Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design

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Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design

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GLOBAL OJECTIVES: Teach the analysis, modeling, simulation, and design of analog circuits; implemented in CMOS technology. Emphasis will be on the design methodology and a hierarchical approach to the subject.

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  1. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.0-1 I. INTRODUCTION Contents I.1 Introduction I.2 Analog Integrated Circuit Design I.3 Technology Overview I.4 Notation I.5 Analog Circuit Analysis Techniques
  2. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.0-2 Organization Chapter 10 Chapter 11 D/A and A/D Analog Systems Converters SYSTEMS Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 CMOS Simple CMOS High Performance Comparators Opamps Opamps COMPLEX CIRCUITS Chapter 5 Chapter 6 CMOS CMOS Subcircuits Amplifiers SIMPLE Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 CMOS CMOS Device Device Technology Modeling Characterization DEVICES Introduction
  3. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.2-1 I.1 - INTRODUCTION GLOBAL OBJECTIVES • Teach the analysis, modeling, simulation, and design of analog circuits implemented in CMOS technology. • Emphasis will be on the design methodology and a hierarchical approach to the subject. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. Present an overall, uniform viewpoint of CMOS analog circuit design. 2. Achieve an understanding of analog circuit design. • Hand calculations using simple models • Emphasis on insight • Simulation to provide second-order design resolution 3. Present a hierarchical approach. • Sub-blocks → Blocks → Circuits → Systems 4. Examples to illustrate the concepts.
  4. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.2-1 I.2 ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN ANALOG DESIGN TECHNIQUES VERSUS TIME FILTERS AMPLIFICATION Passive RLC circuits Open-loop amplifiers 1935-1950 Active-RC Filters Feedback Amplifiers Requires precise definition of time constants (RC Requires precise definition products) of passive components 1978 Switched Capacitor Switched Capacitor Filters Amplifiers Requires precise C Requires precise C ratios and clock ratios 1983 Continuous Time Continuous Time Filters Amplifiers Time constants are Component ratios adjustable are adjustable 1992 ? Digitally assisted analog circuits ?
  5. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.2-2 DISCRETE VS. INTEGRATED ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN Activity/Item Discrete Integrated Component Accuracy Well known Poor absolute accuracies Breadboarding? Yes No (kit parts) Fabrication Independent Very Dependent Physical PC layout Layout, verification, and Implementation extraction Parasitics Not Important Must be included in the design Simulation Model parameters well Model parameters vary known widely Testing Generally complete Must be considered testing is possible before the design CAD Schematic capture, Schematic capture, simulation, PC board simulation, extraction, layout LVS, layout and routing Components All possible Active devices, capacitors, and resistors
  6. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.2-3 THE ANALOG IC DESIGN PROCESS Conception of the idea Definition of the design Comparison Comparison with design Implementation with design specifications specifications Simulation Physical Definition Physical Verification Parasitic Extraction Fabrication Testing and Verification Product
  7. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.2-4 COMPARISON OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS Analog Circuits Digital Circuits Signals are continuous in amplitude Signal are discontinuous in and can be continuous or discrete in amplitude and time - binary signals time have two amplitude states Designed at the circuit level Designed at the systems level Components must have a continuum Component have fixed values of values Customized Standard CAD tools are difficult to apply CAD tools have been extremely successful Requires precision modeling Timing models only Performance optimized Programmable by software Irregular block Regular blocks Difficult to route automatically Easy to route automatically Dynamic range limited by power Dynamic range unlimited supplies and noise (and linearity)
  8. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.3-1 I.3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW BANDWIDTHS OF SIGNALS USED IN SIGNAL PROCESSING APPLICATIONS Video Acoustic Seismic imaging Sonar Radar Audio AM-FM radio, TV Telecommunications Microwave 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G 100G Signal Frequency (Hz) Signal frequency used in signal processing applications.
  9. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.3-2 BANDWIDTHS THAT CAN BE PROCESSED BY PRESENT- DAY TECHNOLOGIES BiCMOS Bipolar analog Bipolar digital logic MOS digital logic MOS analog Optical GaAs 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G 100G Signal Frequency (Hz) Frequencies that can be processed by present-day technologies.
  10. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.3-3 CLASSIFICATION OF SILICON TECHNOLOGY Silicon IC Technologies Bipolar Bipolar/MOS MOS Junction Dielectric PMOS Isolated Isolated CMOS (Aluminum NMOS Gate) Aluminum Silicon Aluminum Silicon gate gate gate gate
  11. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.3-4 BIPOLAR VS. MOS TRANSISTORS CATEGORY BIPOLAR CMOS Turn-on Voltage 0.5-0.6 V 0.8-1 V Saturation Voltage 0.2-0.3 V 0.2-0.8 V gm at 100µA 4 mS 0.4 mS (W=10L) Analog Switch Offsets, asymmetric Good Implementation Power Dissipation Moderate to high Low but can be large Speed Faster Fast Compatible Capacitors Voltage dependent Good AC Performance DC variables only DC variables and Dependence geometry Number of Terminals 3 4 Noise (1/f) Good Poor Noise Thermal OK OK Offset Voltage < 1 mV 5-10 mV
  12. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.3-5 WHY CMOS??? CMOS is nearly ideal for mixed-signal designs: • Dense digital logic • High-performance analog DIGITAL ANALOG MIXED-SIGNAL IC
  13. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.4-1 I.4 NOTATION SYMBOLS FOR TRANSISTORS Drain Drain Gate Bulk Gate Source Source/bulk n-channel, enhance- n-channel, enhance- ment, VBS ≠ 0 ment, bulk at most negative supply Drain Drain Gate Bulk Gate Source Source/bulk p-channel, enhance- p-channel, enhance- ment, VBS ≠ 0 ment, bulk at most positive supply
  14. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.4-2 SYMBOLS FOR CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Operational Amplifier/Amplifier/OTA + - V I + + AvV1 G mV1 V1 V1 - - VCVS VCCS I1 I1 Rm I 1 Ai I 1 CCVS CCCS
  15. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page I.4-3 Notation for signals Id id ID iD time
  16. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page II.0-1 II. CMOS TECHNOLOGY Contents II.1 Basic Fabrication Processes II.2 CMOS Technology II.3 PN Junction II.4 MOS Transistor II.5 Passive Components II.6 Latchup Protection II.7 ESD Protection II.8 Geometrical Considerations
  17. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page II.0-2 Perspective Chapter 10 Chapter 11 D/A and A/D Analog Systems Converters SYSTEMS Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 CMOS Simple CMOS High Performance Comparators Opamps Opamps COMPLEX CIRCUITS Chapter 5 Chapter 6 CMOS CMOS Subcircuits Amplifiers SIMPLE Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 CMOS CMOS Device Device Technology Modeling Characterization DEVICES
  18. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page II.0-3 OBJECTIVE • Provide an understanding of CMOS technology sufficient to enhance circuit design. • Characterize passive components compatible with basic technologies. • Provide a background for modeling at the circuit level. • Understand the limits and constraints introduced by technology.
  19. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page II.1-1 II.1 - BASIC FABRICATION PROCESSES BASIC FABRTICATION PROCESSES Basic Steps • Oxide growth • Thermal diffusion • Ion implantation • Deposition • Etching Photolithography Means by which the above steps are applied to selected areas of the silicon wafer. Silicon wafer 0.5-0.8 mm 125-200 mm n-type: 3-5 Ω -cm p-type: 14-16 Ω -cm
  20. Allen and Holberg - CMOS Analog Circuit Design Page II.1-2 Oxidation The process of growing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2)on the surface of a silicon wafer. Original Si surface tox SiO 2 0.44 tox Si substrate Uses: • Provide isolation between two layers • Protect underlying material from contamination • Very thin oxides (100 to 1000 Å) are grown using dry-oxidation techniques. Thicker oxides (>1000 Å) are grown using wet oxidation techniques.
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