Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers- P1

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Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers- P1

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Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers- P1: In 1996, a group of self-proclaimed ‘digital’ photographers met together at Ian McKinnell’s studio in Holborn, London, to discuss the formation of a Digital Imaging Group. At first, this was a small gathering of professional photographers. The one thing we all had in common was a shared interest in using computers and their potential as a photographic medium of the future.

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  2. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  3. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers In memory of my mother Marjorie Evening Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  4. Contents Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers A professional image editor’s guide to the creative use of Photoshop for the Macintosh and PC Martin Evening Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  5. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Focal Press An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn MA 01801-2041 First published 2002 Copyright © 2002, Martin Evening. All rights reserved The right of Martin Evening to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0 240 51690 7 For information on all Focal Press publications visit our website at: www.focalpress.com Printed and bound in Italy Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  6. Contents Contents Introduction ........................................................................................................... xiii Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................................................................... xv Getting started .............................................................................................................................................................................. xvi What’s new in Photoshop 7.0 ................................................................................................................................................... xvi Mac OS X and Windows XP support ............................................................................................................................ xvii File Browser .......................................................................................................................................................................... xvii Healing brush and patch tool .......................................................................................................................................... xviii Brushes engine .................................................................................................................................................................... xviii Interface refinements ......................................................................................................................................................... xviii Automation ............................................................................................................................................................................ xix Auto Color ............................................................................................................................................................................. xix Filter menu .............................................................................................................................................................................. xx Web features ........................................................................................................................................................................... xx Extras ........................................................................................................................................................................................ xx Chapter One – Digital Capture .............................................................................. 1 Structure of a digital image ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 Scanners ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 What to look for in a scanner ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Resolution .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Dynamic range .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Bit depth ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Scanning speed ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Software ................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Visual assessment .................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Purchasing bureau scans .............................................................................................................................................................. 10 Kodak Photo CD and Picture CD ............................................................................................................................................. 11 Image quality ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Optimum Photo CDs ................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Opening a Photo CD image ........................................................................................................................................................ 13 In conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Digital cameras ............................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Consumer cameras ............................................................................................................................................................... 15 35 mm SLR features .............................................................................................................................................................. 16 Hot mirror filters .................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Medium format CCD cameras ........................................................................................................................................... 18 Making every pixel count ..................................................................................................................................................... 20 Scanning backs ........................................................................................................................................................................ 23 Is it time to go digital? .................................................................................................................................................................. 24 Camera software and storage ............................................................................................................................................ 25 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Chapter Two – Resolution ...................................................................................... 28 Pixels versus vectors ..................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Terminology ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Repro considerations ................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Inkjet output resolution ............................................................................................................................................................... 34 Creating a new document ........................................................................................................................................................... 35 Altering the image size ................................................................................................................................................................. 35 Practical conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 39 v Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Chapter Three – Configuring Photoshop ............................................................. 40 Buying a system .............................................................................................................................................................................. 41 Monitor display ............................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Video cards ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 Extras ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 43 Retailers ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Improving Photoshop performance .......................................................................................................................................... 45 Chip speed ............................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Chip acceleration ................................................................................................................................................................... 46 RAM memory and scratch disks ........................................................................................................................................ 46 Clearing the Photoshop memory ...................................................................................................................................... 49 Configuring the RAM memory settings (Macintosh OS 9) ........................................................................................ 49 Configuring the RAM memory settings (Windows and Mac OS X) ....................................................................... 49 Photoshop and Mac OS X ........................................................................................................................................................... 50 Installing Mac OS X and Photoshop ................................................................................................................................. 51 Shared and non-shared items ............................................................................................................................................. 52 Windows XP ........................................................................................................................................................................... 52 Office environment ....................................................................................................................................................................... 53 System software ............................................................................................................................................................................. 54 Chapter Four – Color Management ..................................................................... 55 The need for color management ............................................................................................................................................... 55 Why not all RGB spaces are the same ............................................................................................................................ 56 The way things were ............................................................................................................................................................. 57 CMYK color management ................................................................................................................................................... 58 RGB devices ............................................................................................................................................................................ 58 Not all RGB color devices are the same ......................................................................................................................... 59 ICC profiled color management ........................................................................................................................................ 59 Switching on Photoshop ICC color management ......................................................................................................... 63 Monitor profiling ............................................................................................................................................................................ 63 Monitor calibration ............................................................................................................................................................... 64 Mac OS X calibration ........................................................................................................................................................... 65 Contrast and brightness ...................................................................................................................................................... 65 Neutralizing the color .......................................................................................................................................................... 66 Target Gamma ........................................................................................................................................................................ 66 White point ............................................................................................................................................................................. 67 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................................... 67 Calibrating a PC monitor with Adobe Gamma ............................................................................................................. 68 The value of a calibrated display ................................................................................................................................................ 69 The Photoshop color engine .............................................................................................................................................. 69 The profiled approach .................................................................................................................................................................. 71 The versatility of RGB .................................................................................................................................................................. 72 Choosing an RGB work space ................................................................................................................................................... 73 Apple RGB ............................................................................................................................................................................... 74 sRGB IEC-61966-2.1 ............................................................................................................................................................. 74 ColorMatch RGB ................................................................................................................................................................... 74 ProPhoto RGB ........................................................................................................................................................................ 74 Adobe RGB (1998) ............................................................................................................................................................... 74 The ideal RGB working space .................................................................................................................................................... 75 Photoshop color management interface ................................................................................................................................. 76 The Color Settings ........................................................................................................................................................................ 76 Color management policies ................................................................................................................................................ 77 Managing the Color Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 80 Profile conversions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 81 Converting to the work space ........................................................................................................................................... 83 vi Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  8. Contents Handling Grayscale ........................................................................................................................................................................ 84 Handling legacy files ...................................................................................................................................................................... 85 Advanced color settings .............................................................................................................................................................. 87 Blend RGB colors using gamma ......................................................................................................................................... 88 Desaturate monitor colors ......................................................................................................................................................... 89 Customizing the RGB and work space gamma ...................................................................................................................... 89 RGB to CMYK ................................................................................................................................................................................ 90 CMYK setup ............................................................................................................................................................................ 91 Advanced CMYK settings ............................................................................................................................................................ 91 Conversion options .............................................................................................................................................................. 91 Rendering intent .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 Black Point Compensation .................................................................................................................................................. 94 Use Dither (8-bit per channel images) ............................................................................................................................ 94 Creating a custom CMYK setting ............................................................................................................................................. 94 Ink Colors ................................................................................................................................................................................ 95 Dot gain .................................................................................................................................................................................... 96 Separation options ........................................................................................................................................................................ 97 Black generation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 98 Opening CMYK and Lab files ..................................................................................................................................................... 98 Information palette ........................................................................................................................................................................ 99 The ICC color managed workflow ........................................................................................................................................ 101 Chapter Five – File Management and Output .................................................. 102 RGB output to transparency and print ................................................................................................................................. 103 CMYK output .............................................................................................................................................................................. 104 Fine art printing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 104 Inkjet CMYK output .................................................................................................................................................................. 105 Inkjet media .......................................................................................................................................................................... 105 The ideal inkjet ............................................................................................................................................................................ 106 Photoshop print controls ......................................................................................................................................................... 107 Color proofing for press output ............................................................................................................................................ 108 Targeted CMYK printing ................................................................................................................................................... 111 Soft proofing ................................................................................................................................................................................ 112 Simulate Paper White and Ink Black .............................................................................................................................. 113 PostScript printing ...................................................................................................................................................................... 114 Quantity printing ........................................................................................................................................................................ 115 Stormy waters ............................................................................................................................................................................. 116 Storing digital files ...................................................................................................................................................................... 116 Image database management ................................................................................................................................................... 117 The File Browser ........................................................................................................................................................................ 118 Renaming in the File Browser ......................................................................................................................................... 120 The future of image asset management ................................................................................................................................ 121 Bureau checklist .......................................................................................................................................................................... 122 Image protection ......................................................................................................................................................................... 123 Chapter Six – The Work Space ........................................................................... 125 Photoshop preferences ............................................................................................................................................................. 125 Saving files ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 127 Display & Cursors .............................................................................................................................................................. 130 Transparency & Gamut ...................................................................................................................................................... 131 Units & Rulers ..................................................................................................................................................................... 131 Guides, Grid & Slices ......................................................................................................................................................... 132 Plug-ins & Scratch Disks ................................................................................................................................................... 133 Memory & Image Cache ................................................................................................................................................... 134 vii Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  9. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Image window .............................................................................................................................................................................. 135 Title bar proxy icons (Macintosh) .................................................................................................................................. 136 Preview box options .......................................................................................................................................................... 136 Managing document windows ................................................................................................................................................. 136 Rulers, Guides & Grid ................................................................................................................................................................ 137 ‘Snap to’ behavior ............................................................................................................................................................... 138 The Photoshop palettes ............................................................................................................................................................ 138 Palette docking ............................................................................................................................................................................ 139 Workspace settings .................................................................................................................................................................... 140 File Browser ................................................................................................................................................................................. 141 Navigator .............................................................................................................................................................................. 142 Info .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Tool Options bar ................................................................................................................................................................ 143 Tool Presets .......................................................................................................................................................................... 144 Character .............................................................................................................................................................................. 144 Paragraph .............................................................................................................................................................................. 145 Brushes .................................................................................................................................................................................. 145 Brushes palette .................................................................................................................................................................... 145 Styles ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 148 Swatches ............................................................................................................................................................................... 148 Color ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 148 Preset Manager ............................................................................................................................................................................ 148 Actions .................................................................................................................................................................................. 149 History .................................................................................................................................................................................. 150 Layers ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 150 Channels ................................................................................................................................................................................ 151 Paths ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 151 Tools palette ................................................................................................................................................................................. 152 Selection tools ..................................................................................................................................................................... 153 Modifier keys ................................................................................................................................................................................ 155 Lasso: freehand/polygon/magnetic .................................................................................................................................. 157 Move tool .............................................................................................................................................................................. 160 Crop tool .............................................................................................................................................................................. 161 Slicing tools .................................................................................................................................................................................. 164 The paint tools ............................................................................................................................................................................ 164 Healing brush/Patch tool .................................................................................................................................................. 164 Brush ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 165 Pencil ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 165 Clone stamp/Pattern stamp ............................................................................................................................................. 165 History brush ....................................................................................................................................................................... 166 History brush and Snapshot ............................................................................................................................................ 166 History and memory usage .............................................................................................................................................. 168 Non-linear history ...................................................................................................................................................................... 169 Art history brush ........................................................................................................................................................................ 170 Eraser/background eraser/magic eraser ....................................................................................................................... 171 The Extract command ............................................................................................................................................................... 173 Gradients .............................................................................................................................................................................. 174 Noise gradients ................................................................................................................................................................... 176 Paint bucket .......................................................................................................................................................................... 177 Focus: blur/sharpen/smudge ............................................................................................................................................. 177 Toning: dodge/burn/sponge .............................................................................................................................................. 178 Pen and path drawing ........................................................................................................................................................ 179 Type tool ............................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Shape tools ........................................................................................................................................................................... 180 Annotation tools ................................................................................................................................................................. 180 Eyedropper/color sampler ............................................................................................................................................... 181 viii Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  10. Contents Measure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 182 Navigation tools – hand and zoom ................................................................................................................................ 182 Foreground/background colors ...................................................................................................................................... 183 Selection mode/Quick mask ............................................................................................................................................ 183 Screen display ...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 Jump to button .................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Chapter Seven – File Formats ............................................................................ 185 TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) .................................................................................................................................... 186 EPS .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 188 DCS ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 189 Photoshop PDF ................................................................................................................................................................... 189 PDF security ......................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Importing multi-page PDF files ........................................................................................................................................ 192 PICT ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 JPEG ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 193 File formats for the Web ........................................................................................................................................................... 195 Other file formats for the Internet ........................................................................................................................................ 195 GIF .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 196 Save for Web ................................................................................................................................................................................ 198 PNG (Portable Network Graphics) .............................................................................................................................. 203 IVUE ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 204 FlashPix .................................................................................................................................................................................. 204 Future of electronic publishing ............................................................................................................................................... 204 Chapter Eight – Basic Image Adjustments ........................................................ 205 Cropping ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 205 Orientation and canvas ............................................................................................................................................................. 207 Precise image rotation ............................................................................................................................................................... 208 Big data .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 208 Perspective cropping .................................................................................................................................................................. 209 Image analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................... 210 Levels adjustments ...................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Specular highlights ...................................................................................................................................................................... 213 Assigning shadow and highlight points .................................................................................................................................. 216 Unsharp masking ......................................................................................................................................................................... 217 Sharpening for repro ......................................................................................................................................................... 218 Amount ................................................................................................................................................................................. 218 Radius ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 220 Threshold .............................................................................................................................................................................. 220 Selective sharpening ................................................................................................................................................................... 220 Chapter Nine – Color Adjustments.................................................................... 222 Hue/Saturation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 222 Color balancing with Levels ..................................................................................................................................................... 226 Variations ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 227 Auto adjustments ........................................................................................................................................................................ 227 Color Balance .............................................................................................................................................................................. 229 Variations ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 229 Curves adjustments ................................................................................................................................................................... 229 Arbitrary Map mode .................................................................................................................................................................. 235 Replace Color .............................................................................................................................................................................. 236 Color Range ................................................................................................................................................................................. 238 ix Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com 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  11. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Adjustment layers ....................................................................................................................................................................... 238 Multiple adjustment layers ................................................................................................................................................ 238 Blending mode adjustments ............................................................................................................................................. 239 16 bits per channel support ..................................................................................................................................................... 241 Selective Color ............................................................................................................................................................................ 242 Chapter Ten – Repairing an Image ..................................................................... 244 Basic cloning methods ............................................................................................................................................................... 244 Retouching a color negative .................................................................................................................................................... 247 Alternative spotting technique using the history brush ................................................................................................... 249 Working with the healing brush ............................................................................................................................................. 251 Patch tool ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Healing brush strategies ............................................................................................................................................................ 258 Cloning selections ...................................................................................................................................................................... 261 Restoring a faded image ............................................................................................................................................................ 263 Keyboard shortcuts .................................................................................................................................................................... 265 Removing moiré patterns ......................................................................................................................................................... 266 Scanning halftone images .......................................................................................................................................................... 267 Tool applications and characteristics ..................................................................................................................................... 269 Brush blending modes ............................................................................................................................................................... 270 Beauty retouching ....................................................................................................................................................................... 271 Softening the focus ..................................................................................................................................................................... 275 Rescuing shadow detail ............................................................................................................................................................. 276 Dodge and burn .......................................................................................................................................................................... 278 Chapter Eleven – Montage Techniques .............................................................. 280 Selections and channels ............................................................................................................................................................. 280 Summary of channels and selections ..................................................................................................................................... 282 Selections .............................................................................................................................................................................. 282 Quick mask mode .............................................................................................................................................................. 282 Alpha channels ..................................................................................................................................................................... 282 Work paths ........................................................................................................................................................................... 282 Modifying selections ................................................................................................................................................................... 284 Smoothing and enlarging a selection ..................................................................................................................................... 284 Anti-aliasing and feathering ...................................................................................................................................................... 285 Layers ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 287 Blending modes ........................................................................................................................................................................... 289 Masking layers .............................................................................................................................................................................. 294 Adding an empty image layer mask ................................................................................................................................ 294 Adding an image layer mask based on a selection ..................................................................................................... 294 Viewing an image layer mask in Mask or Rubylith mode ......................................................................................... 294 Applying and removing image layer masks ................................................................................................................... 296 Vector masks ................................................................................................................................................................................ 297 Working with multiple layers ................................................................................................................................................... 298 Layer set management ............................................................................................................................................................... 298 Layer sets ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 299 Advanced blending options ...................................................................................................................................................... 301 Color coding ................................................................................................................................................................................ 301 Layer locking ................................................................................................................................................................................ 302 Transform commands ................................................................................................................................................................ 303 Numeric Transforms .......................................................................................................................................................... 304 Repeat Transform ................................................................................................................................................................ 305 Transforming selections and paths ................................................................................................................................. 305 Drawing paths with the pen tool ............................................................................................................................................ 306 Guidelines for drawing pen paths ........................................................................................................................................... 306 x Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  12. Contents Pen tool in action ........................................................................................................................................................................ 308 Montages ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 310 Masking hair ................................................................................................................................................................................. 315 Clipping groups ................................................................................................................................................................... 320 Extract command ........................................................................................................................................................................ 322 Complex image blending .......................................................................................................................................................... 325 Removing a matte color ........................................................................................................................................................... 328 Ribblehead Viaduct by Ian McKinnell ..................................................................................................................................... 328 Exporting clipping paths ............................................................................................................................................................ 332 Chapter Twelve – Shortcuts ................................................................................ 335 Efficient running .......................................................................................................................................................................... 338 Contextual menus ...................................................................................................................................................................... 339 Selections ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 341 Window display options ........................................................................................................................................................... 341 Moving and cloning selections ................................................................................................................................................. 341 Info and Navigator ...................................................................................................................................................................... 345 Working with Actions ................................................................................................................................................................ 346 Playing an Action ................................................................................................................................................................. 346 Recording Actions .............................................................................................................................................................. 347 Troubleshooting Actions ........................................................................................................................................................... 347 Batch processing Actions .................................................................................................................................................. 348 Automation plug-ins ................................................................................................................................................................... 349 Fit Image ................................................................................................................................................................................ 350 Picture Package ................................................................................................................................................................... 351 Contact Sheet II .................................................................................................................................................................. 352 Export Transparent Image and Resize Image ............................................................................................................... 353 Web Photo Gallery ............................................................................................................................................................ 354 Creating a Droplet ..................................................................................................................................................................... 356 Layers and channels .................................................................................................................................................................... 358 Chapter Thirteen – Black and White Effects ..................................................... 366 Duotone mode ............................................................................................................................................................................ 367 Printing duotones ....................................................................................................................................................................... 367 Full color toning .......................................................................................................................................................................... 370 Split toning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 372 Solarization ................................................................................................................................................................................... 373 Black and white from color ..................................................................................................................................................... 376 Infrared film simulation ............................................................................................................................................................. 379 Adding a photographic rebate ................................................................................................................................................. 380 Chapter Fourteen – Coloring Effects ................................................................. 382 Cross-processing ........................................................................................................................................................................ 383 Channel Mixer adjustments ..................................................................................................................................................... 386 Color overlays ............................................................................................................................................................................. 387 Retouching with overlays .......................................................................................................................................................... 389 Gradient Map coloring .............................................................................................................................................................. 391 Chapter Fifteen – Layer Effects .......................................................................... 392 Layer effects and Styles ............................................................................................................................................................. 392 Drop Shadow ....................................................................................................................................................................... 393 Inner Shadow ....................................................................................................................................................................... 393 Outer Glow and Inner Glow ........................................................................................................................................... 394 Bevel and Emboss ............................................................................................................................................................... 395 xi Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  13. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Satin ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 395 Gradient Overlay ................................................................................................................................................................ 396 Pattern Overlay ................................................................................................................................................................... 396 Color Overlay ...................................................................................................................................................................... 397 Stroke ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 397 Creating Styles ............................................................................................................................................................................. 398 Applying layer styles to image layers ..................................................................................................................................... 398 Painting effects ............................................................................................................................................................................. 400 Layer effect contours ................................................................................................................................................................. 401 Transforms and alignment ........................................................................................................................................................ 403 Shadow effect ............................................................................................................................................................................... 405 Spot color channels .................................................................................................................................................................... 407 Adding type .................................................................................................................................................................................. 409 Vector output ...................................................................................................................................................................... 410 Chapter Sixteen – Filters ..................................................................................... 411 Blur filters ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 412 Fade command ............................................................................................................................................................................ 412 Smart blur ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 412 Noise filters .................................................................................................................................................................................. 413 Filters for alpha channel effects .............................................................................................................................................. 413 Distortions and displacements ................................................................................................................................................ 417 Liquify ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 419 The Liquify tools explained ...................................................................................................................................................... 420 Lighting and rendering ............................................................................................................................................................... 424 Clouds and Difference Clouds ................................................................................................................................................ 424 Lens Flare ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 425 Lighting Effects ............................................................................................................................................................................. 426 Pattern Maker .............................................................................................................................................................................. 428 3D Transform ............................................................................................................................................................................... 431 Practical applications .................................................................................................................................................................. 432 Appendix ............................................................................................................... 433 Adobe ImageReady™ 7.0 ......................................................................................................................................................... 437 Interface ................................................................................................................................................................................ 437 Jump to .................................................................................................................................................................................. 437 ImageReady layers ....................................................................................................................................................................... 438 Styles .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 439 Actions ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 440 Image resizing ............................................................................................................................................................................... 441 Cropping ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 441 Color management ..................................................................................................................................................................... 441 Image slicing ................................................................................................................................................................................. 442 Slice content ........................................................................................................................................................................ 443 Optimizing images and image slices ....................................................................................................................................... 443 Image maps ................................................................................................................................................................................... 444 Rollovers ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 445 Animation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 446 World Wide Web contacts list ................................................................................................................................................ 448 Index ...................................................................................................................... 451 xii Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  14. Contents Introduction I n 1996, a group of self-proclaimed ‘digital’ photographers met together at Ian McKinnell’s studio in Holborn, London, to discuss the formation of a Digital Imaging Group. At first, this was a small gathering of professional photographers. The one thing we all had in common was a shared interest in using computers and their potential as a photographic medium of the future. Back then, to edit your photographs digitally was regarded as a very strange business. If nothing else, we were to be marvelled at for our patience, as to manipulate any- thing bigger than a 10 MB file on a desktop computer could be a notoriously slow process. At worst we were to be distrusted as the harbingers of doom, bringing about the end to photography as we know it. At one point it was seriously suggested by a photographic gallery committee that ‘digital’ photographs could not be exhibited unless accompanied by a sticker to signify that these pictures were not real photography. Maybe now it is true to say that because of digital technology, the photographic profession never will be the same again. But this has more to do with the way images are being marketed rather than the means by which those images are captured. Photographers are under increasing pressure to sign away their valuable rights and the pressure of competition has never been greater. When image editing work stations used to cost a cool half million, digital retouching was the preserve of an exclusive elite. Photoshop has played an important role in bringing professional image editing within the reach of many. That is one of the great virtues of Photoshop – almost anyone can have a go now. Photoshop brings the power of professional image editing within the reach of the many. And as I have toured around Britain and the United States presenting seminars, I meet so many xiii Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers people who are just beginning to get started using Photoshop and discovering for themselves the enjoyment that can be gained from being able to manipulate and control their own photographs up to and beyond the confines of what could once be achieved in the darkroom. From a technical standpoint, dipping one’s toes in the digital stream embodies taking on much more responsibility for the production process. For that reason this book is not solely about Photoshop but also delves into the technical implications surrounding the program’s use and working in the digital domain. You are about to venture into new territory. The photographers whose work appears in this book, like myself, came to use Photoshop with no great knowledge of computers. We all had to learn to use this new technology from scratch. So in planning this book I considered carefully what could be packed into 480 pages that would be relevant to someone wanting to use Photoshop as a digital darkroom tool. Techniques which show you how to create 3D type effects and illustration graphics have been deliberately scaled down – there are other great Photoshop books which can service those interests. Presented here is a guide packed with the Photoshop features you’ll really want to use and need to become familiar with. One special feature is the inclusion of some of the book tutorials in movie form on the CD-ROM. From my own experience, movies are a helpful way to learn and assimilate Photoshop techniques. Adobe Photoshop 5.0 for Photographers was first published in October 1998. This and the subsequent Adobe Photoshop 5.5 and 6.0 for Photographers were bestselling Photoshop titles on the Amazon.com book selling lists in the United States and here in the UK. Thank you to all the readers who wrote in with their comments and sug- gestions. In this updated edition I have been able to increase the size of the book and include extra tutorials relating to Photoshop 7.0 and revise the earlier passages to help the book flow more and take into account recent technical developments in computer hardware. Photoshop 7.0 is bundled with Adobe ImageReady™ 7.0. I felt that ImageReady, although a great program, is not so relevant to photographers. Of course there are quite a few new web features which have been added since version 5.0, and these are all covered in the book. A special ImageReady section has been incorporated in the Appendix. A few people wrote and asked if it would be possible to include the images illustrated in this book on the CD-ROM? I am afraid that this is one wish that is going to be hard to satisfy at present. The majority of the photographs that appear in this book either feature professional models, belong to other photographers or appear by permission of a commercial client. Permission has been obtained for the pictures to be reproduced in the book, but obviously this does not include royalty-free usage on the CD disc. Even if we could have gained such permissions it would not have been possible to achieve within the book’s production budget. However, a few of the pictures – the non-commercial shots – are now contained on the CD-ROM and can also be downloaded from the book’s website. xiv Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. Introduction I use an Apple Macintosh system to run Photoshop, but have included keyboard equivalents for PC users and special instructions throughout. If you are running the Windows 98 operating system or later, the translation between Mac and PC is not too dissimilar. My advice to anyone is use the computer system you feel most comfortable with. It is a sign of maturity when one can mention the words Macintosh and PC in a sentence without claiming superiority one way or the other. Platform wars and speed comparisons prove very little. When analyzing these differences, Photoshop performance hinges more on the skill and speed of the operator and not the hardware or computer system they use. Being British born I use UK English spelling in the normal course of my writing. However, Adobe are a US company and the international, English language Photoshop interface uses US spelling. As this book is being distributed throughout many English speaking countries, we settled on the US English spelling conventions throughout. In addition, I believe it is important for everyone that all the interface terms and definitions are used precisely. There are many confusing and incorrect terms in use – like the Photoshop user who on an Internet mailing list described an action called ‘Pretzel-clicking’. In Germany apparently, the Apple Command key is also known as the Pretzel key. Acknowledgments I must first thank Andrea Bruno of Adobe Europe for her suggestion that I write a book about Photoshop aimed at photographers. I would like to give a special mention to my publishing editors: Marie Hooper, Jennifer Welham, Beth Howard and Jane Read at Focal Press. Also thanks to Adam Woolfitt and Mike Laye who helped form the Digital Imaging Group (DIG) forum for UK digital photographers and all the other DIG and Association members: Julian Calder, Laurie Evans, Jon Gibson-Skinner, Peter Hince, Thomas Holm, Ed Horwich, Bob Marchant, Ian McKinnell, Gwilym Johnston (who compiled and authored the CD-ROM), and in particular Rod Wynne- Powell, who reviewed the final manuscript and provided an enormous amount of help with technical advice and assistance in the production of this book. And I want to give a very special mention to fellow Photoshop alpha tester Jeff Schewe for all his guidance and help over the years. The following clients, companies and individuals should also be mentioned for the help they gave me: Adobe, Amateur Photographer, Binuscan, Bookings, Steve Broback, Russell Brown, Camera Bits, Clippers, Clipso, Jeremy Cope, Chris Cox, Tom Fahey, Bruce Fraser, Karen Gauthier, Gretag Macbeth, Nick Haddon, Mark Hamburg, Leon Herbert, Imacon – Denmark, Thomas Knoll, Ricky Liversidge, MacUser UK, M&P Models, Models One, Nevs, Marc Pawliger, Pixl – Denmark, xv Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Profile, Clair Rawlings, Herb Paynter, Red or Dead Ltd, Eric Richmond, Andrew Rodney, Schwarzkopf Ltd, Michael Smiley, The Smithsonian Institution, Susanne Sturton, Paul Smith, Martin Soan, Storm, Tapestry, Tresemme, gJim Williams, Russell Williams, Mark Williford and YU salon. And lastly, thanks to friends and family. My late mother for all her love and encouragement and who was always so supportive and proud of my success. Getting started I aimed to make this book a comprehensive guide to the use of Photoshop as a photographers’ tool. The early chapters introduce important subjects such as how digital images are captured, digital image resolution and the all-important topic of color management. You will doubtless want to refer to this first section when you need to find out more about different file formats and print proofing methods, but it is not absolutely necessary that you begin reading here. If you want to dive in and learn the Photoshop basics, you could easily bypass these early chapters and start at Chapter Six on ‘The Work Space’. Here you will be introduced to all the Photoshop 7.0 tools and palettes. Chapter Eight deals with basic image correction controls and from thereon as you progress through the book, you will be shown how to incorporate some of Photoshop’s more powerful features and apply sophisticated techniques. But to begin with, here is what you will find that is new in this latest version of Photoshop. What’s new in Photoshop 7.0 Whenever a new full version of Photoshop is released there is a predictable debate over whether the new program justifies being classed as a full upgrade or not. But whatever the pundits and critics like myself write, it is going to be the Photoshop customers who will ultimately decide if Photoshop 7.0 makes the grade or not. Speaking as an alpha tester and someone who has had the opportunity to work closely with the Photoshop engineering team, I can readily acknowledge the hard work and dedication of the Photoshop engineering team that goes into each and every program upgrade. And Photoshop 7.0 is no exception. In preparing this update to the book I counted at least fifty feature additions and tweaks to the program. Admitedly some of these are quite subtle, but nonetheless these have all gone to provide a version of Photoshop that is more versatile and equipped ready to meet the demands of users old and new. What follows is a brief summary of what’s new and which features will be of special interest to photographers. xvi Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. Introduction Mac OS X and Windows XP support For Macintosh users, the Mac OS X support was one of the most eagerly anticipated features of Photoshop 7.0. While at the same time, PC users now have support for the Windows XP operating system, and I’ll be writing more about this in Chapter Three. Mac OS X is based on a UNIX core and although UNIX has been around for a long time, the last time it was supported by Photoshop was in version 3.0. So a lot of engineering time had to be devoted to updating the Photoshop 7.0 code in order to achieve this. Photoshop 7.0 has also had to rely heavily on Apple to provide the operating system resources to optimize Photoshop 7.0’s performance in OS X. To this end, Mac users will probably want to make sure they are running the very latest update (OS X 1.4 at the time of writing). The Windows XP system is an overhaul of the Windows NT system and like OS X is a very robust OS to run Photoshop on and features a new ‘Luna’ interface and some nice cool interface features that enhance image file management. But apart from a few nagging issues I have with Mac OS X, the OS X and XP interfaces give Photoshop a nice brand new environment to work within. File Browser The File Browser first made its debut in Photoshop Elements and a much enhanced version of the File Browser is now included in 7.0. As far as photographers should be concerned, this is the number one new feature. Gone are the days when we thought ourselves lucky to be able to work on more that one image at a time. And because Photoshop now allows us to process large numbers of images with ease and the number of image files stored on our hard drives increases, we really do need an efficient method of navigating, sorting and managing our photographs. The File Browser is a very welcome addition for Photoshop, as we are now able to quickly see large image thumbnails and previews. Images can be ranked according to preference plus you can rotate and batch rename selected images from within the browser interface. And since Photoshop 7.0 features XMP (eXtensible Markup Plat- form) support for embedding metadata, you can view all the associated metadata in the File Browser. Metadata use is becoming increasingly important to the future of digital photography and image management and XMP will allow you to manage your files in an automated production workflow. The File Info dialog now automatically includes any of the EXIF metadata present in the file and the XMP data. xvii Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  19. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for Photographers Healing brush and patch tool At first sight the healing brush appears to be a new variant of the clone stamp, but is actually a very powerful retouching tool. The healing brush is able to sample the pixel texture from one source point (which can be image pixels or a pattern texture) and smoothly blend this with the color and luminosity of the pixels you are applying the healing brush to. The healing brush will prove itself to be incredibly useful for all sorts of tricky photographic retouching jobs. The patch tool is an interesting variant of the healing brush that allows you to sample larger, selection-defined image areas and ‘patch’ these over with pixels sampled from another part of the picture. Or alternatively, you can use the patch tool as an effective means for copying selected areas and smoothly compositing in another portion of the image. The patch tool may sound like yet another gimicky Photoshop feature but this too is a very effective retouching tool. Brushes engine The Photoshop paint engine contains a lot of new brush dynamics controls and is able to fully exploit all the different user-variable options of a pressure sensitive tablet such as the Wacom Intuos™ and create natural media painting effects and these can be combined with pre-supplied or any sampled texture. The brushes limit has been in- creased to 2500 pixels and there are some other subtle improvements, such as the ability to use all layers when you use the blur tool (and also with other tools). The overwhelming variety of brush options may be beyond the basic requirements of photographers. Nevertheless, the visual feedback provided in the brushes palette allows you to explore these various options intuitively and easily should you wish to do so. The supplied brush presets will help you get acquainted with the new possi- bilities the brushes engine offers. Several new brush and layer blending modes have also been added in Photoshop 7.0. Interface refinements You can save as many custom palette configurations as you like via the Workspace settings in the Window menu (previously you only had the choice of saving your last used palette layout, or resetting the palettes to their default positions). You can even record the loading of saved workspace settings as an action and it is also possible to assign hotkeys to switch quickly between different screen layout settings. Macintosh users will be pleased to know that they can now choose to display all their open document windows as a tiled display, just as PC users have been able to before. xviii Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  20. Introduction Many of the Photoshop tools now have revised options in the Options bar. Custom Photoshop tool configurations can be saved in the Tool Presets palette. This means that you can save or load settings for custom marquee tool proportions or type tool settings using a specific font, font size and alignment. The document window will display the size dimensions in the status box and you can create a new document from a custom preset document size (and create your own document size presets). Automation Photoshop 7.0 fully supports automated system scripting. This will enable the geekier users among us to write scripts that operate actions from outside of Photoshop to perform discrete image processing tasks. The Conditional mode change feature in the Automate menu permits you, when recording an action, to selectively perform a color profile change based on a preselected range of color mode options. The Picture Package has been revamped to allow you to select more than one image to place on the page, together with file name or caption information and Picture Package now displays image previews in the dialog. The Contact Sheet II feature at last addresses the problem of the gutters being too wide. Several new preset options are available in the Web Photo Gallery styles – you can now have your email address appear on the pages and there are some new security features too, so if you wish, you can have a copyright notice added to your web gallery images. The text engine includes spell checking and replace text features in multiple languages, plus a new ‘Sharp’ text anti-aliasing mode. Auto Color An Auto Color image adjustment has been added to the Auto Levels and Auto Con- trast commands in the Image Adjust menu. Auto Color will attempt to remove color casts by analyzing the darkest and lightest colors in an image and neutralizing them. In the Levels and Curves dialogs there is an additional option to neutralize the midtone color as well. The Levels and Curves auto options allow a suitable element of control over these auto adjustments in case you are worried about introducing too much image clipping. And as with the other auto adjust tools, it can be applied to 16-bit per channel images. xix Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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