Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting- P1

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Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting- P1: I should stress that I am self-taught. In 1994, I sat down at a spare seat of Alias PowerAnimator 5.1 and started hacking away. After several years and various trials by fire, 3D became a livelihood, a love, and an obsession. Along the way, I was fortunate enough to work with many talented artists at Buena Vista Visual Effects and Pacific Data Images. In 2000, I switched from PowerAnimator to Maya and have since logged tens of thousands of hours with the subject of this book....

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  1. Advanced Maya Texturing ® and Lighting Second Edition Lee Lanier Wiley Publishing, inc.
  2. Advanced Maya Texturing ® and Lighting Second Edition
  3. Advanced Maya Texturing ® and Lighting Second Edition Lee Lanier Wiley Publishing, inc.
  4. Acquisitions Editor: Mariann Barsolo Development Editor: Susan Herman Technical Editors: Keith Reicher, Eric Keller Production Editor: Laurel Ibey Copy Editor: Liz Welch Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Executive Publisher: Joseph B. Wikert Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Project Manager: Laura Moss-Hollister Assistant Producer: Kit Malone Book Designer: Franz Baumhackl, Lori Barra Compositor: Kate Kaminski, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Ian Golder, Word One Indexer: Nancy Guenther Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Cover Image: Lee Lanier Copyright © 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-29273-0 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at http:// www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or complete- ness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situa- tion. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If profes- sional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further informa- tion does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lanier, Lee, 1966- Advanced Maya texturing and lighting / Lee Lanier. — 2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-470-29273-0 (pbk. : CD-ROM) 1. Computer animation. 2. Maya (Computer file) I. Title. TR897.7L367 2008 006.6’96—dc22 2008019683 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Maya is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. All other trade- marks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  5. Dear Reader, Thank you for choosing Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Second Edition. This book is part of a family of premium quality Sybex books, all written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than thirty years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our graphics titles we’re working hard to set a new stan- dard for the industry. From the writers and artists we work with to the paper we print on, our goal is to bring you the best graphics books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde@wiley.com, or if you think you’ve found an error in this book, please visit http://wiley.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards, Neil Edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley
  6. To all the dreamers and artists out there.
  7. Acknowledgments My thanks to the excellent editorial, production, and compositing staff at Sybex and Wiley & Sons, including Acquisitions Editor Mariann Barsolo, Development Editor Susan Herman, Production Editor Laurel Ibey, Technical Editors Keith Reicher and Eric Keller, Copy Editor Liz Welch, and Proofreader Ian Golder. Special thanks to the faculty, staff, and students at the Art Institute of Las Vegas and Westwood College Online for inspiring me to perfect my craft. Special thanks also to my family and friends who supported my wild ambitions. And the biggest thanks to my beautiful wife, Anita, who encouraged me all the way, despite all those late, late 3D nights. Several of the photos in this book were provided by the photographers of Stock XCHNG (www.sxc.hu). This is a wonderful site that provides royalty-free, restriction-free material simply out of love of the medium. Additional models were purchased from Turbo Squid (www.turbosquid.com), another excellent service.
  8. About the Author Lee Lanier is an award-winning 3D animator and director. His films have played in more than 200 film festivals, museums, and galleries worldwide. Before directing the shorts “Millennium Bug,” “Mirror,” “Day Off the Dead,” “Weapons of Mass Destruction,” and “13 Ways to Die at Home,” Lee served as a senior animator in the Lighting and Modeling Departments of Pacific Data Images on Shrek and Antz. He got his start in 3D at Buena Vista Visual Effects at Walt Disney Studios, where he cre- ated digital special effects for such films as Mortal Kombat. Lee currently lives in Boulder City, Nevada, where he serves as manager of BeezleBug Bit, LLC (www.BeezleBugBit.com) and director of the Dam Short Film Festival (www.DamShortFilm.org).
  9. Contents Introduction xvi Chapter 1 Understanding Lighting, Color, and Composition 1 Understanding the Art of Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Using 1-Point Lighting 2 Using 2-Point Lighting 8 Using 3-Point Lighting 11 Using Naturalistic Lighting 16 Using Stylized Lighting 21 Understanding Color and Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Color Theory Overview 23 Checking Color Calibration 26 A Note on Color Temperature 27 Setting a White Point 28 Applying the Golden Mean 29 Rule of Thirds 31 Step-by-Step: 3D Lighting Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Chapter 2 Applying the Correct Maya Light Type 37 Maya Light Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Common Light Attributes 38 Using Spot Lights 41 Using Directional Lights 46 Using Ambient Lights 47 Using Point Lights 49 Using Area Lights 49 Using Volume Lights 51 Linking and Unlinking Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Using Light Fog and Light Glow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Creating Light Fog 55 A Note on Environment and Volume Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Light Glow 60 Chapter Tutorial: Lighting an Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Chapter 3 Creating High-Quality Shadows 69 Rendering Depth Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Understanding Depth Maps 70 Refining Depth Maps 77 Solving Light Gap Errors 82 Comparing Shadows 85 Raytracing Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Linking and Unlinking Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Creating Effects Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Shadowing with Light Fog 89 Shadowing with Paint Effects 89
  10. Shadowing with Maya Fur 92 Shadowing with Maya Hair 95 Shadowing with nCloth 96 Shadowing with the Toon System 97 Chapter Tutorial: Lighting a Flickering Fire Pit with Shadows . . . . . . .99 Chapter 4 Applying the Correct Material and 2D Texture 103 Reviewing Shading Models and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Shading with Lambert 104 Shading with Phong 106 Shading with Blinn 108 Shading with Phong E 109 Shading with the Anisotropic Material 111 Shading with a Shading Map 113 Shading with a Surface Shader 114 Shading with Use Background 115 Reviewing 2D Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Applying Cloth 117 Applying Water 118 Applying Perlin Noise 119 Applying Ramps, Bitmaps, and Square Textures 121 Mastering Extra Map Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Setting the Filter Type 122 Shifting Color with Invert and Color Remap 126 Stacking Materials and Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Mastering the Blinn Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Re-Creating Wood 130 Re-Creating Metal 131 Re-Creating Plastic 132 Chapter Tutorial: Re-Creating Copper with Basic Texturing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Chapter 5 Applying 3D Textures and Projections 137 Exploring 3D Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Applying Random Textures 139 Applying Natural Textures 147 Applying Granular Textures 151 Applying Abstract Textures 153 Applying Environment Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 2D Texture Projection Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Placing Placement Boxes and Projection Icons 162 Applying the Convert To File Texture Tool 163 Chapter Tutorial: Creating Skin with Procedural Textures . . . . . . . . .165 Chapter 6 Creating Custom Connections and Applying Color Utilities 169 Mastering the Hypershade Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Reviewing the Basics 170 Creating Custom Connections 171 Cleaning Up 176
  11. Shifting Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Converting RGB to HSV 180 Converting RGB to Luminance 182 Blending Colors 183 Remapping Color 184 Remapping HSV 187 Remapping Value 188 Smearing Colors 189 Correcting Gamma 190 Adjusting Contrast 192 A Note on Sliders and Super-White 192 Clamping Values 194 Reading Surface Luminance 194 Chapter Tutorial: Creating a Custom Paint Material . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 Chapter 7 Automating a Scene with Sampler Nodes 201 Employing Samplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 A Review of the Ramp Shader Material 202 Coordinate Space Refresher 203 Using the Sampler Info Utility 204 Using the Light Info Utility 207 Using the Particle Sampler Utility 213 Using the Distance Between Utility 218 Tying into Nonmaterial Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 Creating Simulated Propeller Spin 219 Reproducing the Hitchcock Zoom-Dolly 221 Tapping into Construction History Nodes 222 Redirecting the Initial Shading Group Node 224 Connecting Multiple Materials in One Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Using the Studio Clear Coat Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Chapter Tutorial: Building a Custom Cartoon Shading Network . . . .227 Default Light Set Light Linker Chapter 8 Harnessing the Power of Math Utilities 233 Math Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Render Partition Reversing Input 234 Multiplying and Dividing 234 Default Render Utility List Adding, Subtracting, and Averaging Values 236 Using Expressions 238 Changing the Range of a Value 239 Mapping Per-Particle Attributes 242 Working with Vectors and Matrices 247 Testing a Condition 251 Switching Outputs 252 Using Esoteric Utilities and Scene Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 Stenciling Color 256 Applying Optical FX 257 Converting Units 258 Understanding Scene Nodes 259 Chapter Tutorial: Creating Eye Glow with Advanced Math Utilities 260
  12. Chapter 9 Improving Textures through Custom UVs, Maps, and Sliders 265 Preparing UV Texture Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Prepping NURBS Surfaces 266 Preparing Polygons 272 Using the 3D Paint Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 The Basic Workflow 284 Roughing in a Texture 286 PSD Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 Bump and Displacement Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 Bump Mapping 289 Displacement Mapping 291 The Height Field Utility 293 Custom Sliders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295 Chapter Tutorial: Preparing the UVs of a Polygon Model . . . . . . . . 296 Chapter 10 Prepping for Successful Renders 301 Determining Critical Project Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Deciphering Aspect Ratios 302 Switching between Square and Nonsquare Pixels 304 Selecting a Film Back 305 Displaying Gates 307 Selecting a Focal Length 308 Selecting Frame Rates and Interlacing 309 A Note on Frame Rate Conversion 310 Mastering the Render Settings Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311 Prepping Maya Software Renders 313 Prepping Maya Hardware Renders 315 Prepping Maya Vector Renders 317 Rendering with the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 Organizing the Render . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 Cleaning Up 319 Recovering Lost Bitmaps 320 Selecting Image Formats and Render Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 Differentiating Image Formats 322 A Note on 16-Bit Color Space 323 Changing Compression Settings 324 Oversized Rendering 325 Creating Depth of Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325 Applying Motion Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 Industry Examples: Splitting Up a Render . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331 Chapter 11 Raytracing with Maya Software and mental ray 337 Maya Software vs . mental ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338 Raytracing with Maya Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338 Comparing the Scanline and Raytracing Processes 339
  13. Setting Up a Raytrace 342 Creating Reflections 344 Managing Refractions and Aberrations 345 Raytracing with mental ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349 Mastering mental ray Quality Settings 349 Using mental ray Motion Blur 352 Controlling mental ray Shadows 355 Creating Reflections and Refractions with mental ray 357 Reproducing Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 Water as a Liquid 359 Water as a Solid 364 Reproducing Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Creating Glass with Maya Software 368 Chapter Tutorial: Texturing and Rendering an Ice Cube . . . . . . . . . .371 Chapter 12 Working with Global Illumination, Final Gather, and mental ray Shaders 375 Understanding Indirect Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376 Tracing Photons 377 Rendering Global Illumination with mental ray 379 Adjusting Global Illumination Attributes 380 Reviewing Photon Hits 383 Applying Caustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Applying mental ray Shaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 Using Dgs_material 389 Using Dielectric_material 390 Using “Mib” Shaders 392 Using “Misss” Shaders 393 Using Lens Shaders 395 Using Environment Shaders 396 Using Mib_volume and Parti_volume 398 Preparing mental ray Shaders for Global Illumination 399 Using Final Gather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Adjusting Final Gather Attributes 402 Using Irradiance 404 Fine-Tuning mental ray Renders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405 Rendering the Cornell Box 405 Rendering the Cornell Box with Maya Software 410 Chapter Tutorial: Creating Caustics with Final Gather . . . . . . . . . . .411 Chapter 13 Texturing and Lighting with Advanced Techniques 415 Adding Realism with HDRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416 Comparing LDR and HDR Images 416 An Overview of Supported HDR Formats 419 Displaying HDR Images 419 Texturing with HDR Images 421 Tone Mapping with mental ray Lens Shaders 423 Lighting with HDR and LDR Images 424 An Introduction to RenderMan For Maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
  14. Creating Textures with the Transfer Maps Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433 Normal Mapping 433 Creating Displacement Maps 435 Baking Lighting and Shading Information 437 Managing Renders with the Render Layer Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438 Render Layer Overview 438 Creating Member Overrides and Render Pass Options 440 Creating Render Settings Window Overrides 441 Using Presets 442 Creating Material Overrides 445 Step-by-Step: Creating the Cover Illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445 Appendix About the Companion CD 453 What You’ll Find on the CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454 Project Files 454 Bonus Chapter 454 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454 Using the CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455 Customer Care 456 Index 457
  15. “There’s nothing quite like turning a gray-shaded model into something that looks real—or that could be real.”
  16. Introduction Texturing and lighting is a blast. There’s nothing quite like turning a gray-shaded model into something that looks real—or that could be real. I should stress that I am self-taught. In 1994, I sat down at a spare seat of Alias PowerAnimator 5.1 and started hacking away. After several years and various trials by fire, 3d became a livelihood, a love, and an obsession. Along the way, I was fortunate enough to work with many talented artists at Buena Vista Visual Effects and Pacific data Images. In 2000, I switched from PowerAnimator to Maya and have since logged tens of thousands of hours with the subject of this book. due to the unusual combination of an informal and professional background, I do not profess to know everything there is to know about Maya. In fact, you may find xvi a better, quicker, more efficient way to achieve some of the texturing and lighting tech-   I n t ro d u c t I o n ■ niques described in this book. that’s the beauty of Maya. there are probably a dozen ways to tackle every problem or challenge. If anything, I hope this book provides you with the theory, the background, and the basic approach you need to come up with your own creative solutions. Second Edition the first edition of Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting was written with Maya 7.0 and published in 2006. this edition represents a major revision, with every chapter updated for the most recent Maya release and the latest trends and techniques in the animation industry. In addition, material covering fundamental theory that underpins computer animation and the natural world it tries to re-create has been expanded. Who Should Read This Book Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Second Edition, is designed for anyone with a working knowledge of Maya. Specifically, this book was written with the following people in mind: • Students who are reaching the upper levels of their 3d curriculum • Hobbyists or amateurs who are self-starters and would like to rapidly refine their Maya skills • Professionals working in other areas of Maya, such as animation or rigging, who would like to expand their knowledge of texturing and lighting Although most of the information in this book is Maya specific, you can apply the texturing and lighting theories and approaches to other 3d programs. this book
  17. also assumes that you have a basic knowledge of such image manipulation programs as Adobe Photoshop and compositing programs as After Effects. How to Use This Book Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Second Edition, is divided into 14 chapters. Thirteen of these chapters are in the book. one of the chapters is provided as a bonus PdF file on the companion cd. chapter 1 discusses lighting history, technique, and application, as well as basic color and composition theory. naturalistic, stylistic, 1-point, 2-point, and 3-point lighting are covered in detail. If you are new to lighting, this is the best place to start. chapters 2 and 3 detail Maya lights and shadows and how to properly apply them. Specialized effects, such as Environment Fog, Light Fog, the Toon renderer, Maya Fur, Maya Hair, and ncloth, are also covered. chapters 4 through 8 delve deeply into Maya materials and utilities. Most Maya books barely scratch the surface in this area. If you’ve ever wondered what each Maya node actually does, check out these chapters. custom networks are also dis- cussed at length. numerous examples are provided with clearly labeled illustrations, xvii and you’ll find that the examples are easy to follow (as much as such a complex subject ■   I n T ro d u c T I o n allows). chapter 9 takes a detour and discusses uV texture space. uV preparation is a critical component of texturing, but it is often ignored by texturing and lighting books. chapters 10 through 12 concentrate on rendering and expend a good deal of text on mental ray, Global Illumination, Final Gather, and other advanced render tools. chapter 13 includes advanced tools and techniques, including HdrI lighting, normal mapping, and the render Layer Editor. A guide to the creation of this book’s cover illustration is also provided. If you’re fairly new to Maya or 3d in general, I suggest starting with chapter 1, then working your way through the book. If you’re experienced with Maya, I recom- mend hitting the chapters that contain information that’s poorly documented by other sources. In this case, chapters 6, 7, and 8 should prove the most interesting. If you’d like to take your Maya knowledge even further, an Additional_Techniques.pdf file is included on the companion cd. The file includes extra sections that cover shading net- works, nurBS preparation, and advanced rendering techniques. Each chapter of Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Second Edition, contains either a tutorial or examples of industry work. The tutorials are in-depth methods of practicing advanced techniques. Each tutorial is accompanied by ample illustrations and completed Maya scene files. The industry examples, on the other hand, present renders from completed animations and explain the process of their creation. These sections often include “quick and dirty” techniques that were born in the face of production deadlines.
  18. The Companion CD The cd included in the back of the book is an important part of learning with Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Second Edition. A bonus chap- ter, sample scenes, shading networks, QuickTime movies, and texture bitmaps are included to help you perfect your knowledge. The included materials match many of the illustrations in this book; check the illustration captions for file- names. As for Maya file locations, the following directory structure is used on the cd: Project_Files\chapter_1\scenes scene files and shading networks Project_Files\chapter_1\images background and HDR images Project_Files\chapter_1\textures texture bitmaps Project_Files\chapter_1\movies sample QuickTime movies Maya Versions xviii The scene files included on the cd are saved in the Maya 8.5 .ma format. The I n T ro d u c T I o n  ■ files have been tested with versions 8.5 and 2008. All the techniques dis- cussed in the book have been tested with versions 8.5 and 2008; any signifi- cant differences between the two versions have been noted in the text. Shading Network Figures A number of figures in this book illustrate custom shading networks. The con- nections are labeled with the output and input channels. As such, the output channel name is indicated by its placement on top of the connection line (closer to the top of the node icon). The input channel name is placed below the con- nection line (see Figure I.1). details concerning attributes, channels, custom connections, nodes, and shading networks are provided. Ou tpu t Inp ut Figure I.1 An example shading network
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