levels. Luckily, this book is thick enough to include a little something for everyone. The audience level for the book ranges from beginning to intermediate, with a smattering of advanced topics for the seasoned user. If you’re new to Max, then you’ll want to start at the begin- ning and move methodically through the book. If you’re relatively comfortable making your way around Max, then review the table of contents for sections that can enhance your fundamental base. If you’re a seasoned pro, then you’ll want to watch for coverage of the features new to Release 6. If you’re so excited to be working with Max that you can’t decide where to start, then head straight for the Quick Start. The Quick Start is a single chapter-long tutorial that takes you through the cre- ation of an entire scene and animation. This Quick Start was included in response to some feedback from readers of the first edition who complained that they didn’t know where to start. For those of you who were too anxious to wade through a mountain of material before you could create some- thing, this Quick Start is for you. Another goal of this book is to make it a complete reference for Max. To achieve this goal, I’ve gone into painstaking detail to cover almost every feature in Max, including coverage of every primitive, material and map type, modifier, and controller. As this book has come together, I’ve tried to write the type of book that I’d like to read. I’ve tried to include a variety of scenes that are infused with creativity. It is my hope that these examples will not only teach you how to use the software, but also provide a creative springboard for you in your own projects. After all, that’s what turns 3D graphics from work into “fun and games.” Who Is Max? Max is coming of age. Now with the number 6 attached to its name, it is starting to show some maturity. I’d say that version numbers are akin to dog years, which would place Max in its early 40s. Before we go any further, I should explain my naming convention. The official name of the product in this release is 3ds max 6 with a lowercase m, but I simply refer to it as Max with a capital M. This ref- erence is a nickname given to a piece of software that has become more familiar to me than the family pets (whose names are Fuzzy, Curious, and Parakeetsta, by the way). Note: I have not been successful in training Max to come when I call or to sit on command, but it will on occasion play dead. One way we humans develop our personalities is to incorporate desirable personality traits from those around us. Max’s personality is developing as well — every new release has incorporated a plethora of desirable new features. Many of these features come from the many additional plug-ins being developed to enhance Max. With Release 6, many features that were available as plug-ins for previous releases have been adopted by Max. Several new features have been magically assimilated into the core product, such as mental ray. These additions make Max’s personality much more lik- able, like a human developing a sense of humor.
8. viii 3ds max 6 Bible Other personality traits are gained by stretching in new directions. Max and its developers have accomplished this feat as well. Many of the new features are completely new, not only to Max, but to the industry, such as the Particle Flow interface. As Max grows up, it will continue to mature by adopting new features and inventing others. I just hope Max doesn’t experience a mid-life crisis in the next version. About This Book Let me paint a picture of the writing process. It starts with years of experience, which is followed by months of painstaking research. There were system crashes and personal catastrophes and the always-present, ever-looming deadlines. I wrote into the early hours of the morning and during the late hours of the night — burning the candle at both ends and in the middle all at the same time. It was grueling and difficult, and spending all this time staring at the Max interface made me feel like . . . well . . . like an animator. Sound familiar? This process actually isn’t much different from what 3D artists, modelers, and ani- mators do on a daily basis, and, like you, I find satisfaction in the finished product. Tutorials aplenty I’ve always been a very visual learner — the easiest way for me to gain knowledge is by doing things for myself while exploring at the same time. Other people learn by reading and comprehend- ing ideas. In this book, I’ve tried to present information in a number of ways to make the informa- tion usable for all types of learners. That is why you see detailed discussions of the various features along with tutorials that show these concepts in action. The tutorials appear throughout the book and are clearly marked with the “Tutorial” label in front of the title. They always include a series of logical steps, typically ending with a figure for you to study and compare. These tutorial examples are provided on the book’s CD-ROM to give you a first- hand look and a chance to get some hands-on experience. I’ve attempted to “laser focus” all the tutorials down to one or two key concepts. This means that you probably will not want to place the results in your portfolio. For example, many of the early tutorials don’t have any materials applied because I felt that using materials before they’ve been explained would only confuse you. I’ve attempted to think of and use examples that are diverse, unique, and interesting, while striving to make them simple, light, and easy to follow. I’m happy to report that every example in the book is included on the CD-ROM along with the models and textures required to complete the tutorial. The tutorials often don’t start from scratch, but instead give you a starting point. This approach lets me “laser focus” the tutorials even more; and with fewer, more relevant steps, you can learn and experience the concepts without the complexity. On the book’s CD-ROM, you will find the Max files that are referenced in Step 1 of most tutorials. I’ve put lots of effort into this book, and I hope it helps you in your efforts. I present this book as a starting point. In each tutorial, I’ve purposely left most of the creative spice out, leaving room for you to put it in — you’re the one with the vision. Fourth time around This book is now in its fourth edition and, like aged cheddar cheese, is getting better with time. This edition posed an interesting dilemma. The edition for Max 4 clocked in at 1,246 pages, which was the largest number of pages that can be bound into a paperback book. So, for Max 5, I needed to rework and tighten the content to make room for pages where the new features could be cov- ered, which was an tough task, but I was happy to say I succeeded by cramming in an additional 400 pages worth of content into the 3ds max 5 Bible. However, when the book came back from the printer, it weighed in at only 1,106 pages, making the reader think that the book was put on a diet. It turned out that the editors who laid out the book decided to use a tighter layout, thereby saving 140 pages while providing the additional content.
9. Preface ix Now that I’m working on a version covering Max 6, I’m delighted to have that extra 140 pages to cram full of information, and the editors are already looking at an even tighter format. At this rate, the next couple of editions will be shipping with a magnifying glass. There have been several other changes to this edition. In an effort to add some new life to many of the older tutorials (several of which desired a chance to retire), I have secured a new set of Viewpoint models that I’ve used to replace many of the old tutorials. I’ve also included a new Quick Start that lets you play with a monster truck. How this book is organized Many different aspects of 3D graphics exist, and in some larger production houses, you might be focused on only one specific area. However, for smaller organizations or the general hobbyist, you end up wearing all the hats — from modeler and lighting director to animator and post-production compositor. This book is organized to cover all the various aspects of 3D graphics, regardless of the hat on your head. The book is divided into the following parts: ✦ Quick Start — This single chapter (which is actually a chapter in Part I) is an entire anima- tion project presented in several focused tutorials. It is designed to whet your appetite and get you up to speed and producing animations immediately. ✦ Part I: Learning the Max Interface — Whether it’s understanding the interface, working with the viewports, dealing with files, or customizing the interface, the chapters in this part get you comfortable with the interface so you won’t get lost moving about this mammoth pack- age. ✦ Part II: Working with Objects — Max objects can include meshes, cameras, lights, Space Warps, and anything that can be viewed in a viewport. This part includes chapters on how to reference, select, clone, group, link, transform, and modify these various objects. ✦ Part III: Modeling — Max includes several different ways to model objects. This part includes chapters on working with spline shapes, meshes, polys, patches, NURBS, com- pound objects like Lofts and Morphs, and particle systems. ✦ Part IV: Materials and Maps — With all the various materials, maps, and parameters, under- standing how to create just what you want can be difficult. These chapters explain all the various types and how to use them. ✦ Part V: Cameras — This part describes how to control cameras and use the Camera Matching and Tracking utilities and the Multi-Pass Camera effects. ✦ Part VI: Lighting — This part describes how to create and control the standard lights, as well as coverage on advanced lighting, radiosity, and global illumination. ✦ Part VII: Animation — To animate your scenes, you’ll want to learn about keyframing, the Track Views, constraints, and controllers. This part includes a chapter specifically on expressions. ✦ Part VIII: Character Animation — I cover creating and working with characters, bone sys- tems, skinning, rigging, and character modeling in this part. I also provide complete cover- age of the various inverse kinematics methods. ✦ Part IX: Dynamics — This part includes coverage of Space Warps, the Dynamics utility, and all the cool features found in Reactor. ✦ Part X: Rendering — To produce the final output, you can render the scene as described in this part. In addition, this part discusses environments, Render Elements, Render Effects, network rendering, raytracing, and mental ray. ✦ Part XI: Compositing and Post-Production — This part describes the compositing process using external tools, as well as post-processing using the Video Post interface. ✦ Part XII: MAXScript and Plug-Ins — This part provides details on using Max’s scripting lan- guage, MAXScript, and on using plug-ins.
10. x 3ds max 6 Bible ✦ Part XIII: Max in Action — Max is used in many different industries and this part addresses specific features used to enable Max for games, visualization, and special effects. ✦ Appendixes — At the very end of this book, you’ll find four appendixes that cover the new features of Max 6, installation and system configuration, Max keyboard shortcuts, and the contents of the book’s CD-ROMs. Using the book’s icons The following margin icons are used to help you get the most out of this book: Note Note boxes highlight useful information that you should take into consideration. Tip Tips provide an additional bit of advice that will make a particular feature quicker or easier to use. Caution Cautions warn you of a potential problem before you make a mistake. New The New Feature icon highlights features that are new to Release 6. Feature Cross- Watch for the Cross-Reference icon to learn where in another chapter you can go to find Reference more information on a particular feature. On the This icon points you toward related materials that are included on the book’s CD-ROMs. CD-ROM The book’s CD-ROMs Computer book CD-ROMs are sometimes just an afterthought that includes a handful of examples and product demos. This book’s CD-ROMs, however, include a full, working trial version of 3ds max 6. Max is an expensive piece of software to just play around with, but the trial version gives you 30 days to try out the software and gain some valuable experience. Appendix D, “What’s on the CD-ROMs,” supplies the details of the content on the CD-ROMs. The CD-ROMs include a selection of 3D models that you can use in your projects if you choose. Many of these models are used in the tutorials. The CD-ROMs also include the Max files for every tutorial. If you haven’t noticed yet, most of this book is printed in black and white. This can make seeing the details (and colors) of the figures difficult. The CD-ROM includes a complete searchable version of the book along with all the figures in color. Color insert pages The possibilities of Max are endless, but many individuals and groups have pushed the software a long way. As a sampling of the finished work that can be created, I’ve included a set of color insert pages that showcase some amazing work done with Max. The 3D artists represented in these pages give you some idea of what is possible.
11. Acknowledgments I have a host of people to thank for their involvement in this major work. The order in which they are mentioned doesn’t necessarily represent the amount of work they did. Thanks to my family, Angela, Eric, and Thomas, without whose support I wouldn’t get very far. They are my QA team who always provide feedback on my latest example. We have had many family brainstorming sessions to think of a good tutorial example. Thomas has taken an interest in Max and recently produced a Halloween picture using Max that won an award at his school. Maybe if he keeps it up, he can inherit this work at some future date (then he can tell funny stories about me). In the first edition, the task at hand was too big for just me, so I shared the pain with two co-authors — Dave Brueck and Sanford Kennedy (both of whom have gone on to write books of their own). I still would like to thank them for their work, which, although overhauled, still retains their spirits. In subsequent editions, I’ve decided to do all the updates solo, until now. Facing this edition, I once again put out a cry for help and was answered by Sue Blackman, a contributing artist whose work appears in the color insert. Sue provided several excellent examples that show off the power of the Track View interface. Thanks for your help, Sue. Major thanks to the editors and personnel at Wiley. I’d like to specifically thank Tom Heine, who turns out to be just as friendly in real life as he is on the phone. Tom, it was great to finally meet you at Siggraph this year. Huge thanks to Marty Minner, who kept the project on task despite a tough tragedy and to Gwenette Gaddis Goshert for her excellent copyediting input. I’d also like to thank Chris Murdock for taking on the technical editing even though he felt like playing with another version of Max. What a great virtual team we have here. Additional thanks go out to Carmen Krikorian and her co-workers in the Media Development department for chasing down the required permissions and for compiling the resources for the CD-ROMs, and finally, to the entire staff at Wiley who helped me on this journey. The various people who work in the graphics industry are amazing in their willingness to help and support. I’d like to thank first of all David Marks and the entire Discreet beta team for getting me the product when I needed it. I’d also like to thank the talented people at Zygote Media, Curious Labs, and Viewpoint Digital Media for many of their models, which make the examples much more interesting (you can only do so much with the teapot after all). Thanks to Tom Avikigos at Digimation for help in securing a new set of Viewpoint models and Daniel Brown at Adobe for get- ting me the Adobe products that I needed. Additional thanks goes out to David Mathis, Joe Poppa, and Chris Murdock for completing models used in some of the tutorials. Finally, I’d like to thank the many artists who contributed images for the color insert pages for shar- ing their talent, knowledge, and vision with us. They are an inspiration to me.
12. Contents at a Glance Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Part I: Learning the Max Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Quick Start: Animating a Monster Truck at the Beach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 1: Finding Your Way — Exploring the Max Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Chapter 2: Seeing It All — Working with the Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Chapter 3: Working with Files and XRefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Chapter 4: Customizing the Max Interface and Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Part II: Working with Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Chapter 5: Creating and Editing Primitive Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Chapter 6: Selecting Objects and Setting Object Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Chapter 7: Cloning Objects and Creating Object Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Chapter 8: Grouping and Linking Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Chapter 9: Working with the Schematic View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Chapter 10: Transforming Objects — Translate, Rotate, and Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Chapter 11: Introducing Modifiers for Basic Object Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Part III: Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Chapter 12: Modeling Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Chapter 13: Drawing and Editing 2D Splines and Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Chapter 14: Working with Meshes and Polys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Chapter 15: Creating and Editing Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Chapter 16: Working with NURBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Chapter 17: Building Compound Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Chapter 18: Creating Particles and Particle Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Part IV: Materials and Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 Chapter 19: Exploring the Material Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 Chapter 20: Creating Simple Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Chapter 21: Creating Advanced Multi-Layer Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Chapter 22: Adding Material Details with Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 Chapter 23: Controlling Mapping Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Part V: Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Chapter 24: Working with Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 Chapter 25: Matching and Tracking Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Chapter 26: Multi-Pass Camera Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
13. Part VI: Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Chapter 27: Basic Lighting Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Chapter 28: Advanced Lighting and Light Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 Chapter 29: Advanced Lighting and Radiosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 Part VII: Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Chapter 30: Animation Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 Chapter 31: Animating with Constraints and Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 Chapter 32: Using the Expression Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803 Chapter 33: Working with the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 Part VIII: Character Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 Chapter 34: Character Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857 Chapter 35: Rigging Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 Chapter 36: Animating Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887 Chapter 37: Using Inverse Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895 Part IX: Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913 Chapter 38: Using Space Warps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915 Chapter 39: Creating a Dynamic Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939 Chapter 40: Animating with reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 955 Part X: Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977 Chapter 41: Rendering Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979 Chapter 42: Using Atmospheric Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005 Chapter 43: Using Render Elements and Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017 Chapter 44: Raytracing and mental ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039 Chapter 45: Network Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057 Part XI: Compositing and Post-Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1081 Chapter 46: Using External Compositing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1083 Chapter 47: Using the Video Post Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093 Part XII: MAXScript and Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 Chapter 48: Automating with MAXScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 Chapter 49: Expanding Max with Third-Party Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153 Part XIII: Max in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159 Chapter 50: Max and Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161 Chapter 51: Max and Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175 Chapter 52: Max and Special Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183 Appendix A: What’s New with Max 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189 Appendix B: Installing and Configuring 3ds max 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193 Appendix C: Max Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201 Appendix D: What’s on the CD-ROMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1217 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1221 End-User License Agreement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255
14. Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Part I: Learning the Max Interface 1 Quick Start: Animating a Monster Truck at the Beach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Relaxing at the Beach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Tutorial: Creating the background terrain and scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Tutorial: Importing the monster truck model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tutorial: Adding scene props . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dressing the Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Tutorial: Applying materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Tutorial: Loading a background image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Animating Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Tutorial: Animating the monster truck motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Tutorial: Animating the rotating wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Tutorial: Positioning and animating a camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Tutorial: Adding special effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Rendering the Final Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Tutorial: Creating a preview animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Tutorial: Rendering the final animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 1: Finding Your Way — Exploring the Max Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Interface Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Using the Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 The File menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The Edit menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The Tools menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The Group menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Views menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Create menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Modifiers menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 The Character menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The reactor menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Animation menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Graph Editors menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Rendering menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 The Customize menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The MAXScript menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Help menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Using the Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Starting with the main toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Viewing the default floating toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Using the Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
15. xvi 3ds max 6 Bible Using the Command Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Tutorial: Rearranging the interface for lefties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Create panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Modify panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Hierarchy panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Motion panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Display panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Utilities panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Using the Lower Interface Bar Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Accessing frames and keys with the Time Slider and the Track Bar . . . . . . 53 Learning from the Status Bar and the Prompt Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Controlling the MAXScript Mini-Listener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Using the Key Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Using the Time Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Using the Viewport Navigation Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Interacting with the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Gaining quick access with the right-click quadmenus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Understanding the button color cues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Using drag-and-drop features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Controlling spinners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Finding keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Using strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Understanding modeless and persistent dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Browser-based reference guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Online help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Chapter 2: Seeing It All — Working with the Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Understanding 3D Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Axonometric versus Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Orthographic and Isometric views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Learning Viewports in Max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Using the Viewport Navigation Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Zooming a view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Panning a view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Rotating a view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Controlling viewports with a scroll wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Controlling camera and spotlight views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Viewing grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Disabling and refreshing viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Undoing and saving changes made with the Viewport Navigation Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Maximizing the active viewport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Tutorial: Navigating the active viewport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Configuring the Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Setting the viewport rendering method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Altering the Viewport layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Using Safe Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Understanding Adaptive Degradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Defining regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
16. Contents xvii Working with Viewport Backgrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Loading viewport background images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Loading viewport background animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Tutorial: Loading reference images for modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Chapter 3: Working with Files and XRefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Working with Max Scene Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Saving files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Opening files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Merging and replacing objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Archiving files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Getting out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Setting File Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Handling files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Backing up files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Tutorial: Setting Auto Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Maintaining log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Importing and Exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Importing supported formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Import preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Exporting utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Importing from external applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Referencing External Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Using XRef Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Using XRef Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Tutorial: Using an XRef proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 XRef Objects in the Modifier Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Configuring XRef paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Using the File Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Using the Asset Browser utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Finding files with the Max File Finder utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Collecting files with the Resource Collector utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Using i-drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Accessing File Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Displaying scene Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Viewing file properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Viewing files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Chapter 4: Customizing the Max Interface and Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . 129 Using the Customize User Interface Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Customizing keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Tutorial: Assigning keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Customizing toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Tutorial: Creating a custom toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Customizing quadmenus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Customizing menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Tutorial: Adding a new menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Customizing colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Customizing Modify and Utility Panel Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
17. xviii 3ds max 6 Bible Working with Custom Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Saving and loading a custom interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Tutorial: Saving a custom interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Locking the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Reverting to the startup interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Switching between default and custom interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Configuring Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Selecting System Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Using Custom and Generic units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Rescaling world units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 General preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Files panel preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Viewport preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Gamma preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Rendering preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Animation preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Inverse Kinematics preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Gizmos preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 MAXScript preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Radiosity preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 mental ray preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Part II: Working with Objects 159 Chapter 5: Creating and Editing Primitive Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Creating Primitive Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Using the Create panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Using the Create menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Naming and renaming objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Assigning colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Using the Color Clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Using different creation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Using the Keyboard Entry rollout for precise dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Altering object parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Recovering from mistakes and deleting objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Tutorial: Exploring the Platonic solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Exploring the Primitive Object Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Standard Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Extended Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Modifying object parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Tutorial: Filling a treasure chest with gems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Chapter 6: Selecting Objects and Setting Object Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Selecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Selection filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Select buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Selecting with the Edit menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
18. Contents xix Selecting multiple objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Tutorial: Selecting objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Locking selection sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Using named selection sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Editing named selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Isolating the current selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Selecting objects in other interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Setting Object Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Viewing object information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Setting display properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Setting rendering controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Enabling Motion Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Using the Advanced Lighting and mental ray panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Using the User-Defined panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Hiding and Freezing Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Using the Display Floater dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Using the Display panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Tutorial: Hidden toothbrushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Using Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Using the Layer Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Using the Layer List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Tutorial: Dividing a scene into layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Chapter 7: Cloning Objects and Creating Object Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Cloning Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Using the Clone command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Using the Shift-clone method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Tutorial: Cloning dinosaurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Understanding Cloning Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Working with copies, instances, and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Tutorial: Creating instanced doughnuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Tutorial: Working with referenced apples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Mirroring Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Using the Mirror command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Tutorial: Mirroring a robot’s leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Cloning over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Using the Snapshot command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Tutorial: Creating a tower of cubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Spacing Cloned Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Using the Spacing tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Tutorial: Stacking a row of dominoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Creating Arrays of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Linear arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Tutorial: Building a white picket fence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Circular arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Tutorial: Building a Ferris wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Spiral arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Tutorial: Building a spiral staircase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Working with a ring array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Tutorial: Using Ring Array to create a carousel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

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