Apress - Accelerated SQL Server 2008 (2008)02

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  1. CHAPTER 2 SQL Server Installation and Configuration T hose of us who have spent many years in product development might come to the conclusion that one of the least glamorous jobs is to design and code the installation and configuration of a product. This task is often contracted out to consultants, so companies can keep their most tal- ented developers happy working on the complex logic within the product. Alternatively, a company can have great in-house people do the job, but not hire enough staff or not fund that part of the project well enough to build a high-quality setup experience. The latter seems to be the case with previous versions of SQL Server. Microsoft has now realized that the first impression of the product is the setup and configura- tion experience. Microsoft has definitely invested in this experience in SQL Server 2008, and it shows. The experience of installation and configuration of SQL Server 2008 can be summarized in a single word: pleasant. Not only is the user interface clean, but there are also extra wizards that help you set up and configure the more complicated features like clustering. In general, you will find SQL Server 2008 easy to install, thanks to all the hard work that the setup team did in completely redesigning the experience for SQL Server 2008. If any Microsoft managers are reading this, please give the members of the team a few hundred dollars bonus on their next review. This chapter covers the following topics: • Requirements for SQL Server 2008 • Pre-upgrade tasks • The Upgrade Advisor tool • SQL Server 2008 installation SQL Server Requirements The minimum RAM required to run SQL Server is 512MB, with 1GB recommended if you are plan- ning to use SQL Server to handle larger workloads. For disk space, you neeed 290MB. Disk space is cheap. Even if you are installing SQL Server on a desktop machine, you probably have at least a few gigabytes free. If you are concerned that you don’t have 290MB free to install just the database engine, you probably have some other problems to deal with first. The exact space requirements depend on what you install. SQL Server Books Online does a great job at enumerating specifically what each components takes as far as disk space is con- cerned, in an article appropriately titled “Hardware and Software Requirements for Installing SQL Server 2008.” (SQL Server Books Online is available online from http://msdn.microsoft.com.) 9
  2. 10 CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION SQL Server 2008 works on almost all flavors of Windows: XP Vista, Windows Server 2003, and , Windows Server 2008. But do watch out for the service pack requirements. As an example, the February Community Technology Preview (CTP) release requires Service Pack 2 if you are running SQL Server on Windows Server 2003. If your organization takes a while to move to service packs, you may want to factor this into your deployment schedule. Upgrading to SQL Server 2008 Setup supports a direct upgrade from SQL Server 2000 and 2005. Those of you still on SQL 7.0 will need to upgrade to SQL Server 2000 or 2005 first before upgrading to SQL Server 2008. Since the product development cycle was shorter than that of SQL Server 2005, the changes and issues involved with upgrading from SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server 2008 are minimal compared with the move from SQL Server 2000 to SQL Server 2008. You can upgrade to SQL Server in two ways: • Direct in-place upgrade: SQL Server setup does the heavy lifting of updating the necessary binary files and upgrades all the attached databases to the new version’s format. • Side-by-side upgrade: This is sometimes referred to as a migration. It essentially installs a fresh SQL Server 2008 instance alongside the instance that is to be upgraded. This process is mostly manual, since the idea is for the database administrator (DBA) to copy over the databases and configuration information to the new server. Once this information is copied and attached, the DBA can verify that the applications work correctly. The in-place upgrade is the more automated of the two options, but might not be the best option for some organizations. An in-place upgrade takes down the server for a duration of time, and without previous testing, who knows what will happen after the upgrade is complete? The posi- tive aspect of the in-place upgrade is that when the upgrade is completed, the instance name of the new SQL Server is the same as it was pre-upgrade, so existing applications do not need to change any connection string information. With a side-by-side upgrade, the new installation uses a new instance name, so applications might need to have their connection string information changed to point to the new instance. To help you with the upgrade, Microsoft released a free tool called Upgrade Advisor, which essentially scans your existing SQL Server instance and gives you a report on any potential issues you will have after the upgrade. But before we talk about using Upgrade Advisor, we need to discuss planning the upgrade. If you were going to simply upgrade your production servers without a plan, then you may want to consider freshening up your resumé. A plan is critical to the success of an upgrade. Planning the Upgrade A smooth upgrade requires a good plan. Before you upgrade, you need to prepare your environment. The pre-upgrade tasks include the following: • Ensure the server hardware that will host SQL Server 2008 will be sufficient. The server hard- ware should meet the minimum hardware requirements, such as the amount of available RAM and disk space. The operating system on the server hardware should also contain the latest service pack or the minimum service pack required by SQL Server 2008. • Inventory the applications that will use the upgraded server. This list will be used to validate that your upgrade was successful. After upgrade, run through the list and verify that all the applications work correctly, if possible.
  3. CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION 11 • Take note of the cross-edition upgrade matrix. Some upgrade scenarios, like upgrading from SQL Server 2005 Enterprise Edition to SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition, are not supported with an in-place upgrade. SQL Server Books Online describes various upgrade scenarios in an article titled “Version and Edition Upgrades.” • Take performance benchmarks. In some situtations, upgrading may actually decrease query performance. This is usually observed when upgrading from SQL Server 2000, since the query processor internal to the database engine was rewritten in SQL Server 2005. This rewrite causes a different query plan to be created from the queries that you issue. The good news is that most of the time, your queries will run better out of the box in SQL Server 2008. In the rare case that you find your queries running worse, it’s possible to save query plans so there will be no surprises after you upgrade. This feature is described in more detail in Chapter 5. • Use the Upgrade Advisor tool. Upgrade Advisor is a free, stand-alone application that connects to a SQL Server instance and performs an analysis to determine if any issues need to be addressed before upgrading. It also will analyze script and trace files. Results of this tool should be carefully reviewed and addressed before proceeding with the upgrade. The Upgrade Advisor tool is discussed in the next section. • Fix or work around backward-compatability issues. The Upgrade Advisor tool will note any backward-compatibility issues. In most cases, when a feature or behavior is changed, Microsoft announces a deprecation of that feature or functionality. This deprecation will last for three releases; in the fourth release, the feature or functionality will be removed from the product. In some rare cases, Microsoft needs to modify or remove a feature without going through the formal deprecation procedure. Thus, if you used this feature and then upgraded, it’s possible that your application would not work as you expected. It is important to address these backward-compatibility issues before upgrading your SQL Server instance. • Create a back-out plan. If you have done your homework, the upgrade experience should go seamlessly. In the event of something going wrong during the upgrade, you may need to revert back to your original system configuration. This may involve more steps than just canceling the setup wizard. For this reason, it is good to have a formal back-out plan. • Understand upgrade or migration for each component within SQL Server. When performing an upgrade of a database, most people tend to think about just the relational data. If all you are using SQL Server for is to store relational data, then either using the setup wizard to per- form an in-place upgrade or migrating the data using a backup/restore or a detach/attach technique might be sufficient. However, if you use other technologies, you may need to be aware of other issues. The last item is particularly important, because different components may have different upgrade paths. For example, if you’re using Analysis Services, with an in-place upgrade, you can use the setup wizard just as you would with upgrading the database engine. To perform a migration, you can use the Migration Wizard tool available from the server node context menu off of an analy- sis server connection in SQL Server Management Studio. If you have Analysis Services projects written using Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS), you can simply import into BIDS in SQL Server 2008. With another component within the SQL Server product, Reporting Services, the migration process is slightly different. Again, if you choose to perform an in-place upgrade, the setup wizard will perform most of the heavy lifting. If you choose to migrate, there is a list of things to do. SQL Server Books Online describes the migration of Reporting Services very well in an article entitled “How to: Migrate a Reporting Services Installation.” As you can see, it is imperative to consider all the components that you are using within the SQL Server product.
  4. 12 CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION ■Note For a definitive list of migration steps, refer to the appropriate “How to: Migrate . . .” Books Online topics. Note that at the time of this writing, not all migration topics were defined for each component. Using Upgrade Advisor The Upgrade Advisor (UA) tool is available on the SQL Server 2008 installation disks, in the Servers\Redist\Upgrade Advisor folder. It will also be available as a free download from http://microsoft.com/downloads. Here, we’ll walk through an example of running UA against a SQL Server 2005 instance. 1. Launch UA. You will be presented with the welcome screen, as shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-1. Upgrade Advisor welcome screen
  5. CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION 13 2. Click the Launch Upgrade Advisor Analysis Wizard link. You will see the familiar welcome screen, and then the SQL Server Components page, as shown in Figure 2-2. Figure 2-2. Choosing SQL Server components 3. Type the name of a server and click Detect. The wizard will determine the components that are installed on that instance. In this example, we are checking a SQL Server 2005 instance. We enter the server name, DBSERVER. Since all we are interested in testing is the SQL Server database engine, we check SQL Server and click Next to continue. 4. Next, you see the Connection Parameters page, as shown in Figure 2-3. Specify the instance name (PROD in this example) and the credentials used to connect to this server instance (Windows Authentication in this example). Click Next to continue.
  6. 14 CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION Figure 2-3. Specifying connection parameters 5. The next wizard page is where you select which databases to analyze, provide a separate trace file, and pass a path to SQL batch files, as shown in Figure 2-4. UA can analyze all of these items. Click Next to continue. Figure 2-4. Choosing SQL Server parameters
  7. CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION 15 6. The next page shows a summary of the options you selected. Click Next, and UA goes to work, churning through all the stored procedures, metadata, and objects within the data- bases you selected. 7. When the analysis is complete, UA will display the results. In our simple example, when the SQL Server 2005 instance was scanned, the wizard presented the warning shown in Figure 2-5. Figure 2-5. Completed UA analysis 8. Click Launch Report. You will see a list of issues that UA found, as in the example in Figure 2-6. Each item has an Issue Resolved check box. Checking this box will remove the item from the list. This way, it’s really easy to keep track of which issues are already resolved and which ones remain to be addressed.
  8. 16 CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION Figure 2-6. Report generated by UA UA creates a directory under the My Documents folder to store its reporting information. UA allows you to analyze multiple servers. For each server analyzed, a subfolder is created. To view reports, click the Launch Upgrade Advisor Report Viewer link from the main UA screen (Figure 2-1). ■Note Each time you run UA against the same server, it overwrites the information saved from a prior run of UA. You’ll notice in this example that the number of issues upgrading SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server 2008 was fairly minimal. If you are upgrading from SQL Server 2000, expect the list to be a bit longer.
  9. CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION 17 Performing the Upgrade Now that you have decided on what type of upgrade you will perform and have gone through all the items in the pre-upgrade tasks list, it is time to perform the actual upgrade. Before you go ahead and run the setup wizard, or start migrating data from your original SQL Server instance, it is important to make sure your environment is ready for the upgrade. The first task is to check the database consistency for those databases being upgraded. This is as simple as issuing a DBCC CHECKDB command against each of the databases for the instance you are upgrading. After you’ve checked your databases for consistency, take a backup of all the databases in your SQL Server instance. When the backups are complete, verify the backups as well to ensure their own consistency. At this point, you are ready to start the upgrade or migration process. In this section, we will walk through a basic installation of SQL Server 2008. Although there is a nice HTML user interface that can be brought up when you insert the SQL Server media, we chose to run the setup program directly from the Servers folder on the SQL Server installation disk. The first thing the setup program does is to detect whether you have .NET Framework 3.5 installed. If you do not, it installs that version of the .NET Framework. Next, you are presented with the infamous license agreement to which you must agree in order to proceed. Then setup will copy some support files. Once this is complete, the real installation begins. You will see the SQL Server Installation Center screen, as shown in Figure 2-7. From here, you can create a new installation, upgrade an existing SQL Server instance, and create or change an existing clustering configuration. Figure 2-7. SQL Server Installation Center screen Clustering support in setup is of great value. If you are running SQL Server 2008 on Windows Server 2008, you are already gaining a huge number of features, including support for up to 16 nodes and an ease on restrictions like the requirement that nodes be on the same subnet. This means that Geoclusters are now a viable option for SQL Server deployments. A Geocluster is a clustering config- uration where the active and passive servers are physically separated by large geographical distances.
  10. 18 CHAPTER 2 ■ SQL SERVER INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION These types of clustering configurations required special considerations during deployment. Windows Server 2008 implemented features that makes Geoclustering easier. The increased support for clusters doesn’t end with what Windows Server 2008 provides to SQL Server 2008. The SQL Server Installation Center offers access to a few wizards to make it really easy for administrators to set up and maintain a clustered configuration. In this example, we are installing a new instance of SQL Server 2008 on a server that already has SQL Server 2005 installed. This is what is known as a side-by-side configuration. When we choose New Installation from the SQL Server Installation Center screen, the New Installation Wizard starts. This wizard will immedately perform a system configuration check, as shown in Figure 2-8. Figure 2-8. System Configuration Check step for a new installation If you fail the system configuration check, you won’t be able to continue installation unless you address the issue. SQL Server is fairly strict on the requirements for service packs. For example, if you are using Windows Server 2003, you must have at least Service Pack 2 installed. Once you have passed the checks, you are ready to select which components to install, as shown in Figure 2-9. The setup program allows for a variety of configurations. You can use it to install just the client tools, SQL Server Books Online, or every feature, as shown in Figure 2-9. Once you have made your selections, the wizard will dynamically add steps as needed. In our example, we are installing SQL Server 2008 side-by-side with SQL Server 2005. You can see the existing SQL Server instance that is already installed on this server, as shown in Figure 2-10. From this page, you can set the instance name, ID, and root directory for the new SQL Server 2008 instance.
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