ArcGIS 9

Chia sẻ: bxhuyen

Welcome to ESRI® ArcGIS® ArcMap™, the premier software for desktop geographic information system (GIS) and mapping technology. ArcMap gives you the power to: • Visualize. In no time you’ll be working with your data geographically: seeing patterns you couldn’t see before, revealing hidden trends and distributions, and gaining new insights. • Create. It’s easy to create maps to convey your message. ArcMap provides all the tools you need to put your data on a map and display it in an effective manner. • Solve. Working geographically lets you answer questions such as “Where is...?”, “How much...?”, and “What if...?”. Understanding these relationships will help you make better decisions. • Present. Showing the...

Bạn đang xem 20 trang mẫu tài liệu này, vui lòng download file gốc để xem toàn bộ.

Nội dung Text: ArcGIS 9

ArcGIS 9
®




Using ArcMap ™
Copyright © 2000–2004 ESRI
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.

The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of ESRI. This work is protected under United States copyright law and other international copyright treaties and
conventions. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage
or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted in writing by ESRI. All requests should be sent to Attention: Contracts Manager, ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100,
USA.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

DATA CREDITS
Quick-Start Tutorial Data: Wilson, North Carolina.
Population Density—Conterminous United States Map: U.S. Department of Census.
The African Landscape Map: Major Habitat Types—Conservation Science Program, WWF-US; Rainfall—ArcAtlas™, ESRI, Redlands, California; Population data from EROS Data Center
USGS/UNEP.
Amazonia Map: Conservation International.
Forest Buffer Zone—100 Meters Map: U.S. Forest Service (Tongass Region).
Horn of Africa Map: Basemap data from ArcWorld ™ (1:3M), ESRI, Redlands, California; DEM and Hillshade from EROS Data Center USGS/UNEP.
Mexico: ESRI Data & Maps CDs, ESRI, Redlands, California.
Mexico: 1990 Population: ESRI Data & Maps CDs, ESRI, Redlands, California.
Population Density in Florida (2001): ESRI Data & Maps CDs, ESRI, Redlands, California.
Rhode Island, the Smallest State in the United States: Elevation data from the USGS, EROS Data Center; other data from ESRI Data & Maps CDs, ESRI, Redlands, California.
Countries of the European Union: Member States and Candidate Country information from EUROPA (The European Union On-Line); ESRI Data & Maps CDs, ESRI, Redlands,
California.
Mexico Population Density Map: ESRI Data & Maps CDs, ESRI, Redlands, California.
Health Care in the United States Map: Population data from U.S. Department of Census; Health Service Areas from the trustees of Dartmouth College; Service Providers data from
Healthcare Financing Administration.
Clark County Land Use Map: Clark County Office, Washington State.
Southeast Asia Population Distribution Map: ArcWorld (1:3M), ESRI, Redlands, California.
Global 200—World’s Biologically Outstanding Ecoregions Map: Ecoregions data from Conservation Science Program, WWF-US; Country boundaries from ArcWorld (1:3M), ESRI,
Redlands, California.
Australia Map: Major Habitat Types data from Conservation Science Program, WWF-US; Basemap from ArcWorld (1:3M), ESRI, Redlands, California.
New Hampshire Telecom Map: Geographic Data Technology, Inc.
Redlands Image: Courtesy of Emerge, a division of TASC.

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
Melanie Harlow, Rhonda Pfaff, Michael Minami, Alan Hatakeyama, Andy Mitchell, Bob Booth, Bruce Payne, Cory Eicher, Eleanor Blades, Ian Sims,
Jonathan Bailey, Pat Brennan, Sandy Stephens, Simon Woo

U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED/LIMITED RIGHTS
Any software, documentation, and/or data delivered hereunder is subject to the terms of the License Agreement. In no event shall the U.S. Government acquire greater than RESTRICTED/
LIMITED RIGHTS. At a minimum, use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR §52.227-14 Alternates I, II, and III (JUN 1987); FAR
§52.227-19 (JUN 1987) and/or FAR §12.211/12.212 (Commercial Technical Data/Computer Software); and DFARS §252.227-7015 (NOV 1995) (Technical Data) and/or DFARS §227.7202
(Computer Software), as applicable. Contractor/Manufacturer is ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA.

ESRI, the ESRI globe logo, ArcInfo, ArcEditor, ArcView, ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcGIS, ArcReader, ArcAtlas, ArcWorld, ArcSDE, SDE, Spatial Database Engine, ArcObjects, PC ARC/INFO,
ArcIMS, ArcPress, ArcToolbox, GIS by ESRI, the ArcGIS logo, Geography Network, the Geography Network logo, www.geographynetwork.com, and www.esri.com are trademarks, registered
trademarks, or service marks of ESRI in the United States, the European Community, or certain other jurisdictions.

The Microsoft Internet Explorer logo is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners.
Getting started
Contents
1 Welcome to ArcMap 3
Visualizing information 4
Working geographically 5
Showing relationships 6
Solving problems 7
Creating and updating data 8
Presenting results 9
Developing mapping applications 10
Tips on learning ArcMap 11

2 Quick-start tutorial 13
Exercise 1: Exploring your data 14
Exercise 2: Working with geographic features 28
Exercise 3: Working with tables 42
Exercise 4: Editing features 51
Exercise 5: Working with map elements 59

3 ArcMap basics 65
Basics of mapmaking 66
Mapping and GIS 72
Layers, data frames, and the table of contents 73
Starting ArcMap 75
Opening a map 77
Using the table of contents 78
Data view and layout view 80
Moving around the map 81
Setting bookmarks 83
Opening magnifier and overview windows 86
Exploring data on a map 87
Using the map cache to improve geodatabase performance in ArcMap 90

iii


TOC.pmd 3 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
12
Working with the map cache 91
Getting help 95
Saving a map and exiting ArcMap 98
Keyboard shortcuts in ArcMap 100



Displaying data
4 Displaying data in maps 105
Creating a new map 106
Adding layers 108
Adding coverages, shapefiles, and geodatabases 110
Adding data from the Internet 112
Adding data from a GIS server 113
Adding TINs as surfaces 115
Adding CAD drawings 116
Adding x,y coordinate data 118
Adding route events 119
Creating and adding a new feature class 121
About coordinate systems 123
Specifying a coordinate system 126
How to reference data on a map 130
Referencing data on a map 131
Repairing and updating data links 132




iv USING ARCMAP


TOC.pmd 4 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
5 Working with layers 135
Description of a layer file 136
Layer property functionality 137
Adding layers 138
Changing a layer’s text 139
About the drawing order 140
Copying layers 141
Removing layers from the map 142
Grouping layers 143
Saving a layer to disk 146
Accessing layer properties 147
Displaying a layer at specific scales 148
Creating a transparent layer 150
Changing a layer’s source data 151
Changing the appearance of the table of contents 153
Using data frames to organize layers 154

6 Symbolizing features 157
A map gallery 158
Drawing all features with one symbol 163
Drawing features to show categories such as names or types 165
Managing categories 168
Ways to map quantitative data 171
Standard classification schemes 172
Setting a classification 175
Representing quantity with color 178
Representing quantity with graduated or proportional symbols 180
Representing quantity with dot densities 183
Representing quantity with charts 185
Drawing features to show multiple attributes 188
Drawing TINs as surfaces 189
Drawing CAD layers 191
Working with advanced symbolization 193

CONTENTS v


TOC.pmd 5 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
7 Working with graphics and text 203
Working with graphics 204
Drawing points, lines, and circles 205
Selecting graphics 209
Moving, rotating, and ordering graphics 210
Aligning, distributing, and grouping graphics 213
Joining graphics 215
Storing graphics as annotation 216
Working with text in ArcGIS 218
Adding text 220
Working with labels 224
Displaying labels 229
Specifying the text of labels 233
Building label expressions 235
Prioritizing and positioning labels 238
Converting labels to annotation 241
Working with annotation 246
Displaying annotation 249
Using text formatting tags 251

8 Working with styles and symbols 253
The Style Manager 254
Controlling which styles are referenced in ArcMap 255
Organizing style contents 256
Saving the current styles 258
Creating and modifying symbols and map elements 259
Creating line symbols 261
Creating fill symbols 264
Creating marker symbols 268
Creating text symbols 271
Modifying and saving symbols and elements as you work 275
Working with color 277
Working with color ramps 280

vi USING ARCMAP


TOC.pmd 6 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
9 Working with rasters 283
Adding a raster dataset to your map 284
Using raster catalogs 286
Rendering raster datasets and raster catalogs 287
The RGB Composite renderer 289
The Unique Values renderer 290
The Stretched renderer 291
The Classified renderer 292
The Colormap renderer 293
Raster resolution 294
Ways to enhance raster display and efficiency 295
Faster drawing with pyramids 297
Using the Effects toolbar 298
Applying contrast stretches 300
Changing the appearance of background values 301
Using the geodatabase raster catalog selection environment 302
Projecting rasters on the fly 304
About georeferencing 305
The Georeferencing toolbar 307
Georeferencing a raster dataset 308




CONTENTS vii


TOC.pmd 7 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
Querying data
10 Working with tables 313
Elements of a table 314
Opening a layer’s attribute table 315
Loading existing tabular data onto a map 316
Arranging columns 317
Controlling a table’s appearance 320
Locating and viewing records 323
Sorting records 325
Selecting records 327
Exporting records 330
Summarizing data 331
Adding and deleting fields 332
Editing attributes 333
Making field calculations 335
About joining attribute tables 337
Joining attribute tables 340

11 Looking at data with graphs 345
Choosing which type of graph to make 346
Creating a graph 347
Displaying a graph 350
Modifying a graph 351
Creating a static copy of a graph 357
Managing graphs 358
Saving and loading a graph 359
Exporting a graph 360




viii USING ARCMAP


TOC.pmd 8 3/5/2004, 4:21 PM
12 Creating reports 361
About reports 362
Creating a simple report 366
Setting the report type and size 368
Working with fields 370
Organizing report data 374
Adding report elements 376
Controlling the presentation 381
Saving and loading a report 384
Using Crystal Reports 386

13 Querying maps 389
Identifying features 390
Displaying a Web page or document about a feature 391
Selecting features interactively 393
Selecting features by searching with a SQL expression 397
Building a SQL expression 398
Ways to find features by their locations 402
Selecting features by their locations 404
Specifying how selected features highlight 405
Displaying information about selected features 406
Exporting selected features 408
Joining the attributes of features by their locations 410
Taking geoprocessing further 413




CONTENTS ix


TOC.pmd 9 3/5/2004, 4:15 PM
14 Analyzing geometric networks 415
Geometric networks 416
Opening a geometric network 417
Symbolizing network features 419
Adding network features 421
Enabling and disabling features 423
Adding the Utility Network Analyst toolbar 424
Exploring the Utility Network Analyst toolbar 425
Flow direction 428
Displaying flow direction 430
Setting flow direction 432
Tracing on networks 434
Tracing operations 437



Map output
15 Laying out and printing maps 453
About map templates 456
Starting a map from a template 457
Saving a map as a template 458
Setting up the page 460
Customizing data frames 463
Using rulers, guides, and grids 466
Adding data frames 473
Adding map elements related to data frames 477
Creating grids and graticules 489
Adding other map elements 495
Aligning and grouping map elements 500
Printing a map 502
Changing the layout 507
Exporting a map 508


x USING ARCMAP


TOC.pmd 10 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
Customization
16 Customizing ArcMap 513
Basic user interface elements 514
Hiding and showing toolbars 517
Creating custom toolbars 518
Changing a toolbar’s contents 520
Modifying context menus 522
Changing a command’s appearance 525
Creating shortcut keys 527
Saving customizations in a template 530
Changing where customization changes are saved by default 532
Setting toolbar options 533
Creating, editing, and running macros 534
Creating custom commands with VBA 537
Working with UIControls 539
Adding custom commands 540
Updating the ArcID module 541
Locking documents and templates 542
Changing VBA security 544

Glossary 545

Index 567




CONTENTS xi


TOC.pmd 11 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
TOC.pmd 12 3/5/2004, 2:10 PM
Getting started




Section 1
1
Welcome to ArcMap
Welcome to ESRI® ArcGIS® ArcMap™, the premier software for desktop
IN THIS CHAPTER
geographic information system (GIS) and mapping technology. ArcMap gives
• Visualizing information you the power to:
• Visualize. In no time you’ll be working with your data geographically:
• Working geographically
seeing patterns you couldn’t see before, revealing hidden trends and
• Showing relationships distributions, and gaining new insights.
• Create. It’s easy to create maps to convey your message. ArcMap
• Solving problems
provides all the tools you need to put your data on a map and display it
• Creating and updating data in an effective manner.
• Solve. Working geographically lets you answer questions such as “Where
• Presenting results
is...?”, “How much...?”, and “What if...?”. Understanding these
• Developing mapping applications relationships will help you make better decisions.
• Present. Showing the results of your work is easy. You can make great-
• Tips on learning ArcMap
looking publication-quality maps and create interactive displays that link
charts, tables, drawings, photographs, and other elements to your data.
You’ll find that communicating geographically is a powerful way to
inform and motivate others.
• Develop. The ArcMap customization environment lets you tailor the
interface to suit your needs or the needs of your organization, build new
tools to automate your work, and develop standalone applications based
on ArcMap mapping components.
The next few pages show you some of the things you can do with ArcMap.
As you start making your own maps, you’ll discover even more.

3
Visualizing information
Sometimes just looking at a map will tell you what you want to know. Maps not only tell you where things are, but also what’s special
about them. This population map shows you where people live in the United States. From it, you can easily see where the major
metropolitan areas are located.




Do you live in a populated area? Areas drawn with dark blue have a lower population density than areas drawn with
yellow and brown.




4 USING ARCMAP
Working geographically
Maps are not static displays; they’re interactive. You can browse a map—taking a closer look at a particular area—and point at features
to find out more about them.




Get a regional perspective by zooming in. Want to know more about a
particular area? Just point at it.




WELCOME TO ARCMAP 5
Showing relationships
You can show relationships between features by opening tables and creating charts, then adding these elements to the map.




Charts and tables complement the map because they quickly summarize information that would otherwise take more
time to understand.




6 USING ARCMAP
Solving problems
You can search a map for features that meet particular criteria—for instance, find features by name, proximity, or characteristic.




Finding forest habitats within 100 meters of roads aids in assessing environmental impact.




WELCOME TO ARCMAP 7
Creating and updating data
You can keep your data current with the latest information from the field. ArcMap has integrated editing tools to help you update data
or create new data.




As a city grows, so too does its parcel database. ArcMap lets you edit both the geometry and attributes of features.




8 USING ARCMAP
Presenting results
You can create high-quality maps and present them to others. Embed maps in reports, publish them on the Web, export them to
standard formats, or print them out to hang on the wall.




WELCOME TO ARCMAP 9
Developing mapping applications
You can develop custom mapping applications. Customize the out-of-the-box capabilities of ArcMap using the built-in Visual Basic® for
Applications (VBA) programming environment or your favorite programming language. With ArcMap, you can customize the interface
to suit your needs, write macros to automate work, or use ArcMap components to embed mapping capabilities into other software you
create.




Automate your work with macros.




10 USING ARCMAP
Tips on learning ArcMap how to complete the task. Some chapters also include detailed
information that you can read if you want to learn more about the
concepts behind the tasks. You may also refer to the glossary in
If you’re new to GIS and mapping, remember that you don’t have
this book if you come across any unfamiliar GIS terms or need to
to learn everything about ArcMap to get immediate results. Begin
refresh your memory.
learning ArcMap by reading the ‘Quick-start tutorial’. This
chapter shows you how quickly and easily you can make a map
Getting help on your computer
and gain insights into the steps you’ll use to create your own.
ArcMap comes with the data used in the tutorial, so you can
In addition to this book, the ArcGIS Desktop Help system is a
follow along step by step at your computer. You can also read the
valuable resource for learning how to use the software. To learn
tutorial without using your computer.
how to use Help, see ‘Getting help’ in Chapter 3.
If you prefer to jump right in and experiment on your own, take a
Learning about ArcMap extensions
look at some of the maps distributed with ArcMap. Try browsing
a map, changing symbols, and adding your own data.
ArcMap extensions are add-on programs that provide specialized
When you’re ready to build your own maps, you’ll find that GIS functionality. Extensions that come with ArcMap are covered
ArcMap comes with useful data you can use directly or as in this book.
basemaps for your own data. If you don’t find what you need,
more data is available from ESRI, other organizations, and the Contacting ESRI
Internet. ArcMap also comes with a lot of predefined symbols,
If you need to contact ESRI for technical support, refer to
North arrows, and scalebars to make building maps easier.
‘Contacting Technical Support’ in the ‘Getting more help’ section
of the ArcGIS Desktop Help system. You can also visit ESRI on
Finding answers to questions
the Web at www.esri.com and support.esri.com for more
Like most people, your goal is to complete your tasks while information on ArcMap and ArcGIS.
investing a minimum amount of time and effort on learning how
to use software. You want intuitive, easy-to-use software that ESRI education solutions
gives you immediate results without having to read pages of
ESRI provides educational opportunities related to geographic
documentation. However, when you do have a question, you want
information science, GIS applications, and technology. You can
the answer quickly so you can complete your task. That’s what
choose among instructor-led courses, Web-based courses, and
this book is all about—getting you the answers you need when
self-study workbooks to find educational solutions that fit your
you need them.
learning style. For more information, go to www.esri.com/
This book describes the mapping tasks—from basic to education.
advanced—that you’ll perform with ArcMap. Although you can
read this book from start to finish, you’ll likely use it more as a
reference. When you want to know how to do a particular task,
such as saving a map, just look it up in the table of contents or
index. What you’ll find is a concise, step-by-step description of


WELCOME TO ARCMAP 11
2
Quick-start tutorial
I N THIS CHAPTER The best way to learn ArcMap is to try it yourself. This tutorial guides you
through some basic ArcMap skills as you create and print a set of maps for a
• Exercise 1: Exploring your data county that is planning to expand its airport.
Residents of the county have identified several issues they are concerned
• Exercise 2: Working with geo-
about. These include noise affecting schools and houses near the airport and
graphic features
increased traffic along major roads. In this tutorial, you’ll first create and print
• Exercise 3: Working with tables a map showing schools near the airport. Then you’ll place this map—along
with two other maps that show land use surrounding the airport and population
• Exercise 4: Editing features
density for the county—on a wall-sized poster for display.
• Exercise 5: Working with map In the tutorial, you’ll learn how to:
elements
• Display map features.
• Add data to your map.
• Edit geographic data.
• Work with data tables.
• Query and select geographic features.
• Create a summary chart.
• Lay out and print a map.
There are five exercises. Each exercise takes between 30 and 45 minutes to
complete. You can work through the entire tutorial or complete each lesson
one at a time.



13
3
Exercise 1: Exploring your data
4
2
In this exercise, you’ll create a map showing locations of
schools near the airport, along with a noise contour, to see
which schools may be affected by noise from the airport.
The noise contour is based on the 65 Community Noise
Equivalency Level (CNEL), which indicates areas
experiencing more than 65 decibels of noise, averaged over
a 24-hour period. In many cases, buildings within the
65 CNEL will need soundproofing or other mitigation
measures.
The exercises in this chapter use the tutorial data distributed
1
with ArcMap. The default install location of the data is
C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map. The exercises require that you
have write access to this data. If you don’t, you’ll need to Opening an existing map document
copy the data to a location that you do have write access
The first time you start ArcMap, the Startup dialog box
to.
appears. The Startup dialog box offers you several options
for starting your ArcMap session. For this exercise, you
Starting ArcMap
want to open an existing map document.
ArcMap lets you explore your geographic data and create
1. Double-click Browse for maps. If this is not the first
maps for display.
time ArcMap has been started and the Startup dialog
1. Click the Start button on the Windows taskbar. box does not appear, click File on the Main menu and
click Open.
2. Point to Programs.
3. Point to ArcGIS.
4. Click ArcMap.



1




14 USING ARCMAP
2. In the dialog box, click the Look in dropdown arrow, and Table of contents Map display area
navigate to the Map folder on the local drive where you
installed the tutorial data (the default installation path is
C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map).
3. Double-click airport.mxd. ArcMap opens the map.

2


3


This particular map contains the following layers in a data
frame called Schools:
schools locations of elementary, middle, high, and
private schools
runways location of airport runways
ArcMap stores a map as a map document (.mxd) so you arterials major roads
can redisplay it, modify it, or share it with other ArcMap
cnel65 the noise contour
users. The map document doesn’t store the actual data, but
rather references the data stored on disk along with airport_area the proposed airport expansion zone
information about how it should be displayed. The map
county the county boundary
document also stores other information about the map, such
The map currently displays the arterials, noise contour,
as its size and the map elements it includes (title, scalebar,
airport area, and county boundary. Their boxes are checked
and so on).
in the table of contents.
To the left of the ArcMap display window is the table of
contents, showing you which geographic layers are
available to display. To the right is the map display area.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 15
Moving around the map 2. If necessary, use the Pan tool (the hand) on the Tools
toolbar to reposition the map so the noise contour is in
The Tools toolbar lets you move around the map and query
the center of the display area (hold the mouse button
the features on the map. Place your pointer over each icon
down while dragging in the direction you want to move
(without clicking) to see a description of each tool.
the features, then release the button).




Displaying a layer
The table of contents lets you turn layers on and off in the
1. Using the Zoom In tool, draw a box around the noise display. To display a layer, check the box next to its name.
contour to zoom in. Place the pointer on the upper-left To turn it off, uncheck it. Display the schools and runways
part of the contour, press the mouse button, and hold it by checking their boxes in the table of contents. For more
down while dragging to the lower right. You’ll see the information, see Chapter 5, ‘Working with layers’.
box drawn on the screen. When you release the mouse
button, ArcMap zooms in to the area
defined by the box.




16 USING ARCMAP
Changing the display symbol 3. Click OK. The schools are drawn with the new symbol.
ArcMap lets you change the colors and symbols you use to
display features. You’ll change the symbols for schools
from a dot to a standard symbol used for schools on many
maps.
1. Click the dot symbol in the table of contents to display
the Symbol Selector window.




1


2. Scroll down until you find the School 1 symbol. Click it. You can also open the symbol dialog box by right-clicking
the layer name, choosing Properties from the menu that
appears, and clicking the Symbology tab. To simply change
the color of a symbol, right-click the symbol in the table of
contents to display the color palette. For more information
on changing display symbols, see Chapter 6, ‘Symbolizing
features’.




2




3

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 17
Identifying a feature 2. Click the Identify tool on the Tools toolbar. The Identify
Results window appears.
There is one school that may be within the noise contour
around the airport.
1. Using the Zoom In tool, draw a box around the school to
zoom in.




2


1
3. Move the mouse pointer over the school and click. The
name of the school (Northwestern Prep) is listed in the
Identify Results window. Notice that only the features in
the topmost layer are identified. You can also identify
You can see that the school is indeed within the noise features in other layers by choosing the specific layers
contour. you want to identify by clicking the Layers dropdown
arrow in the dialog box.




3




Close the Identify Results window.


18 USING ARCMAP
4. Click the Back button on the Tools toolbar to return to
your previous view.




3

4
A blue dotted line surrounds the text, indicating it is
currently selected. You can drag the text to a new
position by clicking and holding down the mouse button
while dragging the text, then releasing the button.

Adding graphics
You can add text and other graphics to your display using
the Draw toolbar at the bottom of the ArcMap window.
1. Click the New Text button. The pointer changes to a
crosshair with an A.




1
4. When you’re finished positioning the text near the
school, click outside the text box to deselect it.
2. Move the mouse pointer near the school you identified
For more information on working with text, see Chapter 7,
and click.
‘Working with graphics and text’.
3. In the text box that appears, type “Northwestern Prep”
and press Enter.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 19
Laying out a map 3. Right-click anywhere on the layout background and click
Page and Print Setup. You can also access Page and
ArcMap lets you work in data view or layout view. Data
Print Setup from the File menu.
view focuses on a single data frame. Use data view when
exploring or editing your data. Layout view shows you how
the map page looks. Use layout view when composing and
printing a map for display. You can also explore and edit
your data in layout view if you want. All the tools and
options available in data view are also available in layout
view.
You can change the size and orientation of the page in
layout view. In this case, you’ll create a 16- by 12-inch map
with a landscape orientation.
1. Click the Fixed Zoom Out button on the Tools toolbar
several times to zoom to a smaller map scale.
2. Click the View menu and click Layout View. The Layout
toolbar appears, and the display changes to show the 4. Make sure the Use Printer Paper Settings box is not
page layout with rulers along the side. checked—otherwise, the page size will default to be the
same as your printer. If your printer does not print larger
sizes, you can scale down the map when you print it, as
Layout toolbar
you’ll see later in this exercise.
5. Check Scale Map Elements proportionally to changes in
Page Size. That way, the data will be rescaled to fit the
page.
6. Set the Map Page Size Page Orientation to Landscape.
7. Set the page width to 16 and the height to 12 inches by
clicking in each box and typing over the existing values.




20 USING ARCMAP
Zooming in on the page
The Layout toolbar controls your view of the scale and
position of the whole map (as opposed to the data layers on
the map). By default, the map size is set so you can see all
of it. But at this scale it’s hard to see the school name.
1. Click Zoom to 100% on the Layout toolbar. The page is
4 displayed at the actual printed size so you can see the
detail.
7
6


1
5 8
2. Click the Pan button on the Layout toolbar and drag the
8. Click OK. The page display and rulers change to reflect
map to the lower left so you can see the name of the
the new size and orientation. You may need to resize
school.
your data frame manually to make it look like the map
below. To do this, click the Select Elements tool on the
Tools toolbar, click the data frame, and resize the data
frame using the blue selection handles.

2




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 21
Inserting map elements
ArcMap makes it easy to add titles, legends, North arrows,
and scalebars to your map.
1. Click Insert on the Main menu and click Title. In the box
that appears, type the title for your map, “Schools and
Noise Contour”, and press Enter.




3. Click the Zoom Whole Page button on the Layout
toolbar to see the entire page again.




3




22 USING ARCMAP
2. On the Draw toolbar at the bottom of the window, click 4. Click Insert and click Legend.
the Text Size dropdown arrow and click 36 to change
the title to 36 point.




3. Click the title and drag it so it’s centered at the top of the
map.


3 The Legend Wizard appears.
5. Click Next several times to step through the wizard
accepting the default legend parameters. Click Finish
when done.




The Draw toolbar lets you add and change the format
(font, size, color, and so on) of text and graphic
elements—such as boxes, callout lines, or circles—on
your map.



QUICK-START TUTORIAL 23
By default, ArcMap scales the legend to the page and 8. Click ESRI North 1 and click OK. Click and drag the
includes all the layers that are currently displayed. You North arrow so it is to the right of the legend.
can modify the legend by right-clicking it and choosing
Properties from the menu that appears. For now, just use
the default legend.
6. Click and drag the legend to the lower-left corner of the
map.




7. Click Insert and click North Arrow. The North Arrow
Selector window appears.




24 USING ARCMAP
9. Now insert a scalebar from the Insert menu. Click Scale 10. Click and drag the scalebar under the legend and North
Line 1 in the Scale Bar Selector window and click OK. arrow.
11. Click the legend to select it; while holding down the
Shift key, click the scalebar to select it as well.




12. Click Drawing on the Draw toolbar, point to Align, and
click Align Left from the menu that appears. The
scalebar is now aligned with the left side of the legend.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 25
3. Click Setup.


3




Printing a map
2
At this point, your first map is finished. If you have a printer
connected to your computer, you can print the map.
1. Click File and click Print.
4. Click Landscape on the Printer Setup panel.
5. Click OK to close the Page and Print Setup dialog box.




4




2. If the map (which is 16 by 12 inches) is larger than your
printer paper, click Scale Map to fit Printer Paper.

5

26 USING ARCMAP
6. Click OK on the Print dialog box to print your map.

3


4. Click OK on the Map Properties dialog box.
Now save a copy of your map. You’ll use this copy in the
subsequent exercises.
1. Click File and click Save As.




Saving a map
Save your map in the folder with the tutorial data. First,
though, ensure that ArcMap uses the full pathname of the
2. In the File name box, type “airport_ex”.
location of the data on your system. The airport map was
created using relative pathnames, so ArcMap would find 3. Click Save.
and display the data after the ArcTutor\Map folder is copied
to your system.
1. Click File and click Map Properties.
2. Click Data Source Options on the Properties dialog box.



2
3
2

You can continue with the tutorial or stop and complete it at
3. Click Store full path names and click OK.
a later time.


QUICK-START TUTORIAL 27
Exercise 2: Working with geographic features
In this exercise, you’ll map the amount of each land use
type within the noise contour. You’ll add data to your map,
draw features based on an attribute, select specific
features, and summarize them in a chart.
If necessary, start ArcMap, navigate to the folder where
you saved the map from Exercise 1 (airport_ex), and open
the map.

Changing the page layout
First, you’ll create the map layout by changing the page size
3. Click the Standard Sizes dropdown arrow and click
and orientation.
ANSI E. That sets the width and height to a standard
1. Make sure you’re in layout view (click the View menu E-size page.
and click Layout View).
4. Click Portrait on the Map Page Size panel.
5. Uncheck Scale Map Elements proportionally to changes
in Page Size (this way, the existing map of schools will
remain the same size, rather than being scaled up to fit
the page).




3
2. Click File and click Page and Print Setup.

4
5

28 USING ARCMAP
6. Click OK. The page size changes, and the existing map 8. Click and drag a box around the elements to select them.
is displayed in the lower-left corner.




7. Click the Select Elements tool on the Tools toolbar. 9. Click and drag the group of elements to the upper
portion of the page.




7




For more information on page layout, see Chapter 15,
‘Laying out and printing maps’.


QUICK-START TUTORIAL 29
Creating a new data frame
A data frame is a way of grouping a set of layers you want
to display together. Now you’ll add a new data frame to
show land use.
1
1. Click Insert and click Data Frame.




2. Click the Add Data button on the Standard toolbar.
Add Data
The frame appears on the layout and is listed in the table
of contents.


3. Navigate to the Map folder on the local drive where you
installed the tutorial data (the default installation path is
C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map).
4. Double-click the airport geodatabase, airport.mdb.
5. Click the parcels layer and click Add.




Adding a data layer
You’ll map land use based on a code for each land parcel.
First, add the parcels layer to the data frame.
1. Click the New Data Frame data frame on the page so
only it is selected.




30 USING ARCMAP
The data layer is added to the table of contents and
displays in the layout (the parcels may be a different
color on your map).




2. Click the General tab, highlight the existing text in the
Name text box, and type “Land Use”.
3. Click the Display dropdown arrow and set the display
units to Feet. You can’t change the map units because
they are based on the data frame’s coordinate system.
4. Click Apply.
5. Click the Size and Position tab.


All the data used in this tutorial is stored in a geodatabase.
ArcMap also lets you work with ArcInfo™ coverages,
2
shapefiles, image files, and many other data formats. For
more about geodatabases and other data formats, see
Using ArcCatalog.

Setting properties of the data frame
3
1. Right-click New Data Frame in the table of contents and
click Properties. You may need to hold your pointer over
the arrow at the bottom of the menu to see Properties in
the list.




4

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 31
6. Set the X position to 15 and the Y position to 15 by 9. Click Drawing on the Draw toolbar, point to Distribute,
typing in the text boxes. This sets how far the lower-left and click Make Same Size.
corner of the data frame is, in inches, from the lower-
left corner of the page. (You can specify X,Y position
for another location on the data frame by clicking the
appropriate box on the diagram.)
You can specify the position of any object on the page—
the data frame itself, text, legends, and so on—either by



5
6




selecting and dragging them or by setting the X and Y
position explicitly.
7. Click OK. The data frame is repositioned.
The data frame is highlighted with a blue square, and its
name is bold in the table of contents, indicating it is the
frame you’re currently working with.
8. Hold down the Shift key and click the top data frame on
the page so both frames are selected.

32 USING ARCMAP
2. In the table of contents, right-click the airport_area layer
under the Schools data frame and click Copy.




Both data frames are now the same size. Click the Land
Use data frame on the page so it is the only data frame 3. Right-click the Land Use data frame and click Paste
selected. Layer(s).
Copying a layer
You’ll want to display the noise contour and airport area
with the parcels. You can copy them from the Schools data
frame. First, though, switch back to data view.
1. Click the View menu and click Data View. Now you’re
looking at only the area covered by the parcels, rather
than the entire map.

4. Copy the cnel65 layer the same way.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 33
3 4
Displaying features by category
By default, all the parcels are drawn using the same symbol
when you add them. You can also draw them based on an
attribute (in this case, type of land use).
1. Right-click parcels in the table of contents and click
Properties.




5
6. Click OK. The parcels are now drawn based on their land
2. Click the Symbology tab. All parcels are currently drawn use type.
using the same symbol (the same solid fill color).
3. Click Categories in the Show box. Unique values is
automatically highlighted.
4. Click the Value Field dropdown arrow and click
LAND_USE as the field to use to shade the parcels.
5. Click Add All Values. A unique color is assigned to each
land use type.




34 USING ARCMAP
4
3
Using a style
ArcMap uses a random set of symbols to draw the land use
types (although you can change the color scheme). You can
change an individual color by double-clicking it and
specifying a new color in the Symbol Selector, or you can
specify a style to use predefined colors and symbols (a style
is a set of elements, symbols, and properties of symbols
6
stored in ArcMap, often specific to an application or
industry). ArcMap provides some standard styles, and you
can also create your own. You’ll use a land use style
created for this tutorial.
1. Right-click parcels in the table of contents and click
Properties.
5 7
2. Click the Symbology tab.
3. Under Categories in the Show window, click Match to
symbols in a style. 7. Click OK. The parcels will now be drawn using colors
defined in the style.
4. Click the Browse button and navigate to the Map folder
on the local drive where you installed the tutorial data
(the default installation path is
C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map). Click the land_use style and
click Open.
5. Click Match Symbols.
6. Click the check box to deselect and turn off the symbol
displayed for .




For more information on symbolizing and displaying
features, see Chapter 6, ‘Symbolizing features’ and
Chapter 8, ‘Working with styles and symbols’.

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 35
Selecting features geographically
To find out how much of each land use is within the noise
2
contour, select only those parcels within the contour.
1. Click Selection and click Select By Location.
3
4
5




The Select By Location dialog box guides you through
creating a geographic query.
2. In the first box, click the dropdown arrow and click
6
select features from.
7. Close the Select By Location dialog box. Notice that any
3. In the second box, check parcels as the layer to select
parcel even partially inside the contour is included.
features from.
4. Click the dropdown arrow for the third box and click
intersect. This will select those features in parcels that
intersect the features of cnel65.
5. In the last box, click the dropdown arrow and click
cnel65 as the layer to select by.
6. Click Apply. The selected parcels are outlined in a thick
line.




For more on selection, see Chapter 13, ‘Querying maps’.

36 USING ARCMAP
Exporting a layer

2
To find out how many parcels and how much land area of
each land use type are within the noise contour, you’ll
create a new feature class and run statistics on its data
table.
3
1. Right-click parcels in the table of contents, point to Data,
then click Export Data.



4
4. Click OK. ArcMap exports the parcels to a new feature
class in the airport geodatabase.
5. Click Yes when prompted to add the exported data as a
new layer on the map. The new layer contains only the
selected parcels.
6. Right-click the original parcels layer, point to Selection,
then click Clear Selected Features.




2. In the Export Data dialog box, click the Export dropdown
arrow and click Selected features (to export only the
selected parcels).
3. Save the selected features in the airport geodatabase as
a feature class called parcels_sel. Type the path as
shown below, substituting the install location of the
tutorial data on your system. (The default installation
path for the geodatabase is
C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map\airport.mdb.)



QUICK-START TUTORIAL 37
Creating summary statistics
7. The new layer is displayed on top of the other layers. To
see the noise contour and airport area, click parcels_sel
ArcMap includes tools for statistical analysis. You’ll create
in the table of contents and drag it down until the bar is
a table to summarize the number of parcels of each land
above parcels. Then release the mouse button.
use type within the noise contour and the total area of each
type.
1. In the table of contents, right-click the parcels_sel layer
and click Open Attribute Table.




2. Right-click the LAND_USE field header and click
Summarize.




38 USING ARCMAP
Opening a table
3. Make sure the field to summarize is LAND_USE.
4. Click the plus sign next to Shape_Area to expand it. You may have noticed that when the table is added to the
Check Sum to summarize the area by land use type. map, the table of contents switches from the Display tab to
the Source tab (at the bottom of the table of contents). The
5. Create the output table in the airport geodatabase and
Source tab shows the location of all data in the table of
name it lu_frequency.
contents; this is useful when editing data in ArcMap
6. Click OK. ArcMap creates a new table with a record
because it shows you which layers are in the same
for each land use type showing the number of parcels of
workspace. (When you edit in ArcMap, you edit an entire
that type and the total land area (in square feet).
workspace; that is, all the layers in the workspace are
7. Click Yes when prompted to add the resulting table to available for editing.) The Source tab also lists all tables.
the map. Close the parcels_sel attribute table. Tables don’t show up when the Display tab is selected
since a table is not a geographic feature that gets displayed
on the map.
1. Right-click lu_frequency in the table of contents and
click Open. You can see the number of parcels and the
3 total area (in square feet) of each land use type.




4


5


6




2. Close the table window.

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 39
Making a graph 6. Click Graph data series using Records and click Next.
3
Next you’ll create a column graph showing the number of
parcels of each land use type.
1. Click the Tools menu, point to Graphs, and click Create.
4
The Graph Wizard appears.


5
6


2. On the Graph Wizard dialog box, click the Column graph
and click Next. 7. Type “Land Use in Noise Contour” as the title.
8. Check Label X Axis With and click LAND_USE as the
labeling field.
9. Uncheck Show Legend.
2 10. Check Show Graph on Layout and click Finish.



7
8
9
3. Click lu_frequency as the table containing the data to
Q
graph.
4. Make sure that Use selected set of features or records
is not checked.
The graph appears on the layout. You can see that most of
5. Check the field Count_LAND_USE as the field to
the parcels are residential.
graph.

40 USING ARCMAP
11. Click the Select Elements tool on the Tools toolbar.




W
14. Click the Drawing dropdown arrow on the Draw
toolbar, point to Align, and click Align Bottom to line up
the graph and map.
12. Click and drag the graph to the left of the parcel map.




13. With the graph still selected, hold down the Shift key and
click the land use map so both are selected.


You can stop here or continue with the next exercise. Save
your work by clicking Save on the File menu.


QUICK-START TUTORIAL 41
Exercise 3: Working with tables
In this exercise, you’ll map population density for the
county. A population density map shows where people are
concentrated. First, you’ll add population data for each
census tract. Then you’ll calculate population density for
each tract and map it.
If necessary, start ArcMap, navigate to the folder where
4. Click the General tab and type “Population Density” in
you saved the map from Exercise 2 (airport_ex), and open
the Name text box.
the map.
5. Click the Size and Position tab.
Creating a new data frame
As with the land use map, you’ll start by creating a new
data frame to display the data.
5
1. Switch to layout view, if necessary (click View and click
4
Layout View).
2. Click Insert and click Data Frame.




3. In the table of contents, right-click New Data Frame 2
and click Properties.




42 USING ARCMAP
6. Set the X position to 9 and the Y position to 2.5. 10. Click the Population Density data frame on the page so
it is the only one selected.
7. Click OK.




6




7
8. Hold down the Shift key and click the middle data frame Adding data from ArcCatalog
(Land Use) on the page so both frames are selected.
You’ll add the layers you need by dragging them from
9. Click Drawing on the Draw toolbar, point to Distribute, ArcCatalog™.
and click Make Same Size.
1. Start ArcCatalog by clicking the ArcCatalog button on
The data frames are now the same size. the Standard toolbar in ArcMap. Position the ArcCatalog
and ArcMap windows so ArcMap is visible behind the
ArcCatalog window.
ArcCatalog




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 43
2. In ArcCatalog, navigate to the Map folder on the local 7. Point to arterials, hold down the left mouse button, and
drive where you installed the tutorial data (the default drag the pointer over the ArcMap layout view
installation path is C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map). (anywhere is fine).
3. Click the plus sign next to the Map folder to list the
contents.
4. Click the airport geodatabase icon to display the contents
in the right panel.
5. In the right panel, click arterials.

7




8. Release the mouse button. All three layers are added to
the new data frame.
9. Close ArcCatalog.
6. Hold down the Ctrl key and click tracts and airport_area
10. Click tracts in the ArcMap table of contents so only it is
to select them as well. The layers are highlighted as you
selected. Right-click tracts and click Zoom To Layer.
select them.
The map redraws to show all the tracts and centers
them in the data frame.




44 USING ARCMAP
11. Right-click the Population Density data frame in the C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map) and double-click the airport
table of contents and click Properties. geodatabase.
12. Click the General tab, click the Display dropdown arrow, 3. Click tract_pop (the icon looks like a table).
and set the display units to Feet. You can’t change the
map units because they are based on the data frame’s
coordinate system. Click OK.




E 4. Click Add. The table is added to the Population Density
data frame in the table of contents. ArcMap activates
the Source tab so you can access the table.

Joining tables
The next step is to join the table containing the population
data to the census tract data table. You’ll do this using the
Adding tabular data census tract ID as the common field.
1. Right-click tracts in the table of contents and click Open
You also need to add the table containing the population
Attribute Table to see the existing attributes including the
data to your data frame.
census tract ID.
1. In ArcMap, click the Add Data button.
1



2. Navigate to the Map folder on the local drive where you
installed the tutorial data (the default installation path is


QUICK-START TUTORIAL 45
5. Click the dropdown arrow in the next text box and click
tract_pop as the table to join to the layer.
6. In the next text box, click TRACT_ID as the field in the
table to base the join on.
7. Click OK to join the table to the layer. Click Yes if you
are prompted to create an index.
Now right-click tract_pop in the table of contents and
click Open. The table contains the TRACT_ID field and
the population of each tract.
Close the tables before proceeding with the join.
3

4

5

2. Right-click tracts in the table of contents again, point to
Joins and Relates, and click Join.
6




3. Click the dropdown arrow in the first text box and click
Join attributes from a table.
7
4. Click the dropdown arrow in the next text box, scroll
down, and click TRACT_ID as the field in the layer to
base the join on.
46 USING ARCMAP
8. Right-click tracts and click Open Attribute Table. The
population value has been added to each tract.




2. In the Add Field dialog box, type “POP_DEN” as the
field name.
3. Click the Type dropdown arrow and click Long Integer.
4. Click OK.



2
3




Adding a field to an attribute table
To map population density, you’ll need to add a new field to
the tracts layer. You’ll use this field to store the population
density of each tract.
4
1. Click the Options button at the bottom of the Attributes
of tracts window and click Add Field.
You should see the new field added to the attribute table.
If a message appears indicating the table is in use by The field name you entered will be concatenated with
another user, make sure you closed ArcCatalog. tracts, to appear as tracts.POP_DEN.


QUICK-START TUTORIAL 47
Calculating attribute values The first part of the formula is entered for you
tracts.POP_DEN = . The full formula will look like this:
You’ll calculate the population density for each tract by
tracts.POP_DEN = [tracts_pop.POPULATION] /
dividing the population by the area of each tract; this will
([tracts.Shape_Area] / 27878400).
give you the number of people per square mile. To do this,
you’ll use the editing functions of ArcMap to edit the Dividing the area by 27,878,400 converts the area of
census tract attributes. You can make calculations without each tract, stored in square feet, to square miles. You
being in an editing session; however, in that case, there is no can type the formula right into the box or use the buttons
way to undo the results. (In Exercise 4, you’ll edit the on the dialog box. In this exercise, you’ll use both.
geometry of a feature.)
4. Click tract_pop.POPULATION in the Fields list.
1. Click the Editor Toolbar button on the Standard toolbar.
5. Click the division symbol.
The Editor toolbar appears.
1 6. Type a space and a left parenthesis from the keyboard.
7. Click tracts.Shape_Area from the field list.
8. Click the division symbol.
9. Type a space and type “27878400”.
2. Click Editor and click Start Editing.
10. Type a space and a right parenthesis from the keyboard.
11. Click OK.



4

7
3. Right-click tracts.POP_DEN and click Calculate Values.
The Field Calculator appears.
58


6
9
W
Q


48 USING ARCMAP
Classifying features by quantity
When the dialog box closes, you can see the population
density values for each tract in people per square mile in
You can now map the tracts based on their population
the table.
density values to see where people are concentrated in
relation to the airport and to major roads.
1. Right-click tracts in the table of contents and click
Properties.




2. Click the Symbology tab. All tracts are currently drawn
12. Click the Editor menu on the Editor toolbar and click
using the same symbol (the same solid fill color).
Stop Editing.




13. Click Yes when prompted to save your edits.
14. Close the Editor toolbar and close the attribute table.
For more information on adding and calculating attributes,
see Chapter 10, ‘Working with tables’.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 49
3. Click Quantities in the Show box. Graduated colors is 8. Arterials should be at the top of the layers list. If not,
automatically highlighted. click arterials in the table of contents and drag it to the
top of the layers list in the Population Density data
4. Click the Value dropdown arrow and click
frame. Click airport_area and drag it so it is just below
tracts.POP_DEN as the field to use to shade the tracts.
arterials. Now these layers draw on top of the tracts.
5. Click the Color Ramp dropdown arrow and click the blue
color ramp.




3 4
5




9. Switch to data view to get a closer look at the tracts.
Click View and click Data View.
ArcMap chooses a classification scheme and the number of For more on classifying and displaying data, see Chapter 6,
classes for you. You can modify these by clicking the ‘Symbolizing features’.
Classify button in the Layer Properties dialog box. For now,
You’ve now completed Exercise 3. You can continue with
just use the default classification.
the next exercise or continue at a later time. Be sure to
6. Click OK. save your work by clicking Save on the File menu.
7. Click the Display tab at the bottom of the table of
contents.




50 USING ARCMAP
Exercise 4: Editing features
You can use ArcMap to edit your data as well as create 3. Right-click arterials, point to Data, and click Export Data.
maps. In this exercise you’ll extend the airport road to
create a new loop road joining an existing arterial road. This
exercise is a brief introduction to editing, which is covered
in more detail in Editing in ArcMap.
If necessary, start ArcMap, navigate to the folder where
you saved the map from Exercise 3 (airport_ex), and open
the map.

Exporting data
You’ll be working with the Schools data frame. First, make
a copy of the arterials data. That way, in case you need to,
you can start over again with the original data.
1. Switch to data view by clicking the View menu and 4. Click the Export dropdown arrow and click All features.
clicking Data View, if necessary.
5. Click Use the same Coordinate System as this layer’s
2. Right-click the Schools data frame in the table of source data.
contents and click Activate.
6. Save the new feature class as arterials_new in the airport
geodatabase (the default installation path is
C:\ArcGIS\ArcTutor\Map\airport.mdb).



4
5


6
2 7

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 51
7. Click OK to export the data.
8. Click Yes when prompted to add the layer to the map.



Zoom in to
this area.




Using Export makes a copy of the data itself. If you’d
chosen Copy from the menu, you’d be copying the layer,
which is only a pointer to the underlying data and 2. Turn off the cnel65 and airport_area layers by
information about how the data is displayed. unchecking the boxes next to them in the table of
contents so you can more easily see the existing roads.
Creating a new feature
You edit features in ArcMap using the Editor toolbar. All the
layers in a workspace are available for editing within the
same editing session. You specify which layer (the “target”)
new features will be added to.
2
1. Click the Zoom In button on the Tools toolbar and zoom
in to the area around the existing road and the road
you’re adding.




52 USING ARCMAP
3. Click the Editor Toolbar button to display the Editor 2. Check the boxes for Edge and End for arterials_new.
toolbar. This specifies that the new line you draw in the
arterials_new dataset will snap to existing lines (edges)
3 and endpoints of existing lines.

2

4. Click the Editor menu and click Start Editing.




Setting snapping
Snapping lets you specify that new features connect to or
align with existing features.
1. Click Editor and click Snapping.
3. Close the Snapping Environment dialog box.

Digitizing a feature
1. Click the Target dropdown arrow and click
arterials_new as the feature class you want to create
new features in.
2. Click the Sketch tool on the Editor toolbar.

2 1


3. The pointer changes to a crosshair with a circle. Move
the mouse pointer over the end of the existing road—the
circle snaps to the end.

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 53
6. Click Parallel.




4. Click to start the new road.
5. Move the mouse pointer back over the existing road and
right-click to display the context menu.




7. Move the mouse pointer in the direction you want the
new road to go (up and to the right). Right-click and
click Length.




54 USING ARCMAP
8. Type “900” (map units) and press Enter. ArcMap places 10. Click the dropdown arrow in the upper box and click
a vertex at the correct location. Arc Length. Click the box to the right and type a length
of “400”. In the lower box, click the dropdown arrow
and click Delta Angle. Click the box to the right and
type “90” (degrees). Click the button next to Right, if
necessary. Then press Enter.




9. Right-click again and click Tangent Curve.




ArcMap draws the curve.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 55
11. Move the mouse pointer so it snaps to the existing road,
but don’t click the mouse. You want the next segment of
the new road to be parallel to the existing road.




13. To finish the road, move the mouse pointer over the road
that you want the new road to intersect, and make sure
the circle snaps to it. Double-click to end the line.
12. Right-click and click Parallel. The line is constrained to
be parallel to the existing road.




56 USING ARCMAP
The new road is highlighted in a thick blue line. 2. Click next to NAME on the list of attributes, type
“AIRPORT DR”, and press Enter.



2




3. Close the Attributes window.
4. Click the Editor menu and click Stop Editing. Click Yes
when prompted to save your edits.
Adding attributes to new features
You can also add the name of the new road.
1. Click the Attributes button on the Editor toolbar.

1



5. Close the Editor toolbar.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 57
6. Right-click arterials_new in the table of contents and 8. Switch to layout view by clicking the View menu and
click Label Features. The road you added is labeled with clicking Layout View. You can see that the road has
its name. been added to your map.
9. You zoomed in for editing (when you switched to data
view), so type “1:100,000” in the Map Scale text box on
the Standard toolbar and press Enter to set the map
scale.




Use the Pan tool on the Tools toolbar to place the noise
contour in the center of the map.
You can continue with the final exercise or stop here. If you
stop, be sure to save your work by clicking Save on the File
menu.




7. Turn the cnel65 and airport_area layers back on by
checking their boxes in the table of contents.


58 USING ARCMAP
Exercise 5: Working with map elements
In this exercise, you’ll add additional map elements to 3. Right-click the data frame and click Properties.
complete your poster and print it.
If necessary, start ArcMap, navigate to the folder where
you saved the map from Exercise 4 (airport_ex), and open
the map.

Adding a background, titles, legends, and
scalebars
1. Switch to layout view by clicking the View menu and
clicking Layout View, if necessary.
2. Click the Land Use data frame on the page so it’s
highlighted. In the table of contents, uncheck the
parcels_sel layer so it’s not displayed (that way, the map
will show the land use types within the noise contour).
4. Click the Frame tab. Click the Background dropdown
arrow and click Sand. Click OK.




2
4




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 59
5. Click Insert and click Title. 8. Drag the title onto the Land Use data frame, as shown
below.




8
6. Type “Land Use within Noise Contour” in the text box
and press Enter.


6

9. Click Insert and click Legend.




7. Click the Text Size dropdown arrow on the Draw
toolbar. Click 36 to make the title 36 point.




The Legend Wizard appears.
10. Click Next several times to step through the wizard,
accepting the default legend parameters. Click Finish
when you’re done.




60 USING ARCMAP
11. Drag the legend to the lower-left corner of the data
frame, as shown below. Make it smaller by clicking the
upper-right handle and dragging it down and to the left.




W

12. Click Insert and click Scale Bar.




14. Now do the same for the Population Density data
frame. First click to select it. Set the background to
Sand, make the title read “Population Density”, and add
a legend and scalebar. Place the legend in the upper-left
corner of the data frame and place the scalebar in the
lower-left corner.
15. Click the Schools data frame to select it and set the
background to Olive.
13. Click Scale Line 1 and click OK. Drag the scalebar 16. You only need one North arrow since all maps are
under the legend and make it smaller. oriented in the same direction. Click the North arrow in
the Schools data frame and enlarge it by dragging the
upper-right handle. Then drag the North arrow to the
lower-right corner of the page.

QUICK-START TUTORIAL 61
3. Click the Frame tab.
4. Click the Drop Shadow dropdown arrow and click Gray
17. Click the New Text tool on the Draw toolbar and click 30%.
the top of the page. Type “Proposed Airport Expansion” 5. Type “50” for the X Offset and “-50” for the Y Offset.
as the title and press Enter. Set the size to 72 point and
6. Click OK.
make the title bold by clicking the Bold button. Position
the title at the top and center of the page.




4
Adding drop shadows
You can add drop shadows to most of the graphic elements
on the layout page. Add a drop shadow to each data frame.
1. Click the Population Density data frame to activate it.
2. Right-click the Population Density data frame and click
5 6
Properties.



62 USING ARCMAP
4
7. Repeat the steps above to add drop shadows to the
Schools and Land Use data frames. When finished, your
map should look like this:


2


3


5
4. Click the Border dropdown arrow and click a border size
of 3.0 points.
Adding a neatline
5. Click OK. Your map should look like this.
1. Click Insert and click Neatline.




2. Click Place inside margins.
3. Type in a gap of 36 points. This places the neatline about
one-half inch inside the margin of the page.




QUICK-START TUTORIAL 63
Printing a map 4. Click Portrait for the Paper Orientation.
Your map is finished. You can print it if you have a printer
connected to your computer. If your printer doesn’t print
the full size (34 by 44 inches), you can scale the map down
to fit your printer.
1. Click the File menu and click Print.
2. If the map is larger than the printer paper, click Scale
4
Map to fit Printer Paper. (Tile map to printer paper will
print the map at full scale on separate sheets of paper so
you can paste them together to display the full map.)
3. Click Setup.



3


5. Click OK on the Page and Print Setup dialog box, then
click OK on the Print dialog box to print the map.
For more information on adding graphics to your map, see
Chapter 7, ‘Working with graphics and text’. For more on
map layout and composition, see Chapter 15, ‘Laying out
and printing maps’.
2
In this chapter, you’ve been introduced to many of the
ArcMap tasks you’ll often use. The rest of this book
provides more detail on these tasks and shows you many
more tasks you can perform using ArcMap.




64 USING ARCMAP
3
ArcMap basics
I N THIS CHAPTER A traditional, printed map is considered to be a representation of a place or
entity, such as a subway system, location of minerals, or a city. This is taken
• Basics of mapmaking, mapping,
further by defining a map as the fundamental component you work with in
and GIS
ArcMap.
• Layers, data frames, and the table
As it implies, ArcMap is used to make maps. It is a map-centric software
of contents
application. In ArcMap, a map document (.mxd) is how a map is stored,
• Starting ArcMap and opening a shared, and managed on your computer. This map document contains not only
map the traditional cartographic elements of a map, but also the environment, or
user interface, you use to work with that map. ArcMap is where you can
• Using the table of contents
perform your spatial analysis and querying along with editing, 3D analysis,
• Data view and layout view data development, and display.
This chapter will discuss the basic traditional cartographic elements of a
• Moving around the map
map—but most important, the concepts you need to understand an ArcMap
• Setting bookmarks map. These include the components of a map document and the basics you
need to know to begin to operate this program.
• Opening magnifier and overview
windows

• Exploring data on a map

• Using the map cache

• Getting help

• Saving a map and exiting ArcMap

• Keyboard shortcuts in ArcMap

65
Basics of mapmaking
Cartography can be described as the graphic principles support- Traditionally, maps have been created to serve two main func-
ing the art, science, or techniques used in making maps or charts. tions. The first function has been to store information. Creating a
It was developed in a time before the computer and GIS. Thus we map has been a way to record information for future reference.
often have a paper-centered view of mapping. However, through- The second function has been to provide a picture to relay spatial
out its development (which continues) many critical principles information to a user.
have been established to advance cartography—such as Jacques The purpose for designing a map is critical to its design. When
Bertin’s visual variables for symbology: size, value, texture, color, designing a map, a map maker needs to know the answers to
orientation, and form. He defined these variables to assist some fundamental questions, such as: What is being mapped?
someone in representing one symbol differently from another. Who is the audience? How is this map being presented—on its
Also, other advancements have been developed through studies own or as part of a report? What medium will be used to display
of human psychology and visual perception. this map?


Map formats
Generally maps are considered to be in two formats. One is a general reference map such as a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topo-
graphic map or the map of a city. In this form the map is providing information to convey where things are in relation to each other. The
second is a thematic map, where the map is used to convey information about a particular theme or multiple themes, such as land use,
population, or health statistics.

Reference Map Thematic Map




66 USING ARCMAP
Basic mapping principles
There are many kinds of maps, each with general and possibly specific requirements. While a skilled cartographer is usually required to
make maps with specific or special requirements, anyone can make good general and informative maps by considering the following
simple guidelines. These guidelines have been organized into seven areas that you can use as a checklist for creating or improving your
maps.
Purpose—Typically, a map does not have more than one purpose.
Trying to communicate too much in one map—having more
than one purpose for the map—tends to blur the message and
confuse the map reader. Using two or more maps, each
focused on a single message, is always a better strategy.
Audience—Who will be reading your map? Are you designing a A large, wall-sized map requires larger symbols
map for a few readers or for a large audience of hundreds or than those you may use in this book.
millions of people? It’s better to target your map to the person
least prepared to understand your map’s message.
Size, scale, and media—The physical size of a map relative to the
geographic extent shown on the map will dictate the scale of
the map and determine how you will represent the actual size
and number of features shown on the map. Data is often
collected at a particular scale. However, if you’re not display-
ing the data at that scale, be sure your data “fits”. For
example, roads typically collected for 1:24,000 mapping will be
far more detailed than needed for a smaller scale map (such as
1:2,000,000), so be sure to reduce the number of roads drawn
on your map. Media also plays an import role, because a map
printed on newspaper will not show fine details clearly,
Make sure the data fits the scale of your layout.
whereas one printed on high-quality paper will. In addition, Sometimes less is better.
the details on a digital map could vary depending on the
viewing program. For example, a static map used in a Web
page would be designed to encompass less information than
one designed for browsing using a program such as
ArcReader™.




ARCMAP BASICS 67
Focus—Refers to where the designer wishes the map reader to
first focus. Typically cool colors (blues, greens, and light
gray) are used for background information, and warm colors
(red, yellow, black) are used to capture the reader’s attention.
Integrity—You may want to cross-validate some of your informa-
tion, such as the names or spelling of some features. And if
the data was produced by another organization, it is often
customary to give that organization credit on the map.
Balance—How does your map look on the page or screen? Are
the parts of the map properly aligned? The body of the map Color is used to help focus the reader on an
should be the dominant element. Try to avoid large open area or symbol represented on the map.
spaces. Be flexible in where you place elements (for example,
not all titles need to go at the top). Should some components
on the map be contained within a border?
Completeness—A map generally should contain some basic
elements, such as a title, legend, scalebar, and North arrow;
however, there are exceptions. For example, if a graticule
exists, it is not necessary to place a North arrow. Basically,
place all the information you think your readers need to fully
understand the map. An example of the basic elements to
include on a map are shown in the diagram titled ‘Map
elements diagram’.
It is best to avoid a lot of
Before publishing your map, it is always advised to have some- unnecessary open spaces in
one else look it over—especially for spelling and overall appear- your layout.
ance.




68 USING ARCMAP
Map elements
Map body—The primary mapped area. You can display more than
one image of your primary mapped area within your docu-
ment. For example, you may want to portray change by
showing several images with differing but related information,
such as population maps of various years. Your map may also
contain a locator map (a smaller-scale map used to help the
Example of a locator map
reader in understanding where the main area of interest is
located), an inset map (used to give more detailed information
of an area within the main map that may not easily be under-
stood), or an index map (often used to show where in a series
of maps one map exists). All are used to assist in communicat-
ing your information to others. In ArcMap each of these
mapped areas is referred to as a data frame.
Title—Is used to tell the reader what the map represents. This is
often placed on a map layout as text.
Legend—Lists the symbology used within the map and what it
represents. This can be created using the Legend Wizard in
the layout—and edited further once created.
Scale—Provides readers with the information they need to
A small-scale map
determine distance. A map scale is a ratio, where one unit on
the map represents some multiple of that value in the real
world. It can be numeric (1:10,000), graphic (a scalebar), or
verbal (one inch equals 10,000 inches). Maps are often
referred to as large or small scale. This size reference refers to
the ratio (or fraction). For example, a 1:100 scale map is larger
than a 1:10,000 map, because 1/100 (0.01) is a larger value than
1/10,000 (0.0001). A smaller-scale map displays a larger area,
but with less detail. The scale is inserted in the map layout
view.
A large-scale map




ARCMAP BASICS 69
Projection—Is a mathematical formula that transforms feature
Grids and graticules
locations from the earth’s curved surface to a map’s flat
surface. Projections can cause distortions in distance, area, ArcMap contains several types of grids and graticules that can be
added to a map layout using the Grids and Graticules Wizard.
shape, and direction; no projection can avoid some distortion.
Therefore, the projection type is often placed on the map to
help readers determine the accuracy of the measurement You can place a grid that expresses
information they infer from the map. location in geographic coordinates
(degrees of latitude and longitude) by
For more information on projections, see ‘About coordinate selecting the Graticule type.
systems’ in Chapter 4 or Understanding Map Projections.
Direction—This is shown using a North arrow. A map may show
true north and magnetic north. This element is inserted in the
map layout view.
Data source—The bibliographic information for the data used to
develop the map.
By selecting the Measured Grid type,
Other map components include (but are not limited to) dates, you can place a grid that expresses
location using projected coordinates,
pictures, graticules or grids, reports, tables, additional text,
such as Universal Transverse
neatlines, and authorship. Mercator or State Plane grids.
ArcMap allows you to select a
coordinate system for the grid that is
different from the underlying
coordinate system for the data frame.




You can also place a grid that divides
a map into a specified number of rows
and columns by selecting the
Reference Grid type. Often, the row
and column labels of a reference grid
identify locations listed in a map index.




Other custom grids or military grid reference systems can be added
using the Style Manager in ArcMap.



70 USING ARCMAP
Map elements diagram




ARCMAP BASICS 71
Mapping and GIS
So how are mapping and GIS related? For starters, GIS has its importing the elevation models, or identifying the new school
roots in mapping—both involve maps and attributes, and both locations.
use geographic data involving map scales, projections, and How else are mapping and GIS related? GIS is used for display,
coordinate systems. analysis, storage, and retrieval. The mapping output is used to
There are three basic users for both mapping and GIS—the display and store information. From this a person can retrieve
viewer, the maker, and the designer. Before outlining their roles, it information and use that information in analysis. Mapping and
must be stated that these users can overlap—a viewer may be the GIS are becoming closer to one another through technological
maker, or a maker the designer—or they can all be the same advancements. For example, a map is no longer a static product
person. and visualization is not dependent on a printable medium. Viewers
have been given the ability to interact with the display.
Viewer—This person, who can be described as the end user, is
generally the reason for the existence of the map or data. The Basically, the cartographic principles of mapping can be thought
viewer is the person using a Web mapping program to of as the rule for output, and GIS can be considered the tool to
determine the route from his or her home to the museum, the bring information together. The rest of this chapter will discuss
oil company executive who needs to locate potential drilling the map document design in ArcMap and the basics you need to
sites, a person planning a mountain hike, or a newspaper know to use the program.
reader who is making the association between a new industrial
site and his or her home.
Designer—The designer can be involved at the beginning, end,
and throughout the GIS or mapping product creation process.
This person determines what data to use, what tools to use,
how to acquire the data, and so on. The designer can be the
person who creates the output by defining what questions
will be answered and how data is going to be displayed on the
map. The map designer could also be the person specifying
which symbols to use to represent roads or the project
developer who is writing the contract proposal for an environ-
mental assessment using GIS.
Maker—This is the person working with the data by editing,
creating, acquiring, querying, or analyzing it. The maker is the
person who is merging the road dataset, digitizing the rivers,
editing the parcels, attaching the address locations, buffering
the protected lands, analyzing the population projections,



72 USING ARCMAP
Layers, data frames, and the table of contents
You display geographic information on a map as layers, where each layer represents a particular type of feature, such as streams, lakes,
highways, political boundaries, or wildlife habitats. A layer doesn’t store the actual geographic data; instead, it references the data
contained in coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases, images, grids, and so on. Referencing data in this way allows the layers on a map to
automatically reflect the most up-to-date information in your GIS database.
The table of contents lists all the layers on the map and shows what the features in each layer represent. The check box next to each
layer indicates whether it is currently turned on or off, that is, whether it is currently drawn on the map or not. The order of layers within
the table of contents is also important; the layers at the top draw on top of those below them. Thus, you’ll put the layers that form the
background of your map, such as the ocean, at the bottom of the table of contents.
Table of contents Click here to add a Docked Tools toolbar
The data view
layer to the map.




The Places layer draws on
top of all other layers.


A layer displays geographic
features and defines how
they’re drawn on the map.




ARCMAP BASICS 73
Layers in the table of contents can be further organized into data frames. A data frame simply groups, in a separate frame, the layers that
you want to display together. You always get a data frame when you create a map; it’s listed at the top of the table of contents as
“Layers”, but you can change the name to something more meaningful if you like. For many of the maps you make, you won’t need to
think much more about data frames; you’ll just add layers to your map and, depending on how you order them in the table of contents,
some layers will draw on top of others. You will want to think more about data frames—and adding additional ones—when you want to
compare layers side by side or create insets and overviews that highlight a particular location or attribute, as shown in the map below.
When a map has more than one data frame, one of them is the active data frame. The active data frame is the one you’re currently
working with. For example, when you add a new layer to a map, it is added to the active data frame. You can always tell which data frame
is active because it’s highlighted on the map and its name is shown in bold text in the table of contents. Of course, if a map has only one
data frame, it’s always the active one.
Layout toolbar Floating Tools toolbar




The active data frame is
highlighted with bold text.


Use additional data frames to
display layers in separate
frames on the map.




Active data
frame




The layout view


74 USING ARCMAP
Starting ArcMap Starting ArcMap from the
4
Start menu
2
Starting ArcMap is the first step
1. Click the Start button on the
to exploring your data. You can
Windows taskbar.
access ArcMap from the Start
button on the Windows taskbar. 2. Point to Programs.
Each ArcMap session can
3. Point to ArcGIS.
display one map at a time. You
4. Click ArcMap.
can work with several maps by
starting additional ArcMap
3
sessions.
After you first start ArcMap,
you can decide whether or not
you want to see the splash
screen and Startup dialog box.
1
If you don’t want to see these,
you can easily turn them off by
choosing Tools > Options >
General from the program’s
Main menu bar.
1
Starting ArcMap from
ArcCatalog
Tip
1. Click the Launch ArcMap
Starting ArcMap by open- button on the Standard
ing an existing map toolbar.
Double-clicking a map in
ArcCatalog or the Windows
Explorer will launch ArcMap and
display the map.


Tip
Working on one map at a
time
You can only work on one map at a
time in an ArcMap session.
ArcMap will close any open map
before opening another one.




ARCMAP BASICS 75
The ArcMap window


Frequently used commands, such as Open, Save, Print, Browse a map with
Undo, and Add Layers, are on the Standard toolbar. the Tools toolbar.



Toolbars can
be docked or
floating.
The table of contents
lists the layers on the
map. To see more of
the map, drag the
table of contents off.




Add map elements
with the Draw toolbar.


Use these buttons to quickly switch
between data view and layout view.




76 USING ARCMAP
Opening a map Opening a map from
1
ArcMap
To work on a map, you open it
1. Click the Open button on the
in ArcMap. If you know its
Standard toolbar.
location on disk, you can
2
navigate to it with ArcCatalog 2. Click the Look in dropdown
and open it in ArcMap. If you arrow and navigate to the
already have ArcMap running, folder that contains the map.
you can open it directly within
3. Click the map you want to
that session.
open.
If you’re not sure where your
3
4. Click Open.
map is located, use ArcCatalog
to find it by browsing for it in
4
the folders in your database.
Because ArcCatalog lets you
preview a map before you open
it, you’ll always open the right
one.
A map doesn’t store the spatial
3
data displayed within it.
Opening a map from
Instead, it stores references to
ArcCatalog
the location of these data
sources—such as
1. Start ArcCatalog if it isn’t
geodatabases, coverages,
already running.
shapefiles, and rasters—on
disk. Thus, when you open a 2. In ArcCatalog, navigate to the
map, ArcMap checks the links folder that contains your map.
to the data. If it can’t find some 3. Click the Thumbnails button
data—for instance, if the source to look at the maps the folder
data for a layer has been contains.
deleted or renamed or a network
4. Double-click the map to open
drive is not accessible—
it in ArcMap.
ArcMap lets you locate it.
If the data is currently unavail-
able, you can ignore the broken
link and display the map
without the layer. The layer will
2 4
still be part of the map and
listed in the table of contents; it
simply won’t display.

ARCMAP BASICS 77
1
Using the table of Showing the table of
contents
contents
1. Click Window on the Main
Every map has a table of menu.
contents. The table of contents
2. Click Table Of Contents.
2
shows you what layers the map
contains and also how the map
presents the geographic
features in those layers.
Some maps display all the
layers in one data frame. Others,
such as those with insets and
Turning a layer on or off
overviews, will have more than
one data frame. The table of
1. In the table of contents,
contents shows how the layers
check the box next to the
are organized into data frames.
layer’s name.
When viewing a map, you’ll use
The layer should appear on
the table of contents primarily
your map. If you can’t see the
1
to turn layers on and off. As
layer, it may be hidden by
you begin building your own
another layer or display only
maps, you’ll find that the table
at a particular scale.
of contents is the focal point
for many tasks, such as adding
and deleting layers and
determining how to draw layers.
You can choose to display the
table of contents with either the
Display, Source, or Selection
tabs.


Tip
Need to see more of your
map?
You can drag the table of contents
off the ArcMap window.




78 USING ARCMAP
Showing a layer’s legend
Tip
Drawing layers 1. Click the plus or minus sign
Double-click a layer in the table of to the left of the layer name in
contents to see its properties. From the table of contents to show
there you can change how you or hide its legend.
draw the layer.
1
Tip
Changing colors
You can quickly change the color of
a particular feature by right-
clicking on the color in the table of
contents.


Tip
Why isn’t my layer
drawing?
The layer may have a visible scale
range set. If you see a gray
scalebar underneath the layer’s Showing the contents of
check box in the table of contents, a data frame
it’s not drawing because it’s outside
1
of a visible scale range. You’ll need 1. Click the plus or minus sign
to zoom in or out to see it. to the left of the data frame in
the table of contents to show
If you see a red exclamation point,
or hide the list of layers it
the link to the layer’s data source is
broken. Right-click the layer, point contains.
to Data, and click Set Data Source
to fix the link.




ARCMAP BASICS 79
Data view and Switching to data view
1 2
layout view 1. Click the View menu on the
Standard toolbar.
ArcMap provides two different 2. Click Data View.
ways to view a map: data view
The ArcMap window displays
and layout view. Each view lets
the active data frame.
you look at and interact with the
map in a specific way.
When you want to browse the
geographic data on your map,
choose data view. Data view is
an all-purpose view for explor-
ing, displaying, and querying
the data on your map. This view
hides all the map elements on
the layout—such as titles,
North arrows, and scalebars—
and lets you focus on the data
in a single data frame, for
instance, to do editing or Switching to layout view 2
1
analysis.
1. Click the View menu on the
When you’re preparing your
Standard toolbar.
map to hang on the wall, put in a
2. Click Layout View.
report, or publish on the Web,
you’ll want to work with it in The ArcMap window displays
layout view. Layout view is for the entire map.
laying out your map. In layout
view, you’ll see a virtual page
upon which you can place and
arrange map elements. In layout
view, you can do almost
everything you can in data view,
plus design your map.




You can also use these buttons to quickly switch
between the data and layout view.


80 USING ARCMAP
Moving around the
map Zooming to the full extent
Zooming in or out
of the data
1. Click the Zoom In or Zoom
As you work with a map, you
Out button on the Tools 3. Click the Full Extent button
can easily change how you
toolbar. on the Tools toolbar.
view the data it contains. When
you’re just browsing a map, 2. Move the mouse pointer over
you might want to pan and the map display and click
zoom around the data to once to zoom around a point.
investigate different areas and Alternatively, click and drag a
features. When you’re creating rectangle defining the area
a map to hang on the wall, you want to zoom in or out
displaying data at a specific on.
scale may be important.
Use these buttons
Most of the tools for navigating
to zoom in or out a
your data are found on the
fixed amount.
Tools toolbar.
3
1
Tip
Panning using the
scrollbars
In data view, you can also pan the Tools toolbar
map by dragging the scrollbars.
4 6
Tip
Panning Moving back or forward
Panning and zooming in
one display
maps with more than one 4. Click the Pan button on the
data frame Tools toolbar. 6. Click the Back or Forward
If your map has more than one Extent buttons on the Tools
5. Move the mouse pointer over
data frame, panning and zooming toolbar.
the map display and click
will occur in the active data frame.
and drag the pointer.
In layout view, clicking a data
frame will activate it.




ARCMAP BASICS 81
Zooming to the extent of
Tip
a layer
Selecting layers in the
table of contents
1. Right-click the layers you
Click a layer to select it. Hold down want to zoom to.
the Shift or Ctrl key to select
2. Click Zoom To Layer.
multiple layers.


1
Tip
Why doesn’t a layer draw
when I zoom in or out?
2
The layer probably has a visible
scale range set that prevents the
layer from displaying on the map at
certain scales. You can clear the
scale range by right-clicking the
layer in the table of contents,
pointing to Visible Scale Range, and
clicking Clear Scale Range.


Tip
Pausing drawing in ArcMap
The Pause Drawing command
1
Zooming to a specific
allows you to temporarily suspend
all drawing in ArcMap so you can scale
make changes to your map, such
1. Type the desired scale on the
as changing the symbology of
several layers, without having the Standard toolbar.
map redraw after each change. The
Pause Drawing command works in
data view or layout view and can
be added to any ArcMap menu or
toolbar from the Customize dialog
box. See Chapter 16, ‘Customizing
ArcMap’, to learn more about the
Customize dialog box.




82 USING ARCMAP
Setting bookmarks Creating a spatial
2
bookmark
A spatial bookmark identifies a
1. Pan and zoom the map to the
particular geographic location
area for which you want to
that you want to save and refer
create a bookmark.
to later. For example, you might
create a spatial bookmark that 2. Click the View menu, point to
identifies a study area. That Bookmarks, and click Create.
way, as you pan and zoom
3. Type a name for the book-
around your map, you can
mark.
easily return to the study area
1
4. Click OK.
by accessing the bookmark. You
can also use spatial bookmarks
to highlight areas on your map
you want others to see.
You can create a spatial book-
mark at any time. As a shortcut,
you can also create bookmarks
4
3
when you find and identify map
features. Spatial bookmarks,
however, can only be defined on
spatial data; they can’t be
defined on an area of the page
Using a spatial bookmark 1
in layout view.
1. Click the View menu, point to
Each data frame on your map
Bookmarks, and click the
maintains its own list of
name of the bookmark you
bookmarks. In layout view, the
want to use.
list reflects the bookmarks of
the active data frame. The bookmarked display
appears.




ARCMAP BASICS 83
Creating a spatial
bookmark from the
Identify Results dialog box
1. Click the Identify button on
4
the Tools toolbar.
1
2. Click the mouse pointer over
the map feature to identify.
3. Right-click the identified
feature in the Identify Results
3
dialog box.
4. Click Set Bookmark.
The bookmark is named after
the feature.




Creating a spatial
bookmark from the Find
dialog box
1. Click the Find button on the
Tools toolbar.
1
2. Fill in the dialog box to find
the features you want.
3. Right-click the Value in the
Find Results list.
4. Click Set Bookmark.
2
The bookmark is named after
the feature.




3
4


84 USING ARCMAP
Removing a spatial 1
Tip
bookmark
Removing more than one
bookmark at a time
1. Click the View menu, point to
Hold down the Shift key to select Bookmarks, and click
more than one bookmark and click
Manage.
Remove.
2. Click a bookmark.
3. Click Remove.




2
3




ARCMAP BASICS 85
Opening magnifier Opening a magnifier 1
window and setting the
and overview view
windows 1. Click the Window menu and
click Magnifier.
When you don’t want to adjust
You must be viewing the map
your map display, yet you want
in data view to display a
to see things a bit differently—
magnifier window.
see more detail or get an
overview of an area—open 2. When the magnifier window
another window. ArcMap appears, drag it over the data
provides two additional ways to to see a magnified view.
3
explore the spatial data on your
3. Right-click the title bar and
map—overview and magnifier
click Snapshot to lock the
windows.
view.
The magnifier window works
like a magnifying glass: as you
2
pass the window over the data,
you see a magnified view of the
location under the window.
1
Moving the window around
does not affect the current map Opening an overview
display.
window to pan and zoom
The overview window shows the map
you the full extent of the data. A
1. Click the Window menu and
small box in the overview
click Overview.
window represents the currently
displayed area on the map. You You must be viewing the map
can move this box around to in data view to display an
pan the map and also shrink or overview window.
enlarge it to zoom in or out.
2. Drag, shrink, or expand the
Both windows operate only in box in the overview window
data view. to change the map display in
the active data frame.


2


86 USING ARCMAP
Exploring data on Identifying features by 1
pointing at them
a map
1. Click the Identify button on
Sometimes just looking at a map the Tools toolbar.
isn’t enough. You need to
2. Click the mouse pointer over
query data to solve problems. the map feature you want to
ArcMap lets you explore the
identify.
data on the map and get the
The features in all visible
information you need.
layers under the pointer will
You can point at features to find
be identified.
2
out what they are, find features
that have a particular character-
istic or attribute, examine all the
attributes of a particular layer,
and measure distances on the
map. MapTips also provide a
quick way to browse map
features. Like ToolTips for
toolbar buttons, MapTips pop
up as you pause the mouse
pointer over a feature. Displaying MapTips 2 3
1. In the table of contents, right-
See Also click the layer for which you
4
2
want to display MapTips and
For powerful ways to explore your
click Properties.
data, see Chapter 13, ‘Querying
maps’. 2. Click the Display tab and
check Show MapTips.
Tip 3. Click the Fields tab.
I can’t see the MapTips 4. Click the Primary Display
If you can’t see MapTips even after Field dropdown arrow and
you’ve enabled them, make sure click the attribute field you
that the layer is turned on and the want to display as the
features in the layer are not being MapTip.
hidden by features in overlapping
5
5. Click OK.
layers.
6. Move the mouse pointer over
a feature to see the MapTip.


ARCMAP BASICS 87
Viewing a layer’s
See Also
attribute table
For more information on working
with attribute tables, see 1. In the table of contents, right-
Chapter 10, ‘Working with tables’. click the layer for which you
want to display the attribute
1
table.

2
2. Click Open Attribute Table.




Finding features with
Tip
1
particular attributes
The primary display field
The primary display field is the
1. Click the Find button on the
field that contains the name or
Tools toolbar.
identifying characteristic of the
feature. For example, on a map of 2. Type the string you want to
the world, you might set the find in the Find text box.
primary display field to the field
3. Click the In layers dropdown
that contains the country names.
arrow and click the layer you
The primary display field is set
want to search.
through layer properties.
4. Uncheck Find features that
are similar to or contain the
6
search string if the string
2
must match exactly.
3
5. Search for the string in all
4
fields, in a specific field, or in
5
the primary display field.
6. Click Find.


88 USING ARCMAP
Measuring distance 1
2 3
Tip
Do you want to measure 1. Click the Measure button on
distance in kilometers, the Tools toolbar.
miles, meters, or feet?
2. Use the mouse pointer to
Each data frame can display
draw a line representing the
distance measurements using
distance you want to mea-
whichever units you need. Set the
sure. The line can have more
distance units on the General tab of
than one line segment.
the Data Frame Properties dialog
box. 3. Double-click to end the line.




The measurement displays
here on the status bar.




ARCMAP BASICS 89
Using the map cache to improve geodatabase performance in ArcMap
What is the map cache? Maximizing the map cache’s performance
advantages
The map cache allows you to temporarily store the features in the
current map display extent in ArcMap in your local machine’s In an enterprise environment, consistent use of the map cache in
memory. Because retrieving the features from local memory is a ArcMap can significantly improve the overall performance of the
fast operation, using the map cache will often result in perfor- system by reducing the number of queries to the geodatabase,
mance improvements in ArcMap for common tasks completed on the number of features retrieved from the geodatabase, and the
features in databases. overall network traffic.
For example, if you are working with data in a multiuser While the advantages of the map cache are most pronounced
geodatabase that serves features over a network, features in the when the data source is a multiuser geodatabase, you may also
current extent must be retrieved from the source database each benefit from creating a map cache if you’re working with large
time your display is updated. Building a map cache, however, can amounts of data over a network or in a geodatabase.
reduce the load on your network and the geodatabase since
There may be some performance improvement for personal
ArcMap instead accesses this information from your computer’s
geodatabase feature classes, although it is generally a small gain.
RAM. Since features are cached on the client, it cuts down the
One case where the map cache may be useful with personal
number of queries that the client needs to execute on the server.
geodatabase features is when you are editing features with large
ArcMap has tools to build and help you work with the map numbers of vertices in the current display extent with snapping
cache. These tools are found on the Map Cache toolbar. enabled. Personal geodatabases accessed over a network may
also show a performance gain.
Using the map cache
A map cache is also most useful when you will be working within
a specific area of a map. Work that requires frequent panning and
Drawing large or complex datasets, labeling, editing, selecting
zooming across a large area will not usually benefit from a map
features, retrieving the same features for multiple layers on a map,
cache.
and drawing features using a definition query are some of the
common activities that can often benefit from building a map
cache. However, the map cache only stores features in
geodatabases, so no data from rasters, coverages, or shapefiles is
cached.
Labeling, for example, can be a slow and costly process for the
geodatabase, requiring multiple roundtrips to the geodatabase as
the label engine attempts to place the maximum number of labels
on the map. To learn more about labels, see Chapter 7, ‘Working
with graphics and text’.




90 USING ARCMAP
Working with the Adding the Map Cache
toolbar
map cache
1. Click View and point to
If you’re working with data Toolbars.
stored in a geodatabase,
2. Click Map Cache.
1
building a map cache can often
The Map Cache toolbar
speed up common ArcMap
appears.
tasks, such as drawing,
selecting, labeling, and editing
features.
The map cache holds the
features in the current map
extent in memory on your local
machine. A map cache results in
faster processing because
2
ArcMap doesn’t have to
retrieve data from the server.
The Map Cache toolbar
contains the tools you’ll need
to create and work with the map Sets the minimum scale
cache. You can create a map for the auto-cache
cache by clicking the Build Map
Cache button. You can also use Empties the map cache Clears the auto-cache scale
the automatic cache (auto-
cache) function to automatically
Builds the Zooms to the extent
update the map cache whenever
map cache of the map cache
you move outside of the
currently cached extent.
Turns on the Shows the extent
The auto-cache can be useful if auto-cache of the map cache
you are going to be working in
a series of different geographic
areas and you don’t want to
rebuild the cache for each area.
It is also convenient when you
don’t know the exact bounds of
the area you want to cache.
Since auto-caching may cost
performance too much, you
should set an auto-cache
minimum scale.

ARCMAP BASICS 91
Building a map cache
Tip
Canceling the build of a 1. Add data stored in a
map cache geodatabase to your map.
Because the map cache is stored in
2. Pan or zoom to the area on
2
your desktop computer’s RAM,
the map that you want to
building a cache for a large area
work with.
with many features may consume a
large amount of memory and can 3. Click the Build Map Cache
take a while. You can cancel button on the Map Cache
building the map cache by pressing toolbar.
the Esc key.
The features visible in the
current extent are held in
Tip memory locally.
3
Zooming to your map
cache extent
You can quickly return to your map
cache extent at any time in your
ArcMap session. Click the Zoom to
Map Cache button on the Map Setting the auto-cache
Cache toolbar.
minimum scale
1. Zoom out just beyond the
1
Tip
scale at which you’ll be
Using the Show Map Cache working.
button
2. Click Set Auto-Cache Scale
You can click the Show Map Cache
on the Map Cache toolbar.
button to find out if you are in the
extent of the current cache. If the
button turns red, it means you are
partially outside the map cache’s
2
extent and are no longer using the
map cache.



You can click the Auto-Cache
button to turn auto-caching
on or off.




92 USING ARCMAP
Setting auto-cache
Tip
options
Turning off the auto-cache
You might want to turn off the auto- 1. Click View and click Data
cache when you begin working at a
Frame Properties.
fixed display extent and are no
2. Click the Map Cache tab.
longer moving around the map.
3. To use the auto-cache, check
Automatically create map
Tip
cache.
When is the auto-cache
4. Check the Set minimum
1
rebuilt?
scale for auto-cache box.
When you move around the map
and are still within the cached 5. Type a scale in the box or
2
extent, the cache is not rebuilt. click the Use Current Scale
When the display extent is not button to set the current scale
completely within the cache, the as the minimum scale.
cache will be rebuilt—provided you
6. Click OK.
don’t zoom out beyond the
minimum auto-cache scale.

3
Tip
4
5
Setting a minimum auto-
cache scale
To avoid inadvertently building an
auto-cache of your whole
geodatabase, set a minimum scale
for the auto-cache. The auto-cache
won’t be rebuilt if you zoom out
beyond the minimum scale.
6


Clearing the auto-cache
scale
1. Click the Clear Auto-Cache
1
Scale button on the Map
Cache toolbar.


ARCMAP BASICS 93
Seeing the extent of the
Tip
cached area
Why isn’t the Show Map
Cache button available?
1. Click the Show Map Cache
1
The Show Map Cache button is
button on the Map Cache
enabled only when you have built a
toolbar.
map cache and your map’s current
extent intersects the extent of the The currently cached area
map cache. will flash on the map.
If the Show Map Cache
The area outside
button is red, part of your
Tip
the rectangle is not
current display extent is
Working outside the cached
within the current
outside the cached area.
extent cache extent, so the
If any part of your current display 2. Optionally, if you plan to work Show Map Cache
extent is outside the cached area, at this extent, click the Build button is red.
you are no longer using the data Map Cache button to build a
cached on your computer. To use new cache or click the Auto-
the map cache again, you’ll need to Cache button to use the auto-
build a new cache, use auto-cache, cache.
or return to the cached extent.


Tip A green Show Map Cache button indicates that you are
completely within the cached extent and are using cached data.
Zooming to your map
cache extent
You can quickly return to your map
cache extent at any time by clicking
the Zoom to Map Cache button on
the Map Cache toolbar.
A red Show Map Cache button indicates that you are partially
outside the cached extent. You are no longer using cached
data.




When the Show Map Cache button is unavailable, you are
completely outside the cached extent. You are no longer using
cached data.



94 USING ARCMAP
Getting help 1
2
Getting help in the
ArcMap window
A quick way to learn what
1. Click the What’s This? button.
ArcMap can do is to get help
about the buttons and menu 2. With the Help pointer, click
commands you see on the the item in the ArcMap
interface. After clicking the window about which you
What’s This? button, you can want more information.
click an item in the window to
3. Click anywhere on the
display a popup description of
screen to close the Help
it.
description box.
You can also get help in some
dialog boxes. When you click
the What’s This? button in the
upper-right corner and click an
item in the dialog box, a
description of the item pops up.
Sometimes a dialog box will
also have a Help button on the
bottom; clicking it opens a Help
Getting help in a dialog 1
topic with detailed information
box
about the task you’re trying to
accomplish.
1. Click the What’s This? button.
Much of the information in this
2. With the Help pointer, click
book is available in the ArcGIS
the item in the dialog box
Desktop Help system. The Help
about which you want more
topics are organized around the
information.
main tasks you want to
2
complete as well as the 3. Click anywhere on the
concepts behind the tasks. screen to close the Help
description box.
You can look up general Help
topics in the Help Contents.
You can search the Index for
specific tasks and issues. You
can also use the Find tab to
look up Help topics that have
specific words or phrases.




ARCMAP BASICS 95
Using the Help Contents
Tip
to get help
Tips for buttons and menus
2
When you pause the mouse pointer 1. Click the Help menu and
over a button, the button’s name
click ArcGIS Desktop Help.
appears in a small box called a
3
2. Click the Contents tab.
ToolTip. When you position the
mouse pointer over a button or
4
3. Double-click a book to see a
menu command, a description of
list of the topics in that
what it does appears in the status
category.
bar.
Double-clicking an open
book closes its list.
Tip
4. Click the topic you want to
Another way to get help in
read.
a dialog box
Sometimes a dialog box will also
have a Help button on the bottom;
clicking it opens a Help topic with
detailed information about the task
Searching the Index for
you’re trying to accomplish.
help
2
3
1. Click the Help menu and
click ArcGIS Desktop Help.
4
2. Click the Index tab.
3. Type the subject about which
you want information.
4. Double-click the topic you
want to read.
If several topics are related to
your selection, the Topics
Found dialog box appears.
Simply double-click the topic
you want to read.




96 USING ARCMAP
2
Finding Help topics
containing specific words
1. Click the Help menu and
click ArcGIS Desktop Help.
3
2. Click the Search tab.
4
3. Type the word that should be
5
contained in the topics you
want to find.
4. Click List Topics.
5. Double-click the topic you
want to read.




ARCMAP BASICS 97
Saving a map
Saving a map and 1
exiting ArcMap 1. Click the Save button on the
Standard toolbar.
After you finish working on a If you haven’t saved the map
map, you can save it and exit before, you’ll need to provide
ArcMap. You save a map as a a name for it.
document and store it on your
hard disk. If you haven’t saved
the map before, you’ll need to
name it, preferably with a name
that adequately describes its
contents. ArcMap automatically
appends a file extension (.mxd)
to your map document name.
The data displayed on a map is
not saved with it. Map layers
reference the data sources in
your GIS database. This helps
to keep map documents
Saving a map as a new
relatively small in size. So if you
plan to distribute your map to map
others, they’ll need access to
1
1. Click the File menu and click
both the map document and the
Save As.
data your map references.
2. Navigate to the location to
In general, it’s a good idea to
2
save the map document.
save your map periodically
while editing it just in case 3. Type a filename.
something unexpected hap-
4. Click the Save as type
pens.
dropdown arrow and click
ArcMap Documents.
Tip 5. Click Save.
Opening a map will close
the current one
In ArcMap, you work with one map
at a time. If you need to work with
more than one, start another
3 45
ArcMap session.



98 USING ARCMAP
Saving a map as a map
Tip
template
Differentiating a map
1
template from a map
1. Click the File menu and click
document
Save As.
Map templates have a .mxt file
2
2. Navigate to the location to
extension. Map documents have a
save the map template.
.mxd file extension.
3. Type a filename.
4. Click the Save as type
Tip
dropdown arrow and click
Saving a map with thumb-
ArcMap Template.
nail images
5. Click Save.
Thumbnails are small images that
provide an overview of the
geographic data in your map.
Thumbnails appear in ArcCatalog
and when you add data in
3 45
Thumbnails view in ArcMap. To
save a thumbnail for your map, in
ArcMap click File and click Map
Properties. Check the Save
thumbnail image with map box,
Exiting ArcMap
then save the map.
1. Click the File menu and click
Exit.
See Also
2. Click Yes to save any
See Using ArcCatalog for more changes, No to discard any
information on thumbnails.
changes, or Cancel to
continue working on your
map.
See Also
For more information on creating
2
maps, see Chapter 4, ‘Displaying
1
data in maps’.




ARCMAP BASICS 99
Keyboard shortcuts in ArcMap
Accessing ArcMap menu commands Layers that are dragged and dropped between data frames and
ArcMap sessions are copied; hold down Ctrl while dragging and
Menu Command Shortcut
dropping to move layers between data frames and ArcMap
File New Ctrl + N sessions.
File Open Ctrl + O Data frames that are dragged and dropped are moved; hold down
Ctrl while dragging and dropping to copy them.
File Save Ctrl + S
Layers that are dragged and dropped inside a data frame are
File Exit Alt + F4
moved; hold down Ctrl while dragging and dropping to copy
Edit Undo Ctrl + Z them.
Edit Redo Ctrl + Y Use drag and drop to move layers in and out of a group layer
within a data frame.
Edit Cut Ctrl + X
Edit Copy Ctrl + C
Navigating the table of contents with the keyboard
Edit Paste Ctrl + V
F3 or clicking inside the table of contents puts the keyboard
Edit Delete Delete focus on the table of contents so you can navigate and interact
with it.
Help ArcGIS Desktop Help F1
Esc or clicking the map puts the keyboard focus on the map.
Help What’s This? Shift + F1
Home selects the first item in the table of contents.
To access the Main menu, press Alt and use the arrow keys to
move through the menus; press Enter to make a selection. End selects the last item in the table of contents.
Use Esc to close a menu or dialog box. Up/Down arrows move through the items in the table of contents.
Left/Right arrows or the + and - keys expand or contract selected
Docking and undocking
items. They also switch between the tabs at the bottom of the
Hold down Ctrl while dragging a toolbar or dockable window to table of contents when they have keyboard focus.
prevent it from docking.
Spacebar turns drawing of the selected layer(s) on or off.
Dragging and dropping F2 renames the selected item.
F12 or Enter opens the selected item’s property dialog box.
You can drag and drop or copy and paste multiple layers in the
table of contents and between ArcMap sessions. You can also Shift + F10 (or the Application key) opens the context menu for
drag and drop or copy and paste data frames between ArcMap the selected item.
sessions.



1 00 USING ARCMAP
Use Shift + F1 or F1 to obtain context help when an item has
keyboard focus or when the properties dialog box tab or a table of
contents tab is selected.
F11 activates a selected data frame, or hold down Alt and click a
data frame to activate it.

Selecting items in the table of contents
Ctrl + click selects or deselects multiple layers or data frames.
Shift + click selects all layers or data frames between two layers
or data frames within the same table of contents level.

Using mouse shortcuts in the table of contents
Ctrl + click on an expansion control (+/-) to expand or contract
all the items at that level. If any items are currently selected, only
the selected items are expanded or collapsed.
Ctrl + click on a check box to turn all the layers on or off at that
level. If any items are currently selected, only the selected items
are turned on or off.
When dragging layers, hovering over an expansion control with
the drop cursor expands or collapses any item.
Right-clicking features, layers, and data frames always opens a
context menu.




ARCMAP BASICS 101
Displaying data




Section 2
4
Displaying data in maps
I N THIS CHAPTER Before you sit down to create a map, you need to think about its purpose.
What do you want your map to show? Will the map be displayed by itself, or
• Creating a new map will it be part of a larger presentation? Who is the audience for the map?
Answering these and other similar questions will help you determine how to
• Adding layers
organize and present the information on your map—for instance, what level
of detail you need to show; what colors and symbols you should use to draw
• Adding coverages, shapefiles, and
features; and whether you need to create an interactive map people use at
geodatabases
the computer, one you simply print out and display on a wall, or both.
• Adding data from the Internet
The first step to creating a map is to locate the data you want to put on it.
Finding data may be as simple as using ArcCatalog to browse your
• Adding data from a GIS server
organization’s GIS database or the spatial data distributed with ArcMap. The
• Adding TINs as surfaces Internet is also an excellent resource for finding data—you can add data
directly from the Internet using the Geography NetworkSM Web site at
• Adding CAD drawings
www.geographynetwork.com. Many government agencies distribute data
to the public at minimal or no cost. Commercial data vendors also package
• Adding x,y coordinate data
data for a wide variety of applications from business to natural resources. If
• Adding route events you have special data requirements, you might create your own data (see
Editing in ArcMap) or contact one of the many service bureaus or GIS
• Creating and adding a new feature
consulting companies that can produce data for you. Even if you don’t think
class
you have any spatial data, you just might.
• About coordinate systems

• Specifying a coordinate system

• Referencing data on a map


105
Creating a new Creating a new map from
the Startup dialog box
map 2
1. Start ArcMap.
No matter what kind of map you 2. Click to create a new empty
want to make, you begin the map, create a map from a
same way—by creating a new template, or browse for an
map document. You can either existing map.
create an empty map with
3. Click OK.
nothing on it or use a map
template as a starting point.
Map templates typically contain
a predefined page layout that
arranges map elements such as
North arrows, scalebars, and
logos on the virtual page. This
3
means you can just add your
data and immediately print the
map. Templates can also
contain data (as layers), special
Creating a new empty
symbols and styles, custom
1
map
toolbars, and macros such as
VBA forms and modules.
1. Click the New button on the
ArcMap comes with many Standard toolbar to create a
predefined templates to choose new empty map.
from when making your maps.
If you have a map open
Also, any map you make can be
already, you’ll be prompted to
saved as a template. Templates
save your changes.
provide an ideal method for
defining the standard maps
your organization needs.




1 06 USING ARCMAP
Using a map template
Tip
1
Organizing templates 1. Click the File menu and click
You can create your own templates New.
and organize them into folders on
2. Click the tab that corre-
your computer. These folders
sponds to the type of map
appear as tabs on the New dialog
you want to make.
box (lower right). Create folders in
the \Bin\Templates folder where The tabs you see will depend
you’ve installed ArcGIS. on how you’ve organized
custom templates.
3. Click the template you want.
Some of the templates
included with ArcMap
contain data. You can add
your data right on top.
2
4. Click Document to create a
new map document.
5. Click OK.
3




4 5




DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 107
Adding layers Adding a layer from
ArcCatalog
3
Geographic data is represented
1. Start ArcCatalog from the
on a map as a layer. A layer
Start menu.
4
might represent a particular
type of feature, such as 2. Arrange the ArcCatalog and
highways, lakes, or wildlife ArcMap windows so you can
habitats, or it might represent a see both on the screen.
particular type of data, such as
3. Navigate to the layer you
a satellite image, a computer-
want to add to the map.
aided design (CAD) drawing,
4. Click and drag the layer from
or a terrain elevation surface in
ArcCatalog.
a Triangulated irregular
network (TIN) . 5. Drop the layer over the map
display in ArcMap.
You don’t need to know much
about data to add a layer to a The layer is copied to the
map. Simply drag one from map. Any subsequent edits
ArcCatalog—or copy and paste made to the layer on disk will
one from another map—onto not be reflected on this map.
the map you’re working on. The
layer will draw as it was
previously symbolized.
5
A layer doesn’t store geo-
graphic data itself; instead, it
1 2
references the data stored in
Adding a layer from the
coverages, shapefiles, rasters,
Add Data button
and so on. Thus a layer always
reflects the most up-to-date 1. Click the Add Data button on
information in your database. If the Standard toolbar.
you don’t have a layer, you can
2. Click the Look in dropdown
easily create one as described
arrow and navigate to the
on the following pages. For
folder that contains the layer.
example, you might create
3
several layers that highlight 3. Click the layer.
different aspects of your data
4. Click Add.
and distribute them to others in
your organization. The new layer appears on
4
your map.




1 08 USING ARCMAP
7
6
Adding a layer from
Tip
another map
To see a layer on a map,
you must have access to
1. Open the map that contains
its data source
the layer you want to copy.
Even though you have access to a
2. In the table of contents, right-
layer on disk, it won’t draw on
click the layer and click Save
your map unless you also have
As Layer File.
access to the data source the layer
is based on. 3. Click the Look in dropdown
arrow and navigate to the
folder where you want to
Tip
save the layer.
Adding a layer from the
4. Type a name for the layer.
Catalog
2
When you add a predefined layer to 5. Click Save.
your map from the Catalog, a copy
6. Click the Open button on the
is placed on the current map. Your
3
Standard toolbar to open the
current map will not change if the
map you want to add the
original layer is modified.
layer to.
7. Click the Add Data button.
8. Click the Look in dropdown
arrow and navigate to the
folder that contains the layer.
9. Click the layer.
5
10. Click Add.


4
8

9


Q

DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 109
Adding coverages, Adding data from
ArcCatalog
shapefiles, and 3
1. Start ArcCatalog from the
geodatabases Start menu.
4
2. Arrange the ArcCatalog and
When you don’t have a
ArcMap windows so that you
predefined layer at your
can see both on the screen.
disposal, you can create one
directly from a data source such 3. Navigate to the data source
as a shapefile. To create a layer, you want to add to the map.
add the data source to your
4. Click and drag the data
map; ArcMap creates a new
source from ArcCatalog.
layer that references the data
source. 5. Drop the data source over
the map display in ArcMap.
Once a layer is part of a map,
you can decide whether or not ArcMap creates a new layer
to display it, the scale at which on the map that references
it should be visible, what the data source.
features or subset of features to
display, and how to draw those
features. You can also join other
5
tabular information you have
about features to the layer and
group layers so they appear as
2
1
one layer on the map.
Adding data in ArcMap
The data you display on a map
1. Click the Add Data button on
comes in a variety of types—
the Standard toolbar.
such as raster, vector, and
tabular—and can be stored in 2. Click the Look in dropdown
different formats. If your data is arrow and navigate to the
stored in a format supported by folder that contains the data
ArcMap, you can add it directly
3
source.
to your map as a layer. If your
3. Click the data source.
data isn’t in a supported format,
you can use the data conver- 4. Click Add.
sion utilities in the ArcToolbox™
ArcMap creates a new layer
4
or other third party data
on the map that references
conversion products to convert
the data source.
practically any data you have
and display it on a map.

1 10 USING ARCMAP
Displaying a subset of
Tip
the features in a layer
Creating a layer in
that meet some criteria
ArcCatalog
In addition to creating a layer on
1. In the table of contents, right-
the fly in ArcMap, you can create
click the layer and click
one in ArcCatalog.
Properties.
2. Click the Definition Query
Tip tab.
More than one layer can
3. Type an expression or click
reference the same data
Query Builder.
source
1
The Query Builder lets you
When you create a layer, you
create an expression to
specify a data source that the layer
identify the particular features
references.
in the layer you want to
2
display. For example, you
See Also might choose to display only
those cities with a population
For more information on how to
greater than 1,000,000.
draw a layer once you’ve added it
to a map, see Chapter 6, 4. Click OK.
‘Symbolizing features’.


See Also
For more information on the syntax
3
for building a Definition Query
expression, see Chapter 13,
‘Querying maps’.


See Also
For more information on adding
4
raster data to your map, see
Chapter 9, ‘Working with rasters’.




DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 111
Adding data from Adding data from an
Internet site
the Internet
1. Click the File menu, point to
The Internet is a vast resource Add Data from Internet, and
1
for geographic data. The Add click Add Website.
Data from Internet option in 2. Type the URL address of the
ArcMap allows you to go
Web site you wish to access.
directly to any Web site you
3. Click OK.
choose, using a browser to
explore Metadata Explorer sites. An Internet browser opens
Generally, the data you add to
2
giving you access to the
your maps is accessed directly location you entered. From
from the organization providing here you can search the site
3
the data. for the data you want to add
to your map.
An example of a widely used
source is the Geography
Network
( www.geographynetwork.com ).
Adding data through the
The Geography Network is a
global community of data Geography Network
providers committed to making
1. Click the File menu, point to
geographic content available to
1
Add Data from Internet, and
the public. Published from sites
click Add Data from
around the world, it gives you
Geography Network.
immediate access to the latest
maps, data, and related services 2. Browse the Geography
over the Internet. Use the Network to find the data you
Geography Network to search want.
for and explore maps and other
The Geography Network
geographic content. When you
allows you to search, for
find what you want, add it
example, by data provider,
directly to your maps in
data type, and geographic
ArcMap.
extent. Once you find data,
In some cases there will be a you can read a description of
lock symbol on the Add to it, view it over the Internet,
ArcMap button. This indicates and add it to your map in
it is a service with which you ArcMap.
need to be registered in order to
use the data.


1 12 USING ARCMAP
Adding data from a GIS server
You can use data available on the Internet or over a network functionality because the geographic features are directly
directly in your maps. Any data being served over a network or accessible by ArcMap.
the Internet, using ArcIMS® or ArcGIS Server, can be added to
The ArcGIS Server layer
ArcMap as a layer. The ability to work with Internet data is built
into ArcMap and doesn’t require any additional software. To
An ArcGIS Server provides a Map Service layer. This layer is
learn more about connecting to a GIS server, see Using
associated with a single data frame in an actual map document
ArcCatalog. Once you are connected to a GIS server, you can
(.mxd or .pmf). Like the ArcIMS Image and ArcMap Image Service
browse through its available data. You can add the data to
layers, the Map Service layer is received as an image
ArcMap as a layer—by either dragging and dropping from
representation of the existing ArcMap map document.
ArcCatalog or by using Add Data in ArcMap.
When you work with data being served from a GIS server, you Using data from a GIS server in ArcMap
don’t download the data to your computer; you work with a live
GIS data served using a GIS server looks like any other layer on
service over the Internet or network. When you draw a layer
your map. There are a few differences depending on how the host
based on a GIS service, ArcMap automatically retrieves the data
decided to serve the data. When you add either Image Service
for the service over the Internet or network. This saves you from
layer to ArcMap, you’ll see a new group layer containing feature
having to store and manage the data yourself, but it also means
class layers in your table of contents. This layer has been set up
that the layer will become unavailable if you go offline (unless
and saved by its creator using the symbology and organization
you export the data locally).
he or she determined to be most useful; however, you can
customize its appearance by turning on or off the individual
The ArcIMS server layers
feature class layers or by renaming them. You can also use the
ArcIMS provides three types of map services that are opened as Identify tool with these layers.
layers in ArcMap: an Image Service, an ArcMap Image Service,
A Feature Map Service layer is more like the regular layers you
and a Feature Map Service. The layers provided from an Image
may have worked with in ArcMap. It allows you to do a little more
Service and an ArcMap Image Service are essentially snapshots
customization than the Image Service layers, including changing
of a map on a server, which are delivered to you as an image.
the drawing order, spatial selection, and symbology.
These snapshots are sent as a compressed JPEG, PNG, or GIF
Any of the services can exist as a background to your own data.
files. The Image Service layer is created within ArcIMS. In the
case of the ArcMap Image Service layer, there is an ArcMap To learn more about ArcGIS server connections, see the ArcGIS
component embedded with ArcIMS that allows ArcIMS to serve Desktop Help.
up maps created from the ArcMap documents (.mxd or .pmf),
To learn more about ArcIMS or ArcGIS Server, check the products
allowing you to retrieve maps that use the advanced cartographic
page on www.esri.com or support.esri.com.
and open data access capabilities of ArcMap. A Feature Map
Service layer receives actual vector features, providing additional



DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 113
2
1
Adding data from a GIS
Tip
server
Connecting to a GIS server
If the GIS server you need is not 1. Click the Add Data button on
listed, you can use either Add
the Standard toolbar.
ArcGIS Server or Add ArcIMS
2. Click the Look in dropdown
Server to connect to a new server.
arrow and navigate to the
GIS Servers folder.
Tip
3. Double-click the server with
3
Why is there a red “x” on
data you want to access.
my GIS server?
If you don’t see the server
The red “x” implies that the
you want, double-click Add
connection needs to be refreshed.
ArcGIS Server or Add ArcIMS
You can do this by double-clicking
Server. For more information
the connection.
on connecting to a GIS
server, see Using
See Also
ArcCatalog.
For more information on connect- 4. Click the Details button so
4
ing to a GIS server, see Using
you can see the details of the
ArcCatalog.
types of map servers or
server objects to which you
5
can connect.
5. Click the name to choose the
one you want to use.
6
6. Click Add.
ArcMap creates a new layer
on the map that references
the data source.



GIS server layers are
displayed with tree
lines joining the
contained layers.




1 14 USING ARCMAP
Adding TINs as Adding TIN data from
ArcCatalog
3
surfaces
1. Start ArcCatalog from the
Data that varies continuously Start menu.
4
across an area—elevation,
2. Arrange the ArcCatalog and
rainfall, and temperature—is ArcMap windows so you can
often represented on a map as a
see both on the screen.
surface. Surface data comes
3. Navigate to the TIN data
from a variety of sources and in
source you want to add to the
many formats. Aerial photo-
map.
graphs, radar, sonar, and similar
sources generate information 4. Click and drag the TIN data
used to build surfaces. This from ArcCatalog.
data is processed into formats,
5. Drop the TIN data over the
such as SDTS raster profiles,
map display in ArcMap.
digital elevation models
(DEMs), DTED grids, vector ArcMap creates a new layer
coverages, and raw text files, all on the map that references
of which you can convert into the TIN data source.
TINs that display as surfaces
on your map.
5
A TIN is built from a series of
irregularly spaced points with
values that describe the surface
1 2
at that point (for example, an Adding TIN data in
elevation). From these points, a
ArcMap
network of linked triangles is
constructed. Adjacent triangles, 1. Click the Add Data button on
sharing two nodes and an edge, the Standard toolbar.
connect to form the surface.
2. Click the Look in dropdown
A height can be calculated for
3
arrow and navigate to the
any point on the surface by folder that contains the TIN
interpolating a value from the data source.
nodes of nearby triangles. In
3. Click the desired TIN.
addition, each triangle face has
a specific slope and aspect. You 4. Click Add.
4
can display any one of these ArcMap creates a new layer
surface characteristics—slope, on the map that references
aspect, and elevation—or the
the TIN data source.
internal structure of the TIN.

DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 115
Adding CAD Adding a CAD drawing
from ArcCatalog
3
drawings
1. Start ArcCatalog from the
If your organization has existing Start menu.
4
CAD drawing files, you can use
2. Arrange the ArcCatalog and
these immediately on your ArcMap windows so you can
maps. You don’t need to
see both on the screen.
convert the data, but you do
3. Navigate to the CAD drawing
need to decide how you plan to
you want to add to the map.
use the data.
4. Click and drag the CAD
If you simply want to see the
drawing from ArcCatalog.
CAD drawing with your other
data, you can add the CAD 5. Drop the CAD drawing over
drawing as a layer for display the map display in ArcMap.
only. The entities will draw as
ArcMap creates a new layer
defined in the CAD drawing file.
on the map that references
Alternatively, if you want to
the CAD drawing.
control how entities draw on
the map or perform geographic
analysis, you need to add the
CAD data as features ArcMap
5
can work with—specifically,
point, line, or polygon features.
When you browse for a CAD
1 2
Adding a CAD drawing in
drawing to add to your map,
ArcMap
you’ll see two representations
of the data: a CAD drawing file
1. Click the Add Data button on
and a CAD dataset. Use the
the Standard toolbar.
drawing file for display only
2. Click the Look in dropdown
and the dataset for display and
arrow and navigate to the
geographic analysis.
folder that contains the CAD
CAD drawing files typically
drawing.
store different types of entities
3
3. Click the CAD drawing.
on different layers in a drawing
file. One layer might contain 4. Click Add.
building footprints, another
ArcMap creates a new layer
streets, a third well locations,
4
on the map that references
and a fourth textual annotation.
the CAD drawing.
CAD drawing files, however, u


1 16 USING ARCMAP
1
do not restrict the type of Adding a CAD dataset for
entities you can have on a display and analysis
drawing layer. Thus building
1. Click the Add Data button on
footprints might be on the same
the Standard toolbar.
drawing layer as streets. When
working with a CAD drawing as 2. Click the Look in dropdown
features, you’ll likely add arrow and navigate to the
several ArcMap layers from the folder that contains the CAD
same CAD drawing file and dataset.
adjust what features display in
3. Double-click the CAD dataset
those layers.
and click the CAD feature
you want to add.
4. Click Add.
Only the subset of features in
the layer will display.



2


3



4




DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 117
Adding x,y Adding a table with x,y
coordinates
coordinate data
1. Click Tools on the Main menu
You don’t always have to have and click Add XY Data.
1
a data source, such as a
2. Click the table dropdown
shapefile, to add data to your arrow and click a table that
map. If you have some tabular
contains x,y coordinate data.
data that contains geographic
If the table is not on the map,
locations in the form of x,y click the Browse button to
coordinates, you can add this
access it from disk.
to a map as well.
3. Click the X Field dropdown
Sets of x,y coordinates describe arrow and click the field
2
discrete locations on the earth’s
containing x coordinate
surface, such as the location of values.
fire hydrants in a city or the
4. Click the Y Field dropdown
points where soil samples were
3 4
arrow and click the field
collected. You can easily collect
containing y coordinate
x,y coordinate data using a
values.
global positioning system
(GPS) device. 5. Click Edit to define the
coordinate system and units
In order to add a table of x,y
represented in the x and y
coordinates to your map, the
fields.
table must contain two fields,
one for the x coordinate and The x,y coordinates will be
one for the y coordinate. The automatically transformed to
values in the fields may match the coordinate system
represent any coordinate of the data frame.
5
system and units such as
6. Click OK.
latitude and longitude or
meters.
Once you have added the data
to your map, the layer behaves
6
just as any other feature layer.
For instance, you can decide
whether or not you want to
display it, symbolize it, set the
visible scale, or display a
subset of features that meet
some criteria.

1 18 USING ARCMAP
1. Click Add Route Events from
Adding route the ArcMap Tools menu.
events 2. Click the Route Reference
dropdown arrow and click
A route event is an attribute the route reference layer.
that describes a portion of a
1
Alternately, click the Browse
route or a single location on a
button and navigate to the
route. Route events are
route reference feature class.
organized into tables based on
3. Click the Route Identifier
a common theme. For example,
dropdown arrow and click
route event tables for highways
the route identifier field if
might include speed limits, year
necessary.
of resurfacing, present condi-
tion, signs, and accidents. 4. Click the Event Table
2
Route events use route and dropdown arrow and click
3
measure information to refer- the event table.
ence the attributes of particular Alternately, click the Browse
locations in a route feature button and navigate to the
class.
4
event table.
5
There are two types of route 5. Click the Route Identifier
events: point and line. Point dropdown arrow and click
6
events occur at precise loca- the route identifier.
tions along on a route. They are
6. Click the type of events the
referenced to a location along a
route event table contains.
route using a single measure
7
7. For point events, click the
value. Line events describe
Measure dropdown arrow
portions of routes. They differ
and click the Measure field.
from point events in that they
8
use two measure values to For line events, click the
describe the measure location From-Measure dropdown
of the event. arrow and click the from-
measure field. Click the To-
A route event table has at least
9
Measure dropdown arrow
two fields: an event key and
and click the to-measure
one or more measure locations.
field.
The event key field identifies
8. Optionally, click the Offset
the route to which an event
dropdown arrow and click
belongs. A measure location is
the offset field.
either one or two values
describing the positions on the 9. Click Advanced Options. u
route where the event occurs.


DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 119
10. Click all of the advanced
Tip
dynamic segmentations you
Route identifier field
want applied to the route
The Add Route Events dialog box
event source.
will pay attention to a route layer’s
11. Click OK.
route identifier field.
12. Click OK.

Q
Tip
Displaying route events
Right-click an event table in the
table of contents and click Display
Route Events.


Tip
Layer files
You can save event layers as a
layer file (.lyr). The next time you
bring this file into ArcMap, the
W
dynamic segmentation process will
automatically be performed for
you.




1 20 USING ARCMAP
Creating and Creating a new 1
geodatabase
adding a new
1. Click the ArcCatalog button
feature class in the ArcMap Standard
toolbar to open ArcCatalog.
It is a three-step process to
2. Click a folder or create a new
create and add a new feature
folder to create the geodata-
class to your ArcMap docu-
base in.
ment. The first step is to create
a new geodatabase or select an 3. Right-click the folder, point to
existing one. You then create New, then click Personal
your new feature class, which is Geodatabase.
contained in the geodatabase.
3
4. The folder name is already
Both of these steps are per-
highlighted so you can
formed in ArcCatalog.
change the name to some-
The final step is to add this thing more appropriate.
feature class to your ArcMap
project. You can either add this
feature by dragging and
dropping it from the ArcCatalog
window onto the ArcMap
window or by selecting the Add
Data button in the ArcMap
4
window and choosing the new
feature class file.




DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 121
Creating a new feature
See Also
class
For information on how to create a
new shapefile or table, see Using 1. Right-click the geodatabase
ArcCatalog. where you want to create the
feature class. Point to New,
then click Feature Class.
1
2. Enter a name for the feature.
3. Choose the type of feature
class to create.
4. Click Next.
2
5. Specify the database storage
configuration. Choosing
Default is often sufficient.

3
6. Click Next.
7. Click Shape under Field
Name.
8. Under Field Properties,
5
choose the Geometry Type by
clicking in the space beside it
and clicking the option you
want from the dropdown
menu.
If you do not choose a
4
Geometry Type, the default is
Polygon.

7
9. Click Finish.
To add this layer to ArcMap,
you can click and drag it as
6
previously described in
8
‘Adding a layer from
ArcCatalog’.




9
1 22 USING ARCMAP
About coordinate systems
Do you need to display your data with a projected
The features on a map reference the actual locations of the
objects they represent in the real world. The positions of objects coordinate system?
on the earth’s spherical surface are measured in degrees of
If your spatial data references locations with latitude and
latitude and longitude, also known as geographic coordinates.
longitude—for example, decimal degrees—you can still display it
While latitude and longitude can locate exact positions on the
on your map. ArcMap draws the data by simply treating the
surface of the earth, they are not uniform units of measure; only
latitude/longitude coordinates as planar x,y coordinates. If your
along the equator does the distance represented by one degree of
map doesn’t require a high level of locational accuracy—if you
longitude approximate the distance represented by one degree of
won’t be performing queries based on location and distance or if
latitude. To overcome measurement difficulties, data is often
you just want to make a quick map—you might decide not to
transformed from the three-dimensional geographic coordinate
transform your data to a projected coordinate system.
system to the two-dimensional planar surface in a projected
coordinate system. Projected coordinate systems describe the If, however, you need to make precise measurements on your
distance from an origin (0,0) along two separate axes—a map, you should choose a projected coordinate system. When
horizontal x-axis representing east–west and a vertical y-axis displaying and performing analysis with datasets, they should be
representing north–south. in the same coordinate space and in the same projection. If two
datasets are in different coordinate systems, the values of the
Because the earth is round and maps are flat, getting information
coordinates are on different scales. Errors will occur when
from the curved surface to a flat one involves a mathematical
comparing such datasets because they will represent different
formula called a map projection. A map projection transforms
locations.
latitude and longitude to x,y coordinates in a projected coordinate
system.
Reasons for using a projected coordinate system
This process of flattening the earth will cause distortions in one
• You want to make accurate measurements from your map and
or more of the following spatial properties: distance, area, shape,
be sure that spatial analysis options you use in ArcMap
and direction. No projection can preserve all these properties and,
calculate distance correctly. Latitude/Longitude is a good
as a result, all flat maps are distorted to some degree. Fortunately,
system for storing spatial data but not very good for viewing,
you can choose from many different map projections. Each is
querying, or analyzing maps. Degrees of latitude and
distinguished by its suitability for representing a particular
longitude are not consistent units of measure for area, shape,
portion and amount of the earth’s surface and by its ability to
distance, and direction.
preserve distance, area, shape, or direction. Some map projections
minimize distortion in one property at the expense of another, • You are making a map in which you want to preserve one or
while others strive to balance the overall distortion. As a more of these properties: area, shape, distance, and direction.
mapmaker, you can decide which properties are most important
• You are making a small-scale map such as a national or world
and choose a projection that suits your needs.
map. With a small-scale map, your choice of map projection



DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 123
What type of map projection should you choose?
determines the overall appearance of the map. For example,
with some projections, lines of latitude and longitude will
Here are a few things to consider when choosing a projection:
appear curved; with others they will appear straight.
• Which spatial properties do you want to preserve?
• Your organization mandates using a particular projected
coordinate system for all maps. • Where is the area you’re mapping? Is your data in a polar
region? An equatorial region?
What is an on-the-fly projection? • What shape is the area you’re mapping? Is it square? Is it
wider in the east–west direction?
ArcMap can perform what is commonly known as an on-the-fly
projection. This means ArcMap can display data stored in one • How big is the area you’re mapping? On large-scale maps,
projection as if it were in another projection. The new such as street maps, distortion may be negligible because
pseudoprojection is for display and query purposes only. The your map covers only a small part of the earth’s surface. On
actual data is not altered. Data is projected on the fly anytime a small-scale maps, where a small distance on the map
data frame contains a layer whose coordinate system is defined represents a considerable distance on the earth, distortion
as something different from the coordinate system definition of may have a bigger impact, especially if you use your map to
the data frame. A data frame’s coordinate system can be defined compare or measure shape, area, or distance.
by adding data with a defined coordinate system or by manually
Answering these questions will determine which map projection
setting the coordinate system (by accessing the data frame’s
and thus which projected coordinate system you’ll want to use to
properties).
display your data.
ArcMap will not project data on the fly if the coordinate system
Map projections can generally be classified according to which
for the dataset has not been defined. A dataset with an undefined
spatial attribute they preserve (distance, area, shape, or
coordinate system will simply be displayed in its native
direction).
coordinate system. The coordinate system for any dataset can be
defined using ArcCatalog.
The first layer added to the data frame defines its coordinate Equal area projections preserve area and are
also called equivalent projections. Most thematic
system. This is true whether the data is projected or geographic.
maps should use an equal area
For example, if the first layer added contains a Lambert Conformal projection. The Albers Equal Area
Conic projected coordinate system, all other layers will project on Conic projection is commonly
the fly to match this. Similarly, if the first layer added to the data used for the United States;
common projections for the
frame contains data that uses a WGS84 geographic coordinate
world are Equal Area
system, all other layers will adjust to match this. Even data that Cylindrical and Sinusoidal.
uses a projected coordinate system will unproject on the fly.
For information on projecting rasters on the fly, see Chapter 9,
‘Working with rasters’.

1 24 USING ARCMAP
Conformal projections preserve angles and are
useful for navigational charts and weather
maps. Shape is preserved for small areas, but
the shape of a large area such as a continent
will be significantly distorted. Common
conformal projections are the Lambert
Conformal Conic and the Mercator.


Azimuthal projections preserve direction from one
point to all other points. This property can be
combined with preserving either area, angles, or
distance. Thus, it is possible to have an Equal Area
Azimuthal projection, such as Lambert, or an
Equidistant Azimuthal projection.



Equidistant projections preserve
distances, but no projection can
preserve distances from all points
to all other points. Instead,
distance can be held true from
one point (or a few points) to all
other points or along all meridians
or parallels. If you will be using your map to find features that are
within a certain distance of other features, you should use an
equidistant map projection.


Compromise projections minimize
overall distortion but preserve none
of the four properties. The Robinson
projection, for example, is neither
equal area nor conformal but is
aesthetically pleasing and useful for
general mapping.



For more information on coordinate systems, see Understanding
Map Projections.



DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 125
Specifying a Finding out which
coordinate system your
coordinate system data is currently
displayed with
If all the data you want to
display on your map is stored in 1. Right-click the data frame
the same coordinate system— that you want to determine
for example, you’re using your the coordinate system of and
organization’s database—you click Properties.
can just add it to a map and not
2. Click the Coordinate System
consider whether the layers will
tab.
overlay properly; they will. If,
however, you’ve collected data The details of the current
from a variety of sources, you’ll data frame coordinate system
need to know what coordinate display in the dialog box.
system each dataset uses to
1
ensure ArcMap can display
them together.
2
When you add a layer to an
empty data frame, that layer
sets the coordinate system for
the data frame; you can change
it later if necessary. As you add
subsequent layers, they are
automatically transformed to
the data frame’s coordinate
system as long as there’s
enough information associated
with the layer’s data source to
determine its current coordinate
system. If there isn’t enough
information, ArcMap will be
unable to align the data and
display it correctly. In this case,
you’ll have to supply the
necessary coordinate system
information yourself.
ArcMap expects coordinate
system information to be stored
with the data source. For each u


1 26 USING ARCMAP
layer in a geodatabase, this Displaying data with a
information is part of the layer’s predefined coordinate
metadata. For coverages,
system
shapefiles, and rasters, it’s
stored on disk in a separate file 1. Right-click the data frame
named after the data source but that you want to set the
with a .prj file extension (for coordinate system of and
example, streets.prj). These files click Properties.
are optional files; thus you may
2. Click the Coordinate System
still need to define the coordi-
tab.
nate system for one of these
3. Double-click Predefined.
data sources. You can create a
.prj file with ArcCatalog. 4. Navigate through the folders
until you find the coordinate
If no coordinate system
system you want and click it.
information is associated with a
1
data source, ArcMap will 5. Click OK.
examine the coordinate values
All layers in the data frame
to see if they fall within the
will now be displayed with
range: -180 to 180 for x-values
2
that coordinate system.
and -90 to 90 for y-values. If
they do, ArcMap assumes that
these are geographic coordi-
nates of latitude and longitude.
If the values are not in this
range, ArcMap simply treats the
values as planar x,y coordi-
nates.


Tip
3
Changing the coordinate
system of a data frame
4
Changing the coordinate system of
a data frame does not alter the
coordinate system of the source
data contained in it.


5


DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 127
Modifying the parameters
See Also
of a coordinate system
For more information on coordi-
nate systems, see Understanding 1. Right-click the data frame
Map Projections.
2 3
whose coordinate system
you want to modify and click
Properties.
2. Click the Coordinate System
tab.
3. Click Modify.
4. Adjust the coordinate system
properties as appropriate.
1
5. Click OK.
6. Click OK on the Data Frame
Properties dialog box.




6




4




5


1 28 USING ARCMAP
Setting the units for
Tip
reporting lengths and
Do you want to see meters,
displaying coordinates
miles, or feet?
When you measure lengths or find
1. Right-click the data frame
places by their coordinates, you
and click Properties.
can choose which units you want to
use. Set the Display Units property 2. Click the General tab.
as needed.
3. Click the Map dropdown
arrow and click the appropri-
Tip ate units.
Why can’t I set the map The map units option is only
units? available when your data
Map units are a property of the has no coordinate system
coordinate system defined with information associated with
your data. You can change the map
1
it.
units by modifying the coordinate
4. Click the Display dropdown
system. Right-click the data frame
2
arrow and click the appropri-
containing your data and click the
ate units.
Coordinate System tab. Here you
can modify the parameters of the
5. Click OK.
coordinate system.




3
4




5

DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 129
How to reference data on a map
ArcMap can reference data that is stored in databases (personal folder structure that must be traversed. If layers in a map do not
or ArcSDE®) or as files on a disk. If you plan to distribute your meet that criterion, they will not be saved with relative
maps to others or if the location of your data has changed, you pathnames, but will instead retain their full pathname. You can
may need to change how your map references data so others will reference relative paths by clicking the File menu, Map Properties,
not need to repair layers. ArcMap has several options for then Data Source Options.
referencing file-based data: full paths, relative paths, or Universal
UNC paths
Naming Convention (UNC) paths.
An example of a UNC path is:
Full paths
\\GISServer\GIS\Project1\Boundary.shp. Using UNC paths allows
An example of a full (absolute) path is: you to make a map referencing data on a computer on your
C:\GIS\Project1\Boundary.shp. To share maps saved with paths organization’s network so the map can be shared with others
to data with the full path option, everyone who uses the map without requiring that they map the network computer as a disk
must either do so on the same computer or have the data on their drive on their local machine. The network computer is referenced
computer in exactly the same folder structure. directly by name in the path.
One thing to keep in mind is that a personal geodatabase may
Relative paths have data stored within a feature dataset, which means its path
will contain that additional information. For example,
An example of a relative path is: \Project1\Boundary.shp. Relative
“C:\GIS\Project1\FieldData.mdb\stations\Feb10” indicates that
paths in a map specify the location of the data contained in the
there is a stations feature dataset with a Feb10 feature class.
map, relative to the current location on disk of the map document
Paths to data that resides on a database server contain the
(.mxd file) itself. Since relative paths don’t contain drive names,
connection properties (server name, database, username, and
they enable the map and its associated data to be moved to any
possibly the password), the feature dataset name, and the feature
disk drive without the map having to be repaired. As long as the
class name.
same directory structure is used at the new location, the map will
still be able to find its data by traversing the relative paths.
Relative paths allow you to share maps that you made with data
on your local “F:\” drive, for example, with people who only have
a “C:\” drive. This also allows you to easily move the map and its
data to a different hard drive on your computer or give the map
and its data to others to copy to their computer.
Data referenced by a relative path can be in the same folder as the
map or in a folder above or below the folder containing the map.
To reference data in a folder that’s above the folder containing
the map, a relative path will contain \..\ for each level up in the


1 30 USING ARCMAP
Referencing data Storing relative
pathnames to data
on a map
1. Click the File menu and click
When you add a layer to your Map Properties.
map, ArcMap references the
2. Click Data Source Options.
data source the layer is based
3. Click Store relative path
on. When you save the map,
1
names.
the data references are stored
with it. The next time you open 4. Click OK.
your map, ArcMap locates the
5. Click OK on the Map Proper-
data based on the references. If
ties dialog box.
ArcMap can’t find a data
source, you’ll need to either
locate the data source yourself
or ignore the reference, in which
case the layer won’t be drawn.
If you plan on distributing your
maps to others, they’ll need
access to the data referenced
on it. If they have access to the
data—for example, data stored
on a server—they can simply
update the references to the
data if necessary. If they don’t
have access to the data, you’ll
probably have to distribute the
data with your map.
2
To help make it easier to
distribute data with your map,
ArcMap allows you to store
5
relative pathnames to data
sources referenced on a map.
This lets you, for example,
distribute your map and data in
4
the same directory. The
references stored in the map are
3
correct regardless of where they
are placed on disk.



DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 131
Repairing and Repairing broken data
source links
updating data
1. Locate the layer with the
links broken link in the table of
1
contents. It will have a red
When you first open a map, exclamation mark next to it.
ArcMap searches for the data
2. Right-click the layer, point to
referenced by the layers on the
Data, and click Set Data
map. If it can’t find the data—
Source.
for example, because the data
has been moved—the layer 3. Click the Look in dropdown
won’t display. arrow and navigate to the
location of the data source.
You can immediately tell which
layers on your map have broken 4. Click the data source.
links because you’ll see a red
5. Click the Add button.
exclamation mark next to their
2
names in the table of contents. The link to the data source is
If you know the new location of now updated.
3
the data, you can repair the link.
You can also update the link to
a layer’s data source. You might
want to do this when, for
example, you want to retain the
layer’s display properties but
4
use an updated attribute table.
For more information, see
‘Changing a layer’s source data’
in Chapter 5.

5
Tip
Storing relative pathnames
to data
If you plan on distributing your
maps to others, you might choose
to reference data using relative
pathnames. See the topics ‘How to
reference data on a map’ and
‘Referencing data on the map’ in
this chapter for more information.

1 32 USING ARCMAP
Updating a link to a data
source
1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer and click
Properties.
2. Click the Source tab.
3. Click Set Data Source.
4. Click the Look in dropdown
arrow and navigate to the
data source.
5. Click the data source.

1
6. Click Add.



2




3


4


5


6

DISPLAYING DATA IN MAPS 133
5
Working with layers
I N THIS CHAPTER You can think of a layer as a specific way to display and work with
• Description of a layer file geographic data. Layers exist within maps and can be saved
independently of maps in a database or as a layer file (.lyr). In fact, many
• Layer property functionality
organizations save layers for their staff to access rather than providing
direct access to the organization’s geographic data. This helps to ensure
• Adding layers
that those accessing the data are viewing the same information.
• Changing a layer’s text
As you saw in the previous chapter, it is easy to create layers just by
adding data to your map. As you add different kinds of data to your map,
• About the drawing order
ArcMap knows how to create specific kinds of layers by knowing what
• Copying layers
kinds of functionality that data can support. Thus, there are different types
of layers—for example, shapefiles are used to create feature layers; CAD
• Removing layers from the map
data can be used to create feature layers and a special kind of layer called
• Grouping layers a CAD layer. Adding raster data (or bitmaps) to a map will result in a
raster layer. The diagram on the next page shows types of layers and
• Saving a layer to disk
what ArcMap can do with them.
• Accessing layer properties

• Displaying a layer at specific scales

• Creating a transparent layer

• Changing a layer’s source data

• Changing the appearance of the table
of contents

• Using data frames to organize layers

135
Description of a layer file
This diagram shows the variety of data that can be used to create different types of layers.




1 36 USING ARCMAP
Layer property functionality
Table
Display effects
A table includes descriptive information that is stored in rows and
The Display tab controls how your data is displayed as you move
columns in a database and can be linked to map features. Each
in the view. Options include making a layer transparent, adding
row represents an individual entity, record, or feature, and each
MapTips and hyperlinks, and restoring excluded features.
column represents a single field or attribute value.
Selection symbol
Select interactively
The Selection tab allows you to set how features in a specific
This function allows you to make selections using the Select
layer will look when they are selected. Selection property changes
Features tool.
in a specific layer override the default Selection Options settings.
Extent definition
Symbology
This appears on the Source tab and shows the bounding extent
This tab offers methods for representing your data. Options
of your data along with its source and coordinate system.
include drawing features in one symbol, proportional symbols,
categories, quantities, color ramps, or charts.
Level and Symbol
These tabs, specific to coverage, PC ARC/INFO®, Spatial
Field display properties
Database Engine™ (SDE®) 3.x, and vector product format (VPF)
The Fields tab provides characteristics about attribute fields. You
annotation, allow you to adjust annotation display properties.
can also create aliases, format numbers, or make fields invisible.
Annotation for these formats, however, is read-only.
Definition Query
CAD Drawing Layers
This tab allows you to display a subset of your data that meets
This tab, which is specific to CAD data, allows you to specify
some criteria without altering the data. With the Query Builder,
which CAD drawing layers are visible.
you can create an expression to display particular features of a
layer.
CAD Transformations
This tab is specific to CAD layers. It allows you to transform a
Joins and Relates
CAD layer so it matches your coordinate system.
This tab allows you to join (include within ArcMap) or relate
(associate) data to the layer’s attribute table. You can also remove
Topology rules and errors
joins or relates.
These functions are specific to topology layers. The Feature
Classes tab lists the feature classes in the topology and their
Labeling
ranks. The Rules tab shows and describes which topology rules
The Labels tab allows you to turn on a layer’s labels; build label
are imposed on your data. The Errors tab allows you to generate a
expressions; manage label classes; and set up the labeling
summary of the errors found in the participating feature classes.
options, which include label placement and symbology.


WORKING WITH LAYERS 137
1
Adding layers Adding a layer file in
ArcMap
Adding a layer is as straightfor-
1. Click the File menu and click
ward as adding other data. A
Add Data, or click the Add
layer file contains the file
2
Data button on the Standard
extension .lyr and is identified
toolbar.
by a diamond-shaped icon.
2. Click the Look in dropdown
arrow and navigate to the
Tip
3
folder containing your layer
Dragging and dropping file.
If you drag and drop the layer file
3. Click the layer file.
onto the table of contents, it will be
4. Click Add.
drawn according to the place in the
4
table of contents where you
ArcMap adds the layer to
dropped it. However, if you drag
your table of contents using
and drop the layer into the window,
the special properties it was
it will be placed in the table of
saved with.
contents according to the default
layer placement.
Adding a layer file from
The default layer placement (top to
ArcCatalog
bottom) typically is:
1. Annotation
1. Start both ArcCatalog and
2. Features
ArcMap.
i. Point
4
ii. Line 2. Arrange the ArcCatalog and
iii. Polygon ArcMap windows so you can
iv. TIN see both on your screen.
v. Raster
3. In ArcCatalog, navigate to the
layer file you are interested
When adding a new layer, it will
in.
automatically be placed above a
similar feature type. For example, a 4. Click and drag the file from
new line feature will be placed ArcCatalog.
above the other line features.
5
5. Drop the file on the ArcMap
window.
ArcMap adds the layer to
your table of contents using
the special properties it was
saved with.


1 38 USING ARCMAP
3
Changing a Changing the name of a
layer
layer’s text
1. In the table of contents, click
A few pieces of descriptive text the layer to select it.
1
display beside each layer in the
2. Click again over the name.
table of contents. One text
This will highlight the name
string is the layer’s name. The
and allow you to change it.
others describe what the
features in the layer represent— 3. Type the new name and
the meanings of the symbols in press Enter.
the legend.
NOTE: This does not change
By default, when you add data the actual filename.
to a map, the resulting layer is
named after its data source.
Often, the name of the data
source is abbreviated. You can
give a layer a more meaningful
name without changing the
name in the source data. This
Changing the map 3
will make it easier to understand
what layers are on the map. feature label
When you draw the features of
1. In the table of contents, click
a layer, you use the attribute
the text you want to change.
values in a particular field to
2. Click again over the text
symbolize them. These attribute
string.
values appear by default next to
1
the symbol in the table of This will highlight the string
contents. As they don’t usually and allow you to change it.
provide a good label descrip-
3. Type the new description and
tion for the features in your
press Enter.
layer either, you’ll likely want to
change them as well.


Tip
Using a shortcut to rename
layers
You can press the F2 key to rename
a layer that is selected in the table
of contents.

WORKING WITH LAYERS 139
About the Moving a layer to change
its drawing order
drawing order
1. In the table of contents, click
2
The order of layers in the table and drag the layer up or
of contents determines how down.
layers are drawn on a map. A black bar indicates where
Within a data frame, the layers
the layer will be placed. This
listed at the top will draw over
1
bar indents to reflect the
those listed below them, and so position in the layer hierarchy
on down the list. You can easily
where the drop will occur.
move layers around to adjust
2. Release the mouse pointer to
their drawing order or organize
drop the layer in its new
them in separate data frames.
position.
However, no matter where the
annotation layers or selections
are in the table of contents,
they will always draw after
features.


Tip
Ordering your data before
it’s in the table of contents
For data of the same type, the
order you clicked the layers in the
Add Data dialog box or in
ArcCatalog is the order they
appear in the table of contents, with
the first layer clicked being first in
the table of contents.




1 40 USING ARCMAP
Copying layers Copying a layer between
data frames
A quick way to build maps that
1. Right-click the layer or layers
reference the same data source
you want to copy to another
is to copy and paste layers
1
data frame and click Copy.
within a map or between maps.
2
For example, suppose you want 2. Right-click the data frame
to show the change in popula- you want to copy the layer or
tion for an area over time. You layers into and click Paste
can add a layer to a map and Layer(s).
display it using one population
You can also drag and drop a
attribute, then copy the layer to
layer from one data frame to
another map (or another data
another.
frame in the same map) and
If you want to move your
display it using the second
layer instead of copying it
population attribute.
while you drag and drop,
Copying layers from a map to
hold down the Ctrl key when
disk is a convenient way to let
you drop the layer.
others access the layers you’ve
created. Once you’ve defined
how to draw a layer, that
information is saved with the
3
2
Copying a layer to
layer. Thus, anyone who adds
another map
the layer to a map will see it
exactly as you created it. For 1. Right-click the layer or layers
information on copying a layer you want to copy to another
to disk, see ‘Saving a layer to data frame and click Copy.
disk’ in this chapter.
1
2. Click the Open button on the
Standard toolbar and open
the map you want to copy the
Tip
layer or layers into.
Opening one map
3. Right-click the data frame
document at a time
you want to copy the layer
You can work on only one map per
into and click Paste Layer(s).
ArcMap session, although you can
run multiple ArcMap sessions If you don’t want to close your
concurrently. Double-clicking a original map, open another
map in ArcCatalog or Windows
ArcMap session.
Explorer always opens that map in
its own ArcMap session.


WORKING WITH LAYERS 141
Removing layers Removing a layer
from the map 1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer or layers you
want to remove.
When you no longer need a
layer on your map, you can 2. Click Remove.
delete it. Deleting a layer from a
map doesn’t delete the data
1
source on which the layer is
based.
2
Tip
Deleting a data source
You can delete a data source, such
as a coverage, in ArcCatalog.


Tip
Selecting more than one
layer at a time
While you’re clicking, you can hold
down the Shift or Ctrl key to select Removing several layers
multiple layers.
1. In the table of contents, click
the first layer you want to
1
remove.
2. Hold down the Shift or Ctrl
key and click to select
additional layers.
2
3. Right-click the selection and
3
click Remove.




1 42 USING ARCMAP
Grouping layers Creating a group layer
1. Right-click the data frame in
When you want to work with
1
which you want to create a
several layers as one layer, you
group layer.
2
gather them together into a
2. Click New Group Layer.
group layer. For example,
suppose you have two layers A new group layer appears in
on a map representing railroads the table of contents.
and highways. You might
choose to group these layers
together and name the resulting
layer “transportation net-
works”.
A group layer appears and acts
like an individual layer in the
table of contents. Turning off a
group layer turns off all its
component layers. The proper-
ties of the group layer override
Grouping layers in the
any conflicting properties of its
table of contents
constituent layers. For example,
a visible scale range set on a 1. Hold the Ctrl key and
layer will be overridden by a highlight multiple layers in
visible scale range set on the the table of contents.
group layer. If you need to, you
2. Right-click one of the chosen
can even create groups of
1
layers.
group layers.
3. Click Group.
You can still work with the
3
individual layers in the group. A new group layer appears in
For instance, you can change the table of contents contain-
how an individual layer is ing the selected layers.
drawn, adjust the scale at which
it is displayed, and control
whether it is drawn as part of
the group. You can change the
drawing order of the group and
add and remove layers as
needed.




WORKING WITH LAYERS 143
Adding layers to a group
Tip
2
layer
Changing the drawing
order of layers in a group
1. Double-click the group layer
The layers listed at the top of a in the table of contents to
group layer are drawn over those
display its properties.
3
beneath it. You can also drag and
2. Click the Group tab.
drop the layer to a new position to
change the drawing order of the 3. Click Add.
group.
4. Click the Look in dropdown
4
arrow and navigate to the
5
Tip data source you want to add
to the group.
Using ArcCatalog to create
group layers 5. Click the data source.
You can also create your group
6. Click Add.
layer in ArcCatalog.
Tip: If the layer you want to
6
add to a group is already on
See Also the map, you can drag and
drop it in the group.
For information on how to draw
the individual layers in a group,
see, Chapter 6, ‘Symbolizing
features’.
2
Changing the layer order
in a group layer
1. Double-click the group layer
in the table of contents to
3
display its properties.
2. Click the Group tab.
4
3. Click the layer you want to
move.
4. Click the appropriate arrow
button to move the layer up
or down.
5. Click OK.


5
1 44 USING ARCMAP
Displaying the properties
2
of a layer in a group layer
1. Double-click the group layer
in the table of contents to
3
display its properties.

4
2. Click the Group tab.
3. Click the layer for which you
want to display properties.
4. Click Properties.
You can now modify the
layer’s properties—for
example, you can change the
drawing properties.
5. Click OK.
5


2
Removing a layer from a
Tip
group layer
Removing several layers
from a group layer
1. Double-click the group layer
Hold down the Shift or Ctrl key to in the table of contents to
3
select more than one layer in the
display its properties.
4
group.
2. Click the Group tab.
3. Click the layer that you want
to remove.
4. Click Remove.
5. Click OK.




5


WORKING WITH LAYERS 145
Saving a layer to 1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer and click Save
disk As Layer File.
2. Click the Look in dropdown
One of the main features of a
arrow and navigate to the
layer is that it can exist as a file
location where you want to
in your GIS database. This
save the layer.
makes it easy for others to
3. Optionally, change the layer
access the layers you’ve built.
name.
When you save a layer to disk,
4. Click Save.
you save everything about the
layer. When you add the layer
to another map, it will draw
1
exactly as it was saved. This is
very convenient when others at
your organization need to make
2
maps but don’t know how to
represent or access the data in
your database. All they need to
do is add the layer.


Tip
About layer filenames
The filename you provide when you
save a layer to disk does not have
4
to be the same as its name on the
current map. The layer name on
the map, not the layer filename, will
be displayed whenever the layer is
3
added to another map.


Tip
Passing layers to others
Don’t forget, the layer file is just a
link to the actual data source. So if
you are passing the layer to others,
be sure they also have the data
referred to in the layer.



1 46 USING ARCMAP
Accessing layer Displaying layer
properties
properties
1. In the table of contents, right-
You control all aspects of a click the layer and click
layer with its properties. From Properties.
here, you can define how to 2. Click the tab containing the
draw the layer, what data source
properties you want to adjust.
the layer is based on, whether
3. When finished, click OK.
to label the layer, and what
attribute fields the layer
contains.
The Layer Properties dialog box
is different for different layer
types. See the layer file diagram
1
at the beginning of this chapter
to determine the properties of
2
your layers.


Tip
Displaying layer properties
You can also double-click a layer in
the table of contents to display its
properties.




3




WORKING WITH LAYERS 147
Displaying a Setting the minimum
2
visible scale for a layer
layer at specific
1. Right-click the layer in the
scales table of contents and click
Properties.
As long as a layer is turned on
2. Click the General tab.
in the table of contents,
ArcMap draws it, regardless of 3. Click Don’t show layer when
the map scale. As you zoom
3
zoomed.
out, it may become harder to
4
4. Type a minimum scale for the
distinguish features in layers
layer.
that contain more detailed
information. While you can turn If you zoom out beyond this
off a layer, this may be inconve- scale, the layer will not be
nient, especially if your map visible.
contains several layers and you
5. Click OK.
change scale frequently as you
5
work.
To help you automatically
display layers at the appropriate
scale, you can set a layer’s
Setting the maximum 2
visible scale range to define
visible scale for a layer
the range of scales at which
ArcMap draws the layer.
1. Right-click the layer in the
Whenever the scale of the data
table of contents and click
frame is outside the layer’s
Properties.
visible scale range, the layer
won’t draw. In this way, you 2. Click the General tab.
can control how the map looks
3. Click Don’t show layer when
at various scales.
3
zoomed.
For example, you can hide a
4. Type a maximum scale for
detailed layer that might
the layer.
4
otherwise clutter your map
If you zoom in beyond this
when you zoom out. You can
scale, the layer will not be
also progressively display more
visible.
detailed layers as you zoom in
on an area, that is, as the scale 5. Click OK.
of the data frame gets larger.
5
Setting a visible scale range is u


1 48 USING ARCMAP
especially useful if you are Setting a visible scale
creating a map for others to use based on the current
because it makes browsing the
scale
1
map easier.
2
1. Adjust the data frame display
to the appropriate scale.
Tip
2. Right-click the layer for which
How can I tell if a layer is
you want to set a visible
not drawing because of a
3
scale.
visible scale range?
3. Point to Visible Scale Range
If a layer isn’t drawing because it
and click Set Maximum Scale
has a visible scale range set, you’ll
or Set Minimum Scale.
see a gray scalebar under the
layer’s check box in the table of
contents.




Clearing a layer’s visible
scale
1. Right-click the layer for which
1
you want to clear a visible
scale range.
2. Point to Visible Scale Range
and click Clear Scale Range.
2




WORKING WITH LAYERS 149
Creating a Setting the layer’s
transparency
transparent layer
1. Right-click the layer and click
Giving a layer transparency is Properties.
an easy way to show varying
2. Click the Display tab.
and overlapping information.
3. Enter the transparency value,
One situation in which transpar-
in percent, you wish this layer
ency might be useful is if you
to be displayed with.
needed to see the information
displayed in two overlapping 4. Click OK.
polygon layers. Similarly,
If you are uncertain how
another use is to allow you to
transparent you want the
see an image under a polygon
1
layer, click Apply before OK,
layer.
and keep changing the
To learn about raster transpar- transparency value before
ency see Chapter 9, ‘Working
2
you close the Properties
with rasters’. dialog box.




3




4




1 50 USING ARCMAP
Changing a Updating source data in a 2
layer
layer’s source
1. Right-click the layer and
data point to Properties.
2. Click the Source tab.
The properties saved within a
layer file can be applied to other 3. Click Set Data Source.
data sources at times. This data
4. Identify the new data source,
needs to be in the same format
and click Add.
with the same attribute informa-
tion. 5. Click OK.
You might do this when using
3
updated census data, for
example. This data will be in the
same format; therefore, the data
should display using the same
5
layer properties as the previous
data. You might also change
source data to allow for a
consistent presentation
between counties using data
with the same table and feature
classes.


See Also
For more information on referenc-
ing and changing source data
links, see Chapter 4, ‘Displaying
data in maps’.
4




WORKING WITH LAYERS 151
Showing the Display,
Tip
2
Source, and Selection
Using the table of contents
tabs
Source tab
This tab displays the layers
1. Click the Tools menu on the
organized by data source. This is
3
Standard toolbar and click
especially helpful if you have many
Options.
data layers. You can also look here
to see what data you need to gather 2. Click the Table Of Contents
when passing a layer or map tab.
document along.
3. Check the boxes to show the
Display, Source, and Selec-
tion tabs.
Tip
4. Click OK.
Using the table of contents
Selection tab
This allows you to override the
global selection properties. The
Selection choices can also be
4
located at Selection > Set Selectable
Layers.


Tip
Viewing the data source
Where are the table of
contents tab choices in the table of contents
saved?
1. Click the Source tab in the
Your choice of tabs is saved with
table of contents.
the application, not the map
document. However, when you
save a map document it will
remember the table of contents tab
you were last working with.




1

1 52 USING ARCMAP
Changing the Setting the text font for
layers
appearance of the
1. Click the Tools menu on the
table of contents
2
Standard toolbar and click
Options.
You can adjust the look of the
2. Click the Table Of Contents
table of contents to suit your
tab.
needs. For example, you might
change the text size and font so 3. Uncheck Use Windows
it makes a greater visual impact Desktop Settings.
or is easier to read. You also
4. Click the Font dropdown
1
might want to change the shape
arrow and click the font you
of the lines and patches that
want to use.
represent the features on a map.
3
5. Click the Size dropdown
4
The table of contents has three
arrow and click the font size.
tabs at the bottom, a Display
5
tab, Source tab, and a Selection 6. Click OK.
tab. The Display tab shows the
drawing order of the layers and
allows you to change the order.
The Source tab sorts layers by
where they’re stored on disk.
The Selection tab shows a list
6
of the layers in the active data
frame and lets you check the
ones you want to make select-
able.
Setting the line and patch
Seeing the Source tab is useful
during editing, when you edit for layer symbology
3
all layers in a given folder or
1. Click the Tools menu on the
database. If you’re not planning
Standard toolbar and click
on using your map for editing,
Options.
you can hide the Source tab.
You can’t change the drawing 2. Click the Table Of Contents
order of layers from the Source
4
tab.
tab.
3. Click the Line or Area
dropdown arrow and click the
appropriate shape.
4. Click OK.

WORKING WITH LAYERS 153
Using data frames Adding a data frame 1
to organize layers 1. Click the Insert menu.

2
2. Click Data Frame.
A data frame is simply a frame
The new data frame will
on your map that displays
appear in the table of
layers. When you create a map,
contents and in the center of
it contains a default data frame
the layout when in layout
listed in the table of contents as
view.
Layers. You can immediately
add layers to this data frame or
give it a more meaningful name.
The layers in a data frame
display in the same coordinate
system and may overlap. When
you want to display layers
separately and not have them
overlap—for example, to
compare layers side by side or
create insets and overviews
Making a data frame
that highlight an area—add
active
additional data frames to your
map.
1
1. Right-click the data frame in
When a map has more than one the table of contents.
data frame, one of them is the
2. Click Activate.
active data frame. The active
data frame is the one you’re You can also click the frame
currently working with—for in layout view to activate it.
instance, adding layers to or
panning and zooming. The
active data frame is highlighted
on the map in layout view or is
the displayed data frame in data
view. The name of the active
data frame is also shown in bold
2
text in the table of contents.
Once on a map, a data frame
acts like any other map element.
You can change its size, move it
around, or delete it.

1 54 USING ARCMAP
Removing a data frame
Tip
A map always has one data 1. Right-click the data frame in
frame
1
the table of contents that you
A map must have at least one data want to remove.
frame on it. You can’t delete the last
2. Click Remove.
2
data frame on a map.
In layout view, you can select
the data frame and press the
Delete key on the keyboard.




Rotating the data in a
Tip
data frame
Rotating using a specific
angle
1. Click View on the Standard
If you want to rotate your data toolbar, point to Toolbars, and
frame by a specific angle, you can
click Data Frame Tools.
type in the angle on the Data
1
2. Click the Rotate Data Frame
Frame Tools toolbar.
tool.
3. Click and drag the mouse
over the data frame to rotate
its contents.
Rotating the data in this
manner does not alter the
original source data, just its
display in the data frame.
3
2
You can also type
an angle here.


WORKING WITH LAYERS 155
6
Symbolizing features
I N THIS CHAPTER Choosing how to represent your data on a map may be the most important
mapmaking decision. How you represent your data determines what your
• A map gallery
map communicates.
• Drawing all features with one
On some maps, you might simply want to show where things are. The
symbol
easiest way to do this is to draw all the features in a layer with the same
• Drawing features to show catego- symbol. On other maps, you might draw features based on an attribute
ries such as names or types value or characteristic that identifies them. For example, you could map
roads by type to get a better sense of traffic patterns or map the wildlife
• Managing categories
habitat suitability of a particular bird species, ranking suitability from least
to most.
• Ways to map quantitative data
In general, you can draw map features:
• Standard classification schemes
• With a single symbol
• Setting a classification
• To show a category such as a type (unique values maps)
• Representing quantity with color,
• To represent a quantity such as population (graduated color, graduated
graduated or proportional
symbol, and dot density maps)
symbols, and charts
• To show multiple attributes that are related (multivariate and chart
• Drawing features to show multiple
maps)
attributes
You can also draw images and rasters, TINs representing a three-
• Drawing TINs as surfaces
dimensional surface, or CAD drawing files.
• Drawing CAD layers Browse the map gallery on the next few pages to see the various ways
you can symbolize your data.
• Working with advanced
symbolization

157
A map gallery
Single symbol map Unique values map




Drawing your data with just a single symbol gives you a sense of On a unique values map, you draw features based on an attribute
how features are distributed—whether they are clustered or value, or characteristic, that identifies them. In the map above,
dispersed—and may reveal hidden patterns. each land use type is drawn with a specific color. Typically, each
unique value is symbolized with a different color. Drawing
In the map above, you can easily see where people live and
features based on unique attribute values shows the following:
conclude that some areas are more densely populated based on
the number of cities clustered together. • How similar features are distributed—whether they are
grouped or dispersed
• How different feature types are located in relation to each
other
• How much of one category there is compared to other
categories




1 58 USING ARCMAP
Graduated color map Graduated symbol map




When you need to map quantities or amounts of things, you Another way to represent quantities is to vary the size of the
might choose to use a graduated color map. On a graduated color symbol a feature is drawn with. The graduated symbol map above
map, colors correspond to the values of the particular attribute. uses a larger symbol to show earthquakes with a larger
Graduated color maps are most useful for showing data that is magnitude. Similar to graduated color maps, graduated symbol
ranked (for example, 1 to 10, low to high) or has some kind of maps are most useful for showing ranks or a progression of
numerical progression (for example, measurements, rates, values. However, instead of using color to represent the
percentages). differences in values, the size of the symbol varies.
The map above uses different shades of color—in a graduated When making a graduated symbol map, it is important to choose
color ramp—to represent different amounts of people. Here, the range of symbol sizes carefully. The largest symbols need to
darker shades indicate a greater number of people. be small enough that neighboring symbols don’t completely
cover one another. At the same time, the range in size from the
smallest to the largest needs to be great enough that the symbol
for each class is distinct.




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 159
Multivariate map Chart map




The maps on the previous pages display one attribute, or Chart maps allow you to symbolize multiple attributes on one
characteristic, of the data—for example, a type or an amount. map to communicate the relationship among different attributes.
Multivariate maps display two or more attributes at the same time. Chart maps display bar and pie charts over features. The map
The map above illustrates the level of human impact on the above illustrates the volume and type of goods distributed by an
natural landscape of Australia. Major habitat types are shown exporter throughout Asia.
with unique colors, and the level of disturbance for each habitat Pie charts show relationships between parts and the whole and
is shown with a graduated symbol. The larger the symbol, the are particularly useful for showing proportions and ratios. Bar
higher the human impact is on the particular habitat. charts compare amounts of related values and are well suited to
showing trends over time. Stacked bar charts can show the
relative relationship between data as well as allow for absolute
comparisons.




1 60 USING ARCMAP
Density map Raster map




Mapping the density of features lets you see where things are Much of the most readily available geographic data is in the form
concentrated. This helps you find areas that require action or of rasters. A raster can represent almost any geographic feature,
meet some criteria. For example, the map above shows where the though most rasters you’ll work with in ArcMap will probably be
highest concentrations of crimes occur in a city. Using this map, scanned maps, photographs of the earth’s surface, or DEMs. You
the city may choose to increase the number of police patrols in might add an aerial photograph to your map to provide a realistic
the areas of high density. background to your other data, or you might use satellite imagery
to add up-to-the-minute information about weather conditions or
One way to map density is with a dot density map. This type of
flood levels. You can even use a raster as a guide for editing—for
map symbolizes features using dots drawn inside polygons to
example, you might scan in a map and digitize features from it.
represent a quantity. Each dot represents a specific value. For
example, on the crime map, each dot might represent two For more information on displaying raster data, see Chapter 9,
incidents of crime. When creating a dot density map, you specify ‘Working with rasters’.
how many features each dot represents and how big the dots are.
You may need to try several combinations of amount and size to
see which one best shows the pattern.



SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 161
TIN surface map Computer-aided design map




One of the ways you can represent a continuous surface, such as You can integrate CAD drawings into your maps seamlessly,
terrain elevation or temperature gradient, is to display the surface without having to convert these files into other GIS formats. This
as a TIN. TINs can be shown with color-shaded relief. This type is particularly useful if your organization has existing CAD data.
of map displays elevation ranges in graduated colors, and it For example, some departments in your organization may be using
shades ridges, valleys, and hillsides using a simulated light a CAD package to help manage facilities and other infrastructure.
source. The shading adds a realistic effect that makes the surface You can let ArcMap draw these layers as they appear in the CAD
look as though you are viewing it from high above. The combined package, or you can override their symbology and draw them as
use of color for elevation and shading for surface morphology you wish.
results in a highly informative, yet easy to interpret, view of the
surface.




1 62 USING ARCMAP
2
Drawing all Drawing a layer using a
single symbol
features with one
1. In the table of contents, right-
symbol click the layer you want to
3
draw with a single symbol
Often, seeing where something and click Properties.
4
is—and where it isn’t—can tell
2. Click the Symbology tab.
you exactly what you need to
know. Mapping the location of 3. Click Features.
features reveals patterns and
Because Single symbol is the
trends that can help you make
only option, ArcMap auto-
better decisions. For example, a
matically selects it.
business owner might map
where his or her customers live 4. Click the Symbol button to
to help decide where to target change the symbol. u
his or her advertising.
The easiest way to see where
features are is to draw them
Click Description if you want an additional
using a single symbol. You can
description of your layer to appear in your legend.
draw any type of data this way.
You can press the Ctrl and Enter keys together in
When you create a new layer,
the Description for Legend dialog box to insert a
ArcMap by default draws it
line break in your description. For more information
with a single symbol.
on working with legends, see Chapter 15, ‘Laying
out and printing maps’.




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 163
5
5. In the Symbol Selector dialog
Tip
box, click a new symbol or
Changing the symbol
change specific properties of
To change the symbol that features
the symbol.
are drawn with quickly, click the
6. Click OK on the Symbol
symbol in the table of contents to
Selector dialog box.
display the Symbol Selector.
7. Type a label for the feature.
Tip The label appears next to the
symbol in the table of
Changing the color
contents.
To change the color of a symbol
quickly, right-click the symbol in 8. Click OK.
the table of contents to display the
Color Selector.




6




8 7


1 64 USING ARCMAP
2 4 5
Drawing features to Drawing a layer showing
unique values
show categories
1. In the table of contents, right-
such as names or click the layer you want to
3
types draw showing unique values
and click Properties.
A category describes a set of 2. Click the Symbology tab.
features with the same attribute
3. Click Categories.
value. For example, given parcel
data with an attribute describ- ArcMap automatically selects
ing land use, such as residen- the Unique values option.
tial, commercial, and public 4. Click the Value Field drop-
areas, you can use a different down arrow and click the
symbol to represent each land field that contains the values
use. Drawing features this way you want to map.
allows you to map features and
5. Click the Color Scheme
what category they belong to.
6 87
dropdown arrow and click a
This can be useful if you’re
color scheme.
targeting a specific type of
Double-click a symbol
feature for an action or policy. 6. Click Add All Values.
to change it.
For instance, a city planner
This adds all unique values
might use the land use map to
to the list. Alternatively, click
target areas for redevelopment.
the Add Values button to
In general, look for these kinds choose which unique values
of attributes when mapping by to display.
category or unique value:
7. If you want to edit the default
• Attributes describing the label so more descriptive
name, type, or condition of a labels appear in your legend
feature. and the table of contents,
click a label in the Label
• Attributes that uniquely
column and type the label
identify features; for
you want.
example, a county name
attribute could be used to 8. Click OK.
draw each county with a
unique color.
You can let ArcMap assign a
symbol to each unique value
based on a color scheme you u




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 165
2 5 6
choose, or you can explicitly Drawing features by
assign a specific symbol to a referencing specific
specific attribute value.
symbols in a style
To draw features with specific
1. In the table of contents, right-
3
symbols based on attribute
click the layer you want to
values, you need to create a
4
draw showing unique values
style beforehand that contains
and click Properties.
symbols named after the
attribute value they represent. 2. Click the Symbology tab.
For example, if you have a
3. Click Categories.
dataset that categorizes roads
4. Click Match to symbols in a
as either major or minor, then
style.
you would need to have line
symbols within that style 5. Click the Value Field drop-
named “major” and “minor”. down arrow and click the
ArcMap will match the attribute field that contains the values
value to the line symbol name you want to map.
to draw the feature. Features
7 89
6. Click the Match to symbols in
that don’t have a matching line
Style dropdown arrow and
symbol won’t be drawn. This
click the style that contains
way of drawing features is
symbol names that match
especially useful if you want to
attribute values. If the style
draw your data the same way
you want is not displayed in
on different maps.
the list, click Browse to
search for it on disk.
See Also 7. Click Match Symbols.
For more information on creating This adds all unique values
styles, see Chapter 8, ‘Working that have a matching symbol
with styles and symbols’. in the style. Alternatively, click
the Add Values button to
choose which unique values
to display.
8. If you want more descriptive
labels to appear in the
legend and the table of
contents, click a label in the
Label column and type the
label you want.
9. Click OK.

1 66 USING ARCMAP
23
Reversing the sort of
unique values
1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer whose unique
values you want to sort and
click Properties.
2. Click the Symbology tab.

4
3. Click the Value column to
show a context menu.
4. Click Reverse Sorting to
reverse the alphanumeric
sorting of the entire list of
classes.
5. Click OK.


5


2
Ordering unique values
Tip
Moving values within a list 1. In the table of contents, right-
Clicking the arrow buttons within click the layer whose unique
the Values list only moves the values you want to reorder
values within a heading. To learn and click Properties.
more about using headings, see
2. Click the Symbology tab.
‘Adding headings’ in this chapter.
3. Click the value you want to
move up or down in the list.
4
4. Use the up and down arrows
to either promote or demote
3
the value in the list.
5. Click OK.




5
SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 167
2
Managing Combining two or more
categories into one
categories
1. In the table of contents, right-
If you’re drawing features by click the layer drawn with
category, the number of unique values you want to
categories you display will combine categories for and
affect what patterns are click Properties.
revealed on the map. Most
2. Click the Symbology tab.
people can discern between five
If you don’t already see
and seven categories for a
categories in the scrolling list,
3
given layer. The more advanced
follow the steps for ‘Drawing
the audience, the more catego-
4
a layer showing unique
ries it will be able to identify
values’ earlier in this chapter.
and the more easily it can
interpret complex patterns. 3. Click the first of the values
Conversely, a less advanced you want to combine. Hold
audience may benefit more from down the Shift or Ctrl key and
65
a map with fewer categories. click the additional values
that you want to combine.
When displaying your data,
you can control how you 4. Right-click over the values
organize and display categories and click Group Values. The
for a layer. If you want to selected values will now be
display fewer categories, you combined into one category.
can combine similar categories
5. If you want more descriptive
into one category to help make
labels to appear in your
the patterns more apparent—for
legend and the table of
example, combine two detailed
contents, click a label in the
land use categories into a more
Label column and type the
general one. However, the
label you want.
trade-off is that some informa-
tion will be lost. 6. Click OK.
Alternatively, instead of
reducing the number of
categories, you might want to
organize individual categories
into groups that you define.
This allows you to work with
and view them as a group. u



1 68 USING ARCMAP
In addition, a map reader will Ungrouping combined
see the groups listed in the categories
table of contents.
1. Right-click a combined
You can also organize your
category in the scrolling list.
unique values by adding
2. Click Ungroup Values.
headings. For example, if you
1
were working with a land use The symbols for each of the
dataset, you could create a set ungrouped values are the
of broad land use category
2
same as when they were
headings and organize similar grouped.
categories of values into them.
You might have a heading of
Commercial and include land
uses such as light industry,
heavy industry, and retail within
that heading. Headings appear
in the legend and in the table of
contents.

Tip
Deleting groups
ArcMap will automatically delete
groups that contain no attribute
values in them.


Tip
Renaming groups
Click the group heading in the table
of contents and type a new name.




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 169
2
Adding headings
Tip
Ordering unique value 1. In the table of contents, right-
headings click the layer drawn with
You can arrange the headings for unique values for which you
unique values. Just select a heading want to organize categories
and use the arrow keys to move it. in groups and click Proper-
ties.
2. Click the Symbology tab.
3
If you don’t already see
categories in the scrolling list,
follow the steps for ‘Drawing
a layer showing unique
values’ earlier in this chapter.
3. Click the first value you want
to move to a new heading.
Hold down the Shift or Ctrl
7
key and click the additional
values that you want to move
4
to that heading.
4. Right-click a selected value,
6
point to Move to Heading,
5
and click New Heading.
5. Type a name for the new
heading.
6. Click OK.
A new heading now appears
7. Click OK on the Layer in the table of contents with
Properties dialog box. the values you selected
grouped in it.




1 70 USING ARCMAP
Ways to map quantitative data
Should you map individual values or group them
Quantitative data is data that describes features in terms of a
quantitative value measuring some magnitude of the feature. in classes?
Unlike categorical data, whose features are described by a unique
When you map quantitative data, you can either assign each
attribute value such as a name, quantitative data generally
value its own symbol or you can group values into classes using
describes counts or amounts, ratios, or ranked values. For
a different symbol for each class.
example, data representing precipitation, population, and habitat
suitability can all be mapped quantitatively. If you’re only mapping a few values (less than 10), you can
assign a unique symbol to each value. This may present a more
Which quantitative value should you map? accurate picture of the data, since you’re not predetermining
which features are grouped together. More likely, your data
Knowing what type of data you have and what you want to show
values will be too numerous to map individually and you’ll want
will help you determine what quantitative value to map. In
to group them in classes, or classify the data. A good example of
general, you can follow these guidelines:
classified data is a temperature map you might find in a
• Map counts or amounts if you want to see actual measured newspaper. Instead of displaying individual temperatures, these
values as well as relative magnitude. Use care when mapping maps show temperature bands, where each band represents a
counts as the values may be influenced by other factors and given range in temperature.
could yield a misleading map. For example, when making a
map showing the total sales figures of a product by state, the Ways to classify your data
total sales figure is likely to reflect the differences in
How you define the class ranges and breaks—the high and low
population among the states.
values that bracket each class—will determine which features fall
• Map ratios if you want to minimize differences based on the into each class and thus what the map will look like. By changing
size of areas or number of features in each area. Ratios are the classes you can create various maps. Generally, the goal is to
created by dividing two data values. Using ratios is also make sure features with similar values are in the same class.
referred to as normalizing the data. For example, dividing the
Two key factors for classifying your data are the classification
18- to 30-year-old population by the total population yields
scheme you use and the number of classes you create. If you
the percentage of people aged 18–30. Similarly, dividing a
know your data well, you can manually define your own classes.
value by the area of the feature yields a value per unit area, or
Alternatively, you can let ArcMap classify your data using
density.
standard classification schemes. The standard classification
• Map ranks if you’re interested in relative measures and actual schemes are natural breaks, quantile, equal interval, defined
values are not important. For example, you may know a feature interval, and standard deviation. These are described on the
with a rank of 3 is higher than one ranked 2 and lower than following pages.
one ranked 4, but you can’t tell how much higher or lower.




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 171
Standard classification schemes
Natural breaks (Jenks)
Classes are based on natural groupings inherent in the data. ArcMap identifies break points by picking the class breaks that best group
similar values and maximize the differences between classes. The features are divided into classes whose boundaries are set where there
are relatively big jumps in the data values.




Number of features
Value
Quantile
Each class contains an equal number of features. A quantile classification is well suited to linearly distributed data. Because features are
grouped by the number in each class, the resulting map can be misleading. Similar features can be placed in adjacent classes, or features
with widely different values can be put in the same class. You can minimize this distortion by increasing the number of classes.
Number of features




Value

1 72 USING ARCMAP
Equal interval
This classification scheme divides the range of attribute values into equal-sized subranges, allowing you to specify the number of
intervals while ArcMap determines where the breaks should be. For example, if features have attribute values ranging from 0 to 300 and
you have three classes, each class represents a range of 100 with class ranges of 0–100, 101–200, and 201–300. This method emphasizes
the amount of an attribute value relative to other values, for example, to show that a store is part of the group of stores that made up the
top one-third of all sales. It’s best applied to familiar data ranges such as percentages and temperature.




Number of features
Value
Defined interval
This classification scheme allows you to specify an interval by which to equally divide a range of attribute values. Rather than
specifying the number of intervals as in the equal interval classification scheme, with this scheme, you specify the interval value.
ArcMap automatically determines the number of classes based on the interval. The interval specified in the example below is 0.04 (or 4
percent).
Number of features




Value

SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 173
Standard deviation
This classification scheme shows you how much a feature’s attribute value varies from the mean. ArcMap calculates the mean value and
the standard deviations from the mean. Class breaks are then created using these values. A two-color ramp helps emphasize values
above (shown in blue) and below (shown in red) the mean.




Number of features
Value




1 74 USING ARCMAP
45
2 6
Setting a Setting a standard
classification method
classification
1. In the table of contents, right-
When you classify your data, click the layer that shows a
you can either use one of the quantitative value for which
3
standard classification schemes you want to change the
ArcMap provides or create classification.
custom classes based on class
2. Click the Symbology tab.
ranges you specify. If you want
3. Click Quantities.
to let ArcMap classify the data,
simply choose the classification 4. Click the Value dropdown
scheme and set the number of arrow and click the field that
classes. If you want to define contains the quantitative
your own classes, you can value you want to map.
manually add class breaks and
5. To normalize the data, click
set class ranges that are
the Normalization dropdown
appropriate for your data.
arrow and click a field.
Q
Alternatively, you can start with
one of the standard classifica- ArcMap divides this field into
tions and make adjustments as the Value to create a ratio.
8 7
needed.
6. Click Classify.
Why set class ranges manu-
7. Click the Method dropdown
ally? There may already be
arrow and click the classifica-
certain standards or guidelines
tion method you want.
for mapping your data. For
8. Click the Classes dropdown
example, temperature maps are
arrow and click the number of
often displayed with 10-degree
classes you want to display.
temperature bands. Or you
might want to emphasize 9. Click OK on the Classifica-
features with particular values, tion dialog box.
for example, those above or
10. Click OK on the Layer
below a threshold value.
Properties dialog box.
Whatever your reason, make
sure you clearly specify what
the classes mean on the map.


9


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 175
2
Inserting your own class
Tip
breaks and setting a
Adjusting the range using
range
the Classification dialog
box
1. In the table of contents, right-
Moving the blue vertical bars on
click the layer for which you
the histogram changes the range.
want to set class breaks and
You can also type new breaks in the
click Properties.
Break Values list on the right side
of the Classification dialog box. 2. Click the Symbology tab.
If you have not already set a
classification method, follow
Tip
the steps in ‘Setting a
Switching to a manual
standard classification
classification scheme
method’ earlier in this
Anytime you insert, delete, or move
chapter.
class breaks, the classification
scheme automatically switches to 3. Click the Range you want to
manual, no matter what scheme edit.
you started with.
Make sure to click the Range,
3 5
not the Label.
Tip
4. Type a new value. This sets
Seeing summary statistics the upper value of the range.
Statistics such as Minimum,
5. Click OK.
Maximum, Sum, and Standard
Deviation appear on the Classifica-
tion dialog box. If you check Show
Deleting a class break
Mean, the mean is plotted on the
histogram; checking Show Std.
1. Click Classify from the
Dev. superimposes standard
Symbology tab of the Layer
deviation lines on the histogram.
Properties dialog box.
2. Click the class break you
Tip
want to delete.
Snapping to data values
The selected break is
Checking Snap breaks to data
3
highlighted.
values uses actual data values as
class breaks when you insert or 3. Right-click over the histo-
move a class break. This option is gram and click Delete Break.
only available when using a
manual classification method.


1 76 USING ARCMAP
2
Excluding features from
Tip
the classification
Seeing more data values
plotted on the histogram
1. Click Classify from the
Increase the number of columns Symbology tab of the Layer
shown to see more data values in
Properties dialog box.
the histogram.
2. Click Exclusion.
3. Double-click the field you’re
Tip
using to draw the layer.
Loading, verifying, and
4. Click an operator.
saving SQL expressions
You can click Load to add an 5. Click Get Unique Values and
existing expression into the Data double-click the value you
Exclusion Properties dialog box. want to exclude.
You can also check for errors in
6. Click OK to execute the
your expression by clicking the
expression and exclude
Verify button. If you want to reuse
values.
your expression in another query,
click Save.

4
See Also
For more information on building
query expressions, see Chapter 13,
5
‘Querying maps’.

3




6

SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 177
24 5 Q 6
Representing Symbolizing data with
graduated colors
quantity with color
1. In the table of contents, right-
When you want your map to click the layer you want to
communicate how much of
3
draw showing a quantitative
something there is in a feature, value and click Properties.
you need to draw those
2. Click the Symbology tab.
features using a quantitative
3. Click Quantities.
measure. This measure might be
a count; a ratio such as a ArcMap automatically selects
percentage; or a rank such as Graduated colors.
high, medium, and low.
4. Click the Value dropdown
You can represent quantities on arrow and click the field that
a map by varying colors. For contains the quantitative
example, you might use darker value you want to map.
shades of blue to represent
5. To normalize the data, click
higher rainfall amounts.
W
Right-click a class to
the Normalization dropdown
Before you display your data, see additional options,
arrow and click a field.
you may need to classify it in such as sorting and
ArcMap divides this field into number formatting.
order to group features with
the Value to create a ratio.
similar values into discrete
8 7
classes that are displayed with 6. Click Classify.
the same symbol. After choos-
7. Click the Method dropdown
ing a classification scheme and
arrow and click the classifica-
specifying the number of
tion method you want.
classes you want to show, you
8. Click the Classes dropdown
can add more classes, delete
arrow and click the number
classes, or redefine class
of classes you want to
ranges.
display.
It’s always a good idea to
9. Click OK on the Classifica-
examine your data before you
tion dialog box.
map it. For instance, you may
find that you have a few 10. Click the Color Ramp
extremely high or low values or dropdown arrow and click a
null values where no data ramp to display the data
is available. These values can
9
with.
skew a classification and thus
11. Click OK on the Layer
the patterns on the map. u
Properties dialog box.


1 78 USING ARCMAP
2
You may choose to exclude Creating your own color
these values before you ramp for a layer
classify your data.
1. In the table of contents, right-
You may also want to normalize
click the layer that shows a
your data before you map it.
quantitative value and click
3
When you normalize data, you
Properties.
divide it by another attribute to
2. Click the Symbology tab.
create a ratio. Often, ratios are
easier to understand than the
4
3. Click Quantities.
raw data values. For example,
6
4. Double-click the top symbol
dividing total population by
in the list and set the start
5
area yields the number of
color for the ramp.
people per unit area, or density.
Dividing a store’s sales figure 5. Double-click the bottom
by the total sales for all stores symbol and set the end color.
yields a percentage of sales at
6. Optionally, double-click any
that store.
middle symbol to set its color.
Q
In addition, normalizing data
This lets you create a
minimizes differences in values
multipart color ramp.
based on the size of areas or
Appearance after the top, middle, and
numbers of features in each 7. Click all the middle symbols bottom colors have been set.
area. When mapping total you’ve set the color of.
values with graduated colors, By selecting one or more
varying sizes of areas may alter
middle symbols, the color of
8
the map’s appearance or those symbols is included in
7
obscure uniform distributions. the new ramp. Otherwise,
Therefore, normalizing data is a
ArcMap only uses the top
common practice when mapping and bottom symbols.
quantities for areas.
8. Right-click a symbol and
click Ramp Colors.
See Also
9. Optionally, if you want to use Resulting ramp goes from red to
For more information on creating the new color ramp on yellow to green.
and managing styles, see another layer, right-click the
Chapter 8, ‘Working with styles Color Ramp dropdown and
and symbols’. click Save to style to save
your new ramp to your
default style.
9
10. Click OK.


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 179
2 45 7
Representing Representing quantity
with graduated symbols
quantity with
1. In the table of contents, right-
graduated or click the layer you want to
proportional draw showing a quantitative
value and click Properties.
symbols 3
2. Click the Symbology tab.
You can represent quantities on 3. Click Quantities and click
a map by varying the symbol Graduated symbols.
size you use to draw features.
4. Click the Value dropdown
For example, you might use
arrow and click the field that
larger circles to represent cities
contains the quantitative
with larger populations.
value you want to map.
When you draw features with
5. To normalize the data, click
graduated symbols, the
the Normalization dropdown
quantitative values are grouped
arrow and click a field.
into classes. Within a class, all
6 E
features are drawn with the ArcMap divides this field into
same symbol. You can’t discern the Value to create a ratio.
Q8
9
the value of individual features;
6. Type the minimum and
you can only tell that its value
maximum symbol sizes.
is within a certain range.
7. Click Classify.
Proportional symbols represent
8. Click the Method dropdown
data values more precisely. The
arrow and click the classifica-
size of a proportional symbol
tion method you want.
reflects the actual data value.
For example, you might map 9. Click the Classes dropdown
earthquakes using proportional arrow and click the number of
circles, where the radius of the classes you want.
circle is proportional to the
10. Optionally, click Exclusion to
magnitude of the quake.
remove unwanted values
The difficulty with proportional from the classification (for
symbols arises when you have example, null values or
too many values; the differ- extreme outliers).
ences between symbols may
11. Click OK on the Classifica-
become indistinguishable. In
W
tion dialog box.
addition, the symbols for high
values can become so large as 12. Click OK on the Layer
to obscure other symbols. Properties dialog box.
1 80 USING ARCMAP
2 45
Representing quantity
Tip
with proportional
Changing the symbology
symbols
and background of
graduated symbols
1. In the table of contents, right-
Click the Template button to choose
click the layer you want to
another marker. If you click
draw showing a quantitative
3
Background, you can choose the fill
value and click Properties.
symbol that will be used behind
your graduated symbols. 2. Click the Symbology tab.
3. Click Quantities and click
Proportional symbols.
Tip
Why don’t the symbols get 4. Click the Value dropdown
bigger when I zoom in? arrow and click the field that
contains the quantitative
If you want your graduated
symbols to get bigger when you value you want to map.
6 7
zoom in, set a reference scale.
5. To normalize the data, click
Right-click the data frame and click
the Normalization dropdown
Set Reference Scale. Your symbols
arrow and click a field.
will appear at the same size on
How the proportional
screen as they are when your map ArcMap divides this field into
symbols appear on your map
is printed. the Value to create a ratio. when the Background is
yellow with a black outline
6. Optionally, click Background
and the Min Value symbol is
and Min Value to change the
Tip
blue with a black outline
symbol properties and
What color should my
background of the propor-
symbols be?
tional symbols.
All the symbols should be the same
7. Click OK.
color. Make sure they contrast
enough to be seen easily.
Proportional symbols appear in
the legend and table of contents
Tip
as a stack of progressively
Formatting numbers in larger blue circles.
your class range labels
You can set the number format
properties for the class range
labels—which appear in the legend
and table of contents—by clicking
the Label column heading and
clicking Format Labels.


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 181
2 45
Representing quantity
Tip
with proportional
Using proportional symbol
symbols when values are
appearance compensation
measurements on a map
Checking Appearance Compensa-
tion in the Symbol box turns on
1. In the table of contents, right-
Flannery compensation, a
3
click the layer you want to
technique that adjusts larger
draw showing a quantitative
symbol sizes upward to account for
value and click Properties.
the fact that map readers tend to
underestimate the larger sizes of
2. Click the Symbology tab.
circular symbols.
3. Click Quantities and click
Proportional symbols.
Tip
4. Click the Value dropdown
Changing the symbology arrow and click the field that
and background of contains the quantitative
proportional symbols value you want to map.
6
Click the Min Value button to
5. To normalize the data, click
choose another marker for your
the Normalization dropdown
proportional symbols. If you click
arrow and click a field.
Background, you can choose the fill
symbol that will be used behind ArcMap divides this field into
your proportional symbols. the Value to create a ratio.
6. Click the Unit dropdown
arrow and click a unit.
Tip
7. Click Square or Circle as the
What if the maximum value
symbol. Optionally, change
symbol is too large?
the color of the symbol and
If the symbol for the maximum
click Background to change
value fills the space on the dialog
the background of the
box, it will probably be too big on
the map. Try reducing the symbol proportional symbols.
size for the minimum value,
8. Click Radius or Area.
normalizing the data, or excluding
98
7
For example, click Radius if
some values. If it’s still too large,
use graduated symbols instead. your data represents the
distance an earthquake was
felt from its epicenter. Click
Area if the value represents
an area.
9. Click OK.

1 82 USING ARCMAP
2 56
Representing Drawing a dot density
map
quantity with dot
1. In the table of contents, right-
densities click the layer you want to
draw showing a quantitative
Another method of represent-
4
value using dot densities and
ing quantities is with a dot click Properties.
3
density map. You can use a dot
2. Click the Symbology tab.
density map to show the
amount of an attribute there is 3. Click Quantities and click Dot
within an area. Each dot density.
represents a specified number
4. Click the field or fields under
of features, for example 1,000
Field Selection that contain
people or 10 burglaries within
the quantitative values that
an area.
you want to map.
Dot density maps show density
5. Click the arrow button to add
graphically, rather than showing
fields to the field list.
7 8 9
density value. The dots are
distributed randomly within 6. Double-click a dot symbol in
each area; they don’t represent the field list to change its
actual feature locations. The properties.
closer together the dots are, the
7. Type the dot size or click the
higher the density of features in
slider to adjust the size.
that area. Using a dot density
8. Type the dot value or click
map is similar to symbolizing
the slider to adjust the value.
with graduated colors, but
instead of the quantity being 9. Check Maintain Density to
shown with color, it is shown preserve the dot density.
by the density of dots within an
When checked, as you zoom
area.
in, the dot size will increase
When creating a dot density so a given area will visually
map, you specify how many appear as dense. Otherwise,
features each dot represents the dot size will remain
and how big the dots are. You constant. u
may need to try several
combinations of dot value and
dot size to see which one best
shows the pattern. In general,
you should choose value and u


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 183
size combinations that ensure 10. Optionally, click Properties to
the dots are not so close as to set the dot placement
form solid areas that obscure options and use Masking.
the patterns or so far apart as to 11. Click OK.
make the variations in density
hard to see.
In most cases, you’ll only map
one field using dot density
maps. In special cases, you may
want to compare distributions
Q
of different types and may
choose to map two or three
fields. When you do this, you
should use different colors to
distinguish between the
attributes.
W
You have two options for
placing dots within an area.
Non-fixed Placement—the
default option—indicates that
How the dot density map appears
the dots will be placed ran- when the dots are black and the
domly each time the map is Background has a gray county
refreshed, while Fixed Place- boundary outline and a sand
ment freezes the placement of background
dots, even if the map is re-
freshed.


Tip Dot density appears in the
legend and table of contents as
Excluding values
a square patch with randomly
You can click the Exclusion button
placed dots.
to type or load a SQL expression to
exclude any values you don’t want
to be mapped.




1 84 USING ARCMAP
25
Representing Drawing pie charts
quantity with 1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer you want to
charts draw showing quantitative
values with charts and click
Pie charts, bar charts, and Properties.
3
stacked bar charts can present
2. Click the Symbology tab.
large amounts of quantitative
4
data in an eye-catching fashion. 3. Click Charts and click Pie.
For example, if you’re mapping
4. Click the fields under Field
population by county, you can
Selection that contain the
7
use a pie chart to show the
quantitative values that you
percentage of the population by
want to map.
age for each county.
Choosing more than one
Generally, you’ll draw a layer
field shows the relationship
with charts when your layer has
to the whole.
a number of related numeric
E8 6
5. Click the arrow button to add
attributes that you wish to
fields to the field list.
compare. Use pie charts when
you want to show the relation- 6. Click the Color Scheme
ship of individual parts to the dropdown arrow and click
whole. Use bar charts to show the colors you want to use or
9
relative amounts, rather than a double-click a symbol in the
proportion of a total. Use list to change its properties.
stacked charts to show relative
7. Check the box to prevent the
amounts as well as the relation-
Q
charts from overlapping.
ship of parts to the whole.
8. Click Size.
9. Click the Variation Type you
Tip
want. You can either draw all
Using symbol appearance
pies the same size or vary
compensation in pie charts
the size based on the sum of
Checking Appearance Compensa-
the attributes or a particular
tion on the Pie Chart Size dialog
attribute value.
box turns on Flannery compensa-
W
tion, a technique that adjusts larger 10. Type a size or click the
symbol sizes upward to account for arrows to set the size.
the fact that map readers tend to
11. Click OK.
underestimate the larger sizes of
circular symbols. 12. Click OK.


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 185
25
Drawing bar or column
Tip
charts
Using charts effectively
Charts are most effective when 1. In the table of contents, right-
mapping no more than 30 features.
click the layer you want to
Otherwise, the patterns on the map
draw showing quantitative
will be difficult to see. It’s best to
values with bar or column
use five categories or less on a
3
charts and click Properties.
chart; if you want to show more
categories, a series of maps 2. Click the Symbology tab.
4
showing each category will work
3. Click Charts and click Bar/
better.
Column.
7
4. Click one or more fields
Tip under Field Selection that
contain the quantitative
Choosing colors for your
values that you want to map.
charts
Since the wedges or bars in a chart 5. Click the arrow button to add
represent categories, not relative
W8 6
fields to the field list.
amounts, draw the bars or wedges
6. Click the Color Scheme
using different colors rather than
dropdown arrow and click the
shades of one color.
colors you want to use.
Q
You can double-click an
Tip
individual symbol in the list to
Excluding values change its properties.
You can click the Exclusion button
7. Check the box to prevent the
to type or load a SQL expression to
charts from overlapping.
exclude any values you don’t want Click Properties to
to be charted. 8. Click Size. switch between
bars and columns.
9. Type a maximum length or
click the arrows to set the
length.
9
10. Click OK.
11. Click OK.




1 86 USING ARCMAP
25
Drawing stacked charts
Tip
Charting negative values 1. In the table of contents, right-
Avoid using pie or stacked bar click the layer you want to
charts with data containing draw showing quantitative
negative values because those values with stacked charts
values won’t show up.
3
and click Properties.
2. Click the Symbology tab.
Tip
4
3. Click Charts and click
Specifying a length for Stacked.
stacked charts
4. Click the fields under Field
7
You can specify a maximum length
Selection that contain the
for your stacked charts in the
quantitative values that you
Chart Size dialog box. If you check
want to map.
the Fixed Length box, all your
charts will be the maximum length. Choosing more than one
field shows the relationship
to the whole.
W8 6
5. Click the arrow button to add
fields to the field list.
6. Click the Color Scheme
Q
dropdown arrow and click
the colors you want to use.
You can double-click an
individual symbol in the list to
change its properties.
Click Properties to
7. Check the box to prevent the switch between
charts from overlapping. bars and columns.
8. Click Size.
9. Type a maximum length or
click the arrows to set the
9
length.
10. Click OK.
11. Click OK.




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 187
2 4 5
Drawing features Drawing a layer to show
both categories and
to show multiple quantities
attributes 1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer you want to
Geographic data usually has a
3
draw showing multiple
number of different attributes
attributes and click Proper-
that describe the features it
ties.
represents. While you’ll
2. Click the Symbology tab.
commonly use one of the
attributes to symbolize the 3. Click Multiple Attributes.
data—for example, showing
ArcMap automatically selects
categories or quantities—you
Quantity by category.
may sometimes want to use
more than one. 4. Click the first Value Fields
dropdown arrow and click the
For example, you might display
field that contains the values
a road network using two
you want to map.
6 Q 7
attributes: one representing the
type of road and the other 5. Click the Color Scheme
representing the traffic volume dropdown arrow and click a
8
along it. In this case, you could color scheme.
use line colors to represent the
6. Click Add All Values.
different types of roads and
also use line width to indicate 7. Click Symbol Size or Color
traffic volume along each road. Ramp, depending on how
you want to symbolize the
When you symbolize your data
quantitative value. This
using more than one attribute,
example shows Symbol Size.
you create a multivariate
display. Symbolizing your data 8. Click the Value dropdown
this way can allow you to arrow and click the quantita-
display more information; tive value you want to map.
however, it can also make your
Set other options as de-
map more difficult to interpret.
scribed in the ‘Representing
Sometimes it might be better to
quantity’ sections of this
create two separate displays
9
chapter.
than to try to display the
9. Click OK.
information together.
10. Click OK.



1 88 USING ARCMAP
2 4
Drawing TINs as Drawing a color-shaded
relief surface
surfaces
1. In the table of contents, right-
TINs represent continuous click the TIN layer that you
3
surfaces such as terrain want to draw and click
elevation or temperature Properties.
gradient. The surface is
2. Click the Symbology tab.
represented as a set of facets
By default, ArcMap displays
formed by connecting data
the face elevation and
points at nodes to create
5
breakline edges of the TIN.
adjacent triangles. Typically,
you display a TIN using color- 3. Click an entry in the Show list
shaded relief to depict eleva- to see its symbolization
tion. Shaded relief simulates the properties.
sun’s illumination of the earth’s
4. Modify the symbolization
surface. Adding color to this
properties as necessary. For
lets you easily see the ridges,
example, set a new color
valleys, and hillsides and their
ramp or change the number
respective heights. Seeing the
of classes.
data this way can help explain
why other map features are 5. Click the Add button to draw
where they are. additional elements of the
6
TIN—for example, nodes.
You can display any one of
three surface characteristics— 6. Click the renderer that
elevation, slope, and aspect— represents the TIN feature
7 8
on your map, and you can also you want to draw.
simulate shaded relief.
7. Click Add.
Geographic features that cross
8. Click Dismiss when you are
the surface—such as a river,
finished adding renderers.
road, or shoreline—can be
The list will update to show
explicitly represented in a TIN
what you want to draw. u
with a breakline. These features
form the edges of triangles and,
therefore, influence the surface
at their location. Since the
underlying triangulation defines
the surface, you might want to
take a closer look at it. You can
also display the internal u


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 189
structure of a TIN—for example, 9. Click an element in the Show
nodes and breaklines— list.
independently or on top of the 10. Click the Up or Down arrow
shaded relief display.
9
to change its draw order.
The TIN features at the top of
the list will draw on top of
Tip
those below them.
How are slope and aspect
11. Click OK.
measured?
Q
Slope values range between 0 and
90 degrees, where 0 indicates no
slope. Aspect is also measured in
degrees. North is 0 degrees, east is
90 degrees, south is 180 degrees,
and west is 270 degrees.
W
You can type descriptive text to
display next to an edge or node
Tip symbol in the legend or the table of
Making TINs look more 3D contents. Otherwise, no text will
appear next to the symbol.
Checking the Show hillshade
illumination effect in 2D display
box makes a TIN dataset look
more 3D when it’s displayed in 2D
because it simulates the sun’s
illumination of the earth’s surface.


See Also
You can click the Classify button to
change the method of classification
of the elevation, slope, or aspect.
For more information on classify-
ing data, see ‘Setting a classifica-
tion’ in this chapter.


See Also
To learn how to symbolize raster
datasets, see Chapter 9, ‘Working
with rasters’.


1 90 USING ARCMAP
2
Drawing CAD Displaying a CAD
drawing file
layers
1. In the table of contents, right-
You can display CAD drawings click the CAD drawing layer
on your map just like other data and click Properties.
types. You can decide which 2. Click the Display tab.
CAD layers to draw and how to
3. Click and drag the sliders to
draw the entities on the layer.
adjust the CAD display.
Depending on how you added
4. Click the Drawing Layers tab.
3
the CAD data to your map, you
have two display options: 5. Check the CAD layers that
you want to display.
• If you added the CAD
drawing file for display only, 6. Click OK.
you can only choose which
CAD layers to show or hide.
ArcMap draws all entities
according to the color
specified in the drawing file.
4
You can’t override this
drawing behavior.
• If you added the CAD
drawing as features—point,
line, or polygon—you can
use the Symbology tab of
the Layer Properties dialog
5
box to access all the
symbolization options
available to other feature
layers.


See Also
For more information on adding
CAD layers, see ‘Adding CAD
drawings’ in Chapter 4.


6

SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 191
2
Drawing CAD features as
Tip
points, lines, or polygons
Adjusting transparency
You can use the Effects toolbar to 1. In the table of contents, right-
adjust the transparency of CAD
click the CAD dataset and
layers.
click Properties.
2. Click the Symbology tab.
3
See Also
The drawing options avail-
For more information on symboliz- able to you are the same as
ing the features in a CAD dataset, for other feature layers.
see ‘Drawing features to show
3. Modify the drawing proper-
categories such as names or types’
ties as necessary.
in this chapter.
See the previous topics in
this chapter for more detailed
instructions.
4. Click the Drawing Layers tab.
5. Check the CAD layers that
4
you want to display.
6. Click OK.




5




6



1 92 USING ARCMAP
Working with advanced symbolization
ArcMap provides a few other tools that let you control how your data frame will appear onscreen at the same size in relation
layers draw. You can: to each other as in your printed map.
• Draw layers transparently. When a reference scale is set, all feature symbology, labels, and
graphics in the current data frame will be scaled relative to the
• Set a data frame reference scale for symbols to see how they
reference scale. However, you can disable scaling for individual
will look at their true size on screen or paper.
layers: double-click the layer, click the Display tab, and uncheck
• Use symbol level drawing to control the order in which feature
Scale symbols when a reference scale is set. Since geodatabase
symbology is drawn.
annotation and dimension features have their own reference
• Use variable-depth masking to hide parts of layers. scales, they are not affected by a data frame reference scale.
Adding transparency Using symbol level drawing
Transparency can be used for any symbolization type, but it is Symbol level drawing allows you to achieve special cartographic
especially useful for drawing raster layers with other layers on effects by giving you control over the drawing order of feature
your map. This allows you to see the raster layer while still symbology. You specify the order that symbols and symbol
viewing underlying layers. For more information on using layers for multilayer symbols are drawn on your map—overriding
transparency with rasters, see Chapter 9, ‘Working with rasters’. the default ArcMap drawing sequence. With symbol level
drawing, the drawing order is based on each feature’s symbol and
Setting a data frame reference scale the position of that symbol in the symbol level drawing order.
Symbol level drawing parameters may be set individually for each
With a reference scale, you define the scale at which text and
feature layer or group layer.
symbols will appear at their true size. If you zoom in or out, the
text and symbols will change scale along with the display. Using symbol level drawing is useful for achieving some
Symbols and text will appear larger as you zoom in on your data graphical effects that can give your maps a polished cartographic
frame and smaller as you zoom out on your data frame. Setting a look. You can use symbol level drawing to symbolize overlapping
reference scale is like freezing the symbol and text sizes used in and intersecting line features with cased line symbols. For
your data frame; the way they look at the reference scale is example, on a large-scale reference map with intersecting streets,
maintained at all scales. Unless you explicitly set a reference you can create high-quality representations of streets. Where
scale, the current scale is your reference scale. streets intersect, you can blend the symbology for connectivity;
otherwise you will represent an overpass. You can work with Join
One reason to set a reference scale is if you want the detail in
and Merge to achieve these cartographic connectivity effects.
your data frame to look the same onscreen in data view as it will
when you print it out. If you’re going to print a map, you should You can work in default view or switch to advanced view to gain
set a reference scale to maintain a quality appearance. Let’s say additional control over symbol level drawing. Advanced view
you are creating a map for publication that will be printed at a breaks each symbol into its component layers and allows you to
scale of 1:25,000. If you set your data frame’s scale to be 1:25,000 enter numeric values to specify where each symbol layer will be
and choose Set Reference Scale, the symbols and text sizes in


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 193
positioned in the draw order. More combinations are possible in The mask is created by identifying a margin (the area between the
advanced view than default view. feature and the edge of the mask) and using an outline method.
The outline methods include:
Working with variable-depth masking • Exact—The mask is created to represent the shape, including
internal holes, and will follow characters exactly.
Variable-depth masking is a drawing technique for hiding parts of
one or more layers. • Convex Hull—The mask is created to represent the shape, not
including internal holes. For example, it will represent words,
You can use any polygon feature class as a mask. Using the
not each letter within a word.
ArcMap Advanced Drawing Options dialog box, you can set
which layers are affected by the mask and which are not. The • Box—The mask represents the shape as a rectangular
masking settings are created at the data frame level and are saved bounding box.
as part of the map document (.mxd).
Using a masking layer
One common use for masking is to clarify the legibility of a map
that is densely packed with text and feature symbology. You can You can use any polygon feature class to create masks. This
create a polygon mask layer based on an annotation layer, then feature class must be added to your map as a layer in the table of
mask out some feature symbology to make the map more contents.
readable. With variable-depth masking, only some layers are
From a data frame’s Advanced Drawing Options dialog box, you
hidden by the masks. For example, on a contour map, you might
can turn the masking on or off by checking or unchecking the box
create text masks that mask out sections of contour lines but do
to Draw using masking options specified below.
not mask out the elevation shading appearing behind those
layers. The masking layers can also be set up to mask one or more layers.
Each layer to be masked can be checked in the Masked Layers list
Masking will be maintained on any of the ESRI-supported map
when the mask layer is highlighted in the Masking Layers list.
export formats.

Creating a masking layer
You can use any polygon feature class as a masking layer;
however, you may want to create specific masks from the
symbology or annotation of a layer. The ArcGIS toolbox provides
the Feature Outline Masks tool to perform this task.
This tool works on the associated symbology of a layer.
Therefore, this tool uses a layer open in ArcMap or a saved layer
file (.lyr). The output is a polygon feature class saved within a
geodatabase.


1 94 USING ARCMAP
Drawing a layer
3
transparently
1. Click the View menu, point to
2
Toolbars, and click Effects.
The Effects toolbar appears.
4
2. Click the layer dropdown
arrow and click the layer you
want to appear transparent.
3. Click the Adjust Transpar-
ency button.
4. Drag the slider bar to adjust
the transparency.




Fire station layer before (left) and after adjusting transparency




SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 195
Setting a reference scale
for symbols
1. Set the scale of the data
1
frame to the scale you want
to use as the reference scale.
2. Right-click the data frame in
the table of contents, point to
Reference Scale, and click
Set Reference Scale.




Clearing a reference
scale
2
1. Right-click the data frame in
the table of contents, point to
Reference Scale, and click
Clear Reference Scale.




With (left) and without (right) a reference scale set




1 96 USING ARCMAP
Turning on symbol level
Tip
drawing
Using a shortcut to turn on
symbol level drawing
1. In the table of contents, right-
In the table of contents, right-click click the layer or group layer
the feature layer or group layer
you want to draw using
and click Use Symbol Levels.
Symbol Levels and click
Properties.
Tip 2. Click the Symbology tab.
1
Upgrading a map created If you’re working with a group
in ArcGIS 8 that uses layer, click the Group tab.
advanced drawing options
2
3. Click the Advanced button
You need to upgrade maps created
and click Symbol Levels from
in ArcGIS 8 that use symbol level
the dropdown list.
drawing to be able to use ArcGIS 9
advanced drawing options. Right- If you’re working with a group
click the data frame, click Ad- layer, click the Symbol Levels
vanced Drawing Options, and click button.
the button to upgrade the map.
4. Check Draw this layer using
the symbol levels specified
3
below.
Tip
What symbology types can 5. Click OK.
use symbol level drawing?
Symbol level drawing is available
for features symbolized with Single
4
Symbol, Unique Values, Graduated
Colors, and Graduated Symbols.
Join and Merge are only available
for multilevel symbols. It helps to
use unique values when drawing
intersecting features.


Tip
Using symbol level drawing
Symbol level drawing may result in
slower drawing. You can turn it on
or off by right-clicking a layer in
the table of contents and clicking
5
Use Symbol Levels.


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 197
Setting symbol levels in
Tip
default view
Quickly opening the
Symbol Levels dialog box
1. Open the Symbol Levels
2
You can add the Set Symbol Levels dialog box for your layer or
command to the layer or group
group layer and turn on
layer context menu to open the
34
symbol level drawing.
Symbol Levels dialog box directly.
If you’re working in advanced
This way, you can also apply your
changes without having to close view, click Switch to Default
dialog boxes. You can find the View.
command in the Layer category of
2. Double-click a symbol to
5
the Customize dialog box.
change its properties.
3. Change the symbol drawing
Tip order by moving symbols up
and down in the symbol list
Using keyboard shortcuts
with the arrows or drag and
with Join or Merge
drop.
In default view, hold down Ctrl and
click the check boxes to turn Join Symbols at the bottom of the
or Merge on or off for all symbols
6
list are drawn before symbols
in the list. If symbols are selected,
at the top.
Join or Merge is toggled only for
4. Check the Join box next to a
the selected symbols.
Symbols drawn with joins
Symbols drawn with no
symbol to achieve a blending
and no merges.
joins or merges.
effect for all features drawn
Tip with the symbol.
Getting help about symbol 5. Check the Merge box next to
level drawing a symbol to blend that
You can click the About Symbol symbol with the symbol
Levels button on the Symbol Levels directly above it in the symbol
dialog box to learn more about
list. Use Merge to achieve a
symbol level drawing. You can also Symbols drawn with
blending effect for features
see the ArcGIS Desktop Help. joins and merges.
drawn with different symbols.
6. Click OK to close the Symbol
Levels dialog box.
7. Click OK to apply these
changes to your layer.

The blue circles highlight road intersections that are symbolized with
various join and merge options.


1 98 USING ARCMAP
Setting symbol levels in
Tip
advanced view
Working in advanced view
Use advanced view if you need
2 3
1. Open the Symbol Levels
more control over symbol level dialog box for your layer or
drawing. All settings are preserved
group layer and turn on
when you switch from default to
symbol level drawing.
advanced view, but some may be
If you’re working in default
lost going from advanced to default
view, click Switch to Ad-
view.
vanced View. Advanced view
contains a matrix of symbols
Tip and their layers.
Setting options for 2. Double-click a symbol to
advanced view change its properties.
In advanced view, you can click a
3. Type numbers into the Layer
column heading to sort the column
columns to set the drawing
or change the row height.
order. Layers with lower level
4
numbers are drawn before
layers with higher level
numbers. A layer with a level
number of 0 will be drawn
first.
In advanced view, drawing
order is determined by the
values you type in the
columns, not the order of the
symbol list.
4. If you have multilayer
symbols, you can click the
arrow in the Symbol column
and view the layers. When
you click a layer of a multi-
layer symbol, its cell in the
Layer column is selected so
you can enter a value to set
5
its drawing order.
5. Click OK to close the Symbol
Levels dialog box.
6. Click OK to apply these
changes to your layer.

SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 199
Creating a masking layer
1. Click the Show/Hide
1
ArcToolbox button on the
Standard toolbar to show
ArcToolbox.
2. Expand the Cartography
Tools.
2
3. Expand the Masking Tools.
3 4
4. Double-click the Feature
Outline Masks tool.
5. Click the Input Layer drop-
down arrow and click a layer,
or click the Browse button to
choose a layer file.
6. Type the name and location
5
for the Output Feature Class,
or click the Browse button to
6
create it.
7
7. Type a value in the Refer-
ence Scale parameter.
8
If you’re using an annotation
9
layer, the reference scale will
Q
automatically be set.
W
8. Click the Spatial Reference
Query button to set or change
the spatial reference.
E
9. Type a value in the Margin
parameter and click the
Margin dropdown arrow and
select a unit of measure.
10. Click the Mask Kind drop-
down arrow and click a mask
kind.
If using a point or annotation
layer, you have three
choices; otherwise the
default is Exact.
11. Optionally, check Create
masks for unplaced annota-
tion.
12. Click OK.

2 00 USING ARCMAP
Using a masking layer
1
1. Click Add Data to add the
masking layer to the data
frame.
2. Right-click the data frame in
the table of contents and
click Advanced Drawing
Options.
3. Check Draw using masking
options specified below.

2
Uncheck if you want to turn
off masking.
4. Click the layer you want to
use as a mask in the Mask-
ing list.
5. Check the layers you want to
have affected by the mask in
the Data Frame Layers list.

3
6. Click OK.


4 5




6


SYMBOLIZING FEATURES 201
7
Working with graphics and text
I N THIS CHAPTER Maps convey information about geographic features, and adding graphics or
text can often enhance your map’s overall presentation. For example, you
• Working with graphics might add a few graphics or pieces of text to draw attention to particular
features. In this manner, you could outline a study area with a polygon, point
• Drawing points, lines, and circles
out potential locations for new stores, or label city streets with their names.
• Moving, rotating, and ordering Because text serves many different mapping purposes, ArcMap offers several
graphics
different kinds of text—graphic text, labels, and annotation. For example, on a
map of Africa, you might add some text that indicates the general location of
• Aligning, distributing, and group-
the Sahara Desert. You could also use text to describe individual features on
ing graphics
your map by showing the name of each major city.
• Storing graphics as annotation
In this chapter, you’ll learn how to create and work with graphics and text.
You’ll also learn about the different types of text available in ArcMap and in
• Working with text in ArcGIS
which situations you should use each kind of text.
• Working with labels

• Specifying the text of labels

• Building label expressions

• Prioritizing and positioning labels

• Converting labels to annotation

• Working with annotation

• Using text formatting tags



203
Working with graphics
Adding graphics to your map if you want controlled multiuser editing, or if you need to store
your graphics in a geodatabase.
Adding graphics to your map can clarify the information that it
Remember that graphics aren’t features. Graphics have no
conveys about the geographic features that are present and the
associated attribute table and, therefore, cannot be queried as
geographic phenomena that are at work. For example, you may
easily as geographic features.
add circles on top of the data on your map to draw attention to
particular features, outline a study area with a polygon, or add
Working with graphic text
lines that point to potential locations for new stores.
Adding text to your map is another way to improve how your map
Working with graphics communicates its message. You can use many of the graphic
tools to display and edit text that is added to the layout view. For
ArcMap contains a set of tools that works on graphics and
more information on text, see ‘Working with text in ArcGIS’ in this
graphic text. These tools are found on the Draw toolbar. You can
chapter.
use the tools on the Draw toolbar to create and edit graphics. You
can quickly draw new squares, lines, circles, and polygons, for
example, and change how they appear just by clicking tools. In
fact, you can convert map elements, such as a legend, to graphics
so you can edit their properties and position them more easily.
You can also align and distribute multiple graphics or move a
graphic above or below another graphic on the page. One
advantage to graphics is that you can easily manage different
geometry types together.
Graphics can be placed either in layout view, along with
cartographic elements such as scalebars and North arrows, or in
data view so the graphics resize with your data as you change the
extent of your map. For more information on working in layout
view with other types of map elements such as neatlines and
pictures, see Chapter 15, ‘Laying out and printing maps’.
Graphics are generally map-specific, which means that you will
probably want to store your graphics in individual map
documents (.mxd files). However, the geodatabase does support
the storage of graphics in annotation feature classes. Use this
option if you want to use the same set of graphics in many maps,




2 04 USING ARCMAP
Drawing points, Adding a graphic
Drawing tools
lines, and circles 1. On the Draw toolbar, click the
type of graphic you want to New Circle Select Elements
add. (See the tools in the
Points, lines, circles, polygons,
New Curve Edit Vertices
table to the right.)
and rectangles are among the
graphic shapes you’ll use to New Ellipse Rotate
2. Move the mouse pointer over
highlight features in your data the display and click to add
New FreeHand Fill Color
and draw cartographic elements the graphic.
on your layout. Once you’ve New Line Line Color
Some graphics require more
added a graphic to your map,
than a click. For example, New Marker Marker Color
you can move it, resize it,
you’ll need to click and drag
change its color, align it with
New Polygon Zoom to Selected Elements
the mouse to add a rect-
other graphics, and so on.
angle.
New Rectangle
If you want to add a graphic as
part of the map layout, add it in
layout view. If you want the
graphic to display with your
Changing the size of a
data, add it in data view. For
graphic
example, suppose you want to
draw a circle representing a
1. Click the Select Elements
buffer around a feature. Instead
button on the Draw toolbar
of drawing the circle over the
and click the graphic you
data frame in layout view, draw
want to resize. Click and drag a selection handle
it directly over your data in data
to resize the graphic. Use the Shift
view. Then, as you pan and 2. Move the mouse pointer over
key to resize as a square or the Ctrl
zoom your data, the circle pans one of the blue selection
key to maintain the aspect ratio.
and zooms with it. handles and click and drag
the handle.
Tip
Keeping tools active
Deleting a graphic
You can make the graphics
construct tools stay active after you
1. Click the Select Elements
complete a graphic by changing the
button on the Draw toolbar
options found on the Symbols/
and click the graphic you
Graphics tab of the Advanced
want to delete.
ArcMap Settings utility. This
application is installed in the 2. Press the Delete key on the
Utilities folder of the \ArcGIS keyboard.
directory.


WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 205
2
1
Editing vertices of a
Tip
graphic
Adding graphics to a data
frame while in layout view
1. Click the Select Elements
When you add a graphic to a map button on the Draw toolbar
while in layout view, ArcMap will,
and click the graphic you
by default, add it to the layout. To
want to edit the vertices of.
add the graphic to a data frame,
2. Click the Edit Vertices button
click the Select Elements button on
3
the Draw toolbar and double-click on the Draw toolbar.
the data frame. Then click a
If this button is unavailable,
drawing tool to add a graphic to
you can’t edit the vertices of
the data frame.
the selected graphic.
3. Right-click over the line and
Tip click Add Vertex to add a
vertex, or right-click over a
Working with color
vertex and click Delete Vertex
If you don’t find the exact color you
to delete it. Click and drag a
want in the array of colors on the
vertex to move it.
Color Palette, you can mix your
own. Click More Colors to open
the Color Selector and mix with the
sliders.
Using the Draw toolbar
1
to make quick symbol
changes
2
1. In layout view, click the
Select Elements button on
the Draw toolbar and click
the graphic you want to
modify.
2. Click the appropriate shortcut
3
button on the Draw toolbar.
3. Click the new property.
Your changes are immedi-
ately applied.




2 06 USING ARCMAP
Changing the color or
Tip
symbol of a graphic
Displaying the Graphics
toolbar
1. Click the Select Elements
The Graphics toolbar provides
2
button on the Draw toolbar
quick access to frequently used
and double-click the graphic
tools for manipulating graphic
to display its properties.
elements. To display it, click the
The properties vary depend-
View menu, point to Toolbars, and
click Graphics. ing on the type of graphic
you’ve selected.
2. To change the fill color, click
See Also
the Fill Color dropdown
For more information on adding
arrow and click a new color.
other elements, such as scalebars
3. Click OK.
and North arrows, see Chapter 15,
‘Laying out and printing maps’.
3


Setting the default
symbol properties for
new graphics created
2
with the Draw toolbar
1. On the Draw toolbar, click
Default Symbol Properties.
2. Click the appropriate button
to set the symbol properties
for that type of graphic
element.
3. Click OK.

3


1

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 207
Converting features to
Tip
graphics
Why convert features to
2
graphics?
1. Right-click the layer in the
You can convert the features in a table of contents that you
layer to graphics that can be
want to convert to graphics
moved, resized, and edited on the
and click Convert Features to
map. This option is useful if you
Graphics.
want to change the location of
features relative to each other for 2. Click all to convert all
cartographic purposes, such as features or selected to
3
generalization, but you don’t want convert the selected features.
to edit the source data that your
3. Click the Target dropdown
layer represents.
arrow and click the target you
want to add the graphics to—
4
the location where the
graphics will be stored. The
default target saves the
graphics into your map
document.
4. Click OK.




2 08 USING ARCMAP
Selecting Selecting graphics one at
a time
graphics
1. Click the Select Elements
You can work with a graphic button on the Draw toolbar.
when it is selected. You can, for
2. Move the mouse pointer over
example, change its size, color, the graphic you want to
or shape. By selecting more
select and click the graphic.
than one graphic, you define a Move the mouse pointer over the graphic
ArcMap draws selection and click it. Hold down the Shift key and click
selected set that you can work
handles around the selected to add to the current selected graphics.
with as a group. For example,
graphic.
you might align, move, or delete
them.
You select graphics with the
Select Elements tool. Select an
Selecting all graphics
individual graphic by clicking it,
or select a group by dragging a 1. Click the Edit menu and click
rectangle around the graphics. Select All Elements.
Hold down the Shift key while
selecting to add graphics to or
remove graphics from the
current selection.
You can tell when a graphic is
1
selected because ArcMap
draws selection handles
around it. When more than
one graphic is selected, one
graphic has blue handles and
the others have green handles.
The blue handles indicate the Zooming to selected
dominant graphic, or the one graphics
that ArcMap will use, for
2
example, to align other 1. Select the graphics you want
graphics with. to zoom to.
To change the dominant 2. Click the Zoom to Selected
graphic, hold down the Ctrl Elements button on the Draw
key and click the selected toolbar.
graphic that you want as the
The map display extent
dominant one.
zooms to the selected
graphics.

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 209
Moving, rotating, Moving a graphic
and ordering 1. Click the Select Elements
button on the Draw toolbar
graphics and click the graphic you
want to move.
Much of the work you do while
2. Click and drag the selected Move the mouse pointer over the
building your map involves
graphic to its new position. graphic and click and drag it.
arranging graphics and other
elements on it. For instance,
you might want to orient
graphics around the associated Nudging a graphic
features in a data frame or
1. Click the Select Elements
position map elements, such as
button on the Draw toolbar
titles, neatlines, and North
and click the graphic you
arrows, on the layout.
want to move a small
ArcMap provides a number of amount.
tools that let you position and
2. On the Draw toolbar, click
orient graphics. You can move
Drawing, point to Nudge, and
graphics by dragging them with
2
click the direction you want to
the mouse or, when you need
nudge the graphic.
more precise control, you can
nudge them up, down, left, or The graphic moves one pixel
right. You can also position in the nudge direction.
graphics to a coordinate
location you specify. You can
move one graphic on top of
Positioning a graphic at a
another one, rotate it, and flip it
2
specific location
horizontally or vertically.
1. Click the Select Elements
3
button on the Draw toolbar
Tip
and double-click the graphic
Specifying coordinates you want to position.
You can position a graphic to a
2. Click the Size and Position
location that you specify. In layout
tab.
view, you are specifying x,y
coordinates relative to the lower- 3. Type an X and Y position.
left corner of the layout. In data
4. Click OK.
view, you are specifying x,y
coordinates in the units your data
is stored in.
4
2 10 USING ARCMAP
Ordering a graphic
Tip
Working with a graphic in a 1. Click the Select Elements
data frame while in layout button on the Draw toolbar
view and click the graphic you
If you want to work with a graphic want to place in front of or
in a data frame while in layout behind other graphics.
view, click the Select Elements
2. On the Draw toolbar, click
button on the Draw toolbar and
2
Drawing, point to Order, and
double-click the data frame. Then
click the ordering option.
click the appropriate tool to modify
the graphic in the data frame.


Tip
Rotating by 90 degrees
To rotate a graphic by 90 degrees
left or right, click Drawing on the
Draw toolbar, point to Rotate or
Flip, and click Rotate Left or Rotate
Right.
Rotating a graphic
The “x” indicates the rotation point.
Tip 1. Click the Select Elements
button on the Draw toolbar
Right-clicking to reveal the
and click the graphic you
graphics context menu
want to rotate.
You can right-click a graphic or a
group of selected graphics to open
2. Click the Rotate button on the
the graphics context menu, which
Draw toolbar.
includes shortcuts to many
3. Position the mouse pointer
graphics operations.
over the “x”, which indicates
the rotation point, and move it
as necessary. As you drag the mouse to rotate, ArcMap
draws an outline of the graphic.
4. Click and drag the mouse to
rotate the graphic.




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 211
Flipping a graphic
Tip
horizontally or vertically
Displaying the Graphics
toolbar
1. Click the Select Elements
The Graphics toolbar provides button on the Draw toolbar
quick access to frequently used
and click the graphic you
tools for manipulating graphic
want to flip.
elements. To display it, click the
2. On the Draw toolbar, click
View menu, point to Toolbars, and
click Graphics. Drawing, point to Rotate or
Flip, and click Flip Horizon-
tally or Flip Vertically.

2




Making graphics the
same size
1. Click the Select Elements
button on the Draw toolbar
and select the graphics you
want to make the same size.
2. Click Drawing on the Draw
toolbar, point to Distribute,
2
and click Make Same Size.




2 12 USING ARCMAP
Aligning, Aligning graphics
distributing, and 1. Click the Select Elements
button on the Draw toolbar
grouping and select the graphics you
want to align.
graphics
2. The dominant graphic has
blue selection handles
Most of the time you’ll prob-
around it. To change the
ably just drag a graphic where
dominant graphic, press and
you want it to be. However, you
hold the Ctrl key and click the
can arrange them more precisely
graphic you want as the
when you need to.
dominant one.
You can align graphics with
3. Click Drawing on the Draw
other graphics—using the
Before After Align Left
toolbar, point to Align, and
sides, middles, or top or bottom
click the alignment you want.
edges. You can arrange
graphics so they are equidistant
from each other—distributing
them either vertically or
horizontally. Distributing graphics
Once you’ve arranged the 1. Click the Select Elements
graphics, you may want to Before
button on the Draw toolbar
group them together so you can and select the graphics you
move them as a group and want to distribute.
maintain their alignment.
2. Click Drawing on the Draw
toolbar, point to Distribute,
and click the distribution
Tip
method you want.
What do the blue selection After
The graphics are distributed
handles indicate? Distribute
with equal spacing between
When you have more than one
the centroid of each graphic.
graphic selected, the blue handles
indicate the dominant graphic, or
the one that ArcMap will use, for
example, to align other graphics
with. To change the dominant
graphic, hold down the Ctrl key
and click the selected graphic that
you want to be dominant.



WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 213
Grouping graphics
Tip
Displaying the Graphics 1. Click the Select Elements
toolbar button on the Draw toolbar
2
The Graphics toolbar provides and select the graphics you
quick access to frequently used want to group.
tools for manipulating graphic
2. Click Drawing on the Draw
elements. To display it, click the
toolbar and click Group.
View menu, point to Toolbars, and
click Graphics. The individual graphics now
form a group.
Tip
Right-clicking to reveal the
graphics context menu
You can right-click a graphic or a
group of selected graphics to open
the graphics context menu, which
includes shortcuts to many
graphics operations.


Tip
Ungrouping graphics
Grouping grouped graphics
You can also group graphics that
1. Click the Select Elements
are already grouped.
button on the Draw toolbar
and click the graphics you
want to ungroup.
2
2. Click Drawing on the Draw
toolbar and click Ungroup.
Each graphic formerly in the
group is now independent.




2 14 USING ARCMAP
Joining graphics 1. Select the polygon graphics
on the map you want to join.
You can join two or more 2. Click Drawing on the Draw
polygon graphics you’ve drawn toolbar, point to Graphic
on your map to form a new Operations, and click the
graphic that is a combination of method you want to use.
the input graphics. The graphic
The graphics will be joined.
2
operations you can perform are:
• Union—joins all graphics
into one large graphic.
Where the graphics overlap,
the boundaries are removed.
• Intersect—creates a new
graphic from the shared area
of the input graphics.
• Remove Overlap—creates a
new graphic from the
nonoverlapping areas of two
input graphics. Results of graphic operations
Input graphics
• Subtract—creates a new
graphic by subtracting the
overlapping area of one
graphic from another.



Union Subtract




Intersect Remove Overlap




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 215
Storing graphics Creating an annotation
2
group
as annotation
3
1. On the Draw toolbar, click
4
Storing your graphics as Drawing and click New
annotation in groups or feature Annotation Group.
classes helps you organize
5
2. Type a name for the annota-
them. For example, you could
tion group.
store all the graphics you use to
3. Optionally, choose the layer
annotate a particular layer in
the annotation group is
the same annotation group or
associated with.
feature class.
4. Optionally, set a reference
Annotation provides more
6
scale.
control over how graphics draw
in relation to each other. 5. Optionally, set the range of
Annotation can be used to scales in which the annota-
draw graphics only when a tion group is visible.
particular layer is visible, for
6. Click OK.
example. Only graphics in
geographic space can be stored
as annotation.
You choose the annotation Setting the active
target where your annotation is
annotation target
1
saved. You can create annota-
2
tion groups, which are useful 1. On the Draw toolbar, click
for organizing a large number of Drawing and point to Active
graphics because you can turn Annotation Target.
them on and off individually.
2. Click the name of the
The Draw toolbar lets you
annotation group to which
create new annotation targets
you want new annotation to
for map document annotation.
be added. The
Your map will always have a
target saves the graphics into
target—an annota-
your map document.
tion group that cannot be
The target can be an annota-
removed or deleted.
tion group or an annotation
If you want to use your
feature class. If the annota-
annotation in other maps or
tion target is stored in a
have multiple users editing in
geodatabase, you need to
an enterprise system, store it in
start editing to add graphics
a geodatabase in an u
to it.

2 16 USING ARCMAP
annotation feature class. You Adding new graphics to
can create new annotation an annotation group
feature classes in ArcCatalog.
1. Set the active annotation
For more information on
target.
annotation and geodatabases,
2. Add graphics to your map.
see ‘Working with text in
ArcGIS’ and ‘Working with
annotation’ in this chapter.


Moving graphics between
Tip
annotation groups
Which graphics can be
stored as annotation?
1. Click the Select Elements
1
Only text or graphics that are in
button on the Draw toolbar
geographic space can be stored as
and click the graphic or
annotation. Layout graphics and
graphics you want to move
map elements, such as scalebars
between annotation groups.
and North arrows, cannot be
stored as annotation. 2. Click the Edit menu and click
Cut. You can also right-click
the graphic and click Cut.
Tip
3. Set the active annotation
Managing annotation
2
target to the annotation
groups
group where you want to
You can turn annotation groups on
4
move the graphic.
or off, create new groups, delete
groups, and edit annotation group 4. Click the Edit menu and click
properties on the Annotation Paste.
Groups tab of the Data Frame
The graphic is pasted slightly
Properties dialog box.
to the right and below the
graphic’s original position.
Tip
Creating new geodatabase
annotation targets
The Draw toolbar is used to create
new map document annotation
targets. For new geodatabase
annotation targets, use ArcCatalog
to create new annotation feature
classes. See Building a
Geodatabase for more information.

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 217
Working with text in ArcGIS
Adding text to your map annotation stores its own position, text string, and display
properties. Compared to labels, annotation provides more
Maps convey information about geographic features, yet flexibility over the appearance and placement of your text because
displaying only features on a map—even with symbols that you can select individual pieces of text and edit them. You can
convey their meaning—isn’t always enough to make your point. use ArcMap to convert labels to annotation.
In fact, most maps will not be useful without at least some textual
Annotation can be further divided based on where you store it—
information.
in a map document or in a geodatabase. Map document
In general, there are different kinds of text you can add to your annotation is in data space and organized into groups, stored in
map. First, descriptive text can be placed near individual map map documents, and edited with the graphic tools on the Draw
features. For example, your map shows the name of each major toolbar. Geodatabase annotation is also in data space but is
city in Africa. You can also add just a few pieces of text to draw stored in a geodatabase as text or graphics and edited using the
attention to a particular area of the map, such as adding text to ArcMap editing tools.
indicate the general location of the Sahara Desert. Finally, you
In ArcGIS, some types of annotation can be displayed but not
can add text that improves the presentation of your map. For
edited. These types include ArcInfo Workstation coverage,
example, a map title provides context; you might consider adding
SDE 3.x, CAD, and VPF annotation. Annotation in these formats
other information such as map author, data source, and date.
is read-only, but ArcGIS provides tools to convert to geodatabase
annotation and map document annotation, both of which are
Using different kinds of text
editable formats.
Because text serves so many different mapping purposes, ArcGIS
Graphic text is useful for adding information on and around your
offers several different types. The main types are labels,
map that exists in page space—as opposed to annotation, which
annotation, and graphic text. A label is a piece of text in ArcMap
is stored in geographic space. If you want to place text
that is automatically positioned and whose text string is based on
information on your map page that does not move as you zoom
feature attributes. Labels offer the fastest and easiest way to add
and pan on your map, you should use graphic text. Graphic text
descriptive text to your map for individual features. For example,
can only be added to ArcMap in layout view.
you can turn on dynamic labeling for a layer of major cities to
quickly add city names to your map of Africa. Because labels are
Options for storing your text
always based on attribute fields, they can only be used to add
feature descriptive text. Before you begin working with text, you should take a moment to
understand the text storage options in ArcGIS.
The second main option when working with text is to use
annotation. Annotation can be used for describing particular First, labels are not stored, at least not in the sense that
features as well as to add general information to the map. You can annotation and graphic text are stored. Labels are generated
use annotation, much like labels, to add descriptive text for many dynamically and only labeling properties are stored—the settings
map features or just to manually add a few pieces of text to used to create labels on the fly. If you are working in a map, your
describe an area of your map. Unlike labels, each piece of


2 18 USING ARCMAP
labeling properties will be saved when you save your map want to identify might not be based on attributes, then you can
document (.mxd). Labeling properties can also be stored in layer just use graphic text or map document annotation.
files (.lyr). Use layer files, for example, to transfer labels between If, however, you want to have much feature-descriptive text, then
two maps without having to set up labeling again in the new map. you may want to use a different method. If you already have the
ArcGIS provides two main options for storing annotation. text, such as if you have some existing coverage annotation you
Geodatabase annotation is stored in a geodatabase in annotation want to use in a new map, then you can simply add the text layer
feature classes. You can think of geodatabase annotation as a to ArcMap. You can use labels if you want to add text based on
special type of geographic feature, stored together with other your feature attributes.
geographic data in a geodatabase. Like point, line, and polygon If you are starting from scratch with your features and text, then
feature classes, annotation feature classes can be used in many you can create a new feature class and a feature-linked
different maps. annotation class. You’ll be able to build your annotation
Map document annotation is stored in map documents in automatically as you create your data.
annotation groups within each data frame. Choose map document
annotation if you only want to use your text in one particular
map. You can use annotation groups to organize map document
annotation, or you can put all of your annotation into a single
annotation group that automatically exists in every
map document data frame.
Graphic text is always stored in a map document. Like map
document annotation, graphic text is added to a particular map.
Graphic text is stored on the map layout’s page and cannot be
organized into groups.
Keep in mind that both annotation and graphic text are forms of
graphics, and you can use the tools on the Draw toolbar to create
and edit these types of text. In addition, specific tools are
available in ArcMap for working with geodatabase annotation.
For more information on creating and editing geodatabase
annotation, see Building a Geodatabase or Editing in ArcMap.

What kind of text should I use?
The type of text that you should use is based on where you are
starting from with your text and how you want to use text on your
map. If you only want to add a few pieces of text and what you

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 219
Adding text Adding text at a point
Text tools on the Draw toolbar
1. Click the New Text button on
Text serves a variety of pur-
the Draw toolbar. Select Elements
New Text
poses on a map, and ArcMap
2. Click the mouse pointer over
supports three types of text that Edit Vertices
New Splined Text
the map display and type the
you can use: labels, annotation,
Rotate
Label
text string.
and graphic text. To add labels
to your map based on an The text will be horizontal. Callout
attribute value, see ‘Displaying
New Polygon Text
labels’ in this chapter.
ArcMap has several tools for New Rectangle Text
creating new annotation and
New Circle Text
graphic text on your map. You
can enter horizontal text, text
that curves, and text that has a
callout or leader line. To speed
the task of adding descriptive
Adding text along a
text for features, you can use
the Label tool to click a feature curved line
4
and automatically add text to
1. Click the New Splined Text
annotate it. Once you have text
3
2
button on the Draw toolbar.
on your map, you can use the
tools on the Draw toolbar to 2. Click the mouse pointer over
change its position, appear- the map to add vertices along
ance, and text string. which the text should be
Click the Edit Vertices button on the Draw toolbar to edit the vertices
splined.
This section focuses on
of the splined text.
creating and editing map 3. Double-click to end the line.
document annotation and
4. Type the text string.
graphic text. While you can
follow these steps to create and
edit geodatabase annotation,
there are powerful, easy-to-use
editing tools in ArcMap
designed specifically for
working with geodatabase
annotation. If you are working
with geodatabase annotation,
see Editing in ArcMap for
instructions on creating and u


2 20 USING ARCMAP
editing text stored in this Adding text with a callout
format.
3
box and leader line
When using the tools on the
1. Click the Callout button on
Draw toolbar to add text, unless
2
the Draw toolbar.
you specify otherwise, new text
2. Click a start point for the
will be added to the
leader line. Drag the mouse
annotation group of your data You can click and drag the endpoint of the callout to
position it correctly.
pointer and release the
frame. You can change this by
mouse button where you
setting the Active Annotation
want the callout and text to
Target. To learn more about
be placed.
this, see ‘Storing graphics as
annotation’ earlier in this 3. Type the text string.
chapter.


Tip
Adding text that flows
Specifying default text
1
within a graphic
symbol properties
You can set the default symbol
1. Click one of the Paragraph
properties for new text by clicking
Text tools on the Draw
Drawing on the Draw toolbar and
toolbar. Choose between
clicking Default Symbol Properties.
New Polygon, New Rect-
2
angle, and New Circle.
3
2. Using your mouse pointer,
click and drag to create the
graphic shape. Then, double-
click to complete the shape.
3. Double-click the graphic to
change the text and modify
its display properties.




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 221
2
Adding text by clicking a
Tip
feature
Adding text to a data frame
while in layout view
1. In the table of contents, right-
When you add graphic text to a click the layer you want to
map while in layout view, ArcMap
label and click Properties.
will, by default, add it to the layout.
2. Click the Labels tab.
To add text to a data frame, click
the Select Elements button on the 3. Click the Label Field
3
Draw toolbar and double-click the
dropdown arrow and click the
data frame. Click the New Text tool
field you want to use as a
to add graphic text to the data
label.
frame.
4. Click OK.
5. On the Draw toolbar, click the
Tip
Label button.
Setting the active
You may have to click the
annotation target
dropdown arrow to choose
You can change the target location
4
the Label button.
where your text is stored. For more
information, see ‘Storing graphics 6. Click Place label at position
as annotation’ earlier in this clicked.
chapter.
If you click Automatically find
best placement, ArcMap finds
See Also
the best location for the label.
You can add text to your map by
6
7. Click Choose a style and
annotating selected features. For
click the label style you want.
7
more information, see Editing in
ArcMap and Building a 8. Click the mouse pointer over
Geodatabase. the feature you want to label.
ArcMap labels the feature.




5 8



2 22 USING ARCMAP
Changing the font, color,
Tip
Changing text with the Draw toolbar
and size of text with the
Using the Draw toolbar with
Draw toolbar
geodatabase annotation
Bold
To add text to a geodatabase
1. Click the Select Elements
annotation feature class with the Italic
button on the Draw toolbar
tools on the Draw toolbar, you
and click the text elements
must first start an edit session and Underline
you want to edit.
set your active annotation target to
the geodatabase annotation feature Change font color
2. Click the appropriate button
class. on the Draw toolbar to modify
a particular characteristic of Change font size
the text.
Tip
Change font
Accessing the text
Properties dialog box
You can also right-click a text
element and click Properties to
open the Properties dialog box. Changing text properties
1. Click the Select Elements
See Also
2
tool on the Draw toolbar and
double-click the text element
For more information on creating
you want to edit.
text symbols, see Chapter 8,
‘Working with styles and symbols’. 2. Type a new text string.
3. Click Change Symbol to
3
modify additional properties.
4. Click OK on all dialog boxes.



1
Editing a text string
1. Click the New Text button on
the Draw toolbar.
2. Click the existing piece of
3
text you want to edit.
3. Type a new text string and
press the Enter key.



WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 223
Working with labels
What is labeling? features are tightly clustered together, some features may not be
labeled. As you zoom in on your map, more labels will
Generally, labeling is the process of placing descriptive text onto dynamically appear.
or next to features on your map. In ArcGIS, labeling refers
specifically to the process of automatically generating and Controlling which features are labeled
placing descriptive text for map features. A label is a piece of text
Dynamic labeling is a fast and easy way to add text to your map,
on the map that is derived from one or more feature attributes.
and this holds true even for complicated maps. Simply turn on
Labels are not selectable, and you cannot edit the display
labeling for your layer or layers, and as you pan and zoom around
properties of individual labels.
your map, ArcMap dynamically adjusts the labels to fit the
Labeling is useful to add descriptive text to your map for many
available space. To gain more precise control over which features
features. Labeling can be a fast way to add text to your map, and
are labeled and where labels are placed, you need to work with
it avoids you having to add text for each feature manually. In
more advanced labeling properties. Specifically, you can adjust
addition, ArcMap labeling dynamically generates and places text
which features are labeled and where labels are placed with
for you. This can be useful if your data is expected to change or
respect to features.
you are creating maps at different scales.
There are three ways to control which features are labeled:
Annotation is an alternative to labeling. If you only want to add
• Set the label priority, which controls the order that labels get
descriptive text for a few features, if you want to reuse your text
placed on the map.
and make it appear in the same place all the time, or if you do not
have attributed features, it will be better to add your text as • Set label weights and feature weights to establish a ranking
annotation. Labeling your features is a good way to create system for labels when there is a conflict—that is, overlap—
annotation. To learn more about adding text as annotation, see on the map with other labels or features.
‘Adding text’ earlier in this chapter or Editing in ArcMap.
• Use label classes to be able to specify different labeling
properties, including priority, weights, and placement
Displaying dynamic labels
properties, for features in the same layer.
To display labels for a layer, you simply specify the attribute or
Label priority, label weights, and feature weights work together to
attributes of the feature you want to base your labels on—for
control which features are labeled. These settings also affect
example, a street name or soil type—then turn on labeling.
where labels are placed.
ArcMap automatically places labels on or near the features they
Consider a map of Europe on which you are labeling both country
describe. You can also control the font, size, and color of the text
names and cities. Depending on the scale of your map, there may
to help differentiate labels for different types of features. A map of
not be room for all features to be labeled. You decide that the
Europe, for example, could have both country and major city
country labels are more important than the city labels. To make
labels, each displayed with a different text symbol.
your map labels reflect this, you first change the label priority to
When you turn on dynamic labeling, ArcMap places as many
make sure that country labels are placed before city labels.
labels on the map as possible without any overlap. In areas where

2 24 USING ARCMAP
Converting labels to annotation
Label priority can work on a layer by layer basis, but you can also
specify label priority within layers by further dividing a layer’s
If you need exact control over where a given label is placed on
labels into label classes. For example, you could divide your city
your map, you should convert your labels to annotation. Text
labels into two label classes: major cities and secondary cities.
stored as annotation is editable, which means that you can select
Then, because major city labels are more important, you could
and move individual pieces of text, as well as change their display
give the major city labels a higher priority and a higher label
properties (font, size, color, and so on). For example, you might
weight than the secondary labels.
want to convert labels to annotation so you can manually move a
You can further refine your map by adjusting the feature weights few pieces of text to make room for one piece that ArcMap was
of your city label classes. The general rule with weights is that a unable to place due to space constraints. When you convert
feature cannot be overlapped by a label with an equal or lower labels to annotation, ArcMap provides you with a list of all the
weight. Continuing with the example, you could increase the labels that weren’t placed and lets you interactively place them
feature weights of your major cities class from None to High, on your map as needed. For more information, see ‘Converting
which is the highest weight. Doing this will result in a map where labels to annotation’ in this chapter.
labels can overlap secondary city symbols but not major city
symbols.
To learn more about label priority and label and feature weights,
see ‘Prioritizing and positioning labels’ in this chapter. To learn
more about label classes, see ‘Displaying labels’ in this chapter.

Controlling where labels are placed
To control where labels are placed, you should use label
placement properties. Like label priority and weights, these
settings work on a layer basis, or you can use label classes to
subdivide features in the same layer and assign them different
placement properties. Label placement properties let you specify
where each label is placed on the map with respect to the feature
being labeled. ArcMap has different label placement options for
point, line, and polygon labels. In addition, installing and
enabling the Maplex for ArcGIS extension will give you a
different, enhanced set of label placement properties.
To learn more about label placement properties, see ‘Prioritizing
and positioning labels’ in this chapter.



WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 225
The Labeling toolbar and the Label Manager
The Labeling toolbar is where you start labeling in ArcMap. From here you can control the labeling process and open the Label
Manager, which lets you view and change labeling properties for all the labels in your map. Additional controls are added to the
Labeling menu when you install the Maplex for ArcGIS extension. See Using Maplex for ArcGIS for more information.

Open the Label Manager. Change label and feature weights.



Show unplaced labels.

Set labeling options.
Lock the current size and
location of labels.
Change priority
order of labels.

Lists the map’s
layers and label
Specify a single field or
classes.
expression used to
generate label strings.
Click a layer to
Change label appearance.
manage its label
classes.
Set additional label
appearance properties.

Click a label Set label placement
class to view properties and options.
and edit its
properties.

Work with the Use label styles.
Label Classes list.




Set a visible scale range for labels. Use a SQL expression to label certain features.


2 26 USING ARCMAP
Making a map with labels 4. Turn on labeling for your layer’s default label class.
Follow these steps to create a high-quality map with labels:
1. Start ArcMap and create a new map or open an existing one. If
necessary, add the data you want to label to your map.
2. Add the Labeling toolbar to ArcMap.




Check the box next to the label
class that you want to label.

5. Create additional label classes in the Label Manager if you
want to specify different labeling properties for the features in
your layer.



3. Open the Label Manager.




Label Manager button




Click a layer on the left panel and add a new label class to it on the
right panel.


WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 227
6. Use the Label Manager to polish your map by changing the most important features on your map are labeled and that their
label expression, label text symbol, and label placement labels are in the best positions.
options.




Label and Feature
Weights dialog box




8. Convert your labels to annotation if you want to be able to
Work with the right panel of the Label Manager when formatting
position some pieces of text manually or if you want the text
your labels.
to always appear in the same position. For more information,
7. Use the Label Priority and Label Weight Ranking dialog boxes see ‘Converting labels to annotation’ in this chapter.
(both accessed from the Labeling toolbar) to ensure that the




Label Priorities
dialog box




2 28 USING ARCMAP
Displaying labels Adding the Labeling
toolbar and opening the
Labeling is an easy way to add Label Manager
2
descriptive text to features on
1. Click the View menu, point to
your map. Labels are dynami-
Toolbars, and click Labeling.
cally placed, and label text
strings are based on feature 2. Click the Label Manager
attributes. You can easily turn button.
labels on or off and can even
lock them so their locations
stay fixed as you zoom or pan
on your map.
1
You can use dynamic labeling
for all features in a layer, or
alternatively, you can use label
classes to specify different
labeling properties for features
within the same layer. For
4
Using the Label Manager
example, in a layer of cities, you
1. Open the Label Manager by
might label those with a
clicking the Label Manager
population greater than 100,000
button on the Labeling
with a larger font size and those
toolbar.
cities with a population less
than 100,000 with a smaller font 2. Check the box next to the
size. In addition, if the features layer you want to label.
in your layer are symbolized
3. Choose a label class under
2
with different symbols, you can
the layer.
create label classes from your
3
symbology classes. Building 4. Click the Label Field
your label classes from your dropdown arrow and click the
symbol classes is a fast way to attribute field you want to use
create maps with a consistent as a label.
look.
5. Click OK.
Labels are not editable. If you
5
want to be able to position
individual pieces of text
manually, you should convert
labels to annotation. To learn
more, see ‘Converting labels to
annotation’ in this chapter.

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 229
Changing label symbols
Tip
Automatically removing 1. Open the Label Manager.
duplicate labels
2. Click a label class in the
3
ArcMap automatically removes
Label Classes list.
duplicate labels. You might want to
4
disable this behavior when labeling 3. Click the buttons and
features, such as soil types or land
2
dropdown menus in the Text
use categories, where several Symbol box to set the font,
features can have the same size, color, or other symbol
attribute value. Click Properties on properties of your labels.
the Label Manager’s Placement
4. Optionally, click the Symbol
Properties frame, and work with
button to change other
the options for label placement and
5
properties or to choose an
conflicts (overlaps).
existing text symbol for your
labels.
Tip
5. Click OK.
Using symbology classes
You can only use symbology classes
to build label classes if your data is
Building label classes
symbolized using unique values;
unique values, many fields; match from symbology classes
to symbols in a style; graduated
1. Open the Label Manager.
colors; or graduated symbols.
2
2. Click a layer in the Label
Classes list.
3
See Also
4
3. In the Select symbology
To get more precise control over
categories box, check the
which features are labeled and
box next to the symbology
where labels are positioned, see
class you want to use to
‘Prioritizing and positioning labels’
make a new label class.
in this chapter. For full control,
convert your labels to annotation. 4. Click the Add button.
5
See ‘Converting labels to annota-
5. Click Yes or No on the
tion’ in this chapter.
Overwrite label classes
dialog box, depending on
what you want to do with
your existing label classes.
6. Click OK.



2 30 USING ARCMAP
Using label styles
Tip
Locking labels 1. Open the Label Manager.
To lock the current size and
2. Click a label class in the
location of labels, click the Lock
3
Label Classes list.
Labels button on the Labeling
toolbar. This turns off the labeling 3. Click the Symbol button.
process, and as you pan and zoom,
2
4. Click a standard label style
labels will stay in place. Click the
from the left pane of the
Lock Labels button again to return
Symbol Selector dialog box.
to dynamic placement. When you
lock labels, text will scale the same 5. Optionally, modify the
as when you set a reference scale. properties of a label style and
click Save to save your new
7
symbol in your personal style
Tip
folder.
Working with label styles
6. Click OK on the Symbol
A label style consists of both a text
Selector dialog box.
symbol and a set of label placement
properties. When you choose a 7. Click OK on the Label
label style, its text symbol replaces Manager dialog box.
the current label symbol.


Tip

4
Creating text within a
highway shield marker
You can label road line features
with text inside a highway shield by
using a label style and choosing
one of the standard highway shield
styles.


See Also

65
For more information on using
styles and saving to your personal
style folder, see Chapter 8,
‘Working with styles and symbols’.




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 231
3
Using label classes to
Tip
label features from the
Using different text
same layer differently
symbols to label features
2
in a single layer
4
1. Open the Label Manager.
Label classes allow you to use a
different text symbol to label 2. Click the layer in the Label
different types of features in the Classes box for which you
same layer. For example, you could want to create label classes.
label cities with a large population
3. Type a name for your new
in a larger font than those with a
label class in the Enter label
smaller population.
name box.
4. Click Add.
Tip
5. Uncheck the Default label
5
Displaying coverage
9
class to avoid labeling some
annotation
features twice.
If you have a coverage with
6
6. Right-click the new label
annotation, you can display the
Q
annotation as a layer in the table of class in the Label Classes list
contents. Add the layer as you and click SQL Query.
would any feature layer.
7. Click the operators to build
an expression that identifies
the subset of features you
Tip
want to label.
E
Using the Layer Properties
7
Labels tab 8. Click OK.
You can still use the Labels tab on 9. Click the Label Field
the Layer Properties dialog box to
dropdown arrow and click the
set the symbol and placement
attribute field you want to use
properties for your labels.
as a label.
10. Click the buttons and
Tip dropdown menus to define
the symbol and placement In this example, cities with a
Making the labels get
population greater than
properties of your labels.
bigger when you zoom in
1,000,000 will be labeled.
As you zoom in and out on your 11. Repeat steps 2 through 10 if
map, the size of the labels does not you want to create additional
change. If you want the text to scale label classes.
with the map, set a reference scale.
12. Click OK.
Right-click the data frame and click
Reference Scale.
8
2 32 USING ARCMAP
3
Specifying the Labeling based on a
single attribute field
text of labels
1. Open the Label Manager.
Label text strings are derived
2. Click a label class in the
from one or more feature
Label Classes list.
attributes. Labels are dynamic,
3. Click the Label Field
so if feature attribute values
dropdown arrow and click the
change, then the labels will also
field you want to use as a
change. When you turn on
2
label.
labeling, features are initially
labeled based on one field— 4. Click OK.
such as labeling city features
based on a field that stores the
city name.
You can also label based on an
4
expression, which can have
multiple fields, contain extra
characters, and include
VBScript or JScript functions
that format your labels. So, you
might label each city with both
its name and its population, and
use a special VBScript character
to stack the city name on top of
the population.
Using advanced label expres-
sions is an even more powerful
option. Using these you can
add conditional logic, looping,
and other scripting syntax to
your label expressions. For
example, you could produce
labels that have only the first
letter of each word capitalized
from city names that are stored
in all capital letters.
Label expressions are a useful
place to use ArcGIS text
formatting tags. To learn more u




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 233
about label expressions and text Labeling based on
formatting tags, see ‘Building multiple attribute fields
3
label expressions’ and ‘Using
1. Open the Label Manager.
text formatting tags’ in this
chapter. 2. Click a label class in the
Label Classes list.

2
Tip 3. Click Expression.
Adding characters to 4. Click a label field and click
expressions Append to use the text of that
Characters must be enclosed in field in your labels.
double quotes and connected to the
5. Optionally, use the Expres-
rest of the label expression using
sion box to add additional
8
the & character.
characters you want to
appear in your labels or add
Tip VBScript or JScript functions
to format your labels.
Writing expressions
Your expressions can include any 6. Click Verify to make sure that
valid statement supported by the there are no syntax errors
4
scripting language chosen in the and to preview your label
Parser dropdown list. string. Close the Label
Expression Verification dialog
box.
Tip
5
7. Click OK.
Writing an expression with
multiple lines of code 8. Click OK.
The expression is limited to a single
6
line of code unless you check the
Advanced box on the Label
Expression dialog box. Checking
the Advanced box allows you to
7
enter a function containing
programming logic and spanning
multiple lines of code. To create stacked text, use the VBScript constant, vbNewLine,
between the field names—[PARCEL_ID] & vbNewLine &
[LAND_USE]. You can also click the Help button for more
information on syntax and building label expressions.




2 34 USING ARCMAP
Building label expressions
About label expressions To convert your text labels to all uppercase or lowercase, use the
VBScript UCase and LCase functions. For example, this
You can use label expressions to adjust the formatting of your expression makes a Name field all lowercase:
labels. In addition to inserting characters and scripting functions,
LCase ([NAME])
you can also use ArcGIS formatting tags in label expressions.
To create stacked text, use the VBScript vbNewLine or vbCrLf
These are special characters that you can use to change the
constants between the field names:
appearance of all or part of your labels. For example, you might
use the bold formatting tag to make the first line bold in a stacked, "Name: " & [NAME] & vbNewLine & [ADDRESS_1] &
multiline label. vbNewLine & [ADDRESS_2]
A label expression is limited to a single line of code, unless you Use the VBScript format functions to format your labels. For
check the Advanced box on the Label Expression dialog box. example, this expression displays the label as currency:
Checking the Advanced box allows you to enter a function "Occupancy Revenue: " & FormatCurrency
containing programming logic and spanning multiple lines of ([MAXIMUM_OC] * [RATE])
code. See ‘Specifying the text of labels’ earlier in this chapter for
This VBScript function labels cities with their name only if their
more information on applying label expressions.
population exceeds 250,000:
Examples are shown below for common uses of VBScript Function FindLabel ([NAME], [POPULATION])
functions as well as ArcGIS formatting tags in label expressions.
if ([POPULATION] > 250000) then
In addition, a complete reference of the ArcGIS formatting tags is
FindLabel = [NAME]
provided.
end if
Examples of label expressions End Function
For more information, see the Microsoft® VBScript Language
The following are examples of label expressions:
Reference or the Microsoft JScript Language Reference.
Use the VBScript & operator to concatenate strings. For example,
this expression creates a label where the value of the PARCELNO
ArcGIS text formatting tags
field is preceded by the text "Parcel no: ":
Labels will be drawn using the symbol specified in the Label
"Parcel no: " & [PARCELNO]
Manager or on the Labels tab of the Layer Properties dialog box.
To control how decimal numbers are displayed, use the VBScript
You can modify or override the appearance of this symbol for
Round function. For example, this expression displays a field
particular portions of the expression by inserting ArcMap text
called Area rounded to one decimal place:
formatting tags into the expression as text strings. This lets you
Round ([AREA], 1) create mixed-format labels where, for example, one field in a label
is underlined. You can even use tags with curved text.



WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 235
The tags that you can use are listed in the table below. Acceptable values for Color (RGB) are red, green, blue = 0–255, and acceptable
values for Color (CMYK) are cyan, magenta, yellow, black = 0–100; missing color attributes are assumed to be 0. The defaults are
0 percent for Character spacing (no adjustment), 100 percent for Character width (regular width) and Word spacing (regular spacing),
and 0 points for Line leading (no adjustment).


Formatting action Tag syntax

Font "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
"" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Color (RGB) "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Color (CMYK) ""
& [LABELFIELD] & ""
Bold "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Italic "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Underline "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
All capitals "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Small capitals "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Superscript "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Subscript "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Character spacing "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Character width "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Word spacing "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Line leading "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Un-Bold "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Un-Italic "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Un-Underline "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Un-Superscript "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
Un-Subscript "" & [LABELFIELD] & ""



2 36 USING ARCMAP
Tag syntax If you have special characters embedded in the values of the label
field, you can replace them dynamically using a simple label
The following syntax rules apply to tags in label expressions. script:
Just like other static text in label expressions, formatting tags Function FindLabel ([LABELFIELD])
must be surrounded by double quotes and concatenated to other
NewString = Replace([LABELFIELD],"&","&")
parts of the expression using the & operator:
FindLabel = "" & NewString & ""
"" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
End Function
Tags are not interpreted by VBScript/JScript. Instead, they are
Formatting tags can be embedded in the values of the field you
passed on to the ArcMap framework as plain text, to be
use to label a layer’s features, whether or not you use a label
dynamically formatted as they are drawn. You don’t need to
expression. In this way, you can change the format of any portion
quote tags included inside quoted strings:
of a particular value in a label field. In order to embed formatting
"Current status of parcel: " & tags, the label field must be of string type. Tags and tag attributes
[LABELFIELD]
used in field values do not need to be surrounded by quotes, so
The ArcMap text formatting tags follow Extensible markup the following are valid values for a label field:
language (XML) syntax rules. Each start tag must be
Rochester
accompanied by an end tag. Tags can be nested, but you must
Colorado
close the inner tag before closing an outer tag:
Tags aren’t recognized by the table of contents, Attribute table
"" & [LABELFIELD] & ""
window, or Identify Results window, so tags added to field values
The case of tag pairs must match exactly. So ... is
appear unformatted as raw text in these windows.
valid, as is ..., but ... is invalid.
For more information on working with formatting tags, see ‘Using
In label expressions, tag attributes must be surrounded either by
text formatting tags’ in this chapter.
single quotes (as shown in the table above) or by two sets of
double quotes. The following expression is equivalent to the FNT
entry in the table:
"" & [LABELFIELD]
& ""
& and < are special characters and are not valid in your text if
formatting tags are used. Use the equivalent character codes
& and < instead. For example, this expression displays
the values of the label field inside < > characters:
"<" & [LABELFIELD] & ">"




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 237
Prioritizing and Setting label placement
positioning labels 1. Open the Label Manager by
1
clicking the Label Manager
button on the Labeling
When you turn on dynamic
toolbar.
labeling, ArcMap fits as many
labels as possible—without 2. Click a label class in the
overlap—within the available Label Classes list.
space on the map. As you pan
3. Click the placement options
and zoom, ArcMap automati-
you want from the Placement
cally adjusts labels to fit the
3
Properties box.
available space. For many maps,
2 4
ArcMap default labeling will be 4. Optionally, click Properties to
adequate. If you need more see the complete set of label
control over which features are placement properties.
labeled and where labels are
5. Click OK.
placed, you should work with
5
label placement options, label
priority, and label and feature
weights. All of these properties
work on a label class level.
Setting label priority
Label placement options control
1
1. Click the Label Priority button
the positioning of labels with
on the Labeling toolbar.
respect to features. For example,
you might specify that your city 2. Click the label class or
labels always be placed above classes for which you want to
and to the right of the cities. To change the label priority.
learn more, see the ArcGIS
2
Holding down the Shift or Ctrl
Desktop Help. u
keys allows you to select
3
multiple label classes.
See Also 3. Click the arrow buttons to
move a label class up or
If you install the Maplex for ArcGIS
down in the list.
extension, label placement, priority,
and weights work differently. For Clicking the up arrows gives
more information, see Using the class a higher priority,
Maplex for ArcGIS. while clicking the down
arrows gives the class a
lower priority.
4
4. Click OK.

2 38 USING ARCMAP
To increase the chance that Setting label and feature
more important features are weights
labeled first, assign these
1
1. Click the Weights button on
features a higher label priority. For
the Labeling toolbar.
example, on a city street map,
you’d probably assign a higher 2. Click the label or feature
labeling priority to highways weight you want to change
than residential streets. and click the desired weight
2
from the dropdown menu.
Use label weights and feature
weights to assign relative A label cannot overlap a
importances to labels and feature with an equal or
features to be used only when higher weight.
there is a conflict, that is, an
3. Click OK.
overlap between a label and a
feature. Ultimately, the final
positioning of labels on your
map is dependent on label and
feature weights. In addition,
when working with weights, u
3
Tip
Preventing labels from
overlapping features
Setting a feature weight of High for
point or line features ensures that
no labels will be placed on top of
these features. Setting a feature
weight of High for polygon features
ensures that no labels will be
placed on the outline of these
features.


Tip
Using feature weights
Feature weights other than None
can dramatically slow labeling
speed because ArcMap must
evaluate the location of every
feature before placing each label.


WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 239
keep in mind that when you Working with duplicate
allow labels to overlap some labels
features, generally more labels
1. Open the Label Manager by
will be placed on your map
clicking the Label Manager
because ArcMap has more
button on the Labeling
room to place them.
2 3
toolbar.
Both labels and features can
2. Click a label class in the
have a weight of None, Low,
Label Classes list.
Medium, or High. The general
rule is that a feature cannot be 3. Click the Properties button in
overlapped by a label with an the Placement Properties
5
equal or lesser weight. By box.
default label weights are High
4. Click one of the Duplicate
and features have a default
Labels options.
weight of None.
5. Click OK on all dialog boxes.
You can also work with dupli-
cate label options. You can
remove duplicates to avoid
seeing many of the same label.
4
You can opt to place duplicate
labels for each feature or part of
a multipart feature.
For more information and
examples of how you might use
label and feature weights, see
the ArcGIS Desktop Help.


Tip
Avoiding label overlap with
annotation
By default, annotation layers and
map annotation groups are given a
High feature weight to prevent
labels from overlapping annotation
text.




2 40 USING ARCMAP
Converting labels Converting labels to map 3
document annotation
to annotation
1. In the table of contents, right-
For additional control over label click the layer you want to
placement, you can convert label and click Label Fea-
dynamic labels to annotation so tures. Work with your labels
4
you can move the pieces of text as described in this chapter.
around and place them exactly
2. Right-click the layer again,
where you want. When you and click Convert Labels to
5
convert labels to annotation, you
Annotation.
can choose to store the annota-
3. Click In the Map to store your
tion in either a map document or
annotation in an annotation
a geodatabase. To learn more
group in the map document.
about the different types of
annotation, see ‘Working with 4. Click Create Annotation For
annotation’ in this chapter. All features.
If you convert labels to map If you don’t want annotation
document annotation, the for all features in the layer,
features that ArcMap couldn’t click Features in current
automatically place are listed in extent or Selected features to
6 7
the Overflow Annotation annotate just the currently
window. You can choose and selected features.
place these individual annotation
5. Optionally, type a new name
features on your map.
for the annotation group.
If you’d like to reuse some of
6. Some labels may not
your labeling work on other
currently display on the map
maps, you can save the labels in
because there is no room for
a geodatabase. For example,
them. To convert these labels,
suppose you labeled cities and
check the Convert unplaced
states with their names and
labels to unplaced annota-
stored the labels as an annota-
tion box. This saves the
tion feature class in a
unplaced labels in the map
geodatabase. You can then load
document, allowing you to
the data and the labels for
position them later one at a
display on another map.
time.
Geodatabase annotation features
7. Click Convert.
that could not be placed are
listed in the Unplaced Annota-
tion window, which is opened u

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 241
from the Annotation toolbar. To Adding unplaced map
learn how to place and edit document annotation to a
these features, see Editing in
map
ArcMap .
2
1. If you have labels that could
You can also link annotation in
not be placed and you
a geodatabase directly to the
checked the box to convert
feature it annotates. For more
them to unplaced annotation,
information on feature-linked
the Overflow Annotation
annotation, see ‘Working with
window appears.
annotation’ in this chapter. To
learn how to convert labels to 2. In the Overflow Annotation
feature-linked annotation, see window, right-click the
Building a Geodatabase . annotation feature you want
to place on your map and
click Add Annotation.
Tip
To see the unplaced annotation features, click
Once you place the annota-
Seeing the Overflow Draw Annotation. The unplaced features are drawn
tion feature, you can use the
Annotation window in red by default.
Select Elements tool to
You can also open the Overflow
reposition it on the map.
Annotation window from the View
3. Repeat step 2 until you’ve
menu.
placed all the annotation
features you want on your
Tip
map.
Converting labels to
annotation for all layers in
a data frame
You can also convert labels to
annotation for all the labeled layers
that are in a data frame. Click the
data frame and click Convert
Labels to Annotation to convert all
the layers’ labels at one time.


See Also
To add unplaced annotation to your
map when using geodatabase
annotation, use the Annotation
toolbar. See Editing in ArcMap for
more information.

2 42 USING ARCMAP
Converting labels to
Tip
geodatabase annotation
Using geodatabases from
3
previous ArcGIS versions
1. In the table of contents, right-
If you want to convert labels to
4
click the layer you want to
geodatabase annotation with a
label and click Label Fea-
geodatabase created in previous
tures. Work with your labels
versions of ArcGIS, you’ll need to
as described in this chapter.
5
upgrade your geodatabase to
ArcGIS 9. To learn more, see 2. Right-click the layer again,
7
Building a Geodatabase. and click Convert Labels to
Annotation.
3. For Store Annotation, click In
a database.
4. Specify the features you want
to create annotation for.
5. To create feature-linked
annotation, check the
Feature Linked box. To create
standard annotation, leave
the box unchecked.
6. If you’re creating standard
annotation and want to add
the annotation to an existing
standard annotation feature
class, check the Append box.
7. If you’re creating feature-
linked annotation, click the
name of the new annotation
feature class to change it. u




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 243
8. If you’re creating standard
Tip
annotation, click the Open
Converting label classes to
Folder button and specify the
annotation with ArcEditor,
path and name of the new
ArcInfo, and ArcView
annotation feature class you
Annotation classes are to
will create or, if you’re
geodatabase annotation feature
appending, the existing
classes as label classes are to a
Q
standard annotation feature
layer’s labels. With an ArcEditor™
class you’re appending to.
8
or ArcInfo license, the label classes
will be converted into separate 9. If you’re appending to an
annotation classes within the existing feature class, skip to
annotation feature class. With step 15.
ArcView®, you cannot create
10. Click the Properties button.
multiple annotation classes, so all
of your label classes will be 11. Check the box to require
combined into a single annotation edited annotation features to
class. maintain reference to their
associated text symbols
stored in the feature class.
See Also
W
12. Specify additional editing
After you’ve placed your
behavior for the new
geodatabase annotation features on
annotation feature class.
the map, you may need to move
E
them around or resize them. To 13. If you are creating the new
learn how, see Editing in ArcMap. annotation feature class in
an ArcSDE geodatabase
and want to use a custom
R
storage keyword, click Use
configuration keyword, then
choose the keyword you
want to use (ArcInfo and
ArcEditor only).

T
14. Click OK. u




2 44 USING ARCMAP
15. Some labels may not
currently display on the map
because there is no room for
them.
To convert these labels,
check the Convert unplaced
labels box. This saves the
unplaced labels in the
annotation feature class,
allowing you to later position
them one at a time in an
ArcMap edit session.
16. Click Convert.

Y
U




WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 245
Working with annotation
What is annotation? convert them to geodatabase annotation using ArcToolbox.
To learn more, see Building a Geodatabase.
Annotation is one option in ArcGIS for storing text to place on
2. Change the symbology of your geodatabase annotation using
your maps. With annotation, position, text string, and display
ArcMap editing tools. To learn more, see Editing in ArcMap.
properties are all stored together and are all individually editable.
Adding dynamic labels is the other primary option for storing You can change symbology for most annotation formats using
text. If the exact position of each piece of text is important, then the Layer Properties dialog box. These changes are only in the
you should store your text as annotation. ArcGIS fully supports current map unless you save them in a .lyr file.
two types of annotation: geodatabase annotation and map
If you have map document annotation, use the Draw toolbar
document annotation. ArcGIS also supports the display and
to change symbology. To learn more, see ‘Working with
conversion of other annotation types including ArcInfo coverage
graphics’ earlier in this chapter.
annotation and CAD annotation, although these types of
3. Use the ArcMap editing tools to position geodatabase
annotation cannot be edited.
annotation. To learn more, see Editing in ArcMap.
Labeling is the main alternative to annotation. A label’s text and
If you are creating annotation from labels, you can minimize
position are generated dynamically according to a set of
manual positioning by working with the labeling options
placement rules. To learn more about labeling, see ‘Working with
before converting the labels to annotation.
labels’ earlier in this chapter.
If you have map document annotation, you can position it
Although annotation is mainly used to persist pieces of text
using the Draw toolbar. To learn more, see ‘Moving, rotating,
placed on or around a map, both geodatabase annotation and
and ordering graphics’ earlier in this chapter.
map document annotation also support the storage of graphics
such as rectangles, circles, and lines as annotation. To learn more 4. Manage your geodatabase annotation with ArcCatalog. To
about graphics, see ‘Working with graphics’ earlier in this learn more, see Building a Geodatabase.
chapter.
Geodatabase annotation
Making a map with annotation
When creating new annotation or converting from existing
Follow these steps to use annotation in your maps: annotation or labels, you can choose between geodatabase
annotation and map document annotation. Geodatabase
1. Add your existing annotation to ArcMap.
annotation is stored in geodatabase annotation feature classes.
If you don’t have annotation, you can label features in
Conversely, map document annotation is stored in annotation
ArcMap and convert the labels to annotation. To learn more,
groups in a particular map document. Geodatabase annotation is
see the sections on labeling in this chapter.
preferred if there are many pieces of annotation, if the annotation
If you have coverage, CAD, or other annotation formats and needs to be used outside a single map document, or if there will
want your annotation to be editable or linked to features, be several people concurrently editing the annotation.


2 46 USING ARCMAP
Storing annotation in a geodatabase is similar to storing • If you move a feature, the annotation for that feature moves
geographic features—lines, points, and polygons—in a with it. You can turn off this behavior when you create a new
geodatabase. You can add annotation stored in a geodatabase to feature-linked annotation feature class.
any map, and it appears as an annotation layer in the ArcMap • If you change an attribute of the feature that the annotation
table of contents. text is based on, the annotation text changes.
Like other feature classes in a geodatabase, all features in an • If you delete the feature, the annotation is deleted.
annotation class have a geographic location, extent, and
An annotation class can be linked to only one feature class, but a
attributes. Annotation feature classes can be inside a feature
feature class can have any number of linked annotation feature
dataset, or they can be standalone feature classes in a
classes.
geodatabase. However, annotation is unique because, unlike
simple features, each annotation feature has its own symbology. There are several ways to create feature-linked annotation. First,
if you have defined a feature-linked annotation feature class, then
Geodatabase annotation can be standard annotation or feature-
as you create new features using the editing tools in ArcMap,
linked annotation. Standard annotation elements are pieces of
annotation will be created for these features automatically.
geographically placed text that are not formally associated with
Second, you can also use the Annotate selected features
features in the geodatabase. For example, you might have a piece
command in ArcMap to add linked annotation to existing
of standard annotation that represents a mountain range—the
features. Finally, as you can with other types of annotation, you
annotation simply marks the general area on the map. Feature-
can convert labels to feature-linked annotation in ArcMap or use
linked annotation is a special type of geodatabase annotation
the ArcToolbox annotation conversion tools to create feature-
that is directly linked to the features that are being annotated by a
linked annotation from coverage or CAD annotation.
geodatabase relationship class.
To learn more about working with feature-linked annotation, see
Feature-linked annotation Building a Geodatabase.
If you have an ArcEditor or ArcInfo license, you can create and
Choosing between geodatabase annotation and
edit geodatabase annotation that is linked directly to the features
map document annotation
being annotated. If you have an ArcView license, you can view
feature-linked annotation but not create or edit it. Where should you store your annotation? The answer depends
on how you plan to use it.
Feature-linked annotation is similar to standard geodatabase
annotation but also has some behavior that makes it similar to • If your text only applies to the current map, you might store
dynamic labeling. your text as map document annotation in an annotation
group. To learn more about map document annotation, see
• When a new feature is created, new annotation is
‘Storing graphics as annotation’ earlier in this chapter.
automatically created. You can turn off this behavior when
you create a new feature-linked annotation feature class.



WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 247
• If you want to use your text in the current map and in others, Geodatabase or the ArcGIS Desktop Help for more information
you should store your text as geodatabase annotation in one on displaying these annotation formats and converting them to
or more annotation feature classes. geodatabase annotation.
• If your data is stored in an enterprise geodatabase (that is, an
ArcSDE geodatabase), you should store your annotation in
that geodatabase to take advantage of versioning and the
multiuser enterprise editing environment.
• If you want to use the specialized editing tools for creating
and editing annotation in ArcMap, you should store your text
as geodatabase annotation.
• If you have more than a few hundred pieces of text, as a
general rule you should store your annotation in a
geodatabase because ArcMap can access and display
geodatabase annotation quicker than map document
annotation. In addition, each piece of annotation stored as
map document annotation will increase the size of your map
document (.mxd).

Other types of annotation
ArcGIS also supports the display and conversion of several
annotation formats including ArcInfo Workstation coverage, VPF,
CAD, PC ARC/INFO, and SDE 3.x annotation. You can add these
types of annotation directly to ArcMap and also change most
annotation layer symbology properties. For these formats,
however, you cannot change the symbology for individual pieces
of annotation and you cannot edit the annotation positions or
text strings. If you need these behaviors, convert your annotation
to geodatabase annotation or map document annotation using
the ArcToolbox annotation conversion tools. You can also use
these tools to create coverage annotation from geodatabase
annotation.
See ‘Displaying annotation’ in this chapter for more information
on adding these annotation formats to your map. See Building a

2 48 USING ARCMAP
42 5
Displaying Displaying geodatabase
annotation
annotation
1. In the table of contents, right-
You can display all types of click the annotation layer
annotation in ArcMap for use in name and click Properties.
your maps—including
3
2. Click the Symbology tab.
geodatabase annotation,
3. Choose one of these options:
coverage, CAD (and other
preexisting annotation formats), • Disable substitutions, to
and map document annotation. display with the original
(geodatabase-stored)
With the exception of the map
symbology
document format, annotation is
added to ArcMap as you would • Substitute text color, to
add other data. Annotation display with the original
appears with other geographic fonts, font sizes, and so on,
data in the ArcMap table of with only color changed
6
contents, and you can change
• Substitute individual
its display properties using the
symbols, to use symbols
Layer Properties dialog box as
different from the original
you would for point, line, and
in the current layer
polygon features.
4. Optionally, click the Display
Annotation is, however,
tab to set a transparency
different from simple point, line,
level for your annotation and
and polygon features.
specify whether the annota-
Geodatabase annotation
tion layer should draw based
features store their own
on its position in the table of
symbology, and to make
contents.
permanent changes to their
display, you use the ArcMap 5. Optionally, click the Annota-
editing tools. To learn more, see tion tab to see a summary of
Editing in ArcMap. your annotation layer’s
properties.
Likewise, you can change most
display characteristics of 6. Click OK.
coverage, CAD, SDE 3.x, and
VPF annotation, but these
formats internally store some
display properties that cannot
be changed in ArcMap. See u


WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 249
2
Building a Geodatabase to Displaying coverage and
learn more about loading SDE 3.x annotation
preexisting annotation formats
1. In the table of contents, right-
to the geodatabase. By convert-
click the annotation layer
ing your annotation to the
3
name and click Properties.
geodatabase, you will have
more flexibility in ArcGIS. 2. Click the Symbols tab.
Map document annotation is 3. Click an entry in the list of
stored in map documents in symbol numbers ($SYMBOL)
annotation groups and not as to see and modify its display
separate data. To learn more properties.
about displaying annotation in
4. To choose another text
this format, see ‘Storing
symbol or to change addi-
graphics as annotation’ earlier
tional properties, click the
in this chapter.
Text symbol button.
45
5. Click OK when you’re
Tip finished.
Working with coverage and
CAD display properties
With coverage and SDE 3.x
annotation, changing the size will
2
Displaying CAD and VPF
only have an effect if $SIZE = 0.
annotation
With CAD and VPF annotation,
changing the size will have no 1. In the table of contents, right-
effect. See the ArcGIS Desktop click the annotation layer
Help for more information on these
3
name and click Properties.
annotation formats.
2. Click the Fonts tab.
3. Click an entry in the list of
symbol numbers to see and
modify its display properties.
4. To choose another text
symbol or to change addi-
tional properties, click the
Text symbol button.
5. Click OK.
4 5


2 50 USING ARCMAP
Using text Adding text with text
formatting tags
formatting tags 1
1. Click the New Text button on
Text formatting tags let you the Draw toolbar.
modify the formatting for a
2. Click the mouse pointer over
portion of text to create mixed-
the map display and type the
2
format text where, for example,
text.
one word in a sentence is
As you type formatting tags
underlined.
into the string, you will see Bold formatting tag
Text formatting tags can be
the tags as plain text.
used almost anywhere you see
3. Press the Enter key. The
text—whenever you can
formatted text appears.
specify both a text string and a
text symbol. You can use tags in If the string you entered has
The result: the text between the
dynamic label expressions, any syntax problems,
formatting tags is bold.
annotation, legend text, map formatting will be disabled
titles, and in the values of fields and all the tags will appear
used to label features. Tags as plain text.
aren’t recognized by the table
of contents, Attribute table
window, or Identify Results
window, so tags added to field Editing text with
values appear unformatted as
formatting tags
raw text in these windows.
1 The original text
1. Click the Select Elements
For more information on text
button on the Draw toolbar
formatting tag syntax, see the
and double-click the text
ArcGIS Desktop Help. See
element you want to edit.
‘Building label expressions’
2
earlier in this chapter for using 2. Click the Text tab and modify
formatting tags in dynamic the text shown in the Text box.
labels. Formatting tags will appear
here as plain text.
3. Click OK to apply your
See Also
changes and view any A formatting tag to italicize
With geodatabase annotation, the
formatting changes on the north was added.
Attributes dialog box has a
display.
3
formatted preview and lets you
create mixed-format text without
entering tag syntax. See Editing in
ArcMap for more information.

WORKING WITH GRAPHICS AND TEXT 251
8
Working with styles and symbols
I N THIS CHAPTER Styles are a collection of predefined colors, symbols, properties of symbols,
and map elements that allow you to follow a mapping standard and help
promote consistency in your organization’s mapping products.
• The Style Manager
Styles help define not only how data is drawn but also the appearance and
• Controlling which styles are refer-
placement of map elements and other cartographic additions on your map.
enced in ArcMap
Styles provide storage for your colors, map elements, symbols, and properties
of symbols. Every time you choose and apply a particular map element or
• Organizing style contents
symbol, you are using the contents of a style.
• Saving the current styles
Benefits of using styles include:
• Creating and modifying symbols • Maintaining mapping standards for symbols, colors, patterns, methods of
and map elements
rendering distributions, relationships, and trends
• Creating line symbols • Letting your map communicate more effectively through familiar styles
that enable people to easily explore, understand, and analyze a map
• Creating fill symbols
• Using a map template with referenced styles or groups of styles for ease
• Creating marker symbols in creating a map or map series
• Standardizing map symbolization so your maps will look the same when
• Creating text symbols
they are published or printed with different printers
• Modifying and saving symbols and
In the previous chapters, you learned how to symbolize data and draw map
elements as you work
elements and graphics. You are probably already familiar with most of the
symbol and map element dialog boxes. In this chapter, you will learn how to
• Working with color
select or create the symbols you want and save them in styles you can reuse
to produce maps that meet your organization’s needs.


253
The Style Manager

ESRI.style contains a default set The category of the
The name of the
of map elements, symbols, and element, symbol, or
element, symbol, or
properties of symbols. property of symbols.
property of symbols.
Open the element,
symbol, or property of
symbols you want to view
using the Style tree.




Choose the
referenced
styles.
Examples
from each
ESRI style
folder.




Store hatches you create. Load styles
from other
locations.
Your personal style
contains all your saved
Create new
modifications to
styles.
elements, symbols, and
properties of symbols.


You can resize the left You can change the
Right-click to manage
and right panels. elements, symbols, view mode to show
the contents as large
and properties of
symbols. icons, lists, or details.



2 54 USING ARCMAP
Controlling which 1. Click Tools, point to Styles,
and click Style References.
styles are Your personal style and the
referenced in ESRI style are referenced by
default.
ArcMap 2. Check any additional styles
you want to use.
ArcMap by default displays a
robust set of generic symbols 3. Click the Add button to load
and map elements in the ESRI more styles from other
style. To create maps for your locations.
application, you may need other
Navigate to and click the
styles. ArcMap also has a wide
styles you need.
1
range of industry-specific
4. Click OK.
styles to complement the ESRI
style. When a style is refer-
enced, its elements, symbols,
and symbol properties are
available for you to use in a
map document.
You can add or remove styles at
any time in an ArcMap session.
4
Tip
Are there other ways to
3
reference styles?
You can reference styles in the Style
Manager dialog box and in the
Symbol Selector dialog boxes.
However, the Symbol Selector
dialog boxes only list the styles that
contain the same symbols.
2
Tip
Can I install just the styles
I need?
You can use the custom ArcMap
installation to load only the styles
you want to have accessible in
ArcMap.

WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 255
Organizing style Creating a new style
contents 1. Click Tools, point to Styles,
and click Style Manager.
The Style Manager lets you 2. Click Styles and click Create
organize styles and their New.
contents, symbols, and map
3. Navigate to the program’s
elements. You can copy, paste,
Styles folder.
rename, and modify any style
content. You can also create By default, the Styles folder is
new styles, symbols, or map installed with ArcGIS in the
elements. ArcGIS\Bin\Styles folder.
New styles can be created by 4. Type the name for the new
1
copying symbols or map style you’re creating.
elements from existing styles or
5. Click Save.
your personal styles. Styles can
be customized by deleting the
symbols and map elements you
don’t need.
You can easily distinguish
which folders contain elements
and symbols, which can be
2
modified, and which are empty.
3
Read/Write
Read only
Empty


Tip
Finding the styles folders
By default, the ESRI styles folder is
in the \Bin\Styles folder where
ArcGIS is installed. Your personal
style folder is in the Windows
5
install location, for example,
C:\Documents and
Settings\\Application
Data\ESRI\ArcMap.
4

2 56 USING ARCMAP
Copying and pasting
Tip
style contents
Using shortcut keys
You can use the standard keyboard 1. Click Tools, point to Styles,
shortcuts to cut, copy, paste, and
and click Style Manager.
delete styles.
2. Click the style folder whose
2
contents you want to view.
Tip
3. Right-click an element and
Deleting style contents click Cut or Copy.
Right-click any map element or
4. Click another style folder of
symbol and click Delete from the
the same type.
context menu.
5. Right-click in the symbol
There is no undo for delete, so you
contents window and click
may want to move the element to
another folder as a backup rather Paste.
3
than delete it.
You can only paste into style
folders that are the same type
as the folder from which the
Tip
element was copied.
What’s a symbol category?
6. Type a new name for the
When you save a symbol, you can
element.
specify a name and a category for
4
class distinction. The category can
6
You can change the name
be used to differentiate drawing
later by using Rename on the
methods and other criteria. You can
context menu.
also create subcategories of styles.
Categories can be viewed in the
Style Manager dialog box.
5
See Also
For more information on route
hatch styles, see the book Linear
Referencing in ArcGIS.




WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 257
Saving the Exporting the current
map styles to a new style
current styles
1. Click Tools, point to Styles,
You can easily create a new and click Export Map Styles.
style containing all the ele-
2. Navigate to where you want
ments, symbols, and properties to save the new style.
of symbols used in your map.
By default, the browser is set
You can create and modify map to the program’s Styles folder.
elements and symbols as you
3. Type a style name.
design your map, then save
everything into a style. 4. Click Save.
Exporting map styles allows
you to save map elements and
symbols from many styles into
1
a single style.


2
Tip
How are symbols stored in
a map document?
The items you draw in ArcMap—
symbols, map elements, and
graphics—are copied into the map
document. Therefore, you don’t
need the original referenced styles
to open and draw the map again.


Tip
4
Can I create a style from a
map without any
referenced styles?
If you need to modify the symbols in
3
a map and don’t have the original
styles, you can create a new style by
exporting the existing map elements
and symbols.




2 58 USING ARCMAP
Creating and Creating a new symbol in
the Style Manager
modifying
1. In the style tree, click the
symbols and map symbol folder in which you
elements want to create more symbols.
2. Right-click in the open space
You can use the Style Manager in the Symbol contents
dialog box to create new window, point to New, and
symbols or to modify an click Line Symbol.
existing symbol.
Use the Symbol Property
To set or modify properties of Editor to create the symbol
an element or symbol in a style, you want and click OK.
double-click it in the contents
3. Name the new symbol.
window of the Style Manager.
This opens a property dialog
box and allows you to define
1 3 2
the appearance of the element
or symbol and save changes
within the style.
Since symbols and elements are
organized by type, you create a
new symbol or element by first
identifying the type, then
selecting the appropriate folder.
When you choose to create a
new symbol or element, the
properties you can choose from
are only associated with that
symbol or element type. u


Tip
Using Microsoft Access to
edit your styles
A style is a database. You can use
Microsoft Access to edit names,
check your spelling, control
sorting, and complete other tasks.



WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 259
1 2
3
Layers appear in the list Using the Symbol
according to when they are Property Editor to define
drawn. Therefore, the bottom
symbols
layer will be covered by the
layer listed above it. 1. Set the type of symbol.
4
By adding or working with 2. Set the units of measure.
layers, you can enhance the
3. Click the tabs to set other
5
symbols that already exist or
symbol properties.
combine them to make new
The tabs vary depending on
symbols. The layers you use
7
the symbol type.
can be a mixture of different
symbol types and properties, 4. You can preview the symbol’s
such as color, width, and offset.
9
appearance.
Turning on or off a layer affects
5. You can zoom in and out on
which layers will be viewed in
the preview using the
the preview. Whereas locking
preview mode options.
and unlocking a layer does not
68 Q
affect your capabilities in the 6. Click each layer to preview it.
symbol Properties Editor, it
7. Click to turn on or off drawing
does affect the ability to change
for a layer.
the color in the Symbol Selector
you access through the Layer This allows you to change a
Properties. There, if you change layer’s appearance without
the symbol color, only the deleting it.
unlocked layers will change to
8. Click to lock or unlock a
the new color.
layer’s color.
9. Select layer options to add,
Tip
delete, move up, move down,
Using a shortcut to the copy, and paste.
Symbol Property Editor
10. Click OK when you’re
dialog box
finished.
Instead of clicking the Properties
button on the Symbol Selector
dialog box, you can click the
Preview window on the Symbol
Selector dialog box.




2 60 USING ARCMAP
1
Creating line Creating an encased road
symbol
symbols
1. In the line Symbol Property
Line symbols are used to draw Editor dialog box, click the
linear features such as transpor- Type dropdown arrow and
tation networks, water systems, click Cartographic Line
boundaries, zonings, and other Symbol. Set the Units to
connective networks. Lines are Points.
also used to outline other
2. Click the Color dropdown
features such as polygons,
arrow and click a black
points, and labels. As graphics,
shade.
lines can be used as borders,
leaders for arrows and other 3. Set the Width to 3.4 points.
annotation, and freehand
4. Click Butt for Line Caps and
drawing.
Round for Line Joins.
The examples here show you
See the Preview for a change
how to create some common
in the end of the line.
line symbols: a cased road, a
24 3
railroad, and arrowhead leaders. 5. Click the Add a New Layer
button.
The standard line types include:
Cartographic Line Symbol
• Simple—fast-drawing, one-
should already be selected
pixel lines with predefined
as the Type.
patterns or solid, wide lines
6. Click a shade of red from the
• Cartographic—straight-line
color palette.
template patterns and marker
9
decorations 7. Set the Width to 2.6 points.
• Hash—hachures, template 8. Click Butt for Line Caps and
patterns, and marker Round for Line Joins.
decorations
9. Click either of the options to
• Marker—markers, template see how the line symbol
5
patterns, and other marker changes.
decorations
10. Click OK.
• Picture—formed by a .bmp
(Windows bitmap) or .emf
68 7 Q
(Windows enhanced
metafile) graphic
Any number of layers can be
combined in a single line.

WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 261
1 5
Creating a railroad
Tip
symbol
Why shouldn’t parallel lines
be cased road symbols?
1. In the line Symbol Property
Using a single wide layer produces Editor dialog box, click the
clearer symbology where roads
2
Type dropdown arrow and
3
intersect and merge.
click Cartographic Line
Symbol.
Tip 2. Click the Color dropdown
arrow and click a gray.
What properties of a hash
line symbol can I modify? 3. Adjust the Width to .5 points.
4
You can set the color, width, caps,
4. Click the Add a New Layer
joins, pattern, and decoration of a
7
button.
hash line symbol.
8
5. Click the Type dropdown
arrow and click Hash Line
EWQ
Tip
Symbol.
Using the Template tab
6. Click the Hash Line tab and
The Template tab lets you design a
click Hash Symbol.
9
common template for the symbol
7. Click the Color dropdown
layers that will be layered. You can
use the same template to stack and arrow and click the gray
center line dashes with markers, or shade.
you can reverse the template
8. Adjust the Width to .5 points.
pattern to center the marker in the
gap. For hash lines, the template 9. Click OK.
mark indicates how many dashes
10. Click the Template tab.
will occur in the pattern segment.
You can also align multiple line 11. Slide the dark gray square to
layers using the template settings. the 11th position to create a
pattern length of 10 units.

R
12. Click the sixth position to
add another hash.
Y
T
13. Click the Cartographic Line
tab.
14. Click the Color dropdown
arrow and click the gray
shade.

U
15. Adjust the Width to 4.
16. Click OK.
2 62 USING ARCMAP
21
Creating arrowhead
Tip
leaders
Creating leaders with
markers other than arrows 1. In the line Symbol Property
You can use any marker to create Editor dialog box, click the
start or end line decorations. You Type dropdown arrow and
can adjust the length and height of click Cartographic Line
the default arrow. The ESRI Symbol.
Arrowhead font contains additional
2. Click the Line Properties tab.
arrow styles, but you can also use
3
3. Click the right-facing arrow.
any marker for line decorations.
4
4. Click Properties.
5. Click Rotate symbol to follow
Tip
line angle.
Why do my line arrows
6. Click Symbol and click
sometimes appear
Properties.
horizontal to the map?
You can toggle the arrowheads to 7. Click the Type dropdown
Y
follow the line orientation or stay at arrow and click Character
Marker Symbol.
a fixed angle to the map. See step 5
6
in the task on this page. 8. Click the Font dropdown
5
arrow and click ESRI Arrow-
head.
Tip
9. Choose an arrowhead from
Why should I lock or unlock
7
the selection or type “37” in
a symbol layer? the Unicode box.
8
The locking property controls
10. Click the Color dropdown
W
whether or not the color option can
arrow and click a green.
be modified in the Symbol Selector
Q
dialog box. A locked layer can’t be 11. Set the Size to 18 points.
modified.
12. Click OK until you’re back to
the Symbol Property Editor
dialog box.
9
See Also
13. Click the Cartographic Line
To learn how to automate map
tab.
production by matching symbol
R
names to data attributes, see 14. Click the Color dropdown
Chapter 6, ‘Symbolizing features’. arrow and click a green
T
shade.
Y
15. Click Butt for Line Caps and
Miter for Line Joins.
16. Click OK.

WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 263
2 1
Creating fill Creating a solid fill
symbols 1. In the fill Symbol Property
Editor dialog box, click the
Type dropdown arrow and
Use fill symbols to shade
click Simple Fill Symbol.
polygonal features, such as
countries, land uses, habitats, 2. Click the Color dropdown
parcels, and footprints. Fills are arrow and click the color you
2
also used in drawing graphic want.
shapes and backgrounds, data
Or click More Colors and use
frames, map elements, graphics,
the Color Selector dialog box
and text. In addition, a polygonal
to mix a new color.
data layer can be drawn trans-
parently. 3. Click OK.
The standard fill types are:
3
• Simple—fast-drawing solid
fill with an optional outline
• Gradient—linear, rectangular, Adding a fill outline
1
circular, or buffered color
2
1. Click Outline Color and click
ramp fills
the color you want to use.
• Line—hatched lines at any
2. Set the Outline Width or click
angle, separation, or offset
Outline to choose a
• Marker—marker symbols
predefined line symbol.
drawn randomly or ordered
Alternatively, use the line
• Picture—continuous tiling of
properties menu to create a
a .bmp (Windows bitmap) or
new outline.
.emf (Windows enhanced
3. Click OK.
metafile) graphic
Any number of layers can be
combined in a single fill.




3
2 64 USING ARCMAP
3 12 4
Creating a gradient fill
Tip
Do I have to use a 1. In the fill Symbol Property
predefined color ramp to Editor dialog box, click the
create a gradient fill? Type dropdown arrow and
You can modify an existing color click Gradient Fill Symbol.
ramp or create a new one as you
2. Click the Style dropdown
create the gradient symbol. See
arrow and click Linear.
steps 5 through 9 in the task on this
5
page. 3. Adjust the number of color
Intervals and the color stretch
Percentage from start to end.
See also
4. Click the Color Ramp Style
For more information on color, see
dropdown arrow and choose
the section ‘Working with color’ in
another fill.
this chapter.
5. To modify the ramp, right-
click the Color Ramp Style
6 E
and click Properties.
6. If you want to modify your
ramp, click Color 1, click the
dropdown arrow, and choose
a color for the first color of
your gradient fill color ramp.
Click Color 2 and choose the
end color of your ramp.
7. Click OK.
8. Right-click Style and click
Save to style.

7
9. Type a name for the new
color ramp.
The color ramp is stored in
your personal style.

W
10. Click OK.
8
11. Click Outline and set the
Width to 0 for no outline.
Q
12. Click OK.
9

WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 265
1
Creating a random dot fill
Tip
How do I create a 1. In the fill Symbol Property
transparent picture fill? Editor dialog box, click the
You can set the background or Type dropdown arrow and
foreground color to “no color” to click Marker Fill Symbol.
3
create a transparent picture.
2. Click Random.

2
3. Click Marker.
4. Change the Color.
5. Change the Size to 3.
6. Click OK.
7. Click the Fill Properties tab.
4
8. Adjust the X and Y Separa-
5
tion to 5, 5 for a denser
distribution.
9. Click OK.




6
7




8




9
2 66 USING ARCMAP
13 2
Creating an overlay fill
Tip
Is there more than one way 1. In the fill Symbol Property
to create a transparent Editor dialog box, click the
overlay fill? Type dropdown arrow and
You can create a hatched line fill click Line Fill Symbol.
with alternating opaque and
2. Click the Units dropdown
4
transparent hatches. You can also
arrow and click Inches.
set the entire feature layer to a
percentage of transparency. 3. Click Line and click Proper-
Combining these can achieve a ties.
variety of effects.
5
4. Click the Units dropdown
arrow and click Inches.
6
Tip 5. Click the Color dropdown
Can I mix symbols with arrow and click an orange
different units in the same shade.
style?
6. Set the Width to 0.05.
You can use any units you prefer.
7
7. Click OK and click OK.
8. Adjust the Angle to 45.
9. Set the Separation to 0.1.
10. Click Outline and set the
8 Q
Width to 0. Click OK.
11. Click the Add a New Layer
9
button.
12. Repeat steps 3 through 5,
W
choose a darker orange, and
set the Width to 0.01. Click
OK twice.
13. Adjust the Angle to 45.

R
14. Set the Offset to 0.12.
U
T
15. Set the Separation to 0.1.
Y
16. Click Outline and set it to 0.
Click OK.
17. Click OK.

I
WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 267
1
Creating marker Creating a character
marker symbol from a
symbols TrueType font
3
Marker symbols are used to 1. In the marker Symbol
2
draw point features, labels, and Property Editor dialog box,
other map annotations. They click the Type dropdown
can be used in conjunction with arrow and click Character
other symbols to decorate line Marker Symbol.
symbols and create fill patterns
2. Click the Font dropdown
and text backgrounds. As
arrow and click ESRI Default
graphics, they can add special
Marker.
cartographic elements.
3. Set the Units to Points.
The standard marker types are:
4. Select the marker symbol
• Simple—fast-drawing set of
(99) from the window list.
basic glyph patterns with
4
optional mask 5. Click the Mask tab.
• Character—a glyph from a 6. Click Halo.
65
TrueType® font
7. Click Symbol and create a
• Arrow—a glyph from a white fill with a black outline
TrueType font width of 0.5. Click OK.
• Picture—a single .bmp 8. Adjust the Size of the halo to
(Windows bitmap) or .emf 2 points.
(Windows enhanced
9. Click OK.
metafile) graphic
Any number of layers can be
combined in a single marker. u


Tip
Can I use any TrueType font
to create symbols?
You can use any text or display font
in your system’s font folder. You can
8 7 9
also create your own TrueType
fonts and copy them to your
system’s font folder.




2 68 USING ARCMAP
1 2
You can use outlines and halos Creating an arrow marker
with symbols. An outline uses a symbol
line symbol to surround the
1. In the marker Symbol
layer graphic, whereas a mask
Property Editor dialog box,
uses a fill symbol to draw a halo
click the Type dropdown
around all layers of the symbol.
3
arrow and click Arrow Marker
A halo can also have an outline
4
Symbol.
as part of its definition. A mask
5
is a halo created by designating 2. Click the Units dropdown
a fill color with a specified arrow and click Points.
width around the layer and an
3. Click the Color dropdown
optional outline.
arrow and click a red shade.
4. Set the Length to 21.6.
Tip
5. Set the Width to 9.
Isn’t a North arrow just a
6. Click the Copy Layer button.
character marker symbol?
Yes, a North arrow is created from
67
7. Click the Paste Layer button.
a TrueType font. However, it also
8. Click the Color dropdown
has unique properties that link it to
arrow and click black.
its source data frame, and it can
have a background and border. 9. Set the X Offset to -1.5.
10. Set the Y Offset to -2.
Tip
11. Click OK.
8
Does ArcMap come with
any existing arrowheads?
The ESRI Arrowhead font contains
9
a variety of arrow shapes. For
more information on how to access
Q
the font, see ‘Creating a character
marker symbol from a TrueType
font’ in this chapter.




W



WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 269
1
Creating a marker
Tip
symbol from a picture
Does ArcMap come with
graphic
any pictures?
The pictures used in the styles that
1. In the marker Symbol
come with ArcMap are stored in
Property Editor dialog box,
the \Bin\Styles\Pictures folder
5
click the Type dropdown
where ArcGIS is installed.
6
arrow, and click Picture
Marker Symbol.
7
Tip
8
The Open dialog box
Creating your own pictures automatically opens.
You can create pictures with any
2. Click .bmp or .emf from the
graphics package that exports to
Files of type dropdown arrow.
.bmp or .emf format. You can also
scan images, then use a graphics 3. Navigate to the location of
package to clean them up and save the graphic and click the
9
them as a .bmp or .emf file. graphic file.
4. Click Open.
Tip 5. Set the Size.
3
Is there a difference
6. Set the Angle.
between a .bmp and a
7. Set the Background Color.
.emf?
A .bmp is a raster image, while 8. Set the Transparent Color.
.emf is a vector graphic with better
4
9. Click OK.
clarity and scaling abilities. You
can modify both foreground and
background colors on one-bit .bmp
pictures, but you can only modify
2
the background color on multibyte
.bmp and .emf pictures.

Tip
Swapping the foreground
and background colors
Only the foreground color of a one-
bit .bmp can be modified. Swapping
colors toggles the color to be
modified with the Symbol Selector.



2 70 USING ARCMAP
1
Creating text Creating a text symbol
with a background
symbols
1. In the text Editor dialog box,
Text symbols are used to draw click the General tab.
labels and annotation that
2. Click the Font and Size
2
identify and add meaning to dropdown arrows to choose
your data. Text is also used for
a font and font size. Click the
titles, descriptions, callouts,
Style buttons if you want to
legends, scalebars, grid and apply a font style. You can
graticule labels, tables, and
also change the color, angle,
3
other textual and tabular
and offsets of your text.
information on your map.
3. Set the Vertical and Horizon-
You can create simple text
tal Alignment.
symbols or add advanced
4. Click the Advanced Text tab.
formatting, backgrounds, fills,
shadows, and halos to your 5. Check Text Background and
9
text. click Properties.
Text symbols consist of a single 6. Click the Type dropdown
layer. arrow and click Line Callout.
4
7. Uncheck Leader and Accent
Bar, and check Border.
Tip

5
8. Click the Symbol button to
How are text and label
set the color and outline
properties different?
properties and click OK.
Text properties include options for
changing the font, style, formatting, 9. Set the Right and Left
6
and effects. A label is drawn with Margins.
text symbols but is derived from
10. Click OK in all dialog boxes.
feature attributes and has addi-
tional properties for placement and
conflict detection.


7
8

9

WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 271
1
Creating a text callout
Tip
symbol
Drawing text without leader
or accent lines 1. In the text Editor dialog box,
You can also use the Line Callout click the Advanced Text tab.
option to draw text with just a
2. Check Text Background and
background. Simply check only the
2
click Properties.
border option for the properties of
your line callout. 3. Click the Type dropdown
arrow and click Line Callout.
3
Tip 4. Click the third Style option.
Working with your text
5
5. Check Border, then click
A wide variety of effects can be Symbol.
achieved using different styles and
4
6. Click the Color dropdown
toggling the leaders, accent bars,
arrow and click the color and
and borders. You also can enlarge
outline you want. Click OK.
the gap if the outline is too close to
the accent bar or you can adjust the 7. Click OK in all dialog boxes.
7
margins if your text is crowded in
the background.


Creating a text symbol
inside a marker
1
1. In the text Editor dialog box,
click the Advanced Text tab.
2
2. Check Text Background and
click Properties.
3. Click the Type dropdown
3
arrow and click Marker Text
4
Background.
4. Click Symbol.
6
5. Choose a marker and click
OK.
6. Check Scale marker to fit
text.
7
7. Click OK in all dialog boxes.



2 72 USING ARCMAP
1
Creating a text symbol
Tip
with a drop shadow
What units are used in the
symbol dialog box 1. In the text Editor dialog box,
menus? click the General tab.
The Symbol Selector dialog box
2
2. Click the Font and Size
menus and map element Properties
3
dropdown arrows to choose
dialog box menus use points. The
a font and font size. Click the
Symbol Property Editor can be set Style buttons for font styles.
4
to use points, inches, centimeters,
3. Click the Color dropdown
or millimeters.
arrow and choose a color.

5
4. Set the Vertical and Horizon-
tal Alignment.
5. Click the Advanced Text tab.
6. Click Color and click a gray.
6
7. Set the X Offset to 2 and the
7
Y Offset to -2.
8. Click OK in all dialog boxes.
8

Creating a text symbol
with a halo
1. In the text Editor dialog box,
2
click the General tab.
3
2. Click the Font and Size
dropdown arrows to choose
a font and font size. Click the
Style buttons for font styles.
3. Click the Color dropdown
4
arrow and choose a color.
5
4. Click the Mask tab.
6
5. Click Halo.
7
6. Click Symbol and choose a
fill and outline. Click OK.
7. Set a Size for the halo.
8
8. Click OK in all dialog boxes.


WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 273
1
Creating a filled text
symbol
1. In the text Editor dialog box,
click the General tab.
2
2. Click the Font and Size
dropdown arrows to choose a
font and font size. Click the
3
Style buttons if you want to
apply a font style.
3. Set the Vertical and Horizon-
tal Alignment.

4
4. Click the Formatted Text tab.
5. Set the Character Spacing.
6. Click the Advanced Text tab.
5
7. Check Text fill pattern and
click Properties.
8
8. Choose a fill.
9. Set the Outline Width and
6
Color and click OK.
10. Click OK in all dialog boxes.
9
7




Q
2 74 USING ARCMAP
Modifying and 2
Saving symbols to a style
using the Symbol
saving symbols Selector
and elements as 1. In the table of contents,
you work double-click the symbol you
want to modify.
As you compose your map, you The Symbol Selector dialog
may want to modify the box is displayed.
symbols you’ve used to draw
3
2. Click a symbol.
data and graphics.
3. If you want to make further
When you save your changes
simple modifications, use the
from the Symbol Selector dialog
Color and Width Options to
box, the new symbols are stored
set specific properties.
in your personal style folder.
4
Later, you can use the Style 4. If you want to make further
Manager to move them into advanced modifications, click
5
another style. When you insert Properties to access the
a map element on the map Symbol Editor dialog box and
layout, you can modify its make the changes you want.
properties. Later, you may
8
5. Click Save.
decide to make more changes
and save them to use in another 6. Type a Symbol Name.
map.
6
Your new symbol is saved in
You can also modify map your personal style folder
elements as you work in and appears in the Style
ArcMap. Most map elements contents window.
are composed of a mix of 7. Click OK.
7
symbols and map elements. For
8. Click OK.
example, the North arrow’s
graphic comes from a marker
that is created from a font, and
its frame comes from a border
and background that are
created from other symbols.




WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 275
Modifying symbols used
Tip
to draw map elements
What’s the difference
between modifying 1. In layout view, double-click
symbols, graphics, and the element you want to
map elements? modify. This opens a Proper-
Graphics and map elements have
1
ties dialog box.
an additional property tab for size
2. Click the Color dropdown
and position in relation to the page.
arrow and click a new color.
Map elements also have a Frame
tab for background and border 3. Click the Style button.
properties.
4. Click Save.
Border
5. Type a name and click OK.
Background
This element is stored in your
2
personal style folder.
Tip 6. Click OK.
Why can’t I modify the 7. Click the Frame tab.
color of a symbol?
8. Click the Style Selector
Sometimes a symbol layer or layers
button to change the border
are locked and cannot be modified.
5
style.
In this case, you can either click
Properties and use the Symbol 9. Click Properties.
Editor dialog box to modify the
3
10. In the Border dialog box,
colors you want. Or, if you find you
4
choose the desired proper-
will be modifying this color often,
78
ties and click OK.
you may want to unlock the layer
Q
and save the symbol.
6
11. Click Save.
12. Type a name and click OK.
This style is stored in your
personal style folder.
13. Click OK.
14. Repeat steps 8 through 13
to set the background style
and properties.
9
Y
15. Click OK.
W
E
2 76 USING ARCMAP
Working with Using the Style Manager
to define colors
color
1. Click Tools, point to Styles,
Color is one of the fundamental and click Style Manager.
4
properties of symbols and map
2. Click the Colors folder to
elements. The color palette view its contents.
shows the colors from all the
3. Right-click in the Contents
referenced styles. Your personal
window. Click New and
modifications are shown at the
choose a color model.
bottom of the palette. You can
use a variety of dialog boxes to
5
4. Click a color in the Color
create colors. The Selector window or use the color
dialog boxes can be accessed model spinners to mix a
from the color palette, while the color.
Property dialog boxes are
5. Click OK.
accessed from the Selector
dialog boxes and the Style 6. Type the name of the new
Manager. color in the Contents window.
ArcMap can define color in
these five color models:
• RGB—red, green, blue
• CMYK—cyan, magenta,
yellow, black
• HSV—hue, saturation, value
• Gray—gray shade ramp
Using the Style Manager
• Names—ArcInfo color
2
names to define a null color
1. Right-click in the Contents
Tip window of the Colors folder.
Using a null color Click New and click Gray.
A null color lets you turn off outline
2. Click the arrow button and
drawing or create transparent
click Advanced Properties.
3
areas in your symbols. However, a
3. Check Color is Null.
null color can’t be used to knock
out or block other colors.
4. Click OK.
4

WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 277
Defining colors as you
Tip
work
Identifying the colors on
the palette 1. Click the Color dropdown
You can pause the mouse pointer arrow on a dialog box or
over a color to see its name as a
right-click on a symbol in the
tip.
table of contents.
2
2. Click a new color or click
Tip More Colors to view addi-
Does the color palette tional colors.
come from a style?
3. Use the Color Selector dialog
Yes, it is a combination of all the
box to mix a new color.
referenced styles. As you create
You can toggle the color
custom colors, they are displayed
model with the arrow button
on the palette.
menu choices or click the
3
color preview to display the
4
Property dialog boxes.
4. Click the arrow button and
click Save Color.
5. Type a name for the new
color.
The color is saved in your
6
personal style folder.
5
6. Click OK.




The new color is saved in your
personal style folder and
appears on the color palette.


2 78 USING ARCMAP
Defining a null color as
3
you work
1. Click the Color dropdown
arrow on a dialog box.
2. Click More Colors.
4
3. Click the Properties tab.
5
4. Check Color is Null.
5. Click OK.




Polygon with an Polygon with a null fill color,
opaque fill color. making it display transparently.




WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 279
Working with Using the Style Manager
to define color ramps
color ramps
1. Click Tools, point to Styles,
ArcMap color ramps provide and click Style Manager.
the means to apply a range of
2. Click the Colors Ramps
2
colors to a group of symbols. folder to view its contents.
3
Color ramps are used, for
3. Right-click in the Contents
example, in the Graduated
window. Click New and
colors layer symbology option.
select Algorithmic Color
ArcMap has a range of color
Ramp.
ramps already defined in the
Color Ramp styles folder. Some 4. In the Algorithmic Color
are created for specific applica- Ramp Properties dialog box,
tions such as displaying click Color 1 and set the start
4
elevation or precipitation. You color for the ramp.
can also create your own.
5. Click Color 2 and set the end
There are four types of color color for the ramp.
ramps. Algorithmic color ramps
6. Adjust the value of black and
are a specific type of ramp that
white brightness throughout
traverses the color spectrum
the ramp.
between two colors. Preset
color ramps provide the 7. Click OK.
identical color ramp capability
8. Type the name of the new
as provided in ArcView GIS 3.x.
color in the Contents window.
5
Random color ramps provide
the user with the most distinct
colors that traverse a color
spectrum. Multipart color ramps
are containers storing a
sequence of any of the other
three color ramps in any
combination.


6


7
2 80 USING ARCMAP
2 4
Ramping colors in the
Tip
Layer Properties dialog
How do I adjust a multipart
box Symbology tab
ramp to match my data?
When you’re working with data,
1. Double-click the layer in the
such as elevation, choose the
5
table of contents.
3
Elevation color ramp in the styles
folder. Copy and paste this to your 2. Click the Symbology tab.
personal styles folder. Double-click
3. Click Quantities and click
it to edit it, and remove the parts
6
Graduated colors.
not in your data, such as water or
8
mountains (at the top and bottom of 4. Choose a Value field and, if
the list). desired, a Normalization
9
field.
5. Set the number of Classes or
change the classification
scheme by clicking Classify.
6. Double-click the top symbol
in the Symbol column.
7
7. Set the color options. Click
OK.
Q
8. Double-click the middle
symbol in the Symbol column
and set the color options.
W
Click OK.
9. Double-click the end symbol
in the Symbol column and
set the color options. Click
OK.
10. Hold the Ctrl key and select
each color-adjusted symbol.
11. Right-click one of the
selected symbols and
choose Ramp Colors.
12. Click OK in the dialog box.
E


WORKING WITH STYLES AND SYMBOLS 281
9
Working with rasters
I N THIS CHAPTER Vector data—such as coverages and shapefiles—represent geographic
features with lines, points, and polygons. Rasters—such as images and
• Adding a raster dataset to your
grids—represent geographic features by dividing the world into a regular
map
pattern of discrete cells called pixels. Each pixel, short for picture element,
• Using raster catalogs represents an area, often has a geographic location, and has a value that
represents the feature being observed. For example, the pixel values in an
• Rendering raster datasets and
aerial photograph represent the amount of light reflecting off the earth’s
raster catalogs
surface interpreted as trees, houses, streets, and so on, while the pixel values
• Raster resolution in a DEM represent elevations.
A raster can represent thematic data, such as land use or soils; continuous
• Ways to enhance raster display
and efficiency data including temperature, elevation, or spectral data such as satellite
images and aerial photographs; or pictures, such as scanned maps, scanned
• Faster drawing with pyramids
drawings, or photographs of buildings. You’ll generally display thematic and
continuous rasters as data layers along with other geographic data on your
• Using the Effects toolbar
map. Picture rasters, when displayed with your geographic data, can convey
• Applying contrast stretches additional information about map features. You may also display a data layer
representing a collection of raster datasets, called a raster catalog, which will
• Changing the appearance of
be discussed further in this chapter.
background values
Some rasters have a single band of data, while others have multiple bands.
• Using the geodatabase raster
For example, a satellite image commonly has multiple bands representing
catalog selection environment
different wavelengths, from the ultraviolet through the visible and infrared
• Projecting rasters on the fly portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This means that every pixel
location has more than one value associated with it. On the other hand, a
• About georeferencing
DEM has a single band of data, containing values of elevation, of which
• Georeferencing a raster dataset there is only one value.

283
1 2
Adding a raster Adding a single band
raster dataset
dataset to your
1. Click the Add Data button on
map the Standard toolbar.
2. Click the Look in dropdown
You can add all types of raster
arrow and navigate to the
data to ArcMap: raster datasets,
folder that contains the raster
file-based raster catalogs, and
dataset.
geodatabase raster catalogs.
Also, there are many different If you want to add a single
3
raster formats that can be added band of a multiband raster
as a valid raster dataset. To see dataset, double-click the
the complete list of valid raster dataset to expose the
formats, please refer to ‘Sup- individual bands.
ported raster formats’ in the
3. Click the single band raster
4
ArcGIS Desktop Help.
dataset.
If you add raster data that
4. Click Add.
covers the same geographic
area as your map but in a
different coordinate system,
ArcMap uses the coordinate
2
1
Adding a multiband
system of the first dataset
raster dataset
added and performs a transfor-
mation on the fly.
1. Click the Add Data button on
If your raster dataset’s coordi- the Standard toolbar.
nate system is not defined, you
2. Click the Look in dropdown
can use ArcCatalog to attach or
arrow and navigate to the
define the coordinate system
folder that contains the raster
information. See ‘Defining a
dataset.
raster’s coordinate system’ in
the ArcGIS Desktop Help for 3. Click the multiband raster
more information. dataset.
3
If you need to transform a raster 4. Click Add.
dataset, you must have
georeferencing information or a
world file and know its coordi-
nate system. If your raster
4
dataset does not have any
georeferencing information u


2 84 USING ARCMAP
associated with it, you can Adding a raster as a
georeference it in ArcMap. See picture
‘Georeferencing a raster
1. Click the Insert menu on the
dataset’ in this chapter.
Standard toolbar and click
Picture.
Tip
2. Click the Look in dropdown
Displaying raster dataset arrow and navigate to the
bands picture you want to add.
When you add a raster layer with
3. Click the picture.
multiple bands, you can choose to
1
display a single band of data or 4. Click Open.
you can simply add the entire
If you’re in layout view, the
raster dataset.
picture is inserted on the
2
layout. If you’re in data view,
Tip the picture is inserted within
the data frame.
Changing the defaults for
drawing a multiband raster
dataset layer
3
You can change the default
red–green–blue (RGB) band
combination that a multiband
raster layer displays when it is
4
loaded. Click the Tools menu, point
to Options, and click the Raster
tab.


Tip
Displaying pictures
If your raster is just a picture that
doesn’t align to any other geo-
graphic data, you can simply place
it on a layout as a graphic element.
Alternatively, you can create a
hyperlink and associate it with a
geographic feature on your map.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 285
1
Using raster 2
Adding a raster catalog
catalogs 1. Click the Add Data button on
the Standard toolbar.
Raster catalogs are used to 2. Click the Look in dropdown
display multiple adjacent or arrow and navigate to the
overlapping raster datasets folder that contains the raster
without having to mosaic them catalog.
into one larger file. Raster
NOTE: Traditional file-based
catalogs appear in the Add Data
raster catalogs have a table
dialog box in ArcMap as
ordinary tables or geodatabase icon ( ), whereas geodata-
raster catalogs. The raster base raster catalogs have
datasets in the raster catalog
3
their own icon ( ).
are drawn in order—from the
first to last record in the
3. Click the raster catalog.
catalog’s table.
4. Click Add.
A traditional file-based raster
catalog can contain multiple
4
raster dataset types, formats,
resolutions, and file sizes. Any
table format can be used to
define a raster catalog, includ-
ing text files and geodatabase
tables.
Geodatabase raster catalogs
can be used in the ArcMap
selection environment. For more
information on this, see ‘Using
the geodatabase raster catalog
selection environment’ later in
this chapter.
Tip
Why is my raster catalog
displayed as a wireframe?
A raster catalog displays as a
wireframe if more than nine images
are in the current display extent.
You can change this default setting
in the raster catalog Layer
Properties dialog box under the
Display tab.

2 86 USING ARCMAP
Rendering raster datasets and raster catalogs
Displaying rasters of all its data. ArcMap allows you to choose from different
drawing methods based on your display and analysis needs.
How you display a raster depends on what type of data it Both individual raster datasets and raster catalogs provide similar
contains and what you want to show. Some rasters have a display methods.
predefined color scheme—a colormap—that ArcMap
automatically uses to display them. For those that don’t, ArcMap Methods of rendering raster data
chooses an appropriate display method that you can adjust as
There are several methods of displaying raster data. You can
needed.
choose which renderer you want to use for your data on the
If you want, you can change display colors, group data values
Symbology tab of the Layer Properties dialog box.
into classes, or stretch values to increase the visual contrast. For
• RGB Composite: Use RGB Composite for a multiband raster
multiband rasters, you can display any three bands together as
layer. You can draw a three-band composite of raster data,
an RGB composite. By trying different band combinations you
with the option of displaying fewer than three bands or
may distinguish different features in the raster.
changing the band combination.
The raster resolution is the ratio of screen pixels to dataset pixels
• Unique Values: Use Unique Values when you want each value
at the current map scale. Seeing the raster resolution allows you
in the raster layer to be displayed individually. For instance,
to determine if you are approaching the maximum resolution of
you may have discrete categories representing particular
the raster.
objects on the earth’s surface, such as those in a thematic
A ratio of 1:1 means you have reached the best display, or the
raster layer, which could display soil types or land use.
maximum resolution of the raster, where every screen pixel is
• Stretched: Use Stretched when you want to draw a single
displaying exactly one raster cell. A ratio of 1:20 means that every
band of continuous data. The Stretched renderer displays
screen pixel has to display 20 raster cells, so less detail will be
continuous raster cell values across a gradual ramp of colors.
seen in the raster layer. A ratio of 1:0.02 means that every screen
pixel is displaying only a portion of a raster cell or that it takes • Classified: Use Classified to display rasters by grouping cell
many screen pixels to display a single raster cell. values into classes. It is typical to use this type of thematic
classification on continuous phenomena in a single-band
Rendering raster datasets raster layer.
Raster datasets can be displayed, or rendered, in your map in • Colormap: Use Colormap for similar data as you would the
many different ways. Rendering involves the process of Unique Values renderer, although the Colormap renderer uses
displaying your data visually. a specified color scheme to display your data. This is only
available when a raster dataset has an associated colormap.
When a raster dataset layer is added to ArcMap, it will be
displayed with a default renderer, which is usually the most
appropriate for the particular raster dataset layer. Generally, there
are particular ways to display a raster dataset to take advantage


WORKING WITH RASTERS 287
Rendering raster catalogs
A raster catalog is a collection of raster datasets defined in table
format, in which the records define the individual rasters that are
included in the catalog. A raster catalog can be used to display a
collection of adjacent rasters without having to mosaic them into
a larger file. Raster catalogs can also be used to hold disparate,
semioverlapping, or fully overlapping raster datasets.
By default, raster catalogs are displayed as a wireframe if more
than nine images are in the current display extent. Otherwise, the
actual raster data will be displayed. The use of the wireframe
speeds up the display of raster catalogs. The default of nine
images can be changed in the display properties of your raster
catalog or on the Raster tab in the Options dialog box.
ArcMap has the ability to render each raster dataset member of a
geodatabase raster catalog with its most appropriate renderer.
The Symbology tab of a raster catalog’s Layer Properties dialog
box lists the renderers that are available for the catalog. This list
of renderers can be edited to add or remove various renderers.
Only the renderers in the list can be used in the rendering of the
catalog. In the available renderers list, ArcMap places an asterisk
next to each of the renderers that are currently active and are
applied to one or more raster dataset members of the raster
catalog. However, the active list can only be triggered when an
image is displayed on the screen. This list will not be complete
until the entire catalog has been viewed. The active renderers
persist even after you change the display to another area, to the
full extent, or back to a wireframe display.




2 88 USING ARCMAP
2
The RGB Drawing a multiband
raster dataset as an RGB
Composite composite
renderer 1. In the table of contents, right-
3
click the raster layer that you
You use the RGB Composite
4
want to draw as an RGB
renderer to display a multiband
composite and click Proper-
raster layer, such as satellite
5
ties.
imagery or a color aerial
2. Click the Symbology tab.
photograph. This renderer
7
6
gives you the options of 3. Click RGB Composite.
displaying less than three
4. Click the Bands dropdown
bands or changing the band
arrow next to each color and
combination.
click the band you want to
display for that color.
Tip
8
5. If the raster dataset contains
Turning bands on and off in a background or border
the table of contents around the data that you
In the table of contents, click the want to hide, check Display
color square beside the band you Background Value and set
want to turn off and uncheck Visible the color to No Color. The
to turn it off.
cells will display transpar-
ently.
Tip 6. Optionally, click the Stretch
Type dropdown arrow and
Displaying the RGB value
click the stretch you want to
for a cell
perform.
To see the RGB value for a given
cell, turn on MapTips for the layer. 7. Optionally, click Histograms
To do this, right-click the layer in to modify the stretch settings.
the table of contents and click
8. Click OK.
Properties. Check the Show
MapTips box on the Display tab.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 289
The Unique Drawing raster datasets
2 4 5
using the Unique Values
Values renderer renderer
You use the Unique Values 1. In the table of contents, right-
3
renderer when you want each click the raster layer that you
value in the raster layer to be want to draw with a set of
represented by an individual unique values and click
color. For example, a thematic Properties.
raster layer, such as land use,
2. Click the Symbology tab.
contains specific values
representing particular land use 3. Click Unique Values.
categories. You may want each
4. Click the Value Field drop-
of these categories to be
down arrow and click the
displayed using an individual
field you want to map.
color.
5. Click the Color Scheme
The Unique Values renderer
dropdown arrow and click a
displays each value as a
color scheme.
86 7
random color. If your data has a
6. Optionally, click a label and
colormap, you can use the
type in a more descriptive
Colormap renderer to display
one.
your data with assigned colors.
7. Optionally, select a color or
no color to display any
Tip
NoData values.
The raster dataset draws
8. Click OK.
too dark
You can alter the overall brightness
or contrast of a raster dataset with
the Effects toolbar. Alternatively,
some raster renderers will allow
you to stretch the data values to
take advantage of the available
colors.




2 90 USING ARCMAP
2
The Stretched Drawing raster datasets
using the Stretched
renderer renderer
The Stretched renderer displays 1. In the table of contents, right-
3 4
continuous raster cell values click the raster layer that you
across a gradual ramp of colors. want to display across a
Use the Stretched renderer
5
color ramp and click Proper-
when you want to draw a single ties.
band of continuous data. The
6
2. Click the Symbology tab.
Stretched renderer works well
7
when you have a large range of 3. Click Stretched.
values that you would like to
4. If your raster dataset has
display, such as in spectral
9
multiple bands, you may
imagery, aerial photographs, or
choose the band you want to
elevation models.
stretch.
You can choose from several
5. Optionally, click the Label
Q8
different automatic stretches
boxes and type labels for the
and a manual option when
table of contents.
deciding exactly how to stretch
6. Click the Color Ramp
the values.
dropdown arrow and click a
color ramp.
Tip
7. Optionally, choose a color or
Changing a raster no color to display any
dataset’s color from the NoData values.
table of contents
8. Optionally, click the Stretch
You can quickly change the colors
Type dropdown arrow and
applied to a raster dataset by
click the type of Stretch, if
clicking the color ramp in the table
any, you would like to
of contents.
perform.
9. Optionally, scroll down and
Tip
click Statistics to change the
Using statistics statistics, if desired.
You can use the Statistics portion of
10. Click OK.
the Symbology tab to examine and
modify how your data displays.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 291
The Classified Drawing raster datasets
45
2 67
using the Classified
renderer renderer
The Classified renderer is used 1. In the table of contents, right-
3
with a single-band raster layer. click the single band raster
The Classified method displays dataset layer that you want to
thematic rasters by grouping display by grouping values
cell values into classes. It is
8
into classes and click
typical to use this type of Properties.
thematic classification on
2. Click the Symbology tab.
continuous phenomena, such
3. Click Classified.
as slope, distance, or suitability,
where you want to classify the 4. Click the Value dropdown
range into a small number of arrow and click the field you
classes and assign colors to want to map. If your raster
those classes. dataset does not have a
table, the Value dropdown
You can choose a manual
arrow is unavailable.
classification method or one of
Q 9
these standard methods: 5. Optionally, click the Normal-
ization dropdown arrow and
• Equal Interval—The range
click a field to normalize your
of cell values is divided into
data.
equally sized classes, where
you specify the number of 6. Click the Classes dropdown
classes. arrow and click the number of
classes you want.
• Defined Interval—You
specify an interval to divide 7. Click Classify and choose the
the range of cell values, and classification method you
ArcMap determines the want to use. You can choose
number of classes. a standard or a manual
method of classification. Click
• Quantile—Each class
OK.
contains an equal number of
cells. 8. Click the Color Ramp
dropdown arrow and click a
• Natural Breaks (Jenks)—The
color ramp.
classes are based on natural
groupings of values. 9. Optionally, choose a color or
no color to display any
• Standard Deviation—Shows
NoData values.
you the amount a cell’s
value varies from the mean. 10. Click OK.

2 92 USING ARCMAP
2
The Colormap Drawing thematic raster
datasets that represent
renderer categories using the
Colormap renderer
You use the Colormap renderer
much as you would the Unique
3
1. In the table of contents, right-
Values renderer. However, you click the raster layer that you
use the Colormap renderer want to draw with a colormap
when you choose to have the and click Properties.
values in the raster layer
2. Click the Symbology tab.
represented by a prespecified
color. 3. Click Colormap.
If your data has a colormap, 4. Click OK.
you can use the Colormap
renderer to display your data
with assigned colors. The
Colormap renderer displays
4
automatically in the list of
available renderers on the
Symbology tab.


Tip
How do I know if my raster
dataset has a colormap?
You can check to see if your raster
dataset has a colormap in the
Properties dialog box. Click the
Source tab and see whether or not
a colormap is present.


Tip
Where is the colormap
information stored?
For GRID files, the colormap
information is stored in a .clr file
with the same name as the GRID.
For most other formats, the
colormap is embedded within the
raster dataset.

WORKING WITH RASTERS 293
2
Raster resolution Displaying the raster
resolution in the table of
The raster resolution refers to contents
the size of the cells in a raster
1. In the table of contents, right-
dataset and the ratio of screen
3
click the layer and click
pixels to image pixels at the
Properties.
current map scale. For example,
one screen pixel may be the 2. Click the Display tab.
result of nine image pixels
3. Check Display raster
resampled into one—this is a
resolution in table of con-
raster resolution of 1:9. In this
tents.
case, every screen pixel has to
display nine raster cells, 4. Click OK.
meaning the image is not as
clear and detailed.
A resolution of 1:1, however,
means that every screen pixel is
4
displaying exactly 1 raster cell.
If you zoom in closer than a
raster resolution of 1:1, you
won’t see any more detail in
that image.


Tip
Raster resolution
Zooming to the raster
resolution
Right-click the raster layer in the
table of contents and click Zoom to
Raster Resolution. You are now
looking at your data at 1:1.


Tip
Drawing a raster
transparently
Use the Effects toolbar to draw
raster layers transparently over
other layers on your map.



2 94 USING ARCMAP
Ways to enhance raster display and efficiency
ArcMap provides alternatives that allow you to enhance the display. You might apply a stretch when your raster display
display of your raster layer. appears dark or has little contrast. For example, images may not
contain the entire range of values your computer can display;
Using faster drawing methods therefore, you could stretch the values of the image to utilize this
range by using a contrast stretch. This may result in a crisper
You can reduce the time it takes to display a large raster dataset
image, and some features may become easier to distinguish.
by creating pyramids. Pyramids record the original data in
decreasing levels of resolution, created as a reduced resolution
dataset (.rrd) file with the same filename as your raster dataset. Histogram A
ArcMap uses the appropriate level of resolution to quickly draw
the entire dataset.You cannot build pyramids on a raster catalog;
however, you can build them on each raster dataset within the
raster catalog. Histogram B
When you are working with raster catalogs, ArcMap can display
your raster catalog as a wireframe (showing an outline of the
dimensions for each raster dataset). To increase display
efficiency, this occurs automatically if more than nine images are
Image A
in the current extent. The default number of images can be
Example of a contrast stretch:
manipulated within the Display tab of the raster catalog’s Layer
Histogram A represents the
Properties dialog box.
pixel values in Image A. By
stretching the values (shown in
Using the Effects toolbar Histogram B) across the entire
range, you can alter and
The Effects toolbar allows you to interactively adjust the
visually enhance the
brightness or contrast of a raster layer or make the raster layer
appearance of the image
display transparently. These enhancements are applied to the (Image B).
rendered screen display, not to the original raster dataset values.
Brightness increases the overall lightness of the image—for
Image B
example, making dark colors lighter and light colors whiter—while
contrast adjusts the difference between the darkest and lightest
Different stretches will produce different results in the raster
colors. The transparency tool lets you see other data layers
display. You can experiment to find the best one for a particular
underneath the raster layer.
raster dataset.
Applying contrast stretches The types of stretches in ArcMap include a custom manual
option or several standard methods. These standard stretches
If your raster data represents continuous data, you can apply a
can be used with the RGB Composite or the Stretched renderers.
contrast stretch to it based upon the statistics of the raster
The standard stretches are Standard Deviations, Minimum–
dataset. A stretch increases the visual contrast of the raster

WORKING WITH RASTERS 295
Working with auxiliary files and raster proxy files
Maximum, Histogram Equalize, and Histogram Specification. You
might use the Minimum–Maximum stretch to spread out tightly
When a raster dataset is used in ArcGIS and auxiliary information
grouped values. The Histogram Equalize and Histogram
(such as statistics, histograms, and pyramids) cannot be found
Specification stretches obtain their values from your histogram
inside the raster dataset or in an associated auxiliary file, ArcGIS
manipulation. A two-standard deviation stretch is the default
will build and store it. ArcMap only has to build this information
setting for raster datasets that have statistics, and it is used to
once and automatically reads it each time you display the raster
brighten raster datasets, which normally appear dark.
dataset. Normally, auxiliary data is stored inside the raster dataset
With any of these stretch methods, you can examine and modify a itself if the format allows it, or it can be written to auxiliary files
histogram and see basic statistics (such as minimum, maximum, next to the raster dataset.
mean, and standard deviation) about your data. You could utilize
If a raster dataset is marked with read-only permissions or if the
these statistics if you are interested in emphasizing a particular
folder it is located in is read-only, then auxiliary files are
value or examining distribution. When you adjust the histogram,
subsequently written to a different writable location, such as a
you see multiple sets of vertical bars: the purple bars represent
temporary directory under a folder named “raster proxy files”.
the current display values, and the gray bars represent your
These are known as raster proxy files.
original values. When using multiband data in the RGB
Composite renderer, the red, green, and blue bars represent the
current display values.

Changing the display of the background
Backgrounds and outlines can often be the result of
georeferencing your raster dataset. If your raster data has a
background, border, or other NoData values, you can choose not
to display them or choose to display them as a particular color.




These images are showing a NoData area with a black background and
that same area using No Color.



2 96 USING ARCMAP
Faster drawing 2
Changing the default
setting for building
with pyramids pyramids
You can reduce the time it takes 1. Click the Tools menu and
to display a large raster dataset click Options.
by creating pyramids. Pyramids
2. Click the Raster tab.
are files that store the original
data in decreasing levels of 3. Click the General tab.
resolution. ArcMap uses the
4. Click the choice that de-
appropriate level of resolution
scribes when you want to
3
to quickly draw the entire
create pyramid layers.
dataset.
5. Click OK.
As you zoom in, ArcMap
4
displays layers with finer
resolution. Performance is
maintained because you’re
drawing successively smaller
areas. Without pyramids,
ArcMap has to query the entire
raster dataset to determine the
subset of cells that need to be
displayed, thus taking longer to
draw.
When you first add a raster
dataset of more than 1,024 cells
that does not have pyramids
present, ArcMap automatically
5
prompts you to create them. The
pyramid file created is a reduced
resolution dataset (.rrd) with the
same filename as the dataset.
For uncompressed raster
datasets, the minimum .rrd file
size is approximately 8 percent
of the size of the original raster
dataset. However, depending on
the compression technique used
in the original raster file, the
noncompressed .rrd file can be
larger than the original file.

WORKING WITH RASTERS 297
2 3
Using the Effects Improving the brightness
or contrast of your raster
toolbar layer
The Effects toolbar in ArcMap 1. Click the View menu, point to
allows a user to interactively Toolbars, and click Effects.
enhance the display of their
2. Click the Layer dropdown
images. The effects that can be
arrow and select the raster
4
adjusted using slider bars
layer for which you want to
include brightness, contrast,
change the brightness or
and transparency. Brightness
contrast.
increases the overall lightness
of the image. The contrast 3. Click the brightness or
adjusts the difference between contrast button.
the darkest and lightest colors.
4. Drag the slider bar to
Transparency allows the user to
increase or decrease the
see other data layers appearing
brightness or contrast.
underneath the raster layer.


Tip
Seeing the results of the
Effects toolbar
immediately
When you adjust the brightness,
contrast, or transparency of your Brightness
Contrast
raster dataset, you can immediately (right side):
(left side):
see the results as you drag the increase (top),
increase (top),
slider bar. To enable this feature, decrease
decrease
right-click the raster layer in the (bottom).
(bottom).
table of contents and click Proper-
ties. Click the Display tab and
check the option to Allow interac-
tive display for Effects toolbar.




2 98 USING ARCMAP
2 3
Drawing a raster layer
transparently
1. Click the View menu, point to
Toolbars, and click Effects.
2. Click the Layer dropdown
arrow and click the raster
4
layer you want to draw
transparently.
3. Click the Adjust Transpar-
ency button.
4. Drag the slider bar to adjust
the transparency.




Without transparency (top), the hillshade obscures the underlying land
use layer. With transparency (bottom), the underlying symbology
appears through the hillshade, yielding a three-dimensional effect.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 299
2
Applying contrast Stretching a raster dataset
to improve the visual
stretches contrast
3
You can apply a contrast 1. In the table of contents, right-
4
stretch to your continuous click the raster layer that you
data. A stretch increases the want to display across a color
visual contrast of the raster ramp and click Properties.
5
display. You might apply a
2. Click the Symbology tab.
stretch when your raster
6
display appears dark or has 3. Click Stretched.
7
little contrast.
4. If your raster dataset has
multiple bands, you can
choose the band you want to
Tip
stretch.
Displaying the attributes of
5. Optionally, click the Label
a cell
boxes and type labels for the
Use the Identify tool on the Tools
9
8
table of contents.
toolbar and click the cell with
attributes you’re interested in
6. Click the Color Ramp
seeing. The attribute information,
dropdown arrow and click a
including the cell value, will
color ramp.
display.
7. Optionally, choose a color or
no color to display any
See Also NoData values.
For more information on stretches, 8. Optionally, click the Stretch
see ‘The Stretched renderer’ in this Type dropdown arrow and
chapter. click the type of Stretch, if
any, you would like to
perform.
9. Click OK.




3 00 USING ARCMAP
2
Changing the Hiding background values
appearance of 1. In the table of contents, right-
click the raster dataset layer
background for which you want to
3
increase the visual contrast
values and click Properties.
2. Click the Symbology tab.
Sometimes there are homog-
enous areas in a raster dataset 3. Click the renderer you want
that the user does not want to
4
to use.
display. These can include
5
4. Check Display Background
borders, backgrounds, or other
Value and enter the correct
data considered to not have
background value in the box.
valid values. Sometimes these
You can also set NoData
are expressed as NoData
values as a color or no color.
values, although other times
they may have real values. 5. Set the color to No Color.
6
All renderers allow you to set This will hide the background
the NoData value to a color or or border around the data in
No Color, while the Stretched the raster layer.
renderer allows you to identify
These cells will display
a specific background value
transparently.
and display color or No Color.
6. Click OK.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 301
Using the Selecting raster datasets
1
by attributes
geodatabase
2
1. Click the Selection menu and
raster catalog click Select By Attributes.
3
5
selection 2. Click the Layer dropdown
7
arrow and click the layer
environment 4
containing the features you
6
want to select.
The selection environment
3. Click the Method dropdown
allows the user to perform
W
arrow and click a selection
queries based on data within
method.
the raster catalog and its
relationship to feature layers. 4. Double-click a field to add
the field name to the expres-
With the selection environment,
sion box.
you could:
8 9
5. Click an operator to add it to
• Select a set of raster
the expression.
datasets by cloud cover
criteria. 6. Click the Get Unique Values
E
button to see all the values.
• Select raster datasets by
date. 7. Double-click a value to add it
to the expression.
• Select raster datasets based
R
on location to features in a 8. To check your syntax or
feature layer or graphic. criteria, click the Verify button.
9. Click Apply, then click Close.
See Also 10. To view the images, you may
have to right-click the raster
To learn more about using SQL to
catalog and select Proper-
query data sets, see Chapter 13,
‘Querying maps’. ties.
11. Click the Selection tab.
See Also 12. Check and draw rasters.
13. Click OK.
To learn more about managing and
working with raster catalogs, see
Using ArcCatalog.




3 02 USING ARCMAP
Selecting a raster catalog
Tip
1
by location
How do I view the selected
raster datasets?
1. Click the Selection menu and
To view the selected raster click Select By Location.
datasets, you need to right-click
2. Click the first dropdown
the raster catalog in the table of
arrow and click a selection
contents and choose Properties.
method.
Next, click the Selection tab and
click the and draw rasters check
3. Check the catalog layers you
box. Click Apply to activate the
want the make the selection
change.
2
from.

3
4. Click the second dropdown
arrow and click a selection
4
method.
5
5. Click the third dropdown
6
arrow and select the layer
7
you want to use to search for
the raster datasets.
6. To use only the selected
features, check Use selected
features.
8
7. Optionally, set a buffer by
checking the Apply a buffer
check box. Type the buffer
distance and choose the
appropriate units of measure
from the dropdown arrow.
8. Click Apply.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 303
Projecting rasters on the fly
What is an on-the-fly projection? latitude greater than 70 degrees north or south or for dataset
blocks greater than one degree in extent.
ArcMap can perform what is commonly known as an on-the-fly
Imprecision within projections on the fly can occur because of
projection. This means ArcMap can display data stored in one
slight variations within a coordinate system due to its datum
projection as if it were in another projection. The new projection
model. Other inaccuracies can result from topographic features.
is used for display and query purposes only. The actual data is
For example, a flat terrain area would have less distortion than an
not altered.
area with steep changes in elevation, such as a region with
valleys and mountains. Orthorectified imagery corrects for this
When is data projected on the fly?
distortion.
Data is projected on the fly any time a data frame contains a layer
The cells of a raster dataset will always be rectangular and of
whose coordinate system is defined as something different from
equal area with respect to the Cartesian coordinate system—map
the coordinate system definition of the data frame. A data frame’s
coordinate space—associated with the raster dataset. The shape
coordinate system can be defined manually or by adding data
and area a cell represents on the surface of the earth will never be
with a defined coordinate system.
constant across a raster dataset. Since the area on the face of the
ArcMap will not project data on the fly if the coordinate system earth represented by the cells will vary across the raster dataset,
for the dataset has not been defined. A dataset with an undefined the output cell size and the number of rows and columns may
coordinate system will simply be displayed in its native change when projected. Each projection treats the relationship
coordinate system. The coordinate system for any dataset can be between a three-dimensional world and a two-dimensional one
defined using ArcCatalog. differently. You should be aware of the properties and
assumptions for each projection before selecting one.
The first layer added defines the data frame’s coordinate system.
This is true whether the data is projected or geographic. For
example, if the first layer added contains a Lambert Conformal
Conic projected coordinate system, all other layers will project on
the fly to match this. Similarly, if the first layer added to the data
frame contains data that uses a WGS84 geographic coordinate
system, all other layers will adjust to match this. Even data that
uses a projected coordinate system will unproject on the fly.

Issues with on-the-fly projection
On-the-fly projection uses a single polynomial transformation
rather than a cell-to-cell projection. Inaccuracy with on-the-fly
projection can be more of a concern for raster layers located at a



3 04 USING ARCMAP
About georeferencing
Raster data is commonly obtained by scanning maps or collecting The number of links you need to create depends on the
aerial photographs and satellite images. Scanned map datasets complexity of the polynomial transformation you plan to use to
don’t normally contain spatial reference information (either transform the raster dataset to map coordinates. However, adding
embedded in the file or as a separate file). With aerial more links will not necessarily yield a better registration. If
photography and satellite imagery, sometimes the locational possible, you should spread out the links over the entire raster
information delivered with them is inadequate, and the data does dataset rather than concentrating them in one area. Typically,
not align properly with other data you may have. Thus, in order having at least one link near each corner of the raster dataset and
to use some raster datasets in conjunction with your other spatial a few throughout the interior produces the best results.
data, you often need to align it, or georeference it, to a map Generally, the greater the overlap between the raster dataset and
coordinate system. A map coordinate system is defined using a target data, the better the alignment results, because you’ll have
map projection (a method by which the curved surface of the more widely spaced points with which to georeference the raster
earth is portrayed on a flat surface). dataset. For example, if your target data only occupies one
When you georeference your raster dataset, you define its quarter of the area of your raster dataset, the points you could
location using map coordinates and assign a coordinate system. use to align the raster dataset would be confined to that area of
Georeferencing raster data allows it to be viewed, queried, and overlap. Thus, the areas outside the overlap area are likely not
analyzed with other geographic data. properly aligned.
Keep in mind that your georeferenced data is only as accurate as
How to align the raster dataset
the data to which it was aligned. To minimize errors, you should
georeference to data that is at the highest resolution and largest
Generally, you will georeference your raster dataset using existing
scale for your needs.
spatial data (target data), such as a vector feature class, that
resides in the desired map coordinate system. This assumes that
Transforming the raster dataset
there are features in your spatial data that are also visible in the
raster—for example, street intersections or building corners. When you’ve created enough links, you can transform—or
warp—the raster dataset to permanently match the map
The process involves identifying a series of ground control
coordinates of the target data. Warping uses a polynomial
points—known x,y coordinates—that link locations on the raster
transformation to determine the correct map coordinate location
dataset with locations in the spatially referenced data (target
for each cell in the raster.
data). The control points are used to build a polynomial
transformation that will convert the raster dataset from its existing Use a first-order—or affine—transformation to shift, scale, and
location to the spatially correct location. The connection between rotate your raster dataset. This generally results in straight lines
one control point on the raster dataset (the “from point”) and the on the raster dataset mapped as straight lines in the warped raster
corresponding control point on the aligned target data (the “to dataset. Thus squares and rectangles on the raster dataset are
point”) is called a link. commonly changed into parallelograms of arbitrary scaling and
angle orientation.



WORKING WITH RASTERS 305
Resampling the raster dataset
A first-order transformation will probably handle most of your
georeferencing requirements. With a minimum of three links, the
While you might think each cell in a raster dataset is transformed
mathematical equation used with a first-order transformation can
to its new map coordinate location, the process actually works in
exactly map each raster point to the target location. Any more
reverse. During georeferencing, a matrix of “empty” cells is
than three links introduces errors, or residuals, that are
computed using the map coordinates. Then, each empty cell is
distributed throughout all the links. However, you should add
given a value based on a process called resampling.
more than three links because if one link is positionally wrong, it
The three most common resampling techniques are nearest
has a much greater impact on the transformation. Thus, even
neighbor assignment, bilinear interpolation, and cubic
though the mathematical transformation error may increase as
convolution. These techniques assign a value to each empty cell
you create more links, the overall accuracy of the transformation
by examining the cells in the ungeoreferenced raster dataset.
will increase as well.
Nearest neighbor assignment takes the value from the cell closest
The higher the transformation order, the more complex the
to the transformed cell as the new value. It’s the fastest
distortion that can be corrected. However, transformations higher
resampling technique and is appropriate for categorical or
than third order are rarely needed. Higher-order transformations
thematic data. Bilinear interpolation and cubic convolution
require more links and thus will involve progressively more
techniques combine a greater number of nearby cells (4 and 16,
processing time. In general, if your raster dataset needs to be
respectively) to compute the value for the transformed cell. These
stretched, scaled, and rotated, use a first-order transformation. If,
two techniques use a weighted averaging method to compute the
however, the raster dataset must be bent or curved, use a second-
output transformed cell value and thus are only appropriate for
or third-order transformation.
continuous data such as elevation, slope, aerial photography, and
other continuous surfaces.
Interpreting the root mean square error
Resampling is part of the georeferencing process; however, it can
The degree to which the transformation can accurately map all
also be used to adjust the cell size of a raster dataset or can be
control points can be measured mathematically by comparing the
part of a geoprocessing operation to alter the values of cells.
actual location of the map coordinate to the transformed position
in the raster. The distance between these two points is known as Should you rectify your raster dataset?
the residual error. The total error is computed by taking the root
You can permanently transform your raster dataset after
mean square (RMS) sum of all the residuals to compute the RMS
georeferencing it by using the Rectify command on the
error. This value describes how consistent the transformation is
Georeferencing toolbar. Rectify creates a new raster dataset that
between the different control points (links). Links can be removed
is georeferenced to map coordinates. You can save this in ESRI
if the error is particularly large, and more points can be added.
GRID, TIFF, or ERDAS® IMAGINE® format.
While the RMS error is a good assessment of the accuracy of the
ArcMap doesn’t require you to rectify your raster dataset to
transformation, don’t confuse a low RMS error with an accurate
display it with other spatial data. You might choose to rectify
registration. For example, the transformation may still contain
your raster dataset if you plan to perform analysis with it or want
significant errors due to a poorly entered control point.
to use it with another software package that doesn’t recognize
the external georeferencing information created by ArcMap.

3 06 USING ARCMAP
The Georeferencing toolbar

Set the raster dataset to
Add control points (links).
georeference.




View the link table.
Save the
Rotate or shift the
transformation with
Shift the raster raster dataset before
the raster dataset.
dataset to the current adding links.
display area.
Create a new,
transformed raster Correct for common
dataset. scanning distortions.


Adjust the display
as you add links.




Set the transformation order.




WORKING WITH RASTERS 307
Georeferencing a Georeferencing a raster
dataset
raster dataset
1. Add the layers residing in
3 5
The general steps for map coordinates and the
4
georeferencing a raster dataset raster dataset you want to
are: georeference.
1. Add the raster dataset that 2. In the table of contents, right-
you want to align with your click a target layer (the When enabled, the raster
projected data. referenced dataset) and click dataset automatically shifts as
you enter each link.
Zoom to Layer.
2. Add control points that link
known raster dataset 3. From the Georeferencing
positions to known posi- toolbar, click the Layer
tions in map coordinates. dropdown arrow and click
the raster layer you want to
3. Save the georeferencing
georeference.
information when you’re
satisfied with the registra- 4. Click Georeferencing and
tion. click Fit To Display.
This will display the raster
6
dataset in the same area as
Tip
the target layers. You can
Displaying the
also use the Shift and Rotate
Georeferencing toolbar
tools to move the raster
Right-click the Tools menu and dataset as needed. To see all
point to Georeferencing.
the datasets, you may have
to adjust their order in the
table of contents.
5. Click the Control Points tool
to add control points. To create a link, click a control point on the raster dataset,
then click the corresponding control point on the target data.
6. To add a link, click the mouse
pointer on a known location
on the raster dataset, then on
a known location on the data
in map coordinates (the
referenced data). u




3 08 USING ARCMAP
You may find it useful to use a
Tip
Magnification window to add
What features could I use
in your links. When working
9
as control points?
with two raster datasets, you
8
You could look for road intersec-
may want to open the Effects
tions, land features, building
toolbar and adjust the
corners, or other objects that you
transparency or turn layers
can identify and match in your
on and off in the table of
raster dataset and aligned datasets.
contents to view each image
as you add your links.
Tip 7. Add enough links for the
Deleting a link transformation order. You
You can delete an unwanted link need a minimum of three
from the Link Table dialog box. links for a first-order transfor-
Press the Esc key to remove a link mation, six links for a second
while you’re in the middle of order, and 10 links for a third
creating it. order.
8. Click View Link Table to
Tip evaluate the transformation.
Evaluate the links.
Using the georeferencing You can examine the residual
functions error for each link and the
The Rotate and Shift tools are no RMS error. If you’re satisfied
longer available after you place the with the registration, you can
first link. stop entering links.
9. Click Georeferencing and
click Update Georeferencing
Tip
to save the transformation
Transforming the raster
information with the raster
dataset permanently
dataset.
You can permanently transform
This creates a new file with
your raster dataset after
the same name as the raster
georeferencing by using the Rectify
command. Click Georeferencing dataset, but with an .aux file
and click Rectify. extension. It also creates a
world file for .tif and .img files.



After updating georeferencing information, the raster dataset will align
to other spatial data when added to a map.



WORKING WITH RASTERS 309
Entering explicit x,y map
Tip
coordinates
What is my georeferenced
raster dataset’s coordinate
1. Click the View Link Table
21
system?
button on the Georeferencing
The coordinate system assigned to
3
toolbar.
the raster dataset is the same as the
2. Click the Control Points tool.
coordinate system defined for the
data frame. 3. Click the mouse on a known
location in the unreferenced
image to add the first
4
Tip
coordinate in the link.
Adding explicit values
4. Right-click the image and
while georeferencing
choose Input X and Y.
You can add explicit values after
you have clicked a control point on 5. Enter the reference coordi-
your raster dataset. Just right-click nates in the Enter Coordi-
on your map and choose Input X nates dialog box.
and Y.
6. Click OK.


5

6




3 10 USING ARCMAP
Querying data




Section 3
10
Working with tables
IN THIS CHAPTER A table is a database component that contains a series of rows and columns,
where each row, or record, represents a geographic feature—such as a
• Elements of a table
parcel, power pole, highway, or lake—and each column, or field, describes a
• Opening a layer’s attribute table particular attribute of the feature—such as its length, depth, cost, and so on.
Tables are stored in a database—for example, INFO™, Microsoft Access,
• Loading existing tabular data onto
dBASE®, FoxPro®, Oracle®, and SQL Server™.
a map
You’ll typically use tables in ArcMap to inspect the attributes of geographic
• Arranging columns
features. From a table, you can identify features with particular attributes
• Controlling a table’s appearance and select them on the map. Over time, you might also update the attributes
to reflect changes to geographic features—for example, a new subdivision
• Locating and viewing records
extends your parcel database, or the construction of a dam alters a river
network.
• Sorting records
Tables can also store information related to features such as warehouse
• Selecting records
inventories, monthly sales figures, and maintenance records. By joining this
• Exporting records information to your spatial data, you can uncover new patterns and
relationships that were not apparent before. For example, you might see
• Summarizing data
which stores have the top monthly sales figures, what roads require
maintenance in the near future, or where the largest number of endangered
• Adding and deleting fields
species is located.
• Editing attributes

• Making field calculations

• About joining attribute tables

• Joining attribute tables

313
Elements of a table
Columns or fields.




Rows or
records.




Move to first
Move to last record.
record.
Click to find and replace
records, select records by
Next record.
Previous record. Number of records. An *
attributes, add fields, change
indicates total not yet
Current record. the highlight color, add the
determined.
table to the layout, export the
table, and open related tables.




3 14 USING ARCMAP
Opening a layer’s 1. In the table of contents, right-
click the layer for which you
attribute table want to display a table.

1
2. Click Open Attribute Table.
To explore the attributes of a
The layer’s attribute table
layer on a map, open its
opens.
attribute table. Once open, you
2
can select features and find
features with particular at-
tributes.
You can open more than one
table at a time. For example, you
can view an attribute table of
administrative boundaries and, at
the same time, view the attribute
table for cities.


Tip
Closing a table
You can close a table by clicking
the Close button in the upper-right
corner of the table window.




WORKING WITH TABLES 315
Loading existing 1. Click the Add Data button.
2. Navigate to the table you
tabular data onto want to add and click it.
a map 1
3. Click Add.
4. Click the Source tab at the
Not all the tabular data
bottom of the table of
associated with a layer has to
contents.
be stored in its attribute table.
2
Some data you may choose to 5. Right-click the table and click
store in separate tables—for Open.
instance, data that changes
frequently such as monthly
sales figures. You can add this
tabular data directly to your
map as a table and use it in
conjunction with the layers on
3
your map. These tables don’t
display on your map, but they
are listed in the table of
contents on the Source tab. You
work with these tables as you
would any table based on
geographic features. For
example, you can view the table,
add new fields, create graphs,
and join the table to other
tables.
5
See Also
Joining a table to a layer allows
you to visualize the information
contained in a table. For more
information, see ‘Joining attribute
tables’ in this chapter.




4

3 16 USING ARCMAP
1
Arranging columns Changing a column’s
width
When you open a table, you
1. Position the mouse pointer at
can rearrange its appearance.
the edge of the column you
For example, you may want to
want to resize.
widen or reduce the width of
the visible columns, move a The pointer’s icon changes.
column, hide a column from
2. Click and drag the column’s
being displayed at all, sort the
edge to the desired width.
table based on a selected field
A black line indicates where
or fields, or freeze a field so you
the edge of the column will be
always see it as you scroll
located.
across the table.
3. Drop the edge of the column.
Freezing a column is helpful
when a table has many columns. The column is resized.
It is often useful to see how the
values in a certain column relate
to the data in the rest of a table.
3
Freezing a column locks a
column as the leftmost column in
the table view. You can then use
the horizontal scroll bar to see
the other columns in the table.
When you scroll, the frozen
column remains in place while all
other columns move. A frozen
column is easily identified
because it has a thick black line
separating it from the other
columns in the table.




WORKING WITH TABLES 317
Rearranging a table’s 2 1
Tip
columns
Deselecting a column
To deselect all columns in the table, 1. Click the heading of the
click Options and click Clear
column you want to move.
Selection or simply click a cell in
2. Click and drag the column’s
the table.
heading.
A red line indicates where the
Tip
column will be positioned.
Changing the selection
3. Drop the column.
color
By default, selected columns are After you drop it, the column
highlighted in cyan. To change the appears in the new position.
selection color, click the Options
button on the table, click Appear-
ance, then click the color you
prefer.


3




3 18 USING ARCMAP
Freezing a column
1
Tip
Unfreezing a column 1. Click the heading of the
Right-click the column heading column(s) you want to freeze.
and click Freeze/Unfreeze Column
2. Right-click the selected
to unfreeze the column.
column’s heading and click
Freeze/Unfreeze Column to
Tip freeze the column.
Hiding a column The column is now frozen.
Right-click the layer or table in the
table of contents and click
Properties. Click the Fields tab.
Here you can set whether a field is
visible or not.




The column has been frozen.




WORKING WITH TABLES 319
Controlling a Setting the text font and
size for a table
table’s
1. On the table window, click
appearance Options and click Appear-
ance.
1
You can tailor the look of the
2. Click the Table Font
table window to suit your needs.
dropdown arrow and click the
For example, if you don’t like the
font you want to use.
default table font, you can
change it to another one and set 3. Click the Table Font Size
2
the font size as well. Make dropdown arrow and click a
changes for all tables or just
3
point size.
one—each table can have its own
4. Click OK.
individual settings.
You can also set the selection and
highlight color for records in a
table. Selected records are
displayed with the selection
color; the highlight color
4
identifies a record when you’re
only viewing the selected records
in the table.
Setting the default text
Formatting a field can also
font and size for all tables
enhance the look of a table. For
2
example, you might set the
1. Click the Tools menu and
number digits to display to the
click Options.
right of a decimal point or use
scientific notation.
3
2. Click the Tables tab.

4
3. Click the Table Font
dropdown arrow and click the
font you want to use.
4. Click the Table Font Size
dropdown arrow and click a
point size.
5. Click OK.



5
3 20 USING ARCMAP
Setting the selection and
Tip
highlight color for a table
Selection vs. highlight
color
1. On the table window, click
The selection color shows the Options and click Appear-
selected records in a table. When
ance.
1
you’re only viewing the selected
2. Click the selected records
records, clicking one highlights the
dropdown arrow and click the
feature with the highlight color.
2
color you want to use.
3
3. Click the highlighted records
dropdown arrow and click the
color you want to use.
4. Click OK.




4

Setting the default
selection and highlight
2
color for all tables
3
1. Click the Tools menu and
4
click Options.
2. Click the Tables tab.
3. Click the selected records
dropdown arrow and click the
color you want to use.
4. Click the highlighted records
dropdown arrow and click the
color you want to use.
5. Click OK.

5
WORKING WITH TABLES 321
Formatting numeric fields
1. Right-click the layer or table
in the table of contents and
click Properties.
2. Click the Fields tab.
3. Click a numeric field in the
list.
4. Click the button in the
Number Format column.
1
Only numeric fields have this
2
button.
5. Set the number of decimal
places, alignment, and so on.
6. Click OK on the Number
Format dialog box.
7. Click OK when finished.


3 4



7




5



6
3 22 USING ARCMAP
Locating and Moving to a specific
record number
viewing records
1. Open the table.
You can use the navigation
2. Type the number of the
buttons at the bottom of the table
record you want to move to
window to quickly move to the and press Enter.
next, previous, first, or last
The table scrolls to the
record in the table. If you know
record.
the specific record number, you
can type that in as well.
When you want to find a record
in a table that matches some
numeric value or text string, you
can search the table for that value
in the selected fields or the entire
table. Depending on the type of Move to first record.
2 Move to last record.
field—text or numeric—you Previous record. Next record.
have three different types of
searches:
• Any part
Viewing all or only the
• Whole field
selected records
• Start of field
1. Open the table.
Numeric fields are always
searched using the whole field. If 2. Click Show All to view all
you’re searching a text field, you records or click Show
can search for any part of the text Selected to view only the
string or the start of the field that selected ones.
matches the text you enter into
the Find dialog box. The Find
2
dialog box also gives you the
option of searching up, down, or
in all directions from the current
position in the table.




WORKING WITH TABLES 323
1
Finding records with
Tip
particular attribute values
Matching the case
To match the capitalization of the 1. Click the heading of the
text you type, check Match Case in
column that contains the text
the Find dialog box.
for which you want to search.
2. Click Options and click Find &
Tip Replace.
Search the whole table or 3. Type the text you want to find
just one field in the Find what text box.
To constrain the search to specific
4. Click the Text Match
fields, check the box next to Search
dropdown arrow and click the
Only Selected Field(s).
type of search you want.
5. Click Find Next.
Tip
The first record found
Replacing text you find
containing your text is
2
In order to replace the text you
selected.
find, you must be editing the table.
34 5
6. If you want to find another
For more information, see ‘Editing
record containing the same
attributes’ in this chapter.
text, click Find Next again.
7. Click Cancel to close the
dialog box.
7




3 24 USING ARCMAP
Sorting records Sorting records by one
1 2
column
Sorting the records or rows in a
1. Click the heading of the
table lets you derive information
column whose values you
about its contents. For example,
want to use to sort the
you could find the city with the
records.
largest population in Southeast
Asia. After you sort a column’s 2. Right-click the selected
values in ascending order, the column’s heading and click
values appear ordered from A to Sort Ascending or Sort
Z or from 1 to n, where n is the Descending.
largest number. Descending order
The table’s records are
arranges a column’s values from
sorted.
Z to A or from n to 1.
Sometimes it’s helpful to sort a
table’s rows by more than one
column. For example, it might be
more useful to sort the cities by
country and by population—the
effect is similar to producing a
report. To sort by more than one
column, you must first arrange
the columns that you’ll use for
sorting. The sorting columns
must be arranged in order from
left to right, where the values in
the column farthest to the left
will be sorted first and the values
in the column farthest to the right
will be sorted last. The sorting
columns are not required to be
adjacent to each other; however,
if they are, the order of the
records is more obvious.
The records are sorted according
to the selected column’s values.




WORKING WITH TABLES 325
3 5
2
Sorting records by more
Tip
than one column
Selecting adjacent
columns
1. Rearrange the table’s
Hold down the Ctrl key while columns so the column
selecting columns to select more
whose values will be sorted
than one.
first appears to the left of the
column whose values will be
sorted second.
2. Click the heading of the first
column you want to use to
sort the records.
3. Press the Ctrl key on the
keyboard and click the
second column’s heading.
4. Repeat step 3 until you’ve
selected all columns that will
be used to sort the table’s
records.
5. Right-click a selected column
heading and click Sort
Ascending or Sort Descend-
ing.
The table’s records are
sorted.




The records are sorted first by the left column’s
values, then by the right column’s values.




3 26 USING ARCMAP
Selecting records Interactively selecting 2
records
There are various ways to
1. Open the attribute table for a
select features in ArcMap. One
layer on your map.
way is to select features from an
attribute table. From a table, 2. Click the leftmost column in
you can interactively select the table adjacent to the
records by pointing at them or record you want to select.
by selecting those records that
To select consecutive
meet some criteria—for example,
records, you can click and
find all cities with a population
drag the mouse.
greater than one million.
3. Press and hold the Ctrl key
Once you’ve defined a selec-
while clicking additional
tion, you’ll see those features
records.
highlighted on your map. For
example, suppose you wanted to
find the locations of the five
cities with the largest population.
You would sort the records in the
table in descending order based
on population, then select the
top five records in the table to
see them highlighted on the
map.
You can add to your selected
set using any other ArcMap
selection methods.

See Also
For more information on selecting
map features, see Chapter 13,
‘Querying maps’.
3 Selected records are highlighted in
the table and on the map.




WORKING WITH TABLES 327
Selecting records by
Tip
attributes
Saving and reusing
selection expressions 1. Click Options in the table you
You can save and reload selection want to query and click Select
expressions using the Save and
By Attributes.
Load buttons at the bottom of the
2. Click the Method dropdown
Select By Attributes dialog box.
arrow and click the selection
This lets you quickly re-create a
selected set of records by loading a procedure you want to use.
saved expression.
3. Double-click the field from
which you want to select.
Tip 4. Click the logical operator you
want to use.
How to build a query
Click Help on the Select By 5. Click the Get Unique Values
1
4
Attributes dialog box to learn about button, then scroll to and
building a query. double-click the value in the
Unique Values list you want
to select. Alternatively, you
2
can type a value directly into
the text box.
6. Click Verify to verify your
selection.
7. Click Close.
Your selection is highlighted
3
in the table.
Use Apply if you intend to run
more than one query or if you
5
want to check your results
before closing the Select By
Attributes dialog box.




6 7
3 28 USING ARCMAP
Selecting all records
Tip

1
Selecting features 1. Click Options in the table and
The Selection menu on the click Select All.
Standard toolbar contains
additional tools for selecting
features.




Clearing the selected set
1. Click Options in the table and
1
click Clear Selection.




Switching the selected
set

1
1. Click Options in the table and
click Switch Selection.




WORKING WITH TABLES 329
Exporting 1. Click Options in the table you
want to export.
records 2. Click Export.
3. In the Export Data dialog box,
You can use ArcMap to export
click the Export dropdown
the records in a table to create a
arrow to choose to export
new table. For example, you
Selected records or All
might want to modify a table
records.
without altering the original
records, pass a table along to This option is only available if
2
another user, or create a new records are selected in the
table with a particular set of table you want to export.
records.
4. Click the Browse button and
1
From ArcMap, you can export navigate to the folder or
the selected records or all geodatabase in which you
3
records in a table to create a want to place the exported
new table. You can choose data.
among several formats to export
5. Click the Save as type
to, including dBASE, INFO, or
4
dropdown arrow and click the
geodatabase tables.
format to which you want to
export the data. For example,
8
click Personal Geodatabase
See Also
tables.
You can also export tables from
6. Type a name for the exported
ArcCatalog. For more information,
table.
see Using ArcCatalog.
7. Click Save.
8. Click OK.


6
7

5




3 30 USING ARCMAP
Summarizing data Summarizing data in a
field
Sometimes the attribute
1. Right-click the field heading
information you have about
of the field you want to
map features is not organized in
summarize and click
the way you want—for in-
Summarize.
stance, you have population
data by county when you want 2. Check the box next to the
1
it by state. By summarizing the summary statistics you want
data in a table, you can derive to include in the output table.
various summary statistics—
3. Type the name and location
including the count, average,
of the output table you want
minimum, and maximum value—
to create or click the Browse
and get exactly the information
button and navigate to a
you want. ArcMap creates a
2
workspace.
new table containing the
4. Click OK.
summary statistics. You can
then join this table to the 5. Click Yes when prompted to
attribute table of a layer. Doing add the new table to your
so lets you symbolize, label, or map.
query the layer’s features based
3
on values for the summary
statistics.

See Also

4
For more information on joining
tables, see ‘Joining attribute
tables’ in this chapter.




The new output table contains one record for each unique land
use value and a field for each summary statistic you selected.




WORKING WITH TABLES 331
Adding a field to a table
Adding and
2
deleting fields 1. Click Options in the table you
want to add a field to.
You can easily add or remove 2. Click Add Field.
fields from a table in ArcMap as
3. Type a name for the field.
necessary. Most likely, you’ll add
or remove fields from data that 4. Click the Type dropdown
you personally manage. Large arrow and click the field type.
1
organizations typically have large
5. Set any other field properties,
databases with well-defined
such as a field alias, as
database schemas that outline the
3
necessary.
contents—including fields—of
4
6. Click OK.
the database. Unless you manage
the database, it is unlikely that
5
you’ll be able to add or remove
fields.
You can add or remove fields
from a table as long as the
following conditions are met:
• You have write access to the
6
data.
• You’re not currently editing
the data in ArcMap.
• No other users or applications
1
Deleting a field from a
are accessing the data
table
including other ArcMap or
ArcCatalog sessions. 1. In the table window, right-click
over the field header of the
field you want to delete.
Tip
2. Click Delete Field.
Why is Add Field
3. Click Yes to confirm the
unavailable?
2
deletion.
The Add Field and Delete Field
options are unavailable when Deleting a field cannot be
you’re editing the table. undone.


3
3 32 USING ARCMAP
Editing attributes Editing text in records
1
1. If you haven’t started an edit
Your database is only as good
session, click the Editor menu
as the information it contains.
on the Editor toolbar and click
3
Over time, you’ll need to edit
Start Editing.
the information in your data-
2. Open the table you want to
base to keep it accurate and up
edit.
to date. ArcMap lets you edit
the attributes of features 3. Click the cell containing the
displayed on your map and also attribute value you want to
the attributes contained in other change.
database tables (for example, a
4. Type the values and press
table of monthly sales figures)
Enter.
that are not represented geo-
graphically on the map. You can The table is updated.
edit any of the attribute values
that appear in a table as well as
add new records and delete
records. You can also use the
Adding new records
field calculator to change the
1
attribute value of a field for 1. If you haven’t started an edit
several records at once. session, click the Editor menu
on the Editor toolbar and click
As with editing map features in
Start Editing.
ArcMap, editing the attributes of
features takes place within an 2. Open the table you want to
edit session. You start an edit edit.
session by clicking Start Editing
3. Click Move to end of table.
from the Editor menu on the
4. Click a cell in the last, empty
Editor toolbar. Once you begin
record and type in a new
an edit session, you’ll notice this
value.
icon next to the Options
button on the table window, NOTE: Use these steps to
indicating that the table can be add new records to tables
4 3
edited. In addition, those fields that don’t have associated
that you can edit will have a geographic features. If you
white background color to the want to add features to your
field heading. u shapefile or geodatabase,
use the Create New Feature
task on the Editor toolbar.



WORKING WITH TABLES 333
Now, you can make any of the Deleting records
attribute changes you need by
1
1. If you haven’t started an edit
clicking on a cell and typing a
session, click the Editor menu
new attribute value. If you make
on the Editor toolbar and click
a mistake, you can easily undo
Start Editing.
the edit by clicking Undo from
the Edit menu. 2. Open the table you want to
edit.
Editing attributes through the
table allows you to quickly make 3. Select the records you want
changes to several features to delete. Press and hold the
(records) at once. When you’re Ctrl key while clicking to
editing the attributes of specific select more than one record.
map features, you may find it
4. Press the Delete key on the
more convenient to do so using
keyboard.
the Attributes dialog box,
3 To select a record, click in the first column adjacent to
accessed from the Editor toolbar. Any geographic features the record you want to select.
This dialog box is tailored to associated with the records
updating the attributes of specific are also deleted.
map features that you first point
at with the mouse.
When you’ve completed your
Copying and pasting
edits, you can save them and end
records
the edit session.
1
1. If you haven’t started an edit
Tip session, click the Editor menu
on the Editor toolbar and click
Adding the Editor toolbar
Start Editing.
To display the Editor toolbar, click
Tools, then click Editor. 2. Open the table you want to
edit.
Tip 3. Select the records you want
to copy. Press and hold the
Navigating the cells in a
Ctrl key while clicking to
table
select more than one record.
You can navigate the cells in a
table by pressing the Tab or arrow 4. Click Copy on the Standard
3
keys on your keyboard.
45
toolbar.
5. Click Paste on the Standard
toolbar. The new records are
added at the end of the table.

3 34 USING ARCMAP
Making field Making simple field
calculations
1
calculations
1. If you haven’t started an edit
Entering values with the key- session, click the Editor menu
4
board is not the only way you can on the Editor toolbar and click
edit tables. In some cases, you Start Editing.
might want to perform a math-
You can make calculations
ematical calculation to set a field
without being in an edit
value for a single record or even session; however, in that
all records. The ArcMap field
case, there is no way to undo
calculator lets you perform
the results.
simple as well as advanced
2. Open the table you want to
calculations on any selected
edit.
record.
3
3. Select the records you want
The Field Calculator also lets
5
to update. If you don’t select
you perform advanced calcula-
any, the calculation will be
tions using VBA statements
5
applied to all records.
that process the data before
calculations are made on the 4. Right-click the field heading
selected field. For example, for which you want to make a
using demographic data, you calculation and click Calcu-
might want to find out the late Values.
largest age group by percent-
5. Use the Fields list and
age of the population for each
Functions to build a calcula-
county in the United States.
tion expression. You can also
You can create a script that
edit the expression in the text
preprocesses your data using
area below. Alternatively, you
logical constructs such as
can just type in a value to set
If...Then statements and Select
6
the field to. In this example,
Case blocks. This lets you
the string “Single Family” is
perform sophisticated calcula-
used.
tions quickly and easily.
5
NOTE: Use double quotes
when calculating strings.
Tip
6. Click OK.
Calculating fields outside
7. Don’t forget to end your edit
an edit session
7
session. Click the Editor
You can’t undo a field calculation
menu and click Stop Editing.
when performed outside of an edit
session.

WORKING WITH TABLES 335
Making advanced field 3 4
Tip
calculations
Reusing calculation
expressions
1. If you haven’t started an edit
After entering VBA statements, session, click the Editor menu
click Save to write them out to a
on the Editor toolbar and click
file. The Load button will prompt
Start Editing.
you to find and select an existing
You can make calculations
calculation file.
without being in an edit
session; however, in that
See Also case, there is no way to undo
the results.
For more information on VBA,
consult any Visual Basic (VB) 2. Open the table you want to
reference. The Visual Basic Editor edit.
(VBE)—accessed by clicking the
3. Select the records you want
Tools menu, pointing to Macros,
to update. If you don’t select
and clicking Visual Basic Editor—
any, the calculation will be
also contains an online reference to
applied to all records.
VB commands.
4. Right-click the field heading
5
for which you want to make a
calculation and click Calcu-
late Values.
6
5. Check Advanced.
8
6. Type VBA statements in the
7
first text box.
The VBA statements can
include ArcMap methods. The
VBA code shown in the figure
gets the x coordinate of the
centroid of each polygon in
the layer and writes it out to a
field called X_FIELD.
7. Type the variable or value
that is to be written to the
selected records.
8. Click OK.



3 36 USING ARCMAP
About joining attribute tables
Most database design guidelines advise organizing your weather data is stored in a table in your database and shares a
database into multiple tables—each focused on a specific topic— common field with your layer, you can join it to your geographic
instead of using one large table containing all the necessary features and use any of the additional fields to symbolize, label,
fields. Having multiple tables prevents duplicating information in query, or analyze the layer’s features.
the database because you store the information only once in one When you join tables in ArcMap, you establish a one-to-one or
table. When you need information that isn’t in the current table, many-to-one relationship between the layer’s attribute table and
you can link the two tables together. In ArcMap, you can the table containing the information you wish to join. The
establish this kind of link by either joining or relating two tables example above illustrates a one-to-one relationship between each
together. county and the weather data. In other words, there’s one record of
weather data for each county.
Joining the attributes from a table
Here’s an example of a many-to-one relationship. Suppose you
Typically, you’ll join a table of data to a layer’s attribute table, have a layer where each polygon is classified according to its
extending the information you have about your geographic land use type. The layer’s attribute table only stores a land use
features. Joins are based on the value of a field that can be found code; a separate table stores the full description of each land use
in both tables. The name of the field does not have to be the type. Joining these two tables together establishes a many-to-one
same, but the data type has to be the same; you join numbers to relationship because many records in the layer’s attribute table
numbers, strings to strings, and so on. join to the same record in the table of land use descriptions. You
might then use the more descriptive text when generating the
Suppose you obtain daily weather forecasts by county and
legend for your map.
generate weather maps based on this information. As long as the


Shape FID County County Rain Total Shape FID LU_Code LU-Code Description
Polygon 1 Atoka Atoka 1.80 10.16 Polygon 1 2 1 Single Family
Polygon 2 Kiowa Kiowa 2.34 13.67 Polygon 2 1 2 Agriculture
Polygon 3 Nowata Nowata 1.62 11.90 Polygon 3 1 3 Commercial



Single Family
Low Rainfall
Commercial

Agriculture

Forest
High Rainfall

Symbolizing features based on joined rainfall data. Many polygons share the same land use description.


WORKING WITH TABLES 337
Summarizing your data before joining it When to relate tables instead of joining them
Depending on how your data is organized, you may have to start You’ve seen how joining tables establishes a one-to-one or
by summarizing the data in your table before you join it to a many-to-one relationship between a layer and a table. However, in
layer. When you summarize a table, ArcMap creates a new table some situations, you may want to establish a one-to-many or a
containing summary statistics derived from your table. You can many-to-many relationship between a layer and a table.
create various summary statistics including count, average, sum, An example of a one-to-many relationship is building occupancy.
minimum, and maximum. One building, such as a shopping center, may be occupied by
For example, suppose you want to create weather maps by state many tenants. You may want to join a table of tenants to the
instead of by county, but the weather information you have is attribute table of a layer representing buildings. However, if you
organized by county. You could summarize the county data by perform a join, ArcMap will only find the first tenant belonging
state—for instance, finding the average rainfall for all counties to each building, ignoring additional tenants. In this case, you
within a state—then join the newly created output table to a state should relate the tables instead of joining them.
layer to create a weather map of rainfall by state. Unlike joining tables, relating tables simply defines a relationship
between two tables. The associated data isn’t appended to the
layer’s attribute table like it is with a join. Instead, you can access
State County Rain Total
the related data when you work with the layer’s attributes. For
Oklahoma Atoka 1.80 10.16
example, if you select a building, you can find all the tenants that
Oklahoma Kiowa 2.34 13.67
occupy that building. Similarly, if you select a tenant, you can
Oklahoma Nowata 1.62 11.90
find what building it resides in (or several buildings, in the case of
a chain of stores in multiple shopping centers—a many-to-many
relationship).
Relates defined in ArcMap are essentially the same as simple
State Count Avg_Rain Max_Rain
relationship classes defined in a geodatabase, except that they are
Ohio 88 3.21 4.50
saved with the map instead of in a geodatabase. For more
Oklahoma 77 2.56 3.86
information on creating relationship classes, see ‘Defining
Oregon 36 5.66 7.92
relationship classes’, in Building a Geodatabase.
Sometimes it may be necessary to summarize your tabular data so it can
be joined to your geographic data.




3 38 USING ARCMAP
Joining data spatially
When the layers on your map don’t share a common attribute
field, you can instead join them using a spatial join. A spatial join
joins the attributes of two layers based on the location of the
features in the layers. With a spatial join, you can:
• Find the closest feature to another feature.
• Find what’s inside a feature.
• Find what intersects a feature.
For example, you might want to tell customers where they can
find the nearest retail store and how far away it is from them. Or a
biologist might summarize information about endangered species
sightings based on what region in a national park the
observations were made.
For information on how to perform a spatial join, see Chapter 13,
‘Querying maps’.

How are joins and relates saved in your map?
When you save a map containing joins and relates, ArcMap saves
the definition of how the two attribute tables are linked rather
than saving the linked data itself. The next time you open your
map, ArcMap reestablishes the relationship (whether a join or
relate) between the tables by reading the tables from the
database. In this way, any changes to the source tables that have
taken place since they were last viewed on the map are
automatically included and reflected on the map.
If you want, you can make a permanent disk copy of a layer with
joined data; simply export the layer. To export the layer, right-
click it in the table of contents, point to Data, and click Export
Data. This creates a new feature class with all of the attributes,
including the joined fields, written out.



WORKING WITH TABLES 339
Joining attribute Joining the attributes in
one table to another
tables
1. Right-click the layer or table
Data comes from a variety of you want to join, point to
sources. Often, the data you want Joins and Relates, and click
to display on your map is not Join.
1
directly stored with your
2. Click the first dropdown arrow
geographic data. For instance,
and click Join attributes from
you might obtain data from other a table.
departments in your organization,
3. Click the second dropdown
purchase commercially available
arrow and click the field
data, or download data from the
name in the layer that the
Internet. If this information is
join will be based on.
stored in a table, such as a
dBASE, INFO, or geodatabase 4. Click the third dropdown
table, you can associate it with arrow to choose the table to
your geographic features and join to the layer. If the table is
display the data on your map. not currently part of the map,
2
click the Browse button to
ArcMap provides two methods
search for it on disk.
to associate data stored in
tables with geographic features:
3
5. Click the fourth dropdown
joins and relates. When you arrow and click the field in
join two tables, you append the the table to base the join on.
attributes from one onto the
4
6. Click OK.
other, based on a field common
to both tables. Relating tables The attributes of the table are
defines a relationship between appended to the layer’s
5
two tables—also based on a u attribute table.

See Also
For information on spatial joins,
see Chapter 13, ‘Querying maps’.


Tip
Joining by relationship
6
class
You can also join two tables using
a predefined relationship class.


3 40 USING ARCMAP
common field—but doesn’t Removing a joined table
append the attributes of one to
1. Right-click the layer contain-
the other. Instead, you can
ing a join you want to remove
access the related data when
and point to Joins and
necessary.
Relates.
You’ll want to join two tables
2
when the data in the tables has 2. Point to Remove Join(s) and
a one-to-one or a many-to-one click the join you want to
relationship—for example, you remove.
have a layer showing store
locations and you want to join a
table of the latest monthly sales
figures to it.
You’ll want to relate two tables
when the data in the tables has
a one-to-many or many-to-many
relationship—for example, your
map displays a parcel database,
and you have a table of owners.
A parcel may have more than
one owner and an owner may
Managing joined tables 2
own more than one parcel.
Joins and relates are recon- 1. Right-click a layer or table in
nected whenever you open the the table of contents and click
map. This way, if the underlying Properties.
data in your tables changes, it
2. Click the Joins & Relates tab.
will be reflected in the join or
relate. All the joins for the layer or
table are listed on the left
When you’re finished using a
join or relate, you can remove it. side of the dialog box. You
can add new joins or remove
existing ones.
Tip
Creating a new dataset
from joined data
If you want to permanently save
joined data with your geographic
features, export the data to a new
dataset. Right-click the layer in the
All joins for the layer or table are listed here.
table of contents, point to Data, and
click Export data.


WORKING WITH TABLES 341
Relating the attributes in
Tip
one table to another
You may not need to relate
feature classes in
1. Right-click the layer you want
geodatabases
to relate, point to Joins and
If a feature class in a geodatabase Relates, and click Relate.
participates in a relationship class,
2. Click the first dropdown arrow
that relationship class will be
and click the field in the layer
immediately available for use. You
the relate will be based on.
don’t need to relate the tables in
1
ArcMap.
3. Click the second dropdown
arrow and click the table or
layer to relate to, or load the
table from disk.
4. Click the third dropdown
arrow and click the field in the
related table to base the
relate on.
5. Type a name for the relate.
You’ll use this name to
access the related data.
6. Click OK.
The relate is now established
between the two tables. The
next topic discusses how to
access records using the
2
relate.

3
4
5


6


3 42 USING ARCMAP
Accessing related
Tip
records
Relates work both ways
Once you define a relate, you can
2
1. Open the attribute table for
access the related records from
which you’ve set up a relate.
either table participating in the
2. Select the records in the table
relationship.
for which you want to display
related records.
Tip
3. Click Options, point to
Accessing relationship Related Tables, and click the
classes name of the relate you want
If your map contains layers from a to access.
3
geodatabase that participate in
The related table displays
relationship classes, those
with the related records
relationship classes will be listed
selected.
automatically along with any
relates you define.


See Also
You must set up a relationship
before you can access related
records. For information on
relating tables, see ‘Relating the
attributes in one table to another’
on the previous page.

All banks in the city of Marietta are selected.




WORKING WITH TABLES 343
Removing a related table
1. Right-click the layer contain-
ing a relate you want to
remove and point to Joins
and Relates.
2. Point to Remove Relate(s)
and click the relate you want
2
to remove.




Managing related tables 2
1. Right-click a layer or table in
the table of contents and click
Properties.
2. Click the Joins & Relates tab.
All the relates for the layer or
table are listed on the right
side of the dialog box. You
can add new relates or
remove existing ones.




All relates for the layer or table are listed here.



3 44 USING ARCMAP
11
Looking at data with graphs
IN THIS CHAPTER Graphs present information about map features—and the relationship
between them—in an attractive, easy-to-understand manner. They can show
additional information about the features on the map or show the same
• Choosing which type of graph to
make information in a different way. Graphs complement a map because they
convey information that would otherwise take some time to summarize and
• Creating a graph
understand—for instance, you can quickly compare features to see which
have more or less of a particular attribute.
• Displaying a graph

• Modifying a graph

• Creating a static copy of a graph

• Managing graphs

• Saving and loading a graph

• Exporting a graph




You can quickly see which countries have a high population density in this column graph.


The information displayed on a graph comes directly from the attribute
information stored with your geographic data. Once created, you can easily
add a graph to your map and print it out.



345
Choosing which type of graph to make
You can choose from several different types of graphs—both two- and three-dimensional. Some graphs are better than others at
presenting certain kinds of information. Each graph has display properties that you can adjust to suit your needs. You can experiment
with the various graph types and display properties to see what works best for you.


Line—A line graph consists of one or more lines,
Area—An area graph consists of one or more
or sequences of symbols, drawn on an x,y grid.
lines drawn on an x,y grid with the area between
Line graphs show trends in value along a
the lines and the x-axis shaded. Like line graphs,
continuous scale. The three-dimensional version
area graphs show trends in values, but shading
of the line graph is also available.
gives greater emphasis to differences in quantities.
An area graph can be two- or three-dimensional. Pie—The pie chart consists of a circle, or pie,
divided into two or more sections, or slices. Pie
Bar and Column—Bar and column graphs
charts show relationships between parts and the
consist of two or more parallel bars, each
whole and are particularly useful for showing
representing a particular attribute value. Use
proportions and ratios. You can highlight a pie
either of these graphs to compare amounts or to
slice by “exploding” it—moving it slightly away
show trends—for example, monthly sales figures.
from the center. A pie chart can be two- or three-
Bar and column graphs can be two- or three-
dimensional.
dimensional.
Polar—A polar graph is essentially a line graph
Bubble—The bubble graph lets you chart three
drawn on a circular grid. The line relates values
variables in two dimensions. It’s a variation of the
to angles. Polar graphs are useful primarily in
scatter graph, where the size of the bubble
mathematical and statistical applications.
represents a particular data value. For example,
the size of the bubble might represent total
Scatter—A scatter graph plots x,y coordinates
population; the position along the y-axis, birth
based on attribute values. The pattern may reveal
rate; and the position along the x-axis, death rate.
a relationship between the values plotted on the
High–Low–Close—The high–low–close graph grid. A scatter graph may also be three-
lets you chart a range of values on an x,y grid. The dimensional, with data plotted along a z-axis.
range is shown as a vertical bar, with a horizontal
crossbar for the high, the low, and a normative
value usually called the close. An alternate
version, the open–high–low–close, adds a fourth
crossbar for another value called the open.




3 46 USING ARCMAP
Creating a graph Creating a graph and
adding it to a layout
Before you create a graph, you
1. Click the Tools menu, point to
1
should determine what you want
Graphs, and click Create.
to graph. You can graph all
features or just the selected ones. 2. Click the Graph type and
Some graphs can effectively subtype you want.
2
display only a limited amount of
3. Click Next.
data, so choose your graph type
4. Click the dropdown arrow and
appropriately. Alternatively, you
click the layer or table you
might consider making more than
want to graph.
one graph.
5. Check to graph only the
Most graphs are drawn on a grid
selected features or records.
whose scales are shown by two
or three axes: x, y, and z. A data 6. Check the fields you want to
point displayed on the graph is graph. You can use the arrow
defined by the intersection of keys to order your columns.
two or more field values—for
7. Click an option to graph data
instance, birth rate plotted along
series using Records or
the x-axis and death rate plotted
Fields.
along the y-axis on a scatter
3
graph. Keep in mind that a data 8. Click Next. u
point doesn’t necessarily appear
as a point (or dot) on a graph.
4
Depending on the type of graph,
a single data point may be
represented by a dot, a bar, a pie
slice, or some other graphic.
5
For most graphs, you can choose
more than one field value to plot
along the axes. You can order the
6
fields as necessary. For example,
you can choose which bar in a
7
bar graph represents which field.
The order also defines how fields
pair up for plotting data points
on the graph. For example,
suppose you want to graph two
attribute fields for the x-axis and
8
two for the y-axis on a scatter u

LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 347
graph. The first field in the list 9. Type a title for the graph.
for the x-axis pairs up with the 10. Check Label X Axis With,
9
first field in the list for the y- then click the dropdown
axis, and so on, to determine the
Q
arrow and click a field.
location of the data points on
11. Check Show Legend.
W
the graph.
12. Check Show Graph on
With some graph types, you
Layout.
can graph data using either
E
records or fields. For instance, You can add the graph to the
suppose you have data on birth layout later if necessary.
and death rates by country.
13. Click Finish.
Graphing by record allows you
to easily compare the birth and
R
death rates for individual
countries.


Adding an overlay graph
1. Right-click the title bar of the
graph window and click
Properties.
2. Click the Appearance tab.
Graphing by field plots all birth
3. Click Add Overlay. u
and death rates together for all
countries.

1
2




In some cases, you can also
plot a secondary graph, called
an overlay graph, over the
primary one. An overlay graph
is a line graph that uses the
3
same x-axis as the primary
graph.


3 48 USING ARCMAP
4. Check Display overlay graph.
Tip
5. Click the type of overlay
Why is the Add Overlay
4
graph you want to add.
button unavailable?
You can only add an overlay graph 6. Click Next.
to column, area, high–low–close,
5
7. Click the Y axis field
and scatter graphs.
dropdown arrow and click the
field you want to graph.
8. Click the option to add a
second y-axis if the data
values in the field you chose
are not in the same range as
6
7
the primary graph.
9. Click Next.
10. Click the Color dropdown
arrow and set a line color for
the graph.
11. Optionally, you can add
8
statistical lines to the overlay.
Check those you want to
add.
12. Click Finish.



9
Q


W




E
LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 349
Displaying a Adding a graph to the 1
layout
graph
1. Right-click the title bar of the
While working with the graphs graph window and click Show
on your map, you can choose to on Layout.
view them in separate windows If the graph is already on the
alongside the ArcMap window,
layout, this option will be
as map elements on the layout
unavailable.
ready to be printed, or both.
Graphs are dynamic; they can
update automatically as you
change the selected set of
features in a layer. Thus, as you
browse a map selecting new
features, the graph will update to Updating a graph when
1
reflect the new selected features. the selection changes
1. Right-click the title bar of the
Tip
graph window and click
Updating a graph on the Reload Automatically.
layout
When Reload Automatically is
Graphs shown on the layout will
checked, the graph will
automatically update as you
update whenever the
change the selected set of features
selected set of features
the graph is based on. If you want
changes. Disabling this
to create a static copy on the
feature creates a static graph.
layout, copy and paste the graph
This option works only when
on the layout.
you create a graph using the
selected features.
Tip
You can only display a
graph once on a layout
If you want to show different sets
of data graphed the same way, you
need to create multiple graphs. You
can copy and paste a graph on a
layout to create a static copy.




3 50 USING ARCMAP
Modifying a graph Changing the graph type
1. Right-click the title bar of the
You can control most visual
graph window and click
aspects of a graph to create an
Properties.
effective display of your data. For
2. Click the Type tab.
example, you can choose what
type of graph you want to use, 3. Click the graph type you want
add titles, label axes, and change to use.
the color of graph markers—such
4. Click the Graph subtype you
as the bars in a bar graph.
want to use.
1
5. Click OK.
Tip
Identifying features on a
4
2
graph
Clicking on a data point on a
graph—whether a bar on a bar
graph or a point on a line graph—
identifies the associated feature on
the layer.
3




5




LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 351
Adding a title to a graph
Tip
Changing the font and size 1. Right-click the title bar of the
of the title graph window and click
To change the text font or text size Properties.
of the graph title, click the
2. Click the Appearance tab.
Advanced Options button on the
Appearance tab. Then, click the 3. Type a title.
Fonts tab on the dialog box that
4. Click OK.
appears.


1
Tip
Changing the text color of
2 3
the title
To set the text color of the title, click
the Advanced Options button on the
Appearance tab. On the dialog box
that appears, click the Background
tab and change the text color.




4
Click Advanced Options to set the text font, size, and color. Set
the text font and size from the Font tab. Set the text color from
the Background tab.




3 52 USING ARCMAP
Changing graph marker
Tip
colors
Why don’t I see the color I
want?
1. Right-click the title bar of the
Click the Background tab on the graph window and click
Advanced Options dialog box and
Properties.
change the palette.
2. Click the Appearance tab.
3. Click Advanced Options.
Tip
2 1
4. Click the Markers tab.
Setting point symbols
For graphs that plot points—for 5. Click the marker you want to
example, the scatter graph—you change.
can also choose the symbol to plot
6. Click the Color dropdown
points with. Click the Markers tab
arrow and click a color.
on the Advanced Options dialog
box. 7. Click OK.




3



54
If you don’t see the
colors you want, click the
6 Background tab and
change the palette.




7
LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 353
Adding a legend to a
Tip
graph
Changing the font of the
legend
1. Right-click the title bar of the
To change the text font or text size graph window and click
of the text in the legend, click the
Properties.
Fonts tab on the Advanced Options
2. Click the Appearance tab.
dialog box.
3. Check Show Legend and
click a legend position.
Tip
1
2
4. Click OK.
Changing the text color of
the legend
The option for setting the text
color of the legend is located on
the Background tab on the
Advanced Options dialog box.


3
Tip
Placing a border around a
legend
You’ll find the option to add or
remove the border around a legend
on the Background tab on the
Advanced Options dialog box.

4
Click Advanced Options to set the text size, font, and
color for the legend as well as add and remove borders.
The text font and size controls are found on the Fonts
tab. The text color and border controls are found on the
Background tab.




3 54 USING ARCMAP
Controlling the x-, y-, and
Tip
z-axes of the graph
Setting the text font for
labeling axes
1. Right-click the title bar of the
Click the Fonts tab on the graph window and click
Advanced Options dialog box. In
Properties.
Apply to, click Labels, then in
2. Click the Appearance tab.
Typeface, choose the font you want
your labels displayed with. 3. Click Advanced Options.

1
4. Click the Axis tab.
2
Tip
5. Click the axis you want to
Why don’t I see the color I modify.
want?
6. Set the position of the axis.
Click the Background tab on the
For example, click Variable,
Advanced Options dialog box and
Left, or Right for the y-axis.
change the palette.
7. Set the scale, or numeric
range, for the axis.
Zero Origin: axis coordinates
range from zero to maximum
3
data value.
Variable Origin: axis coordi-
nates range is set to the
actual data value range.
User-Defined: you specify the
coordinate range for the axis.
4
8. Optionally, check the boxes to
show Tick Marks and Grids on
your graph.
5
9. Click OK.

7
6

8

9

LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 355
Drawing trend lines on a
Tip
graph
What are trend lines?
Trend lines are additional lines 1. Right-click the title bar of the
you can draw on top of your
graph window and click
graph. A trend line can represent a
Properties.
statistical value, such as the mean
2. Click the Appearance tab.
or standard deviation, or it might
be a limit line you define to
3. Click Advanced Options.
highlight data values that fall
1
4. Click the Trends tab.
outside a prescribed limit.
2
Not all graph types support
trend lines. If the tab is not
available, the graph type
does not support it.
5. Check All Sets to draw trend
lines for each attribute value
you’re graphing.
For example, if you’re
graphing birth and death
rates, you can draw a mean
3
line for both values or just
one of them.
6. Check the line types you
want to add to the graph.
7. Type a value to add your own
4
Limit Lines (drawn along a
specified y-axis value).
8. Click OK.

5 7
6



8

3 56 USING ARCMAP
Creating a static Copying and pasting a
graph
copy of a graph
1. Click the Select Elements tool
Graphs shown on a layout on the Tools toolbar.
update automatically as you
2. Click the graph on the layout
change the selected features in you want to copy.
the layer the graph is based on.
3. Click the Edit menu and click
Sometimes you may want to
Copy.
1
create a static version of a
graph to show how different 4. Click the Edit menu and click
features compare. To do this, Paste.
you can copy and paste the
The static copy of the graph
graph on the layout.
appears on the layout.
Copying a graph on the layout
creates a static version for
display only. Although it looks
just like the original graph, it is
not listed in the Graph Manager,
and you can only change certain
appearance properties.


3
Tip
Copying a graph to the
clipboard
From the graph window, you can
copy a graph to the clipboard. This
creates a bitmap image of the
graph that you can then paste into
other applications.




4




LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 357
Opening a graph
Managing graphs
1. Click the Tools menu, point to
Your maps may contain several
Graphs, and click Manage.
graphs. To help you manage
1
2. Click the graph you want to
them, you’ll use the Graph
open.
Manager. From this dialog box,
you can open a graph, add it to 3. Click Open.
the layout, rename it, and delete
2
it.
3
If you remove the layer a graph is
based on, the graph will still
remain on the map. You need to
explicitly remove the graph if you
no longer want it. You can
associate the graph with a new
layer by displaying the Graph
Properties and assigning a new
Removing a graph 2
layer.
1. Click the Tools menu, point to
Graphs, and click Manage.
Tip
2. Click the graph you want to
How can I tell if a graph is
remove.
on the layout?
3
3. Click Remove.
If you see this icon next to the
graph name in the Graph Man-
ager, the graph is on the layout.



Renaming a graph 2 4
1. Click the Tools menu, point to
Graphs, and click Manage.
2. Click the graph you want to
rename.
3. Click again over the name.
This will allow you to type a
new name.
4. Type the new name.

3 58 USING ARCMAP
Saving and Saving a graph
loading a graph 1. Right-click the title bar of the
graph window and click Save.
1
If you want to copy a graph that 2. Click the Save in dropdown
you’ve made on one map and put arrow and navigate to the
it on another, save it to a file on location you want to save the
disk. That way, you can load the graph to.
graph onto another map and
3. Type a name for the graph.
place it as appropriate.
4. Click Save.
All the properties you’ve set on
a graph are maintained when
2
you save it to disk, including
the type of graph, data the
graph is based on, whether
there’s a selected set, what
4
fields are being graphed, and so
on. While you can preview a
3
saved graph in ArcCatalog, you
can only change the properties
in ArcMap.
Loading a graph
When you load a graph on a
map that doesn’t contain the 1. Right-click the title bar of the
layer the graph is based on, graph window and click Load.
1
ArcMap will prompt you to add
2. Click the Look in dropdown
that layer to the map. If you
arrow and navigate to the
choose not to, the graph will
location where the graph is
still display, but you won’t be
stored.
able to change the features
shown on the graph. 3. Click the graph.
2
4. Click Open.
Tip
Using a graph in another
3
application
If you want to include a graph in
another application, you can
export the graph to these formats:
4
Windows bitmap, JPG, Windows
metafile, and PNG.


LOOKING AT DATA WITH GRAPHS 359
1. Right-click the title bar of the
Exporting a graph graph window and click
Export.
When you want to use a graph
in another application, you can 2. Click the Save in dropdown
export it to one of these formats: arrow and navigate to the
1
bitmap (.bmp), JPEG (.jpg), PNG location where you want to
(.png), and Windows metafile save the exported graph.
(.wmf). For example, you might
3. Type a name for the graph.
want to include a graph in a
4. Click the Save as type
document you’re distributing
dropdown arrow and click the
with your map.
2
type of file you want to
export.
Tip
5. Click Save.
Copying a graph to the
clipboard
You can also copy a graph to the
clipboard and paste it into another
application. The graph is copied
as a bitmap file (.bmp).
3 5


4




3 60 USING ARCMAP
12
Creating reports
IN THIS CHAPTER Reports present the facts and figures behind your analysis and are invaluable
companions to the maps you’re creating. Reports let you effectively display
attribute information about map features in a tabular format that you control.
• About reports
The information displayed in a report
• Creating a simple report comes directly from the attribute
information stored with your geographic
• Setting the report type and size
data.
• Working with fields ArcMap provides two methods for
creating reports. Using the built-in
• Organizing report data
ArcMap reporting tool, you can create
reports that are stored directly with your
• Adding report elements
map. Once created, you can add the
• Controlling the presentation report to your map layout and print it out.
ArcMap also integrates with Crystal
• Saving and loading a report
Decisions’ Crystal Reports™ 9. Crystal
Reports lets you quickly create
• Using Crystal Reports
presentation-quality reports to include
A report created in ArcMap
with your map or distribute to others.
The Report Designer provides a graphical interface for controlling the look of
your report. (NOTE: Crystal Reports 9 Standard Edition is distributed with
ArcMap. In order to access the reporting tools, you must have installed
Crystal Reports.) Which one should you use? For a simple report, try the built-
in ArcMap reporting tool. When you need a full-functioned graphical report
building tool, try Crystal Reports.


361
About reports
What is a report?
A report presents tabular information about features on the map formatted in an attractive manner. Reports are derived from an attribute
table on your map. You can choose which fields from your table you want to display and how you want to display them. Once you’ve
created a report, you can place it on your map layout next to your geographic data or save it as a file—for example, a PDF file—for
distribution. The figures below show a few examples of the kinds of reports you can create. This report displays records in a tabular
form, where each record is represented by a row in the display. You can include the title, page numbers, the current date, summary
statistics, and images.
Draw borders around
report elements.
Display an image such as
a company logo.
Put a title on the report.
Choose the fields to
display.



Display an image
behind the data.


Display records in
tabular form.




Calculate statistics about
attribute values.


Display the current date
and page numbers.

3 62 USING ARCMAP
This report organizes the data in a single column, displaying field names and values vertically. The report groups cities by which
country they’re in and displays them alphabetically by name. By controlling the text font, size, and color and shading certain elements,
you can create a report that highlights the information you want to convey.



Control the font,
size, and color of
text.
Shade report elements
with various colors.




Group values by a
field; here, the cities
are grouped by which
Display records in one
country they’re in.
or more columns.

The cities are sorted
alphabetically by
name; alternatively,
they could be sorted
by population.




CREATING REPORTS 363
Report sections
Reports are divided into a series of sections; each one identifies a particular area on the report. You control how a report looks by
manipulating the contents of a section and setting properties, such as its size and color. For example, the section at the top of the report
typically contains the title and subtitle of the report; however, you don’t have to include either of these report elements if you don’t
need them. The following figure highlights the various sections in a report with different colors.
Top of report—Prints once at the beginning of the report and can
contain the title, subtitle, image, and field names.

Top of page—Prints once at the top of each page. Commonly
contains field names, the current date, and the page number.




Top of group—Prints once at the beginning of each group that
you’ve defined. Typically, the name of the group appears here.
This section appears only when you’ve defined groups.


Records—Prints the data for each record.
Bottom of group—Prints after the records in the group and may
contain group summary statistics. This section appears only when
you’ve defined groups.




Bottom of report—Prints once at the end of the report. Primarily
used to print a summary of the report, such as grand totals, and
report footnotes.
Bottom of page—Prints once at the bottom of the page. Typically
contains page summaries, page footnotes, and the page number.


3 64 USING ARCMAP
Working with sections Working with elements in a section
ArcMap automatically calculates the height of each section Within each section, you can control the size and position of an
based on the height of the elements in it. An element can be a element within it. As with sections, you can let ArcMap
title, subtitle, column header, page number, and so on. For automatically size elements or size them explicitly yourself. In the
example, if you use a large point size for the title, ArcMap figure below, the title has an explicit height, width, and position
enlarges the section at the top of the report to accommodate set. It also has a border around it and a background color that’s
the text. different from the background color of the section.




You can set the size, position, and color of an element.
Using a larger point size increases the height of the title and
subsequently increases the height of the top of the report section.
Once the title is the right size, you can position it relative to other
elements such as an image representing a company logo.
If you want to manually control the height of a section, you can
turn off the automatic sizing of the section and set the height
explicitly. You will also need to make sure that the height of
elements, such as the title, within a section are sized accordingly.
Otherwise, they may be truncated.




By turning off the Autosize property, you can explicitly set the height of the
section. Elements in that section, however, can become truncated.


The width is the same for all sections and is determined by the
width you specify for the report.


CREATING REPORTS 365
Creating a simple Creating a simple tabular
report
report
1. Click the Tools menu, point to
2
A report lets you organize and Reports, and click Create
display the tabular data that’s Report.
associated with your geographic
3
2. On the Fields tab, click the
features. Sometimes you’ll want
Layer/Table dropdown arrow
5
to print out a report to distribute
and click the layer or table on
with your map or, alternatively, which you want to base the
you might put the report right on
report.
the map.
3. In the Available Fields list,
When you create your report, you
4
double-click the fields you
choose what fields to display and
want to include in the report.
whether you want to generate a
4. Check Use Selected Set if
report listing all features in a
you want to create a report
layer or only the selected ones.
with only the selected
Once you’ve created your report,
6 87
features.
you can put it on the layout next
to your map display or print it 5. Click the arrow buttons to
out. order the report fields.
A report has many properties that 6. Click the Sorting tab.
you set when you create it. For
7. Click a field to sort in the Sort
example, you can set a property
column.
to define what type of report you
want—tabular or columnar. You 8. Click the Display tab. u
can also set a particular page size
and use a particular text font and
color for the text on your report.
The set of steps to the right show
you how to make a simple tabular
report. Subsequent sections in
this chapter focus on how to set
report properties to achieve a
particular result.




3 66 USING ARCMAP
9. Under Settings, click Ele-
Tip
ments.
Adding a report to the map
10. Check Title to add a title to
layout
9
the report.
Once you’ve created a report, you
E
Q
can display it on your map layout. 11. Locate the Text property and
By creating a report with a
W
type a title for the report.
particular page size, you can
12. Click the Font property and
ensure that it fits exactly where you
set the font and size of the
want it on the layout.
title.
13. Click Show Settings to
Tip
preview the report.
Adding titles, subtitles, and
14. Click Generate Report.
page numbers to your
report 15. At the top of the Report
You can add additional elements to Viewer, click Add to add the
T R
your report—such as a title, page report to the map layout.
numbers, an image, and foot-
16. Click OK.
Y
notes—to enhance the display. The
Elements setting on the Display The report is added to the
tab lists all the additional things layout as a graphic element.
you can add. Each page of the report is
added as a separate graphic
element on the layout.
Tip
Shading records
To make the data in your reports
easier to read, you can shade every
other record with a color. On the
Report Properties dialog box, click
the Display tab. Click Report and
click Records. Then set the Shade
Records and Shade Color proper-
ties.




U

CREATING REPORTS 367
1
Setting the report Setting the report type
type and size 1. Click the Display tab on the
Report Properties dialog box.
You can make two different types 2. Click Report.
4
2
of reports—tabular or columnar.
3. Click the Style property, then
A tabular report organizes data in
3
click the dropdown arrow, and
rows and columns, much like a
click Tabular or Columnar.
spreadsheet. Each row represents
one record of data, and each 4. Optionally, for a columnar
column represents one field. A report, set the Column Count
columnar report displays fields and Column Style properties.
and their values vertically in
columns, much like a newspaper
column layout. With a columnar
report, you can specify the
number of columns you want to
display.
When creating a report, you can
specify the size you want. The
Setting the report width
size you choose will depend on
1
how you plan to use the report. If
1. Click the Display tab on the
you plan to print it out on paper,
Report Properties dialog box.
you’ll typically use common
paper sizes. If you plan to 2. Click Report.
2
incorporate it onto your map
3. Double-click the Width
layout, you’ll want to set a page
3
property and type a width in
size that’s as close to the actual
inches.
size of the space available on the
layout. That way, the text sizes
you specify in the report will be
the same on the map layout.
The page size you set initially
determines the height and width
of the report. You can, however,
increase the width to accommo-
date the data you want to display.
If the width exceeds the printer
page size, the report will print on
additional pages.


3 68 USING ARCMAP
1
Setting the page size,
Tip
orientation, and margin
Setting the report height
While you can set the report width 1. Click the Display tab on the
independently, the report height is
Report Properties dialog box.
2
determined by the paper size.
2. Click Report.
3
However, by adjusting the page
margins, you can precisely control 3. Click the Page Setup prop-
the report size.
erty and click the button to
display the Page Setup dialog
box.
Tip
4. Click the Paper Size
Composing the report for a
dropdown arrow and click the
layout
size you want.
Compose your report at the size
you want it to be on your layout. If you’re incorporating the
Choose the paper size so the report
report on a layout, choose a
will fit in the available space. Then,
size that’s close to the
you can adjust the margins of the
available space on the layout.
page to get the exact size you need.
This will ensure that the text on the 5. Click Portrait or Landscape.
report is sized correctly. You can
6. Type the Left, Right, Top, and
still reduce or enlarge the report as
Bottom margins.
it appears on the layout.
7. Click OK.




4

5
6


7



CREATING REPORTS 369
Working with Ordering fields 1
fields 1. Click the Fields tab on the
Report Properties dialog box.
The information displayed on 2. In the Available Fields list,
your report is based on the double-click the fields you
fields you choose to include. want to include in the report if
When you choose the fields, you haven’t done so already.
you can also set the order in
3
2
3. In the Report Fields list, click
which they will appear in the
the field you want to move.
report. That way, you can have
certain fields appear before
4
4. Click the up or down arrow
others. buttons to move the field.
The field name displayed on the The report displays the fields
report is the same as its name in in the order you’ve specified.
the database. However, as field
names in a database are often
abbreviations or cryptic descrip-
tions of the attribute stored in the
field, you can replace a name
1
Displaying field names
with an alias—your own
descriptive text—to help clarify
1. Click the Display tab on the
its meaning.
Report Properties dialog box.
ArcMap automatically sets the
2. Click Elements.
display width of a field to
2
accommodate the width of the 3. Check Field Names to display
data. However, you can set a field names on the report.
3
width explicitly. You may also
4
Field names appear as
want to increase the width of the
column headers in a tabular
report to prevent the fields from
report and to the left of
wrapping on the page.
values in a columnar report.
4. Click the Section property
and click the dropdown arrow.
Click Top of Report or Top of
Each Page. Top of Report
displays the names once on
the first page. This property is
for tabular reports only.



3 70 USING ARCMAP
1
Setting a field alias
Tip
Setting field aliases 1. Click the Display tab on the
The field aliases you set while Report Properties dialog box.
creating a report will only apply to
2. Click Fields and click the
the report.
field for which you want to set
an alias.
2
3. Double-click the Text prop-
erty and type the text you
3
want to display.
This field alias only displays
on the report.




1
Setting the display width
Tip
of a field
Setting your own field
widths
1. Click the Display tab on the
ArcMap automatically determines
Report Properties dialog box.
how wide to display a field to
2. Click Fields and click the
accommodate the data. However,
2
you can increase or decrease the field for which you want to set
width. If the width of all fields the width.
exceeds the width of the report, the
3. Double-click the Width
fields will wrap.
3
property and type the width
you want.




CREATING REPORTS 371
1
Increasing the space
Tip
between columns in the
When to adjust the column
report
spacing
Adjust the column spacing when
1. Click the Display tab on the
you want to increase or decrease
2
Report Properties dialog box.
the horizontal distance between
fields in a tabular report or 2. Click Elements.
3
between the field name and its
3. Check Field Names if it isn’t
4
value in a columnar report.
already checked.
4. Double-click Spacing and
type a horizontal distance in
inches.
The value you type sets the
distance between the fields in
a tabular report or the field
name and its value in a
columnar report.




1
Increasing the space
Tip
between rows in the
When to adjust the row
report
spacing
Adjust the row spacing when you
1. Click the Display tab on the
2 4
want to increase or decrease the
Report Properties dialog box.
vertical distance between records
5
3
in the report. 2. Click Report.
3. Click Records.
4. Click Autosize, click the
dropdown arrow, then click
False.
5. Double-click Height and type
a height in inches for the row.
Increasing the height in-
creases the space between
rows in the report.



3 72 USING ARCMAP
1
Changing the vertical
Tip
spacing between fields in
When to adjust the vertical
a columnar report
spacing between fields in a
columnar report
1. Click the Display tab on the
Field names and values stack on
2
Report Properties dialog box.
top of each other in a columnar
report. Thus, a given record of 2. Click Elements.
3
data may occupy several rows in
3. Check Field Names if it isn’t
the report. When you want to
already checked.
increase or decrease the space
4
between these fields, adjust the 4. Double-click Vertical Spacing
Vertical Spacing property. and type a distance in
inches.




CREATING REPORTS 373
2
1
Organizing report Sorting records
data 1. Click the Sorting tab on the
Report Properties dialog box.
One advantage of displaying 2. Click a field to sort in the Sort
your data in a report is that a column.
report allows you to organize
3. Click Ascending, Descending,
your data. For example, you can
3
or None.
sort records based on the values
in one or more fields—given a 4. If you want to sort other
list of cities, you could sort them fields, click them, then click
by total population. You can also the sorting method.
group records together and
ArcMap sorts the fields based
calculate summary statistics. For
on the sort order. The figure
example, you could group cities
to the right sorts cities
by what country they’re in. This
alphabetically by country,
lets you easily see which city has
then by their name.
the largest population in a given
country. You can further calcu-
late summary statistics—for
example, compute the sum,
4
1
Grouping records
average, count, standard devia-
tion, and minimum and maxi-
1. Click the Grouping tab on the
mum values.
Report Properties dialog box.
2. Double-click the field you
Tip want to use to group data.
2
Sorting records using up 3. Click Grouping Intervals and
3
to three fields click the method for grouping
You can sort records using up to data.
three fields in ascending or
4. Click Ascending or Descend-
descending order.
ing for the sort method.
5. Check Include Group Fields
to repeat the group value in
5
the report display.




3 74 USING ARCMAP
1 2
Calculating summary
Tip
statistics
What summary statistics
are available?
1. Click the Summary tab on the
You can compute the average, Report Properties dialog box.
count, minimum, maximum,
2. Click the Available Sections
standard deviation, and sum for
dropdown arrow and click the
any numeric fields on your report.
3
section you want the statistics
to appear in.
Tip
3. For each numeric field, check
Where can you display the box that corresponds to
summary statistics? the statistic you want to
You can display summary statistics display.
for a field at the end of the report,
4. To display statistics in each
at the end of each page, and at the
available section, repeat
end of each group you’ve defined.
steps 2 and 3 for each
section.
Tip
Shading records
To make the data in your reports
easier to read, you can shade every
other record with a color. On the
Display tab, click Report and click
Records. Then set the Shade
Records and Shade Color proper-
ties.




CREATING REPORTS 375
1
Adding report Adding a title
elements 1. Click the Display tab on the
7
Report Properties dialog box.
To help you create attractive-
9
2. Click Elements.
2
looking reports, you can add
3. Check Title.
5
these additional elements to your
3
reports: 4. Double-click Text and type
4
the text for the title.
• A title
5. Click Font and click the
• A subtitle
button to display the Font
• Page numbers dialog box.
• The current date 6. Set the font, size, font style,
and color as desired and
• Images (e.g., a company logo)
click OK.
• Footnotes
7. Click Back Color and click
Once you’ve added an element, the button to display the
you can control the way it looks. Color dialog box.
For example, you might change
8. Click the color you want.
the text font and size of the title
6
and center it on the page. 9. Click Border and click the
button to open the Border
This section describes how to
Properties dialog box.
add the particular element you
want to your report while you’re 10. Click the border style you
creating it. want and click OK.


Tip
8
Borders and shading
Accent report elements with
borders and background colors.




Q

3 76 USING ARCMAP
Adding a subtitle 1
Tip
Setting the height of an 1. Click the Display tab on the
element Report Properties dialog box.
In general, ArcMap automatically
2. Click Elements.
calculates the height of an element.
2
For example, the height of the title 3. Check Subtitle.
3
is based on the font size you
4. Double-click Text and type
choose. However, you can also set
4
the text for the subtitle.
the height explicitly. This is useful
when you want to add additional
space around the element. To set
the height, set the Autosize
property to False, then set the
Height property to a height in
inches.


Tip
Why isn’t the element
centered on the page
properly?
1
Adding page numbers
Probably because you need to
adjust the width of the element.
1. Click the Display tab on the
The horizontal alignment of an
Report Properties dialog box.
element is based on its width, not
the width of the report. 2. Click Elements.
2
5
3. Check Page Numbering.
4. Click Section, click the
4
3
dropdown arrow, and click
Top of Page or Bottom of
Page.
5. Click Font and click the
button to open the Font
dialog box.
6. In the Font dialog box, set the
font, size, style, and color as
desired and click OK.




CREATING REPORTS 377
1
Adding the date
Tip
Positioning an element 1. Click the Display tab on the
Each element has its own height Report Properties dialog box.
and width. An element, such as a
2. Click Elements.
title, is located in the section at the
2
top of the report. You can position 3. Check Date.
5
the upper-left corner of an element
4. Click Section, click the
by adjusting the Top and Left
3
dropdown arrow, and click
4
properties of the element.
Top of Page or Bottom of
Page.
5. Click Number Format, click
the dropdown arrow, and click
the date format you want.
Dates can be represented as:
• mm/dd/yy 1:00:00 AM
• Monday, July 26, 1999
• mm/dd/yy



1
Adding footnotes
Tip
Adding footnotes 1. Click the Display tab on the
You can add footnotes to the Report Properties dialog box.
bottom of each page or once at the
2
2. Click Elements.
end of the report.
5
3. Check Page Footnote or
Report Footnote.
4
3
4. Double-click Text and type
the text for the footnote.
5. Click Font and click the
button to open the Font
dialog box.
6. In the Font dialog box, set the
font, size, style, and color as
desired and click OK.




3 78 USING ARCMAP
1
Adding an image at the
Tip
top of the report
Getting an image to fit
Images aren’t always sized exactly 1. Click the Display tab on the
as you’d like them to be. Fortu-
Report Properties dialog box.
nately, when you add an image to
2 5
2. Click Elements.
your report, you can adjust its
appearance to fit the available
3 4
3. Check Image.
space. If it’s too large, you can
4. Click Picture, click the button
7
shrink it or crop it. If it’s too small,
to display the Open Image
you might stretch it instead.
6
dialog box, and click the
image you want to display.
5. Double-click Height and type
a height in inches.
6. Double-click Width and type a
width in inches.
7. Click Picture Display; click
the dropdown arrow; and
click Fit, Clip, or Stretch.


1
Adding an image in the
background
1. Click the Display tab on the
Report Properties dialog box.
4
2
2. Click Background.
3
3. Check Image.
4. Click Picture, click the button
to display the Open Image
dialog box, and click the
image you want to display.
The image will now appear
behind the report data on all
pages.




CREATING REPORTS 379
Adding text in the 1
Tip
background
Positioning the
background text and image
1. Click the Display tab on the
Use the Top and Left properties to Report Properties dialog box.
5
position the upper-left corner of
2. Click Background.
the background text or image on
2 4
the report page. 3. Check Text.
3
4. Double-click the Text property
and type the text string you
want to appear in the back-
ground.
The text displays behind the
report data on all pages.
5. Click Font and click the
button to open the Font
dialog box.
6. In the Font dialog box, set the
font, size, font style, and color
as desired and click OK.

6




3 80 USING ARCMAP
Controlling the Previewing a report
presentation 1. Click the Show Settings on
the Report Properties dialog
box.
As described earlier in this
chapter, a report is made up of The dialog box expands to
several sections, each of which show you a preview of the
defines a particular area on the report.
report. For example, the section
2. As you modify the report
at the top of the report contains
properties, click Update
the title of the report; another
Settings to see the changes
section displays the records in
reflected on the preview.
the report.
Each section has properties that
you can modify such as its color
and whether or not it is dis-
1
played. A section also contains
certain elements with their own
properties that you can modify to
2
change the visual appearance of
the report. For example, you
might choose to shade the
records in your report.
By setting the properties of a
section and the elements within
it, you can create your own
individual look. As you create
your report, you can preview
your settings to see what your
report will look like.




CREATING REPORTS 381
1
Hiding a section
Tip
How to display more data 1. Click the Display tab on the
on your report page Report Properties dialog box.
If you’re not using a report
2. Click Report.
2
section, such as the top or bottom
of the page, you can hide it, 3. Click the report section you
4
3
thereby increasing the space want to hide, for example,
available to display data on the Top of Page.
report page.
4. Click Visible, click the
dropdown arrow, and click
False.
The report section will not
appear in the report.




1
Setting the background
Tip
color of a section
Using background colors
Each report element, such as the 1. Click the Display tab on the
title, has its own background color.
2 4
Report Properties dialog box.
By using background colors, you
3
2. Click Report.
can enhance the display of your
report. In addition, you can apply a 3. Click the report section you
background color to report
want to set a background
sections.
color of, for example, Top of
Page.
4. Click Back Color and click the
button to open the Color
5
dialog box.
5. Click the background color
you want.




3 82 USING ARCMAP
1
Shading records in the
Tip
report
Making your data easier to
read
1. Click the Display tab on the
You can enhance the readability of Report Properties dialog box.
2
your report by shading records.
2. Click Report.
This helps the reader to visually
3
separate data in adjacent records.
4
3. Click Records.
You can choose to alternately
4. Click Shade Records, click
5
shade every other, every two, or
the dropdown arrow, and click
every three records.
the option you want.
5. Click Shade Color and click
the button to open the Color
dialog box.
6. Click the color you want to
6
shade records with.




CREATING REPORTS 383
Saving and Saving a report
loading a report 1. Click Save on the Report
Properties dialog box.
If you want to copy a report 2. Click the Save in dropdown
2
that you’ve made on one map arrow and navigate to the
and put it on another, save it to location where you want to
a file on disk. Then you can save the report.
load the report in another map
3. Type a name for the report.
and place it as appropriate.
When you save a report to a 4. Click Save.
file, you’re creating a static
copy that is not linked to the
actual data from which you
created the report. Thus, you
1
won’t be able to modify the
report in any way.
4
3
You can also export a report to a
different file type, including
Adobe® Portable Document
Format (PDF), Rich Text Format
Loading a report
(RTF), and plain text (TXT).
1. Click Load in the Report
Properties dialog box.
2. Click the Look in dropdown
arrow and navigate to the
2
location where the report is
stored.
3. Click the report.
4. Click Open.




1

3 4

3 84 USING ARCMAP
2
Exporting a report
Tip
Export reports to PDF, RTF, 1. Click Generate Report on the
or plain text Report Properties dialog box.
Once you create your report, you
2. Click Export on the Report
can include it on your map and
Viewer window.
also export it to several different
file formats. Export to Adobe PDF, 3. Click the Save in dropdown
RTF, or plain text. arrow and navigate to the
location where you want to
save the exported report.
4. Type a name for the report.
5. Click the Save as type
dropdown arrow and click the
type of file you want to
export.
6. Cli