Audience Analysis and Written Communication

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Audience Analysis and Written Communication

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Resulting from specific situation: There is no fast feedback on written communication;You cannot make use of non-verbal communication; Written message is often aimed at a large group of people

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  1. Lecture 10.  Audience Analysis and  Written Communication The Concept of the Audience Types of Professional Readers 1
  2. Problems of Writing Process Resulting from specific situation:  There is no fast feedback on written  communication;  You cannot make use of non-verbal  communication;  Written message is often aimed at a  large group of people 2 Problems of Writing Process How people learn to write and speak:   People learn to write after learning how to speak;   People have little practice in written communication 3
  3. Problems of Writing Process Other reasons:   Informative texts are a heterogeneous group;   The writer has many different tasks to carry out before he can start writing;   The text must meet many various demands of the reader 4 The Concept of the Audience   Various Readers => various application purposes   Biography data => why and how the text is used   Various purposes => various expectations 5
  4. Audience   Common application purpose and common expectations   Reader’s needs = applications and expectations 6 A key to the audience needs Level of knowledge about the subject  How much information should be  included  Which information should be  included Purpose of reading 1.  How to organize the information 7
  5. Types of Professional Audience   Experts   Technical workers   Managers • ↓ Level of knowledge • ↓ Purpose of reading • ↓ Needs in reading 8 Experts Level of knowledge Very high level of knowledge   Purpose of reading  To keep and expand their professional  knowledge  To get particular answers on research  questions  To evaluate the technical content of the  plans and proposals 9 Experts: Needs in reading
  6.   Do not give detailed explanation to the source information and definitions;   Include all details connected with any process described in the document;   Use graphs and diagrams and figures to show these connections, give sources of these figures;   Use titles, contents, sections and subsections to classify and organize information;   Make sure all pages are numbered   Be sure to give citations to the sources 10 Technicians Level of knowledge How and why the process occurs,   why the device works or does not work; General technical terms to describe   process or device they know well; Do not know well the technical   terms beyond the field of their activity Do not know abstract or general   concepts of a process or a device operation 11
  7. Technicians Purpose of reading Learn how to do the task connected with   professional activity; Learn to solve particular problems   connected with professional activity; Learn about new devices connected with   professional activity; Get new skills and knowledge to improve   their work results 12 Technicians Needs in reading Introductory and preliminary information   should be presented in short Use graphs and tables;   Give instructions, where possible   Sections and instructions must be short   Section numbers and references   Give short definitions, examples or   explanations to unknown terms, devices, instruments, etc. 13
  8. Managers Level of knowledge Often have general knowledge of the   subject; Rarely have technical knowledge in   some field; May not know of new concepts and   achievements in the field 14 Managers Purpose of reading  Get the information for decision making;   Realize the current situation;   Foresee future tendencies or development  in the field;  Retain their level of general knowledge;   Estimate success and efficiency of projects  and workers 15 Managers Needs in reading  Provide key information in short  generalization;
  9.   Give information in order of its importance;   Emphasize the information to facilitate the decision taking;   Provide enough initial information in the introduction;   Generalize all recommended measures and conclusions;   Use graphs, etc. in generalizing;   Explain unfamiliar and technical terms;   Expand explanations in appendices at the end 16 Audience Analysis   Studying the documents   Defining the audience expectations 17 Genres   The formats of presenting the information
  10.   Particular purpose   Particular order = particular purpose 18 Three Key Schemes to Define Genre   Ethos   Logos   Pathos 19
  11. Ethos Authenticity or trustworthiness Attract and hold attention Prove your services: • ↓ What should I do to win and hold the reader’s attention to have him read my work? • ↓ What should I do to make the reader believe that my work is professionally written and information is worth paying attention to? 20 Ethos: aspects • ↓ Vocabulary • ↓ Sources • ↓ Reputation • ↓ Style 21 Logos   Logic   Amount of information   Type of information   What information does the reader expect to get from the text of this genre?
  12.   How much information does the reader expect to get from the text of this genre? 22 Logos: aspects   Facts   Definitions   Transitions   Links between the ideas   Figures   Visual ways of presenting information 23 Pathos Emotions • ↓ Does the reader expect me to show any emotions regarding the topic? • ↓ If so, how bright or ostentatious should these emotions be? 24 Pathos: aspects Vocabulary Comparisons Examples:
  13. More abstract = less emotional Aloofer = less emotional 25 Audience Analysis:  conclusion First define  Genres  Purpose Then define   Ethos   Logos 3.  Pathos 26

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