Bài giảng 15c - Bảng câu hỏi CVM

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Bài giảng 15c - Bảng câu hỏi CVM

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An outstanding feature of the lower Mekong region is the dynamic energy of its natural systems.

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Nội dung Text: Bài giảng 15c - Bảng câu hỏi CVM

  1. Bài giảng 15c: Bảng câu hỏi CVM Trương Đăng Thụy    
  2. Contingent Valuation Method Questionnaire Formulation
  3. Typical Workplan for SP Study What question is being answered? Initial Research What is the object being valued? What is the survey method? Choice of survey method & valuation technique Contingent valuation or choice modeling? What is the target population? Choice of population & sample What kind of sample should be selected? What form of question? What elicitation format? Questionnaire Design Questionnaire Design What payment vehicle? Focus group Re-design questionnaire Test the questionnaire & conduct main survey Pre-test survey Re-design questionnaire Conduct main survey Econometric Analysis Database coded & transferred to econometrics experts Validity & Reliability testing Do the results meet validity & reliability tests? Aggregation to the target population & Aggregation and reporting reporting
  4. Criticism Against CVM “. . .respondents give answers that  are inconsistent with the tenets of  rational choice, that these  respondents do not understand  what is it they are being asked to  value (and, thus, that stated values  reflect more than that which they  are being asked to value), that  respondents fail to take CV  questions seriously because the  result of the surveys are not  binding, and raise other objections  as well.”
  5. Exercise 1: WTP for Lower Mekong  Protection An outstanding feature of the lower Mekong region is the dynamic energy of its natural systems. The natural dynamics of the region is one of its most important development assets to be safeguarded and maintained. The essential role of ecosystems in their natural state for maintaining the stability and productivity of local economies and social systems is becoming increasingly evident in the Mekong region. Around 80 per cent of its population is directly dependent on the productive capacity of healthy natural systems. The relationship between water resources and protected areas in particular is of growing significance to the regional economy.
  6. Exercise: WTP for Lower Mekong  Protection Governments of the region appear to have recognized that the protection and maintenance of its remaining natural systems is essential to national welfare. The natural systems which are the foundation for regional development cross national borders. Some of the most important protected areas are adjacent to others in neighboring countries. Suppose a Regional Protected Area Conservation Program would mean that you and other households in Cambodia, Lao, Thailand and Vietnam would pay a fixed monthly fee of US$2 per month. The money raised would go to the Lower Mekong Region Protection Trust Fund.
  7. Exercise: WTP for Lower Mekong  Protection Would you be willing to pay US$2/month for the Regional Protected Area Conservation Program for Lower Mekong protection? ___Yes ___No If yes, why are you willing to pay? If no, why are you not willing to pay? (Pls. specify your one major reason)
  8. Possible Problems • Individuals answer willingness-to-pay questions inaccurately due: – To failure in understanding because the questionnaire is poorly designed (vague or insufficient vital information) – To problems with survey administration (e.g. poorly trained enumerators)
  9. Questionnaire Design is VERY IMPORTANT! • Key element in SP: properly  designed questionnaire • Should make respondent – Think seriously  – Provide necessary info – Reveal their true monetary  valuation • Principal Challenge: make  scenario understandable,  plausible, & meaningful
  10. Stages of SP Questionnaire Design First stage: Formulating the valuation problem -Policy change being valued - Valuation scenario (Method of provision, Payment vehicle, Decision rule,  Time frame of payment) -Response Format  Second stage: Additional questions ­ Debriefing & follow­up questions (screen protest & misleading responses) - Attitudes, opinion, knowledge & uses - Demographics - Questionnaire structure Third stage: Pre­testing the questionnaire ­ Focus groups, re­design questionnaire, pre­test, re­design again    
  11. Stage 1: Formulating the Valuation  Problem Policy Change being valued    
  12. Policy Change being valued • Description of the changes in  resource/service conditions due  to the policy change being  valued. • Essentials:  – Commodity is meaningful to the  respondent – Respondent understands it as the  researcher intends it. – Plausible scenario
  13. Potential Problems in defining policy  change • Scientific uncertainty about the physical  effects; • Unclear how physical changes affect  well­being; • It may be difficult to get those in charge  of a policy or project that will lead to the  change to be valued to commit to what  the project will actually do; • Difficult to convey the effects of policy  change;
  14. Example of Problems in defining  policy change Change to be valued Problems Damages - Scientific uncertainty regarding physical caused in a changes caused by abstractions. river from - Difficulty in describing wide range of changes increased in flora, fauna, etc. water - Damages may be different in different abstraction stretches of the river.
  15. What then is usually valued. . . • Physical descriptions of changes  in resource  conditions frequently  are not available.  • Contingent valuation questions  often are framed to value the  policy change.   – This is a problem. . .  • respondents will make their own  assumptions regarding what the policy  change will accomplish.   • Different respondents will use different  assumptions, i.e. they are valuing  different resource changes.
  16. Example •What is the policy change being valued? Expansion and conservation of Protected Areas in the Lower Mekong Region •What is the change in resource condition being  addressed by the policy being valued?  Improved drinking water supply function of Mekong River system. . .expand coverage from 60% to 90% of all households
  17. Exercise 2: Identifying Good being  valued (by Group) • What is the policy change? • What is/are the change/s in  resource/service condition  that will be affected by policy  change? 
  18. Stage 1: Formulating the Valuation  Problem Constructing the Valuation  Scenario    
  19. Valuation Scenario: Context  dependent • Values are contingent on various  aspects of the scenario presented  & questions asked • information provided about the good • wording  • type of the valuation questions • institutional arrangements  • the payment mechanism
  20. Valuation Scenario: 1.  Describe Policy Change a. Description of the attributes of the  good under investigation in a way  that is meaningful and  understandable to respondents. – Describe most important or familiar  valuable attributes of the good – Strike a balance between   information overload and vagueness  of the scenario – Technical terms must be simplified

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