Bản tóm tắt chương trình ngữ pháp anh văn lớp 12
Chia sẻ: smart_girl
Cho dù bạn có ý kiến gì đi nữa thì ngữ pháp vẫn là một phần không thể thiếu trong từng câu bạn nói, nghe, đọc và viết. Ngữ pháp đơn giản là qui luật từ vựng mà người sử dụng ngôn ngữ tuân theo. Chúng ta đều cần những qui tắc này giống như là luật chơi của 1 trò chơi
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Nội dung Text: Bản tóm tắt chương trình ngữ pháp anh văn lớp 12
Bản tóm tắt chương trình ngữ
pháp anh văn lớp 12
BAØI MÔÛ ÑAÀU ÑOÄNG TÖØ
Ñoäng töø ñöôïc duøng ñeå laøm haønh ñoäng cho chuû töø. Ñeå phaân bieät caùc loaïi ñoäng
tö (kinds of verbs), chuùng ta haõy quan saùt sô ñoà döôùi ñaây:
Auxiliary verb : (do, have, be)
Special verb :
Modal verb : (must, can, may, might, could, should …)
Regular verb : (open, close, clean, remember…)
Ordinary verb :
Irregular verb : (run, write, speak, drive…)
Ñoäng töø tieáng Anh coù hai loaïi: ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät (special verb) vaø ñoäng töø
thöôøng (ordinary verb).
(1) Ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät goàm coù:
* Ñoäng töø trôï (auxiliary verb) : be (duøng ñeå chia caùc thì tieáp dieãn, theå thuï ñoäng),
have (duøng ñeå chia caùc thì hoaøn thaønh), do (duøng ñeå chia caùc theå phuû ñònh vaø nghi
- He is working hard this month. (thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn)
- The house was built five years ago. (theå thuï ñoäng)
- He has learned English for two years. (thì hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh)
- Do you like tea ? (theå nghi vaán)
- She does not like coffee. (theå phuû ñònh)
* Ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát (modal verb) : caàn phaûi coù ñoäng theo sau.
- We must study hard.
- He can play the piano.
Ñaëc ñieåm chung cuûa caùc ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät laø khi ñoåi sang theå phuû ñònh ta chæ caàn
theâm NOT vaøo sau caùc ñoäng töø ñoù vaø khi ñoåi sang theå nghi vaán ta ñöa caùc ñoäng töø ñoù
ra ñaàu caâu.
- He is not working hard this month.
- Is he working hard this month ?
- He has not found his book.
- Have you seen her yet ?
- She cannot swim.
- Should we go there ?
(2) Ñoäng töø thöôøng goàm coù :
* Ñoäng töø coù qui taéc (regular verb) : laø ñoäng töø khi thaønh laäp thì quaù khöù ñôn
(simple past) hay quaù khöù phaân töø (past paticiple) ta chæ caàn theâm –ED vaøo sau ñoäng
- I opened the door this morning. (simple past )
- I have opened the door. (past participle)
* Ñoäng töø baát qui taéc (irregular verb) : laø ñoäng töø coù hình thöùc quaù khöù (xem coät
2 cuûa baûng ñoäng töø baát qui taéc) vaø quaù khöù phaân töø (xem coät 3) rieâng.
to go went gone
to write wrote written
to run ran run
to hit hit hit
- He went to the cinema last night. (simple past )
- He has gone out. (past participle)
Ñoäng töø thöôøng coù chung ñaëc ñieåm laø khi ñoåi sang theå phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán ta phaûi
duøng ñoäng töø trôï “to do”. Ta theâm NOT vaøo sau caùc ñoäng töø trôï ôû theå phuû ñònh vaø ñöa
ñoäng töø trôï ra ñaàu caâu neáu ôû theå nghi vaán.
- He did not go to the pub last night.
- Did he go to the cinema last night ?
- I do not like tea.
- Do you enjoy classical music ?
- She does not know the answer.
- Does he understand the lesson ?
* Ñoäng töø “to do” vöøa laø ñoäng töø thöôøng vöøa laø ñoäng töø trôï.
- He does his homework. (ñoäng töø thöôøng)
- He does not understand the lesson. (ñoäng töø trôï)
1: CAÙCH DUØNG CAÙC THÌ
(THE USE OF TENSES)
Thì bieåu thò thôøi gian vaø traïng thaùi cuûa haønh ñoäng ñöôïc dieãn ñaït baèng ñoäng töø.
Coù 12 thì ôû daïng chuû ñoäng cuûa ñoäng töø tieáng Anh. Ñeå hieåu ñöôïc hình thaùi cuûa caùc thì,
ta coù theå nghieân cöùu caùch chia ñoäng töø TO WORK trong baûng döôùi ñaây :
Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous
- I (You / We / - I am working - I (You / We / - I (You / We /
Present They) work - He (She / It) is They) have worked They) have been
- He ((She / It) working - He (She / It) has working
works - You ((We / They) worked - He ( She / It) has
are working been working
Past - I (You / He / - I (He / She / It) - I (You / He / She / - I (You / He / She /
She / It / We / was working It / We / They) had It / We / They) had
They) worked - You (We / They) worked been working
Future - I (We) shall - I (We) shall be - I (We) shall have - I (We) shall have
work working worked been working
- You (He / - You (He / She / It - You (He / She / it / - You (He / She / It /
She / it / They) / They) will be They) will have They) will have
will work working worked been working
*1 SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE PRESENT
VAØ THÌ PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Tieáng Anh coù hai thì hieän taïi maø ña soá caùc em hoïc sinh hay laãn loän caùch söû duïng.
Ñoù laø thì hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present vaø thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous
Simple Present) Present Continuous).
* Thì Simple Present ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng dieãn ra trong thôøi gian noùi
chung, khoâng nhaát thieát phaûi laø thôøi gian ôû hieän taïi. Thôøi gian noùi chung laø thôøi gian
maø söï vieäc dieãn ra moãi ngaøy (every day moãi tuaàn (every week moãi thaùng (every
every day), every week), every
month moãi naêm (every year moãi muøa (every spring / summer / autumn / winter)…
month), every year), every autumn
- He goes to school every day.
- Mrs Brown travels every summer.
* Thì Present Continuous ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra (a current
activity hay moät söï vieäc chuùng ta ñang laøm baây giôø (now/ at present/ at this moment
hoâm nay (today tuaàn naøy (this week naêm nay (this year
today this week), this year)…
- We are learning English now.
- Mary is playing the piano at the moment.
Haõy so saùnh : - I work in a bakery every day.
- I’m working in a bakery this week.
* CHUÙ YÙ :
(1) + Thì Simple Present thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc ñoäng töø chæ tri giaùc (verbs of
perception) nhö : feel, see, hear vaø caùc ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi nhö : know, understand,
mean, like, prefer, love, hate, need, want, remember, recognize, believe…
+ Ngoaøi ra chuùng ta coøn duøng thì Simple Present vôùi ñoäng töø : be, appear,
belong, have to…
+ Thì Simple Present coøn ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc traïng töø chæ taàn suaát laäp ñi laäp laïi
(adverbs of frequency) nhö : always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, generally, generally,
- That child needs care.
- This book belongs to me.
- He never comes late.
+ Chuùng ta cuõng duøng thì Simple Present ñeå chæ moät chaân lyù hay moät söï thaät hieån
nhieân (a general truth).
- The sun rises in the east.
- Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom.
(2) Thì Present Continuous coøn ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ haønh ñoäng ôû moät töông lai gaàn (a
near future action) vaø thöôøng ñi vôùi caùc traïng töø chæ töông lai nhö : tomorrow, next
week, next month, next year, next summer…
Exercise I : Put the verbs in brackets in the present simple or the present continuous
1/ I (have) __________ coffee for breakfast every day.
2/ My brother (work) __________ in a shoe store this summer.
3/ The student (look) ___________ up that new word now.
4/ She (go) __________ to school every day.
5/ We (do) __________ this exercise at the moment.
6/ Miss Helen (read) ___________ a newspaper now.
7/ It (rain) __________ very much in the summer. It (rain) _________ now.
8/ Bad students never (work) __________ hard.
9/ He generally (sing) __________ in English, but today he (sing) __________
10/ We seldom (eat) __________ before 6.30.
11/ She sometimes (buy) ___________ vegetables at his market.
12/ Be quiet. The baby (sleep) ____________.
13/ We always (do) ___________ our exercises carefully.
14/ Look. A man (run) ___________ after the train. He (want) ___________ to
15/ It (be) __________ very cold now.
16/ John (travel) __________ to England tomorrow.
17/ I (need) ____________ some money for my textbooks.
18/ Tom (like) __________ to go to the museums.
19/ Mary (love) __________ ice-cream.
20/ My mother (cook) ___________ some food in the kitchen at present. She
always (cook) __________ in the mornings.
21/ I often (leave) __________ the city at weekends.
22/ The guests (watch) __________ the TV programmes now.
23/ I (see) ___________ you (wear) ___________ your best clothes.
24/ The sun (set)___________ in the west.
25/ My friend (study) __________ English for an hour every night.
26/ Listen. I (hear)___________ someone knocking at the front door.
27/ I (do) __________ an exercise on the present tense at the moment and I
(think) __________ that I (know) __________ how to use it now.
28/ Honesty (be) __________ the best policy.
29/ The earth (goes) __________ round the sun.
30/ Two and two (make) __________ four.
*2 SO SAÙNH THÌ PRESENT PERFECT
VAØ THÌ SIMPLE PAST
* Thì Present perfect (Hieän Taïi Hoaøn Thaønh) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät quaù khöù khoâng
roõ thôøi ñieåm coøn lieân laïc vôùi hieän taïi.
* Thì Simple Past (Quaù Khöù Ñôn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät quaù khöù coù thôøi ñieåm roõ reät
caét ñöùt vôùi hieän taïi.
+ CHUÙ YÙ :
(1) Thì Present Perfect thöôøng ñi vôùi nhöõng töø nhö : up to now up to the present
so far (cho tôùi nay), not … yet (vaãn chöa), for, since, ever (ñaõ töøng), never, several
times (nhieàu laàn), just (vöøa), recently (vöøa môùi), lately (môùi ñaây) ...
- Have you ever seen a tiger ?
- The train has not arrived yet.
- We have lived here for 6 years.
- The bell has just rung.
(2) * Thì Simple Past thöôøng ñi vôùi nhöõng tieáng chæ thôøi gian quaù khöù xaùc ñònh
nhö : yesterday the day before yesterday last week last month, last year last
erday, week, year,
- We came here a month ago.
- He went to the cinema yesterday.
* Thì Simple Past coøn ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät chuoãi caùc haønh ñoäng keá tieáp xaûy
ra trong quaù khöù.
- He closed all the windows, locked the doors and then went out.
Exercise II : Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect or the simple past tense.
1/ We (never watch) __________ that TV programme.
2/ We (wacth) __________ a good programme on TV last night.
3/ He (read) __________ that novel many times before.
4/ He (read) __________ that novel again during my last vacation.
5/ I (have) __________ a little trouble with my car last week.
6/ However, I (have) __________ no trouble with my car since then.
7/ I (not see) __________ John for a long time. I (see) __________ him 3
8/ The school bell (ring) __________. We must go now.
9/ I (meet) __________ Mary last night. She (become) __________ a very big
10/ He is very thirsty. He (not drink) __________ since this morning.
11/ It is very hot. Summer (come) __________.
12/ They (study) __________ at this school for 7 years now.
13/ They (begin) __________ to study at this school 7 years ago.
14/ Since when (you know) ___________ her ?
15/ How long ago (he start) __________ to learn French ?
16/ She (lose) __________ her handbag on the train yesterday morning.
17/ My mother (be) ________ in hospital for a long time and she cannot go
18/ His dog (just run) __________ out of the garden.
19/ Mr Brown (travel) __________ by air several times in the past.
20/ He (travel) ___________ to Mexico by air last summer.
* 3. SO SAÙNH THÌ PRESENT PERFECT VAØ
THÌ PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
+ Thì Present perfect (Hieän Taïi Hoaøn Thaønh) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ keát quaû cuûa moät
tình traïng ôû hieän taïi (the result of the present state), moät vieäc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù
khoâng roõ thôøi ñieåm, laäp ñi laäp laïi nhieàu laàn vaø keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi.
+ Thì Present Perfect Continuous (Hieän Taïi Hoaøn Thaønh Tieáp Dieãn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå
chæ söï tieáp dieãn cuûa moät haønh ñoäng (the continuity of an action) cho tôùi hieän taïi.
- I have been waiting for two hours, but she has not come yet.
- He has been living here since 1975.
- We have been working in the garden all morning.
+ Thì Present Perfect Continuous coøn ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc ñoäng töø nhö : lie, wait, sit,
stand, study, learn, live, rest, stay…
- They have been learning English since 1995.
- The chair has been lying in the store window for ages.
Exercise III : Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect or the present perfect
1/ I (try) __________ to learn French for years, but I (not succeed) __________
2/ She (read) _________ all the works of Dickens.How many (you read)
3/ I (wait) __________ here nearly half an hour for my girlfriend; do you think
she (forget) __________ to come ?
4/ Mary (rest) __________ in the garden all day because she (be) __________
5/ Although John (study) __________ at the University for 5 years, he (not get)
__________ his degree yet.
6/ Jack (go) __________ to Switzerland for a holiday. He (never, be)
7/ We (live) __________ here for the last six months, and (just, decide)
__________ to move.
8/ That book ( lie) __________ on the table for weeks. You (not read)
_________ it yet ?
9/ He (not be) ___________ here since Christmas; I wonder where he (live)
__________ since then.
10/ He (lose) ___________ his books. He (look) ____________ for them all
afternoon, but they (not turn up) ___________ yet.
11/ She (work) ___________ so hard this week that she (not have)
___________ time to go to the cinema.
12/ Your hair is wet. (You swim) __________ for a long time ?
13/ Bill is still a bad driver although he (drive)__________ cars for six years.
14/ You look very tired. (You work) __________very hard ?
15/ The phone (ring) __________ for 2 minutes, but I (not answer) __________
Exercise IV : Put the verbs in brackets in the present tenses.
1/ I (be) __________ sorry. I (forget) __________ that fellow’s name already.
2/ Jack (look) __________ forward to his vacation next June.
3/ I (have) __________ no trouble with my english lessons up to now.
4/ Mr and Mrs Brown (be) ___________ in New York for 2 months.
5/ Michael (work) __________ 38 hours a week.
6/ At present, that author (write) ___________ a novel.
7/ George (do) __________ good work in this class so far.
8/ The weather( generally, get) __________ hot in July .
9/ You must wake her up. She (sleep) __________soundly for 10 hours.
10/ Listen! I (think) __________ someone (knock) __________ at the front
11/ How long (you learn) __________ English?
12/ That student (know) __________ all the new words very well now.
13/ Alice (lose) __________ her Vienamese-English dictionary.
14/ Fred (just, graduate) __________ from Oxford University.
15/ The earth (circle) __________ the sun once every 365 days.
16/ That grandfather clock (stand) __________ there for as long as I can
17/ That brown briefcase (belong) __________ to Dr.Rice.
18/ Jim (work) __________ on his report this year.
19/ Robert (wait) __________ for you since noon.
20/ That museum (stand) ___________ here for ceturies.
21/ The sun (get) __________ very hot during the afternoon.
22/ Tom (buy) ___________ a new car next week.
23/ The boys and girls (go) ___________ home after this lesson.
24/ Davis (play) __________ football every afternoon.
25/ Up to the present, we (write) __________ almost every lesson in this book.
* 4. SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE PAST
VAØ THÌ PAST CONTINUOUS
+ Thì Simple Past (Quaù Khöù Ñôn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng ngaén (thình
lình) xaûy ra trong quaù khöù.
- I met him in the street yesterday.
+ Thì Past Continuous (Quaù Khöù Tieáp Dieãn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng keùo
daøi trong quaù khöù töông öùng vôùi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc cuõng trong quaù khöù.
- I met him while he was crossing the street.
- She was going home when she saw an accident.
+ Thì Past Continuous coøn dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng keùo daøi taïi ñieåm thôøi gian xaùc
ñònh ôû quaù khöù hoaëc hai haønh ñoäng lieân tieáp song song vôùi nhau.
- My father was watching TV at 8 o’clock last night.
- I was doing my homework while my father was watching TV.
Exercise V : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past continuous tense.
1/ He (sit) __________ in a bar when I (see) __________ him.
2/ When I (go) __________ out, the sun (shine) __________.
3/ The light (go) __________ out while I (have) __________ tea.
4/ When it (rain) __________ , she(carry) __________ an umbrella.
5/ We (walk) __________ to the station when it (begin) __________ to rain.
6/ He (teach) __________ English for 2 months when he (live) in Germany and
(work) __________ as a journalist.
7/ The house (burn) __________ fast, so we (break) __________ the window to
8/ He (eat) __________ three sandwiches while you (talk) __________ to him.
9/ The servant (drop) __________ two cups while she (wash up) __________
last night; neither of them (break) __________.
10/ While I (write) __________ a letter, the telephone (ring) __________; as
he (go) __________ to answer it, he (hear) __________ a knock on the door; the
telephone (still, ring) __________ while he (walk) __________ to the door, but just as
he (open) __________ it, it (stop) __________.
* 5. SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE PAST
VAØ THÌ PAST PERFECT
+ Thì Past Perfect ( (Quaù Khöù Hoaøn Thaønh) duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc
moät haønh ñoäng khaùc cuõng trong quaù khöù (past action).
- When he had finished his work, he went home.
- By the time I arrived at the station, the train had gone
+ Thì Past Perfect coøn dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc moät ñieåm thôøi gian xaùc
ñònh ôû quaù khöù.
- By 10 o’clock last night, I had gone to bed.
Exercise VI : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past perfect tense
1/ They (go) __________ home after they (finish) __________ their work.
2/ He (do) _________ nothing before he (see) ___________ me.
3/ He (thank) __________ me for what I (do) __________ for him.
4/ I (be) __________ sorry that I (hurt) __________ him.
5/ After they (go) __________ , I (sit) __________ down and (rest)
6/ When I (arrive), the dinner (already, begin) ______________.
7/ My friend (not see) __________ me for many years when I (meet)
__________ last week.
8/ He (learn) __________ English before he (leave) __________ for England.
9/ In England, he soon (remember) __________ all he (learn) __________.
10/ They (tell) __________ him they (not meet) __________ him before.
11/ He (ask) __________ why we (come) __________ so early.
12/ She (say) __________ that she (already, see) ___________ Dr. Rice.
13/ By the time Bill (get) __________ there, the meeting (start) __________.
14/ When we (arrive) __________ at our place, we (find) __________ that a
burglar (break) ____________ in.
15/ Almost everybody (leave) _________ for home by the time we (arrive)
* 6. SO SAÙNH THÌ PAST PERFECT VAØ THÌ
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
+ Thì Past Perfect Continuous (Quaù Khöù Hoaøn Thaønh Tieáp Dieãn) duøng ñeå nhaán
maïnh tính lieân tuïc cuûa haønh ñoäng tröôùc khi moät haønh ñoäng quaù khöù khaùc xaûy ra. Haõy
so saùnh :
- She had been studying English before she came here for classes.
(Haønh ñoäng had been studying xaûy ra lieân tuïc cho tôùi khi haønh ñoäng came for
classes xaûy ra).
- She had studied English before she came for classes.
(Haønh ñoäng had studied chaám döùt tröôùc haønh ñoäng came for classes)
Vaø haõy so saùnh :
- It had been raining when I got up this morning. (Möa ñaõ döùt khi toâi thöùc
- It was raining when I got up this morning. (Möa vaãn coøn khi toâi thöùc daäy.)
Exercise VII : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past perfect
1/ I (ask) _________ him what he (do) __________.
2/ Tom (be) _________ tired. He (run) __________ for an hour.
3/ Although he (go) __________ to the doctor for 6 months, he (not, feel)
__________ any better.
4/ The telephone (ring) __________ for 5 minutes before it (be) __________
5/ They (tell) __________ me you (live) __________ in London before the
6/ The poor man (wait) __________ for 6 hours before he (be) __________
brought into the room.
7/ By noon that day, we (drive) __________ for 5 hours.
8/ The robber who (watch) __________ him running to the tree (sit)
__________ down under its branches and (begin) __________ to attack him.
9/ I (ask) _________ her what she (do) _______ since she (arrive) ________ in
10/ She (tell) __________ me that she (study) __________ English literature.
* 7. SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE FUTURE
VAØ THÌ FUTURE CONTINUOUS
+ Thì Simple Future (Töông Lai Ñôn) dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra (coù hoaëc
khoâng coù thôøi gian xaùc ñònh ôû töông lai); coøn thì Future Continuous (Töông Lai Tieáp
Dieãn) dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng lieân tieán taïi ñieåm thôøi gian xaùc ñònh ôû töông lai.
- He will go to the stadium next Sunday.
- We will / shall have the final test.
Haõy so saùnh :
- I will eat breakfast at 6 o’clock tomorrow. (Vaøo luùc 6 giôø saùng mai, toâi seõ
baét ñaàu duøng böõa ñieåm taâm.)
- I will be eating breakfast at 6 o’clock tomorrow. (Vaøo luùc 6 giôø saùng mai,
toâi seõ ñang duøng böõa ñieåm taâm.)
+ Trong caùc meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ thôøi gian (adverb clause of time) hay meänh ñeà
ñieàu kieän (adverb clause of condition), thì Simple Present ñöôïc duøng ñeå thay theá cho
thì Simple Future.
- I shall not go until I see him.
- If he comes tomorrow, he will do it.
+ Chuù yù : WILL coøn ñöôïc duøng cho taát caû caùc ngoâi.
Exercise VIII : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present or the simple future
1/ We (go) __________ out when the rain (stop) __________.
2/ I (stay) _________ here until he (answer) __________ me.
3/ Wait until I (catch) __________ you.
4/ I (be) _________ ready before you (count) _________ ten.
5/ John must eat his breakfast before he (go) __________ out.
6/ Miss Helen (help) ___________ you as soon as she (finish) _________ that
7/ He (tell) _________ you when you (get) __________ there.
8/ She (not come) __________ until you (be) _________ ready.
9/ He (tell) __________ you when you (ask) __________ him.
10/ I (come) ________ and (see) _________ you before I (leave) ________ for
* 8. PERFECT
SO SAÙNH THÌ FUTURE PERFECT VAØ THÌ
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
+ Thì Future Perfect (Töông Lai Hoaøn Thaønh) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng seõ
hoaøn thaønh tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai hay moät ñieåm thôøi gian ôû töông
- The taxi will have arrived by the time you finish dressing.
- By next Christmas, he will have lived in Dalat for 5 years.
+ Ñeå nhaán maïnh tính lieân tuïc cuûa haønh ñoäng, chuùng ta duøng thì Future Perfect
Continuous (Töông Lai Hoaøn Thaønh Tieáp Dieãn).
- By the time you receive this letter, we shall have been travelling through
- By next June, they will have been working in this factory for 12 years.
Exercise IX : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present, simple future, present
perfect or future perfect tense.
1/ I’ll wait until he (write) __________ his next novel.
2/ When you (come) _________ back, he (already buy) __________ a new
3/ Don’t come until I (finish) _________ lunch.
4/ I (hope) _________ it (stop) __________ raining by 5 o’clock this afternoon.
5/ The river (not begin)_________ to rise until some rain (fall)__________.
6/ I (stay) __________ here until you (finish) _________ your work.
7/ By next month, I (leave) _________ for India.
8/ He (finish) _________ his work before you (leave) __________.
9/ Before you (go) __________, they (leave) __________ the country.
10/ The meeting (finish) _________ by the time we (get) _________ there.
Exercise X : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present, simple future, future
continuous or future perfect tense.
1/ We (send) __________ you a telegram as soon as we (arrive) _________ in
2/ When George (come) __________ this afternoon, he (bring) __________ his
3/ I (speak) _________ to you about that matter after the meeting tonight.
4/ By the time you (receive) __________ this letter, we (cross) __________ the
5/ By this time next week, you (meet) __________ my boyfriend, Ali.
6/ I (wait) __________ for you right here when you (come) __________ out of
7/ She (wait) __________ for you at 5 o’clock this afternoon.
8/ I (give) __________ it back as soon as he (want) __________ it.
9/ I (not move) __________ from here until you (get) __________ back.
10/ They (not come) __________ home until they (see) __________
Exercise XI : Supply the correct tense.
1/ They (just decide) __________ that they (undertake) ___________ the job.
2/ We (go) ___________ to the theatre last night.
3/ He usually (write) __________ in green ink.
4/ She (play) __________ the piano when our guests (arrive) __________ last
5/ We (do) __________ an English exercise at the moment.
6/ She (just come) __________ in and (see) __________ you in 5 minutes.
7/ I (come) __________ as soon as my work is finished. (You be) __________
8/ Where (you go) __________ for your holiday last year ?
9/ I (not leave) _________ Paris since we (go) _________ to Dieppe three
10/ My mother (come) __________ to stay with us next weekend.
11/ We (meet) __________ only yesterday and (already decide) __________
to get married.
12/ I (never see) __________ snow.
13/ Violets (bloom) __________ in spring.
14/ We (not live) ___________ in England for the last two months.
15/ I (lose) _________ my keys; I cannot remember where I last (see)
16/ He (not arrive) __________ when I (write) __________ my last letter to
17/ Whenever you (go) _________ to town nowadays, you (spend) _________
a lot of money.
18/ I (never forget) __________ what you (just tell) __________ me.
19/ They (prepare) __________ the Christmas dinner today.
20/ When I last (stay) ___________ in Cairo, I (ride) __________ to the
Pyramids on a camel that my friend (borrow) ____________ the day before.
21/ I (finish) ___________ the book before my next birthday.
22/ “Hello! (You make) __________ a cake ?
23/ He (walk) __________ very quickly when I (meet) __________ him
24/ We (meet) __________ you tomorrow after you (finish) __________ your
25/ Yesterday I (buy) __________ a new watch as my old one (be)
Exercise XII : Supply the correct tense.
1/ He said he (be) __________ sorry he (give) __________ me so much
2/ I am sorry that I (not know) _________ you (leave) __________ your pipe
when you (come) __________ to see me last Thursday.
3/ He (be) __________ so good to me when I was a boy that to this day I (not
forget) __________ his kindness, and I hope that I (never forget) __________.
4/ He (sleep) __________ and (not understand) ___________ what you (say)
__________ to him. He (wake) __________ if you (speak) __________ louder.
5/ Some animals (not eat) ___________ during the winter and only (come)
__________ out in spring.
6/ After leaving school he (study) __________ French in Paris for two years
and then (move) __________ to America, where he now (live) _________. He (visit)
__________ England once or twice and (know) __________ English well; but (not
have) __________ yet the opportunity of visiting European countries.
7/ I (know) __________ him for a very long time.
8/ When my friend Tom grows a beard, even his closest friends (not recognize)
9/ When I (meet) __________ him in the street, he (go) __________ to the
10/ I (study) _________ English for six years now.
11/ I expect he (leave) __________ for France as soon as he (get) __________
12/ He (visit) ______ his friend yesterday and (find) _______ that he (be)
13/ They (sell) _________ all the dresses before we (get) __________ there.
14/ After she (work) __________ at the hospital for two years, she (decide)
__________ to give up the job.
15/ He will come at once because I (tell) __________ him by phone that you
(need) __________ him urgently. I’m sure he (find) __________ his way easily
although he (never visit) __________ this house before.
16/ By the time you get back, I (finish) __________ all my correspondence and
then I (can help) ______________ you with yours.
17/ In a few minutes’ time, when the clock (strike) __________ six, I (wait)
__________ here for an hour.
18/ He (know) ________ her a long time before he finally (get) _______
married to her.
19/ I hope it (not rain) __________ when the bride (leave) __________ the
20/ I (tell) a lie if I said that I (like) __________ you.
21/ They (intend) __________ to go there next week; but now they (find)
__________ they (not have) __________ enough money.
22/ When he grew old he often (think) __________ of all the things he (do)
___________ when he (be) __________ young.
23/ When we (go) __________ to see them last night, they (play) __________
cards; they (say) __________ they (play) __________ since six o’clock.
24/ This is the second time you (break) __________ a cup; you (break)
__________ one yesterday. My last servant (never break)____________ anything,
and you (break) ___________ nearly half the things in the house.
25/ I always (tell) ___________ you to comb your hair, but you never (do)
___________ what I (say) ___________ .
EXERCISE XIII : Use the correct tense of the verbs in brackets.
1/ Mrs Reed (turn) _________ on the radio in her car while she (drive) _________
home yesterday. She (listen) ___________ to some music when she suddenly (hear)
___________ a siren. She (look) ____________ in her mirror and (see) _________ an
ambulance behind her. She immediately (pull) ________ her car to the side of the
road and (wait) _________ for the ambulance (pass) _________.
2/ My mother (call) ___________ me around 5 o’clock. My husband (come)
_________ home a little after that. When he (come) __________ home, I (talk)
___________ to my mother on the phone.
3/ Next month I (have) _________ a week’s vacation. I (plan) _________ to take a
trip. First I (go) _________ to Madison, Wisconsin to visit my brother. After I (leave)
________ Madion, I (go) _________ Chicago to see a friend who (study) _________
at a university there. She (live) _________ in Chicago for three years, so she (know)
_________ her way around the city. She (promise) _________ to take me to many
interesting places. I (never, be) _________ in Chicago, so I (look) _________ forward
to going there.
4/ Yesterday John (eat) _____________ breakfast at 8:00. He (already, eat)
_________ breakfast when he (leave) ____________ for class at 8:45. He (always,
eat) _________ breakfast before he (go) _____________ to class. I (usually, not eat)
_________ breakfast before I (go) _________ to class. But I (usually, get) _________
hungry about midmorning. Tomorrow before I (go) _____________ to class, I (eat)
5/ Last year, I (go) __________ mountain climbing for the first time. It was exciting
and terrifying at the same time. We (move) ___________slowly and carefully, and it
(take) ___________ three days to get to the top. When we climbed onto the summit,
we (find) ___________ another group of climbers. They (arrive) ___________ several
hours ahead of us. They (have) ___________ dinner and listening to Beethoven. We
(laugh) __________ and they (invite) ___________ us to join them. The climb (be)
___________, to say the least, an unforgettable experience.
6/ The weather (be) ___________ terrible lately. It (rain) ___________ off and on
for two days, and the temperature (drop) ___________ at least twenty degrees. It (be)
___________ in the low 40s right now. Just three days ago, the sun (shine)
___________ and the weather was pleasant. The weather certainly (change)
___________ quickly here. I never know what to expect. Who knows ? When I (wake)
___________ up tomorrow morning, maybe it (snow) ___________.
7/ A taxi driver (drive) ____________ along a street when he suddenly (black out)
___________ and lost control of his vehicle. The taxi (plunge) _________ into a
nearby river. A hawker, who (see) ______________ the accident, rushed from his
coffee stall and (dive) ___________ into the water. He (have) ___________ to swim
twenty five metres before he could get to the taxi. The taxi driver (try)
______________ to wind down the window. The hawker reached into the taxi for the
safety-belt. After he (release) __________ the safety-belt, he pulled the driver out
through the partially open window. At the hospital, the driver (say) ____________
that the black out might (cause) ______________ by his high blood pressure condition.
8/ Marie Curie, the Polish-born chemist, was a courageous and determined woman.
She (leave) ___________ her home for Paris to pursue her interest in science. Living
in poverty, she still (manage) ___________ to graduate at the top of her class. She
(meet) ___________ Pierre Curie shortly after graduation and (marry) ___________
him a year later.
Together, Pierre and Marie (form) ___________ the most famous husband-and-
wife partnership in science history. They (discover) ___________ the radioactive
elements, Polonium and Radium. They (award) ___________ the Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1903.
Baøi 2 : CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN
Moät caâu ñieàu kieän coù hai meänh ñeà : meänh ñeà chæ ñieàu kieän (töùc meänh ñeà phuï) coøn
ñöôïc goïi laø meänh ñeà coù if (If-clause vaø meänh ñeà chæ keát quaû coøn ñöôïc goïi laø meänh ñeà
chính (main clause).
- If he works harder, he will succeed in his examination.
(if-clause) (main clause)
Chuùng ta cuõng coù theå ñaët meänh ñeà chính ôû ñaàu caâu :
- He will succeed in his examination if he works harder.
Trong tieáng Anh coù 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän chính :
* Type I : ÑIEÀU KIEÄN COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ÑÖÔÏC (probable condition
Type probable condition)
1/ YÙ nghóa : Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät söï vieäc coù theå xaûy ra hoaëc
khoâng theå xaûy ra ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai; nhöng chuùng ta coù nhieàu hy voïng noù xaûy ra.
2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø :
If- clause Main clause
(shall / will + verb)
- If the rain stops, we shall go for a walk.
- He will come if you call him.
* Ngoaøi ra chuùng ta coøn coù theå duøng caùc khieám khuyeát ñoäng töø nhö : CAN, MUST
MAY … ñeå thay cho shall hoaëc will ôû meänh ñeà chính.
- If you ask me, I can help you.
- You must study harder if you want to pass the coming exam.
* Meänh ñeà chính coù theå laø moät meänh leänh hoaëc thænh caàu :
- Come to me if you need help.
- If you have time, perfect your English.
* Type II : ÑIEÀU KIEÄN KHOÂNG COÙ THAÄT ÔÛ HIEÄN TAÏI. (Present- unreal Con
1/ YÙ nghóa : Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy dieãn taû moät ñieàu kieän khoù coù theå xaûy ra hay
moät söï vieäc khoâng thöïc hieän ñöôïc ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai.
2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø :
If-clause Main clause
Past Subjunctive Present Conditional
(Quaù khöù giaû ñònh) ( Should / would + verb)
- If I had a lot of free time, I would go swimming.
(= I haven’t got free time, so I won’t go swimming)
- If Tom were here, he would know the answer.
(= Tom isn’t here, so he doesn’t know the answer.)
- I would call him if I knew his number.
(= I don’t know his number, so I won’t call him)
* Quaù khöù giaû ñònh laø hình thöùc quaù khöù ñôn cuûa caùc ñoäng töø ngoaïi tröø ñoäng töø “to
be” chæ coù moät hình thöùc WERE cho taát caû caùc ngoâi.
* COULD MIGHT coù theå ñöôïc duøng ñeå thay theá cho should hay would.
- If John worked hard, he could pass his exam.
* Type III : ÑIEÀU KIEÄN KHOÂNG COÙ THAÄT ÔÛ QUAÙ KHÖÙ. (Past-unreal Condition)
1/ YÙ nghóa : Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät ñieàu kieän hoaøn toaøn khoâng thöïc
hieän ñöôïc hoaëc khoâng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù.
2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø :
If-clause Main clause
(Should/ would have + past participle)
- If he had had a lot of money, he would have bought a bigger house.
- I would have taken you to the movie if you had come to see me yesterday.
* “If coù theå ñöôïc löôïc boû ñi neáu coù söï ñaûo ngöõ (thöôøng ñöôïc duøng trong hình thöùc
- Were I rich, I would help you.
(= If I were rich, I would help you.)
- Had he known the truth, he would have been very angry.
(= If he had known the truth, he would have been very angry)
* Ngoaøi lieân töø “if” ra, caâu ñieàu kieän coøn ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng caùc lieân töø khaùc nhö :
suppose supposing that (giaû söû nhö), on the condition that (vôùi ñieàu kieän laø), as long
as, so long as, provided that (mieãn laø), in case (trong tröôøng hôïp) , even if ( ngay cho
- As long as you return the book by Saturday, I will lend it to you with
* Hai tieáng coù nghóa phuû ñònh : unless (tröø phi), but for (neáu khoâng)
- He won’t come unless you call him.
(= He won’t come if you don’t call him.)
- But for the storm, he would have arrived much earlier.
EXERCISE I : Rewrite the sentences , using conditional clauses.
1/ I (do) if I (have) time.
- I will do it if I have time. (type 1)
- I would do it if I had time. (type 2)
- I would have done it if I had had time. (type 3)
2/ If she (not try), she (not succeed).
3/ If I (see) her, I (tell) her.
4/ (You do) it if I (ask) you ?
5/ If I (be) ill, I (stay) at home.
6/ What (you do) if the bus (not come).
7/ I (be) sorry if she (leave).
8/ I (not stay) in this job if I (can find) another one.
9/ They (get) wet if it (rain).
10/ It (not bite) you unless you (move)
11/ We (go) out unless it (stop) snowing.
EXERCISE II: Put the verbs in brackets in correct tenses.
1/ If I (have) ________ a typewriter, I could type it myself.
2/ If I had known that you were in hospital , I (visit) ________ you.
3/ You could make much progress if you (attend) ________ class regularly.
4/ If I (know) ________ his telephone number, I would give it to you.
5/ If you (arrive) ________ ten minutes earlier, you would have got a seat.
6/ If he (study) ________ harder, he can pass an exam.
7/ She may be late if she (not hurry) ________.
8/ Tell him to ring me if you (see) ________ him.
9/ If you (speak) ________ more slowly,he might have understood you.
10/ What (you do) ________ if you got fat ?
Exercise III : Supply the correct verb tense.
1/ If you are kind to me, I (be) _______ good to you.
2/ He (come) _______ if you waited.
3/ If you (ring) _______ the bell, the servant would come.
4/ If I had known that the baby was hungry, I (feed) _______ him.
5/ If it (not, rain) _______ a lot, the rice crop wouln’t grow.
6/ If today (be) _______ Sunday, we wouldn’t have to work.
7/ If she had had your address, she (write) _______ to you.
8/ We lost the match. If you (play) _______ for us, we (win) _______.
9/ So long as you return the book by Saturday, I (lend) _______ it to you with
10/ They would not be paid unless they (do) _______ their work well.
11/ Provided he (not, be) _______ interrupted, he can finish the work on time.
12/ If it (be) _______ convenient, let’s meet at three o’clock.
13/ If I became very rich, I (build ) _______ a hospital for the poor.
14/ If he (give) _______ up smoking, as his doctor orders, he will be soon well
15/ He (not, have) _______ an accident if he had not been driving so fast.
16/ If she (write) _______ more carefully, she might not have made too many
17/ You would have to stay in bed unless your health (improve) _______.
18/ Did she have more practice, she (speak) _______ English better.
19/ Had I known that she was sick, I (visit) _______ her.
20/ Supposing World War III (happen) ________, human civilization (be)
EXERCISE IV : Put “if” or “unless” into these spaces.
1/ ________ we hurry, we’ll miss the bus.
2/ Will you phone me ________ you come to England ?
3/ ________ you see Jane, ask her to contact me.
4/ You’ll never pass your exam ________ you don’t work harder.
5/ Liverpool won’t win ________ they begin playing better.
6/ ________ you forget our address, you can find it in the phone book.
7/ You won’t pass your driving test ________ you drive more carefully.
8/ He’ll be ill ________ he doesn’t stop worrying so much.
9/ We’ll go to the beach tomorrow ________ it’s raining.
10/ We’ll never get there on time ________ the train leaves soon.
EXERCISE V : Use “if” in place of “unless”
1/ We won’t go out unless it stops raining.
2/ I will call the police unless you give back my bicycle.
3/ You wouldn’t be able to do this exercise unless your English were good.
4/ Unless we had enough rain, we couldn’t grow rice.
5/ The fishermen couldn’t have caught a lot of fish unless they had had good
6/ I wouldn’t buy it unless I could afford it.
7/ I would refuse to go unless they paid my expenses.
8/ I don’t agree with his economic policy. I wouldn’t vote for him unless he
9/ He wouldn’t have written unless he had heard news.
10/ You might not have a terrible toothache unless you went to the dentist
EXERCISE VI : The following sentences are first, second or third conditional. Put the
verbs in brackets into the appropriate form.
1/ We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. If it (be) … had
been … a nice day, we (go) … would have gone … for a picnic.
2/ Why don’t you explain everything to him ? If you (not tell) _______ him the
truth, I’m sure you (regret) _______ it one day.
3/ Mary was here not long ago. If you (come round) _______ earlier, you (see)
4/ Apparently, the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. If
that (happen) _______, the town (lose) _______ a great deal of money.
5/ I (help) _______ you with it if I (have) _______ more time but I’m afraid I
haven’t got any spare time at all at the moment.
6/ The government is expecting to win the next election, but if it (lose)
_______, the Prime Minister (resign) _______ from politics.
7/ I am so glad that you took me to your friend’s party. If we (not go) _______
there, I (never meet) _______ Kate Winset.
8/ It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. If fares (be) _______ cheaper,
I’m sure more people (use) _______ the train and leave their cars at home.
9/ If she (get) _______ that job she’s applied for, she (be) _______ delighted.
And I think she’s got a good chance of getting it.
10/ Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty.
It (be) _______ a disaster if it (happen) _______ in the middle of the day.
11/ The talks between the two leaders keep breaking down. If they (break
down) _______ again, it is possible that there (be) _______ a war between the two
12/ If Alison (know) _______ anything about car mechanics, I’m sure she
(help) _______ us fix the car, but I think she knows even less than we do.
13/ They’ve been married for twenty years now but I don’t think she (marry)
_______ him if she (know) _______ what a selfish man he was.
14/ Children spend too much time watching television and playing computer
games. I’m sure they (be) _______ happier if they (spend) _______ more time playing
15/ James has everything he wants but he’s always moaning. I’m sure that if I
(have) _______ so much money, I (not moan) _______ all the time.
EXERCISE VII : Rewrite the following sentences using If clauses.
a/ My brother will have enough money. He will buy a bicycle.
→ If my brother has enough money, he will buy a bicycle.
b/ She can’t speak English. She won’t apply for the job.
→ If she could speak English she would apply for the job.
c/ He wasn’t here. He didn’t have a lot of fun.
→ If he had been here, he would have had a lot of fun.
1/ She can’t be employed because she doesn’t have a college degree.
2/ I don’t have enough money. I can’t go on a long holiday this year.
3/ He is very slow, so we won’t give his such an important task.
4/ I’ll have to work this Sunday, so I shan’t join your picnic.
5/ He works overtime to get more money because he has to pay father’s debt.
6/ City life isn’t enjoyable because everything is very expensive.
7/ There are industrial factories inside the city, that’s why pollution can’t be
8/ Everything on the earth grows well because the sun always shines.
9/ There is a grammar error in this English composition, that’s why it can’t get
a full mark.
10/ I don’t have a typewriter. I can’t type it myself.
11/ I’ll buy a new hat. I’ll give it to you.
12/ You’ll ask the teacher. He’ll explain the lesson to you.
13/ Mary doesn’t see the sight. She can’t tell you about that.
14/ I don’t know his address. I can’t give it to you.
15/ He didn’t look a lot better because he didn’t shave more often.
16/ She was ill. She didn’t go to work.
17/ It was raining all morning. We didn’t go out.
18/ He was tired. He made a mistake.
19/ Peter didn’t write to me. I didn’t write to him.
20/ You didn’t ask Alice. She didn’t tell you the truth.
Baøi 3 : THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG
(THE PASSIVE VOICE)
* Theå chuû ñoäng (active voice) laø caùch ñaët caâu maø chuû töø ñoùng vai troø chuû ñoäng.
- Mr. Brown wrote the report yesterday.
- He has already finished his homework.
* Theå thuï ñoäng (passive voice) laø caùch ñaët caâu maø chuû töø ñoùng vai troø bò ñoäng.
- That house was built 100 years ago.
- Those windows are painted blue.
Passive sentence : S + be + past participle
1/ Haõy quan saùt ví duï sau :
* Active : Tom broke the chair yesterday.
S V O
* Passive : The chair was broken by Tom yesterday.
S be + P.P by doer
2/ Ghi nhôù: Caùch ñoåi moät caâu töø active sang passive :
* Laáy tuùc töø (O) trong caâu chuû ñoäng xuoáng laøm chuû töø (S) trong caâu thuï ñoäng.
* Nhaän xeùt xem ñoäng töø chia trong caâu chuû ñoäng ôû thì naøo, ta chia TO BE ôû thì
ñoù roài vieát ñoäng töø chính ôû daïng quaù khöù phaân töø (p.p).
* Laáy chuû töø (S) trong caâu chuû ñoäng xuoáng laøm doer trong caâu thuï ñoäng, nhôù
vieát BY ngay ñaèng tröôùc.
* Traïng töø giöõ nguyeân khoâng ñoåi vaø thöôøng ñaët cuoái caâu (neáu laø traïng töø chæ
3/ Moät vaøi ví duï khaùc :
+ (a) simple present : [Subject+ am / is / are + P.P ]
- Mr.Green teaches history.
History is taught by Mr.Green.
+ (b) present perfect : [ S + has / have + been + p.p ]
- He has just done his homework.
His homework has just been done by him.
+ (c) present continuous : [ S + am / is / are / + being + p.p
- She is cleaning the windows.
The windows are being cleaned by her.
+ (d) simple past : [ S + was / were + p.p
- The boss sacked ten workers.
Ten workers were sacked by the boss.
+ (e) past perfect : [ S + had been + p.p
- Mary had written the letter.
The letter had been written by Mary.
+ (f) Past continuous : [ S + was / were + being + p.p
- The police were questioning Tom.
Tom was being questioned by the police.
+ (g) simple future: [ S + will / shall + be + p.p
- John will deliver the letter.
The letter will be delivered by John.
+ (h) Modal verbs : [ S + must / can / may … + be + p.p
- He must do it right now.
It must be done by him right now.
+ (i) special structures : [ S + is / are going to + be + p.p]
- The engineers are going to build the bridge.
The bridge is going to be built by the engineers.
(… coøn aùp duïng vôùi caùc caáu truùc khaùc nhö : have to, had to, used to, ought to …
+ (j) 2 objects :
- They gave me a present yesterday.
I was given a present yesterday(by them).
A present was given to me yesterday(by them).
(Neáu sau BY laø them / people / someone / somebody…ta coù theå boû ñi)
+ (k) perception verb with bare infinitive : [ S + be – p.p + to inf ]
- I never hear him shout at his children.
He is never heard to shout at his children.
+ (l) perception verb with present partciple : [ S + be – p.p + V-ing ]
- I saw the boy coming into the room.
The boy was seen coming into the room.
+ (m) With ‘make’ : [ S + be – made + to inf ]
- They made me do it.
I was made to do it.
+ (n) With ‘let’ : [ S + be – let + bare inf ]
- They let him do it.
He was let do it.
+ (o) With ‘begin or start’: [ S + begin / start + to be + p.p ]
- They began to build the house in 1980.
The house began to be built in 1980.
+ (p) With “say, report, rumour…’:
- People say that prevention is better than cure.
It is said that prevention is better than cure.
Prevention is said to be better than cure. (…caùch ñoåi naøy ñöôïc aùp duïng
cho caùc ñoäng töø nhö: SAY, REPORT, THINK, BELIEVE, RUMOUR… RUMOUR…)
+ (q) caâu meänh leänh : [ Let + O + be – p.p ]
- Open the door, please.
Let the door be opened please.
EXERCISE I : Supply the correct tense and voice.
1/ Everyone (shock) … was shocked … by the news yesterday.
2/ Almost everyone (enjoy)… enjoyed … the lecture last night.
3/ English (speak) _________ all over the world.
4/ A terrible accident (happen) _________ right here at 6 o’clock last night.
5/ Mr. Smith (teach) _________ at this university since 1985.
6/ Not much (say) _________ about the matter since last week.
7/ He (borrow) _________ the money from her two weeks ago.
8/ A new textbook (publish) _________ by that company next year.
9/ Everything (go) _________ well so far. There (be) _________ no trouble
10/ Who the book (write) _________ by ?
11/ Think carefully. I’m sure you (remember) _________ his name.
12/ The report (examine) _________ now.
EXERCISE II : Turn into the passive voice.
1/ He is running his own restaurant.
2/ The secretary opens the mails every morning.
3/ The teacher doesn’t allow me to take the seat by the window.
4/ Tom’s absence worried his mother.
5/ They are building a new school in this town.
6/ You should finish the report right now.
7/ We shall discuss the matter in the afternoon.
8/ Are you going to post this letter ?
9/ He has to pay the bills before the fifth of the month.
10/ No one has opened that box for the past hundred years.
11/ The boy screamed while the dentist was pulling out one of his teeth.
12/ The enemy used to attack the bay.
13/ The fire has destroyed many houses.
14/ The children are carrying the chairs into the house.
15/ They awarded him the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1946.
16/ We saw him leave the office at 6 o’clock this morning.
17/ My parents didn’t let me go to school this morning because I was ill.
18/ You ought to water these plants once a week.
19/ People saw her driving a car near the bridge.
20/ They said that he was the richest man in the town.
21/ Scientists began to carry out researches on AIDS in 1981.
22/ The boy knew that they were praising him.
23/ Everybody believed that he had died of lung cancer.
24/ They hadn’t built the bridge when we first came here.
25/ I can assure you that I will arrange everything in time.
EXERCISE III : Change to the active voice.
1/ Progress in science is being made day after day.
2/ The palace was designed by a French architect.
3/ The road in front of my house has been paved.
4/ You can see that the dishes haven’t been washed.
5/ Our salaries will not be increased this year.
6/ Wasn’t that theatre built two years ago ?
7/ The problem may be discussed again.
8/ My brother has been offered a well-paid job.
9/ It is reported that the war started again in South America.
10/ I was told that I was going to be appointed manager of this company.
EXERCISE IV : Rewrite the following sentences.
1/ People don’t learn a foreign language in a short time.
2/ Did anyone ask any questions about me ?
3/ Henry wrote that book years ago, didn’t he ?
4/ I wasn’t introduced to any of the guests.
5/ What sort of research are they doing in the laborotary ?
6/ You should place matches out of reach of children.
7/ People say that inflation is getting out of control.
8/ We’ll have finished all the work by the weekend.
9/ I heard her singing very beautifully.
10/ Scientists started discovering the universe thousands of years ago.
11/ Nothing can be gained without effort.
12/ The robbers forced the bank manager to hand over the money.
13/ They let us go.
14/ The police stopped Tom on the highway and made him show his I.D card.
15/ Write your address on the back of the cheque.
16/ Where did your child find the keys ?
17/ Some people think he is a dangerous criminal.
18/ They will have to sign these documents.
19/ The workers are going to pull down that old building.
20/ No one told me the truth.
EXERCISE V : More exercises on Passive voice.
1. Yes - No questions :
a. Do they teach English here ?
b. Will you invite her to your wedding party ?
c. Did the teacher give some exercises ?
d. Is she going to write poem ?
e. Have they changed the window of the laboratory ?
f. Is she making big cakes for the party ?
g. Has Tom finished the work ?
h. Are the police making inquires about the thief.
i. Must we finish the test before ten ?
j. Will buses bring the children home ?
2. Wh - questions :
a. Why didn’t they help him ?
b. How many games has the team played ?
c. Where do people speak English ?
d. Who are they keeping in the kitchen ?
e. How can they open this safe ?
f. What books are people reading this year ?
g. How did the police find the lost man ?
h. Who looked after the children for you ?
i. How long have they waited for the doctor ?
j. What time can the boys hand in their papers ?
3. Sentences with two Objects :
a. The teacher gave each of us two exercise books.
b. Someone will tell him that news.
c. They had sent enough money to these poor boys.
d. They have given the women in most countries in the world the right to vote.
e. They paid me a lot of money to do the job.
4. Sentences with verb of reporting :
a. People believe that 13 is an unlucky number.
b. They rumoured that man was still living.
c. They declared that she won the competition.
d. They know that English is an international language.
e. People think that Jack London’s life and writings represent the American love
f. They say that John is the brightest student in class.
g. They reported that the President had suffered a heart attack.
h. They think that he has died a natural death.
i. They reported that the troops were coming.
j. People believed that the earth stood still.
5. Sentences with verbs “Continue and Begin” :
a. We’ll continue to use this computer.
b. They began to plant rubber trees in big plantations.
c. People can continue to enjoy natural resources.
d. People will continue to drink Coca - Cola in the 21st century.
e. American people begin to love football.
6. Sentences with Phrasal verbs :
a. They gave up the research after three hours.
b. Someone should look into the matter.
c. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you.
d. A neighbour is looking after the children.
e. Your story brings back pleasant memories.
7. Sentences with verbs of Perception :
a. I have heard her sing this song several times.
b. People saw him steal your car.
c. The teacher is watching them work.
d. He won’t let you do that silly thing again.
e. People don’t make the children work hard.
f. They made him work all day.
g. The detective saw the woman putting the jewelry in her bag.
h. The terrorists made the hostages lie down.
i. Police advise drivers to use an alternative route.
j. She helps me to do all these difficult exercises.
8. Sentences of order :
a. Open your book.
b. Take off your hat.
c. Don’t do that silly thing again.
d. Let’s tell them about it.
e. Don’t let the other see you.
9. Sentences with Advise, Beg, Order, Urge, Agree, Decide,...” :
a. She advised me to sell that house.
b. They begged us to help them.
c. He orders us to clean the floor.
d. He recommends me to do the job.
e. She urges him to visit her parents as soon as possible.
10. Some special sentences :
a. It is dangerous for us to take the short cut.
b. You need to have your hair cut.
c. Smoke filled the room.
d. You must see it to believe it.
e. He wants someone to take some photographs.
f. He likes people to call him “Sir”.
g. It’s your duty to do this work.
h. We enjoy writing letters.
i. Nobody has slept in this room for long time.
j. You ordered me about and I was tired of it.
Baøi 4 : MEÄNH ÑEÀ QUAN HEÄ
Meänh ñeà quan heä laø meänh ñeà ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng caùc ñaïi töø quan heä (relative
pronouns) nhö : who, whom, which, whose, that.
- The man who met me at the airport gave me the money.
Trong caâu treân, meänh ñeà “who met me at the airport” laø meänh ñeà quan heä trong ñoù
“who laø ñaïi töø quan heä ñöôïc duøng ñeå thay theá tieàn vò töø (antecedent) “the man” vaø
meänh ñeà coøn laïi “The man gave me the money” laø meänh ñeà chính.
1/ Haõy xem caùc ví duï :
- The man gave me the money. He met me at the airport.
The man who met me at the airport gave me the money.
- This is the man. We saw him at the party yesreday.
This is the man whom we saw at the party yesterday.
- The pencil belongs to me. It is in your pocket.
The pencil which is in your pocket belongs to me.
- The car is very expensive. He bought it.
The car which he bought is very expensive.
- There is the man. His wallet was stolen.
There is the man whose wallet was stolen.
- The tree should be cut down. The branches of the tree are dead.
The tree whose branches are dead should be cut down.
2/ Caùch duøng ñaïi töø quan heä:
Chuû töø (subject) Tuùc töø (object) Sôû höõu (possessive)
(Chæ ngöôøi) Who / that whom / who / that whose
For things, animals
(chæ vaät, thuù vaät) Which / that which / that whose
Thoâng thöôøng ta coù theå duøng that ñeå thay theá cho who whom hoaëc which.
- The man that met me at the airport gave me the money.
- This is the man that we saw at the party yesterday.
- The pencil that is in your pocket belongs to me.
- The car that he bought is very expensive.
3/ Phaân loaïi : Ta caàn phaân bieät meänh ñeà quan heä laøm hai loaïi : meänh ñeà xaùc ñònh
(defining relative clause) vaø meänh ñeà khoâng xaùc ñònh (non-defining relative clause) :
(*) Defining clause
clause:(hoaëc Restrictive clause)
- The man who met me at the airport gave me the money.
Ta goïi meänh ñeà who met me at the airport laø meänh ñeà quan heä xaùc ñònh vì noù raát
caàn thieát ñeå ñònh nghóa hoaëc giaûi thích cho tieàn vò töø the man Neáu khoâng coù noù, töø the
man seõ raát mô hoà vaø ta khoâng bieát ngöôøi ñaøn oâng ñoù laø ai.
- The book (which / that) you lent me is very interesting.
- The man (whom / that) you met yesterday is coming to my house for
(*) Non-defining clause : (hoaëc Non-restrictive clause)
- Shakespeare, who wrote “Romeo and Juliet”, died in 1616.
Ta goïi meänh ñeà who wrote “Romeo and Juliet” laø meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng xaùc ñònh
vì noù chæ boå tuùc theâm nghóa cho tieàn vò töø Shakespeare neân duø coù boû ñi meänh ñeà naøy
thì nghóa cuûa caâu vaên vaãn roõ raøng. Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng xaùc ñònh thöôøng ñöôïc ngaên
caùch bôûi daáu phaåy (tröôùc vaø sau meänh ñeà) vaø khoâng ñöôïc duøng that ñeå thay theá cho
who whom hay which.
- My brother Jack, who came here last night, is an engineer.
- That house, which was built a few months ago, doesn’t look modern.
- Vietnam, which lies in Southeast Asia, is rich in coal.
Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng xaùc ñònh ñöôïc duøng khi tieàn vò töø laø tieáng ñöôïc xaùc ñònh :
thöôøng laø danh töø rieâng chæ ngöôøi hay ñòa danh (Mr. Brown, Vietnam…), hoaëc danh töø
ñi vôùi caùc tính töø chæ ñònh (this, that…) hay tính töø sôû höõu (my, his, her, their…) hoaëc do
ta töï qui ñònh laáy.
- A man, who said he knew my father, asked me for money.
4/ where, when vaø why trong meänh ñeà quan heä :
- That is the village in which I used to live.
That is the village where I used to live.
- Sunday is the day on which most people rest.
Sunday is the day when most people rest.
- There must be a reason for which you said that.
There must be a reason why you said that.
In (on / at) which --- (place)-- where
On (in / at) which ---(time )-- when
For which --(reason)-- why
Where vaø when coù theå ñöôïc duøng ñeå giôùi thieäu meänh ñeà xaùc ñònh vaø meänh ñeà
khoâng xaùc ñònh.
- We visited the town where I was born.(defining)
- I bought them at the supermarket, where I met Mrs.Brown.(non-defining)
- I saw the film last year, when I was in Paris.(non-defining)
- I think that was the time when I lost all my money.(defining)
Why thöôøng ñöôïc duøng trong meänh ñeà xaùc ñònh vaø thöôøng theo sau a reason hay the
- That is the reason why I didn’t come to the party yesterday.
Where when vaø why ñöôïc goïi laø traïng töø quan heä (relative adverbs)
EXERCISE I : Write who, that, which, or nothing to complete these sentences :
1/ Have you got the money ___________ I lent you yesterday ?
2/ Peter, ___________ I had seen earlier, wasn’t at the party.
3/ This is the machine ___________ cost half a million pounds.
4/ Mary, ___________ had been listening to the conversation, looked angry.
5/ Have you read the book ___________ I gave you ?
6/ The house, ___________ they bought three months ago, looks lovely.
7/ Mrs.Jackson, ___________ had been very ill, died yesterday.
8/ Is this the person ___________ stole your handbag ?
9/ The dog, ___________ had been very quiet, suddenly started barking.
10/ I didn’t receive the letters ___________ she sent me.
11/ My mother, ___________ hadn’t been expecting visitors, looked surprised.
12/ The old man, ___________ had been talking to them earlier, knew that
they were in the building.
13/ The horse, ___________ had been injured by the flying stones, was very
14/ We didn’t like the secetary ___________ the agency sent.
15/ I didn’t find the money ___________ you said you’d left.
EXERCISE II : Join each pair of sentences using relative pronouns :
1/ This is the man. I met him in Paris.
2/ I wanted the painting. You bought it.
3/ This is the chair. My parents gave it to me.
4/ She’s the woman. She telephoned the police.
5/ He’s the person. He wanted to buy your house.
6/ We threw out the computer. It never worked properly.
7/ This is the lion. It’s been ill recently.
8/ The man was badly injured. He was driving the car.
9/ The children broke the window. They live in the next street.
10/ That’s the woman. I was telling you about her.
EXERCISE III : Combine these pairs of sentences using relative pronouns:
1/ There’s the lady. Her dog was killed.
2/ That’s the man. He’s going to buy the company.
3/ He’s the person. His car was stolen.
4/ She’s the new doctor.The doctor’s coming to the hospital next week.
5/ She’s the journalist. Her article was on the front page of The Times.
6/ They’re the people. Their shop burned down last week.
7/ That’s the sales director. He’s leaving in March.
8/ I’m the person. You stayed in my flat.
9/ That’s the boy. He’s just got a place at university.
10/ I’m the one. My flat was broken into.
EXERCISE IV : Join each pair of sentences using relative pronouns :
1/ The man didn’t come back again. I shouted at him.
2/ The television never worked again. I dropped it.
3/ The machine was broken. I hired it.
4/ The clothes were beautiful. She bought some clothes.
5/ The wall fell down after three weeks. They built the wall.
6/ The policeman wasn’t very helpful. I asked him.
7/ I didn’t really like the car. We bought it.
8/ I lost the money. I borrowed it from John.
9/ I really liked the new teacher. They sent the new teacher.
10/ I sacked a sales assistant. I had a terrible argument with him.
EXERCISE V : Write where, when, or why to complete these sentences.
1/ We visited the school ___________ my father taught.
2/ I met her last month, ___________ she came to our house.
3/ We all looked at the place ___________ the fire had started.
4/ Did they tell you the reason ___________ they were late?
5/ The cat sat on the wall ___________ it had a good view of the birds.
6/ They arrived in the evening, at a time ___________ we were all out.
7/ I couldn’t understand the reason ___________ they were so rude.
8/ I met him in the cafeù ___________ he was working as a waiter.
9/ I listen to music late at night, ___________ the children have gone to bed.
10/ I bought them in August, ___________ I was in France.
EXERCISE VI : Join each pair of sentences using relative pronouns or adverbs.
1/ We need a room. We can study in that room.
2/ Swimming makes people strong. It is a good sport.
3/ This is Mrs.Jones. Her son won the championship last year.
4/ The Smiths were given rooms in the hotel. Their house had been destroyed
in the explosion.
5/ He invited her to eat out on a day. It rained heavily on that day.
6/ The house was built in 1945. They are living in that house.
7/ The reason was that he didn’t want to make her worried. He didn’t tell the
truth for that reason.
8/ The day was sunny. She arrived on that day.
9/ I know the woman. You bought the car from her son.
10/ Are you the man ? The man won the first prize.
Baøi 5 : CAÂU TÖÔØNG THUAÄT
Coù hai caùch thuaät laïi lôøi moät ngöôøi khaùc noiù: caùch tröïc tieáp vaø caùch giaùn tieáp.
Trong caâu tröïc tieáp (direct speech), ta nhaéc laïi nguyeân vaên lôøi ngöôøi ñaõ noùi.
- He said : “I have lost my pen.”
Trong caâu giaùn tieáp (indrect speech) hay caâu töôøng thuaät (reported speech), ta dieãn
taû tö töôûng trong caâu ngöôøi khaùc noùi maø khoâng caàn laäp laïi nguyeân vaên caâu noùi cuûa hoï.
- He said that he had lost his pen.
A. Caâu phaùt bieåu. (statements in reported speech)
1/ Ví duï :
- He said : “ I have lost my pen this morning.”
He said that he had lost his pen that morning.
- She said to him: “I will go with you tomorrow.”
She told him that she would go with him the next day.
2/ Ghi nhôù : muoán ñoåi moät caâu tröïc tieáp sang caâu giaùn tieáp, ta phaûi :
+ Giöõ nguyeân ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu said hoaëc ñoåi said to thaønh told neáu coù tuùc töø.
+ Boû daáu hai chaám (:) vaø ngoaëc keùp (“…”) roài theâm lieân töø that.
+ Thay ñoåi ñaïi töø nhaân xöng, tính töø sôû höõu… theo qui taéc sau : Ngoâi thöù 1 ñoåi
thaønh ngoâi thöù nhö chuû töø ôû meänh ñeà chính. Ngoâi thöù 2 ñoåi thaønh ngoâi thöù cuûa tuùc töø.
Ngoâi thöù 3 giöõ nguyeân khoâng ñoåi.
+ Thay ñoåi thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong caâu tröïc tieáp baèng caùch cho luøi veà quaù khöù moät
baäc. Cuï theå nhö sau :
Direct speech Reported speech
- simple present - simple past
- present continuous - past continuous
- present perfect - past perfect
- simple past - past perfect
- past continuous - past perfect continuous
- present perfect cont - past perfect continuous
- simple future - present conditional (should/would)
- past perfect - unchanged (khoâng ñoåi)
- perfect conditional - unchanged
+ Thay ñoåi moät soá töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán.
- now - then
- today / tonight - that day / that night
- tomorrow - the following day / the next day
- yesterday - the previous day / the day before
- next week / month… - the following week / month…
- last week /month… - the week before /the month before…
- the day before yesterday - two days before
- the day after tomorrow - in two days’ time
- ago - before
- tomorrow morning - the following morning
- last Tuesday - the Tuesday before
- right now - at once
- here - there
- this / these - that / those
- He said : “ I’ll come here to take this book.”
He said that he would come there to take that book.
- They said to us : “You must do this work right now.”
They told us that we had to do that work at once.
Chuù yù :
* Khi caâu tröïc tieáp bieåu thò moät taäp quaùn, moät söï thaät hay moät chaân lyù thì khi ñoåi
sang caâu giaùn tieáp thì cuûa ñoäng töø khoâng thay ñoåi.
- The lecturer said : “The earth moves round the sun.”
The lecturer said that the earth moves round the sun. sun.
- The teacher said to them : “The Second World War ended in 1945.”
The teacher told them that the Second World War ended in 1945.
* Khi caâu ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû hieän taïi ñôn, thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong caâu giaùn tieáp
khoâng ñoåi vaø caùc töø chæ thôøi gian hoaëc nôi choán vaãn giöõ nguyeân.
- The doctor says to her : “You will have to stay here until tomorrow.”
The doctor tells her that she will have to stay here until tomorrow.
B. CAÂU HOÛI. (Questions in reported speech)
1/ Ví duï :
- She said to me : “Do you like swimming ?”
She asked me if I liked swimming.
- Tom said : “Has she finished her home work ?”
Tom wanted to know if she had finished her homework.
- He asked me : “Why did you come home so late last night?”
He asked me why I had come home so late the night before.
- Mary said : “ What’s he doing now?”
Mary wondered what he was doing then.
2/ Ghi nhôù :
+ Ñoåi said thaønh asked (coù hoaëc khoâng tuùc töø theo sau), wondered hay wanted to
know (khoâng coù tuùc töø).
+ Boû daáu hai chaám (:), daáu ngoaëc keùp (“…”) vaø daáu chaám hoûi (?) vaø giöõ laïi question-
word (nhö what, where, how neáu laø caâu hoûi noäi dung (Wh-questions) hoaëc theâm if
(hay whether neáu caâu hoûi coù hay khoâng (Yes-no questions).
C. CAÂU MEÄNH LEÄNH (Commands in reported speech)
1/ Ví duï :
- The teacher said : “Go to the blackboard, John.”
The teacher told John to go to the blackboard.
- He said to them : “Don’t be late tomorrow.”
He told them not to be late the next day.
2/ Ghi nhôù :
+ Ñoåi said hay said to thaønh told hay asked vaø buoäc phaûi coù tuùc töø theo sau.
+ Duøng to ñeå thay theá cho daáu hai chaám vaø ngoaëc keùp khi laø caâu meänh leänh xaùc
ñònh vaø duøng not to khi laø caâu meänh leänh phuû ñònh.
Toùm taét Caâu giaùn tieáp (reported speech)
Statements * S + said + (that) + clause
(Caâu phaùt bieåu) * S + told + O + (that) + clause
Commands * S + told + O + to infinitive
(Caâu meänh leänh) * infinitive
S + told + O + not + to infinitive
S + asked + (O) + wh-… + clause
Wh-questions * wh-
S + wondered + wh-… + clause
(Caâu hoûi noäi dung) * wh-
S + wanted to know + wh-… + clause
S + asked + (O) + if / whether + clause
Yes-no questions * S + wondered + if /whether + clause
(Caâu hoûi coù khoâng) * S + wanted to know + if / whether + clause
EXERCISE I : Put into the reported speech :
1/ Tom said : “I want to buy a pocket calculator for my father.”
2/ She said : “I once spent a summer in this village.”
3/ The nurse said : “The patient in this room didn’t obey your orders, Doctor.”
4/ They said to me : “You taught us English last year.”
5/ Mr.Brown said : “Our trip cost us two thousand dollars.”
6/ He said to her : “ I can’t find my hat anywhere in this room.”
7/ My father said to them : “My secretary is going to finish this job.”
8/ They said : “We can’t meet you here either today or tomorrow.”
9/ My mother said : “I think it won’t rain tomorrow.”
10/ He said : “Your car has been stolen, John.”
11/ They said : “The river is rising early this year.”
12/ He said : “I’ll expect her to come soon.”
13/ Our teacher said : “ World War II broke out in 1939.”
14/ The students said : “ We’ll be sitting for our next exam next Monday.”
15/ He said : “ I’m going to finish this work.”
EXERCISE II : Change to the reported speech:
1/ Mr. Smith said : “Where are you going on your vacation this year ?”
2/ She said : “Did the mechanis finish repairing your car ?”
3/ She said : “Why has David been looking so miserable lately ?”
4/ I asked my friend : “Was anyone hurt in the car accident last month ?”
5/ She asked me : “How old are you now ?”
6/ He said to her : “Have you been to town today ?”
7/ John said : “How long does it take you to get to London, Mary ?”
8/ The policeman asked the little girl : “What’s your name ?”
9/ Mr. Green said to his secretary : “Who did you talk to a few minutes ago ?”
10/ Paul said : “Can you swim, Mary ?”
11/ He said : “Where can I find her in this town ?”
12/ She asked her son : “Do you know which is the cup you used ?”
13/ Helen said : “What did you say, Jack ?”
14/ She said to him : “ Why didn’t you get up early this morning ?”
15/ He said : “Will it rain tonight ?”
EXERCISE III : Turn into the reported speech:
1/ The manager said : “ Come into my office, please.”
2/ The teacher said ro us : “Don’t make so much noise.”
3/ Mr.Green said : “Please come to our dinner tonight, Bill.”
4/ Susan said to Tom : “Don’t call me again at this late hour.”
5/ She said to the boy : “Show me what you have in your hand.”
6/ The policeman ordered : “Stay where you are and don’t touch anything.”
7/ The old lady said : “Will you please water these flowers for me.”
8/ She said : “Don’t leave your coat on this chair.”
9/ She said to him : “Don’t speak to me like that and behave yourself.”
10/ Peter said : “Would you mind lending me your dictionary till next
EXERCISE IV : Rewrite the following sentences:
1/ The flight attendant said : “Don’t forget to fasten your seat belts.”
The flight attendant reminded _________________________________
2/ The policeman said to her : “Show me your driving licence.”
The policeman ordered ____________________________________
3/ He said : “Did you see Mary yesterday ?”
He wanted to know ______________________________________
4/ He said : “Would you mind telling me the time ?”
He told _______________________________________________
5/ I said to my friend : “When did you buy your new car ?
I asked ________________________________________________
6/ My friend said to me : “We have known everything about that.”
My friend told ___________________________________________
7/ I wondered why there were so many people at the station that day.
I said : “__________________________________________________
8/ The teacher asked whether we had found the solution to the problem yet.
The teacher asked us: “_______________________________________
9/ He ordered us not to touch anything in that room.
He said : “_________________________________________________
Baøi 6 : DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ & ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU
( GERUNDS & INFINITIVES )
A. DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ : (Gerund)
Danh ñoäng töø coù caáu truùc gioáng nhö hieän taïi phaân töø ( töùc laø ñoäng töø theâm ING) :
talking, learning, cutting, lying…
Danh ñoäng töø, nhö teân goïi, laø ñoäng töø duøng nhö danh töø. Danh ñoäng töø chuû yeáu ñöùng
ôû vò trí, vaø thöïc hieän chöùc naêng, cuûa moät danh töø trong caâu. Noù thöôøng ñöôïc :
1/ Duøng laøm chuû töø : (subject)
- Swimming is good for our health.
- Being friendly will bring you friends.
2/ Duøng laøm tuùc töø cho ñoäng töø : (object of a verb)
- These boys like swimming
- My brother practises speaking English every dayday.
3/ Duøng laøm boå ngöõ cho chuû töø : (subject complement)
- My hobby is swimming
- Seeing is believing
4/ Duøng laøm tuùc töø cho giôùi töø : (object of a preposition)
- He is fond of swimming
- She is interested in learning English
5/ Duøng trong caâu ngaên caám ngaén (short prohibition) hoaëc ñeå thaønh laäp danh töø keùp
- No smoking.
- No talking, please.
- a swimming pool.
- a dining room.
- a washing machine.
6/ Duøng sau tính töø sôû höõu :
- Please forgive my coming late.
- His driving carelessly often causes accidents.
7/ Duøng sau moät soá ñoäng töø vaø moät soá caùch dieãn ñaït nhaát ñònh nhö : admit, advise,
avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, hate, keep, like, mind, practise,
postpone, quit, risk, suggest, can’t help, can’t bear, can’t stand, be worth, be busy,
it’s no use, there’s no…
- We enjoy listening to music.
- I can’t help laughing when she makes jokes.
B. ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU : (Infinitive)
Ñoäng töø nguyeân maãu thöôøng coù giôùi töø to ñöùng tröôùc (to do, to learn, to help, to
advise…) vaø ñöôïc duøng trong nhöõng tröôøng hôïp sau :
1/ Laøm chuû töø (subject), tuùc töø (object) hoaëc boå ngöõ (complement) trong caâu :
- To conceal the truth from her was foolish.
- He wanted to become a spaceman.
- What he asked for is to be left alone.
2/ Laøm tính töø boå nghóa cho danh töø :
- He was the first man to leave the room.
- English is an important language to master.
3/ Laøm traïng töø dieãn taû caùc noäi dung sau :
* Muïc ñích cuûa haønh ñoäng.
- He went to the station to meet her.
- He bought a dictionary to study English.
* Keát quaû, haäu quaû. (sau TOO +Adj / Adv)
- She is too tired to go for a walk.
- The box was too heavy for her to carry.
* Hieäu quaû. (sau Adj / Adv + ENOUGH)
- I’m strong enough to carry that heavy box.
- He isn’t rich enough to travel everywhere by taxi.
4/ Duøng sau moät soá ñoäng töø nhaát ñònh nhö : afford, agree, arrange, decide, demand,
expect, fail, hope, intend, learn, manage, need, offer, plan, pretend,
promise,refuse, threaten, want, wish, would like…
- They promised to come back soon.
- He can’t afford to take a taxi.
…vaø duøng sau moät soá ñoäng töø coù tuùc töø (verb + obj + to inf) nhö : advise, allow, ask,
beg, encourage, expect, forbid, force, help, invite, order, permit, persuade, prefer,
remind, teach, tell, want, warn…
- They don’t allow us to smoke in the office.
- I taught myself to play the guitar.
+ Chuù yù : Moät soá ñoäng töø coù theå theo sau bôûi danh ñoäng töø hoaëc ñoäng töø nguyeân
maãu nhöng coù söï khaùc bieät veà nghóa trong caâu.
(*) Remember + gerund : nhôù laïi vieäc ñaõ thöïc hieän.
- I remember posting the letter.
Remember + to infinitive : nhôù ñeå thöïc hieän.
- I remember to post the letter.
(*) Stop + gerund : ngöng thöïc hieän vieäc ñang laøm.
- She stopped mending the dress.
Stop + to infinitive : ngöng laøm moät vieäc gì khaùc ñeå laøm vieäc naøy.
- He stopped to have a drink.
(*) Try + gerund : thöû laøm vieäc gì .
- I try writing in blue ink to see if my handwriting is better.
Try + to infinitive : coá gaéng laøm vieäc gì.
- They tried to work as hard as they could.
(*) Mean + gerund : mang yù nghóa.
- Failure in the exam means having to learn one more year.
Mean + to infinitive : döï ñònh laøm vieäc gì.
- He means to take the coming exam.
(*) Forget + gerund : queân ñieàu gì ñaõ xaûy ra.
- I forgot telling her this story.
Forget + to infinitive : queân laøm ñieàu gì.
- I forgot to tell her about this.
(*) Regret + gerund : hoái tieác vieäc ñaõ xaûy ra.
- She regrets going to a village school.
Regret + to infinitive : hoái tieác seõ laøm vieäc gì.
- The party was great. He regretted not to go there.
C. ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU KHOÂNG “TO”. (Bare Infinitive)
Ñaây laø ñoäng töø nguyeân theå khoâng ñi keøm vôùi to (infinitive without to) vaø ñöôïc söû
duïng trong caùc tröôøng hôïp sau :
1/ Duøng sau caùc ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát (Modal verbs) nhö : can, could, may, might,
must, ought to…
- You may go now.
- They must finish the work by now.
2/ Duøng sau caùc ñoäng töø : HAVE, LET, MAKE, HELP…
- I helped the child tidy his desk.
- He had a painter paint the gate.
- They let him enter the room without a ticket.
- My parents make me go to bed early.
3/ Duøng sau BUT, EXCEPT vôùi nghóa “ngoaïi tröø”
- Why don’t you do anything but complain?
- She agreed to do everything but help him with the homework.
4/ Duøng sau caùc ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan nhö : see, watch, hear, notice, observe, spot…
- We heard them sing all morning.
- He saw the thief enter the hall.
Chuù yù : nhö ta ñaõ bieát hieän taïi phaân töø (present participle) coù theå ñöôïc duøng cho caùc
ñoäng töø treân ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñang tieáp dieãn. Coøn ñoäng töø nguyeân theå duøng trong
tröôøng hôïp naøy chæ haønh ñoäng ñaõ hoaøn taát.
- I watched them playing football for a while. (traän ñaáu vaãn ñang tieáp dieãn)
- I watched them play football yesterday afternoon. (xem toaøn boä traän ñaáu)
EXERCISE I : Supply the correct form of the verbs :
1/ Could I (see) _________ Mr. Brown, please ?
2/ He told me (try) _________ (come) _________ early.
3/ I wanted her (learn) _________ English.
4/ Will you (help) _________ me (move) _________ this desk ?
5/ Please (let) _________ me (know) _________ your opinion.
6/ Would you like (paint) _________ your bike or should I (have) _________ a
(do) _________ it for you ?
7/ He warned me (not come) _________ late.
8/ There’s no (tell) _________ what might (happen) _________.
9/ Did you (see) _________ Tom (try) _________ (reach) _________ the top of
the dresser ?
- He’s too short (reach) _________ it.
10/ We had to (ask) _________ the students (stop) _________ (make)
_________ so much noise.
11/ I can’t understand his (want) _________ (buy) _________ such an
12/ I couldn’t stand (be) _________ alone in the dark room.
13/ They don’t want us (mention) _________ their (come) _________ late.
14/ You must remember (lock) _________ the door before (leave) _________
15/ After (get) _________ (know) _________ her at school, he finished by
(ask) _________ her address.
EXERCISE II : Use the correct verb form :
1/ The children are busy (collect) _________ shells on the beach.
2/ The teacher promised (help) _________ us (prepare) _________ for the
3/ We regret (say) _________ that the lecture was dull and wasn’t worth
(listen) _________ to.
4/ There’s no (deny) _________ that he enjoys (listen) _________ to his own
5/ Is (boil) _________ or (fry) _________ the best way of (cook) _________
this fish ?
6/ It’s no use your (ask) _________ him (lend) _________ you any money.
7/ Can you manage(finish) _________ (write) _________ these reports by
8/ He advised me( consider) _________ all the facts before (decide)
_________ (accept) _________ the job.
9/ They refused (allow) _______ us (go) _______ in without (sign) _______ the
10/ My uncle used to (show) _________ me where (go) _________ and what
11/ There’s nothing like (walk) _________ as a means of (keep) _________ fit.
12/ Your doctor advised (go) _________ to bed early, so I really can’t
understand your (want) _________ (stay) _________ up late.
13/ We considered (give) _________ her a dress for her birthday, but couldn’t
help (buy) _________ her some flowers, too.
14/ There’s nothing (be) _________ done about it now except (tell) _________
the police the truth.
15/ I remember (hear) ________ him (say) ________ the grass needed (cut)
16/ Would you mind (keep) _________ quiet for a moment ? I’m trying (fill)
_________ in a form.
- It’s no use (ask) _________ children (keep) _________ quiet. They can’t help
(make) _________ noise.
17/ The miser spent all his time (count) _________ his money and (think)
_________ up new hiding places. He kept (move) _________ it about because he was
terrified of (be) _________ robbed. He used to (get) _________ up at night (make)
_________ sure it was still there.
18/ They don’t allow (smoke) _________ in the auditorium; they don’t want
(risk) _________ (set) _________ it on fire.
19/ Would you like me (turn) _________ down the radio a bit ?
- No, it’s all right. I’m used to (work) _________ with the radio on.
20/ We couldn’t help (laugh) ________ when he was making fun of himself.
EXERCISE III : Rewrite the following sentences.
1/ Would you close the door, please ?
- Would you mind _______________________________________ ?
2/ They didn’t allow us to smoke in here.
- They didn’t let _____________________________________________.
3/ My teacher advised buying that book.
- My teacher advised us _______________________________________.
4/ The thief forced the bank manager to lie on the ground.
- The thief made _____________________________________________.
5/ He has studied English for six years.
- He began __________________________________________________.
6/ It is necessary to master English.
- Mastering __________________________________________________.
7/ He spent two hours writing the essay.
- It took _____________________________________________________.
8/ He is too young to ride a motorbike.
- He isn’t ____________________________________________________.
9/ The bag was so heavy that she couldn’t carry it upstairs.
- The bag was too _____________________________________________.
10/ He expects to hear from her as soon as possible.
- He is looking forward _________________________________________.
Baøi 7 : CAÙC HÌNH THÖÙC NHAÁN MAÏNH
(FORMS OF EMPHASIS)
A. NHAÁN MAÏNH ÑOÄNG TÖØ.
Ñeå nhaán maïnh ñoäng töø trong caâu xaùc ñònh, ta ñaët DO hoaëc DOES (neáu ôû thì hieän taïi
ñôn) vaø DID (neáu ôû quaù khöù ñôn) tröôùc caùc ñoäng töø ôû daïng nguyeân maãu khoâng coù TO.
- I did see him at the airport yesterday.
- I know that you don’t expect me to go; but I do go.
- He does wish he could speak English fluently.
Ñeå cho caâu meänh leänh trôû neân lòch söï hôn hoaëc thuyeát phuïc hôn, ta duøng DO tröôùc
caùc caâu meänh leänh.
- Do help me, please.
- Do be careful when you cross the road.
Trong caâu phuû ñònh, ta ñaët NOT sau ñoäng töø hoaëc duøng NEVER tröôùc DO, DOES,
- I know not anything about that.
- They succeeded not in their scheme although they tried very hard.
- She never does help her friends.
- I never did hear anything like that before.
Trong caâu meänh leänh phuû ñònh, ta ñaët YOU giöõa DON’T vaø ñoäng töø.
- Don’t you forget it.
- Don’t you speak to me like that.
B. NHAÁN MAÏNH MOÄT TÖØ, MOÄT CUÏM TÖØ, MOÄT MEÄNH ÑEÀ.
Ta duøng caáu truùc “It + is / was + ……… + that…” ñeå nhaán maïnh moät töø (word), moät
cuïm töø (phrase) hay moät meänh ñeà (clause). Neáu meänh ñeà chính ôû hieän taïi, ta duøng “It
is ……. that…”; coøn neáu meänh ñeà chính ôû quaù khöù, ta duøng “It was……that…” .
- It was Mr.Brown that I met at the theatre yesterday. (nhaán maïnh moät töø)
- It was at the theatre that I met Mr.Brown yesterday. (nhaán maïnh 1 cuïm
- It was because it rained heavily that we couldn’t go to the lecture. (1
- It is the smoke from that factory chimney that pollutes the air.
C. NHAÁN MAÏNH BAÈNG CAÙCH ÑAÛO NGÖÕ. (Inversion of subject and verb)
Hình thöùc ñaûo ngöõ thöôøng ñöôïc duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh khi :
1/ Ñöa traïng töø phuû ñònh (negative adverbs) hay cuïm töø töông ñöông (equivalents)
ra ñaàu caâu. Thöôøng laø nhöõng töø nhö : hardly, scarcely, no longer, never, never before,
seldom, rarely, nowhere, in no circumstances, on no account, not until, not only… but
also, no sooner… than….
- Never have I seen such a wonderful thing.
- Seldom does she help her friends.
- Nowhere else can he find so many happy people.
- Rarely did he smile at me.
2/ Ñöa ONLY, SO, MANY A TIME, SUCH… ra ñaàu caâu.
- Only then did she realize her mistakes.
- So big was the liner that it couldn’t enter the harbour.
3/ Xoùa lieân töø IF trong caâu ñieàu kieän.
- Had I met you before, we could have been friends.
- Were I rich, I would travel around the world.
- Did I know him better, I would give him some advice.
4/ Ñöa traïng töø chæ nôi choán (adverb of place) ra ñaàu caâu keát hôïp vôùi caùc ñoäng töø
chæ söï chuyeån ñoäng nhö : lie, stay, stand, sit, come, move, go… (Trong tröôøng hôïp naøy
khi ñaûo ngöõ ta khoâng duøng caùc trôï ñoäng töø.)
- On the top of the hill stands a village school.
- By his side sat his faithful dog.
- Near the church lies an old ruined cottage.
- There comes the train.
EXERCISE I : Emphasize the underlined verbs :
1/ Everyone says I work hard; I work hard.
2/ He promised to write to me, and he sent me a letter.
3/ Tom doesn’t like getting up early.
4/ Ask me if you want anything.
5/ We don’t like English grammar, but we want to learn English.
6/ Bring John with you the next time you come.
7/ I saw a tall man, but I didn’t see his face.
8/ He tries to learn although you think he doesn’t.
9/ Don’t do that again or I’ll call the police.
10/ He didn’t say much, but what he said was important.
EXERCISE II : Give emphasis to the underlined words, phrsaes or clauses :
1/ I paid a visit to Ha Long Bay in 1966.
2/ The Socialist Republic of Vietnam came into being on July 2, 1976.
3/ Mr. Green went to work in spite of his bad cold.
4/ When I left for work this morning, it was raining hard.
5/ I want to see the manager; I don’t want to see his assistant.
6/ The flight was put off because the weather was too bad.
7/ I met Mary at the party last night.
8/ The words do not matter so much as the way you say them.
9/ They couldn’t solve this serious problem.
10/ Did you start the flight or was it someone else ?
EXERCISE III : Put the underlined words or phrases at the front position :
1/ He has never in his life been so happy.
2/ He managed to pass the examination only by hard work.
3/ I had hardly got into the bathroom when the telephone rang.
4/ The ball went over the fence and into our neighbour’s garden.
5/ The doctor was so angry that none of the nurses dared to say a word.
6/ I can’t explain the situation in another way.
7/ He had no sooner arrived than he began to make trouble.
8/ We have made real progress only within the last fifty years.
9/ If the union were to call a strike, the situation would become very difficult.
10/ This instrument is not only expensive but also useless.
EXERCISE IV : Rewrite the following sentences :
1/ We have never seen such a clean and tidy house before.
Never before __________________________________________
2/ Rarely does she come to see me now.
3/ He didn’t realize he had lost his wallet until he got home.
Not until ____________________________________________
4/ My father no longer works for this company.
No longer ____________________________________________
5/ So suspicious did he become that he didn’t believe whatever she had said.
6/ Not only did he refuse to help me but he also made fun of me.
7/ This switch mustn’t be touched on any account.
On no account __________________________________________
8/ They know little about it.
9/ A great castle stood directly in front of them.
- In front of them __________________________________________
10/ Were I in your place, I would refuse his invitation.
11/ We met him just a moment ago.
It was just ______________________________________________
12/ Many a time did he tell her that he loved her.
13/ An enormous frog sat on the grass.
14/ Please turn down the radio.
15/ She wanted to buy a blue hat.
She did ________________________________________________
Baøi 8 : MEÄNH ÑEÀ SAU WISH
CLAUSES AFTER WISH
Ñoäng töø WISH thöôøng ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû lôøi ao öôùc khoâng theå naøo xaûy ra ñöôïc ôû quaù
khöù, hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai.
A. Present wish : S1 + wish + (that) + S2 + past simple
* yù nghóa : Dieãn taû lôøi ao öôùc traùi vôùi hieän taïi.
- I wish that I had enough time to finish my homework.
(= I don’t have enough time)
- They wish they didn’t have to go to class today. (= They have to go to class)
- He wishes he was rich. (= He is not rich.)
B. Past wish : S1 + wish + (that) + S2 + past perfect
* yù nghóa : Dieãn taû lôøi ao öôùc traùi vôùi quaù khöù.
- I wish that I had gone to the cinema last night. (= I didn’t go to the cinema.)
- She wishes she had been here yesterday. (= She wasn’t here yesterday.)
C. Future wish : S1 + wish + (that) + S2 + could / would + verb
* yù nghóa : Dieãn taû lôøi ao öôùc khoâng theå naøo xaûy ra ôû töông lai.
- We wish you could come to the party tonight. (= You can’t come.)
- Mary wishes that she would come with us. (= She won’t come with us.)
EXERCISE I : Supply the correct tense of the verbs :
1/ I wish I (be) _______ here yesterday. You all seem to have had such a good time.
2/ Tom wasn’t able to come to the party.I wish he (come) _______ to my party.
3/ He wishes he (not tell) _______ her the whole story yesterday.
4/ I wish tomorrow (be) _______ a holiday.
5/ I wish I (learn) _______ to play a musical instrument when I was young.
6/ It’s cold and I hate the cold weather. I wish it (not be) _______ so cold.
7/ I wish he (be) _______ with us now.
8/ He didn’t know anything. He wishes I (let) _______ him know earlier.
9/ I didn’t understand. I wish he (speak) _______ more slowly.
10/ I’m sorry I can’t help you. I wish I (help) _______ you.
EXERCISE II : Rewrite the following sentences :
1/ He wants to make a great fortune.
- He wishes _________________________________
2/ She won’t visit me again.
- I wish ____________________________________
3/ It was silly of me not to buy that dress.
- I wish ____________________________________
4/ I’m sorry I told him about it.
- I wish ____________________________________
5/ John didn’t take your advice.
- He wishes __________________________________
6/ She isn’t a millionairess.
- She wishes __________________________________
7/ I regret going to the party last night. It was very boring.
- I wish ____________________________________
8/ He can’t swim.
- He wishes __________________________________
9/ You’re making a lot of noise.
- I wish ____________________________________
10/ The washing machine broke down and I didn’t know how to repair it.
- I wish ____________________________________
EXERCISE III : Rewrite the following sentences using WISH :
1/ He’s sorry that he isn’t strong enough.
2/ She was disappointed that the thief had stolen the picture.
3/ I’m sorry that I don’t live near my factory.
4/ They’re sorry they didn’t book their seats.
5/ It’s pity he didn’t work hard.
6/ I’d like Tom to drive more slowly.
7/ I’m sorry I don’t know his address.
8/ He spent much money on his expensive holidays and he regretted it.
9/ She is bored with doing the same things day after day.
10/ Tom didn’t see the game last night. He was vey sorry.
Baøi 9 : MOÄT VAØI CAÁU TRUÙC THOÂNG DUÏNG
(SOME COMMON ENGLISH STRUCTURES)
[A] : USED TO + Infinitive (ñaõ töøng…) chæ moät thoùi quen ôû quaù khöù
- My father used to smoke a lot; but now he doesn’t any more.
- When I was a little boy, I used to swim in the river.
BE USED TO + V-ing / Noun (quen vôùi…) töông vôùi Be accustomed to
- My mother is used to getting up early.
- I have been used to the hot weather here.
[B] : BECAUSE + Clause (bôûi vì…) giôùi thieäu meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nguyeân do
(adverb clause of reason)â
- I couldn’t come to class yesterday because I was ill
- Because the weather was bad the flight was put off.
BECAUSE OF + Phrase (bôûi vì…) duøng cuïm töø hoaëc danh töø sau because of
- I couldn’t come to class yesterday because of his illness
- Because of the bad weather the flight was put off.
[C] : ALTHOUGH + Clause (maëc duø…) giôùi thieäu meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ söï
nhöôïng boä (adverb clause of concession)
- They came to the concert though it was raining heavily
- Although it is a very hot day I shall go for a walk.
IN SPITE OF + Phrase (maëc duø…)duøng cuïm töø hoaëc danh töø sau in spite of
(prep) hay despite
- They came to the concert in spite of the heavy rain
- In spite of a hot day I shall go for a walk.
[D] : SO + Adj / Adv + THAT + Clause (quaù…ñeán noãi…) giôùi thieäu meänh ñeà chæ
chæ keát quaû (adverb clause of result)
- He is so famous that everyone knows his name
- They discussed so hotly that they forgot to come to the conclusion
SUCH + (A / An + Adj + Noun) + THAT + Clause (quaù… ñeán noãi…)
- He is such a famous man that everyone knows his name
- It was such a hot discussion that they forgot to come to the conclusion
TOO + Adj / Adv + (For someone) + TO + Infinitive (quaù…ñeán noãi khoâng..)
- It is too late to go to the movies
- The lecture was too boring for us to listen to
- He spoke too fast for me to understand him
[E] : SO THAT + Clause (ñeå…) giôùi thieäu meänh ñeå traïng töø chæ muïc ñích
(adverb clause of purpose)
- I’m studying hard so that I can keep pace with my classmates
- The man spoke loudly so that everyone would hear him clearly
IN ORDER TO} + Infinitive (ñeå…) giôùi thieäu cuïm ñoäng töø nguyeân maãu
SO AS TO} chæ muïc ñích (Inf phrase of purpose)
- I’m studying hard in order to keep pace with my classmates
- So as not to be late for class John must get up early.
- We learn English to have better communication with other people
[F] : Adj / Adv + ENOUGH + (for someone) + TO + Inf (ñuû… ñeå…)
- The questions were easy enough for her to answer
- The teacher spoke clearly enough for us to understand him
[G] : IT + Takes / Took + SOMEONE + TIME + TO + Inf (ai ñoù maát bao laâu
ñeå laøm vieäc gì…)
- It took me five minutes to walk to the post office.
- It takes us two hours to fly from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City.
[H] : HAVE + Object + Past Participle (nhôø ai laøm …) laø hình thöùc sai khieán
- Mary is going to have her hair done.
- He had his car washed yesterday.
[I] : IT + BE + Adj + (for someone) + TO + Inf
- It is difficult for us to master a foreign language.
- It is dangerous to drive too fast.
[J] : … AS + Adj / Adv + AS … (…cuõng nhö…) so saùnh baèng
(comparison of equality)
- My book is as interesting as yours.
(Quyeån saùch cuûa toâi cuõng hay nhö quyeån saùch cuûa baïn.)
- He is not as (so) tall as his father. (Noù khoâng cao baèng ba noù.)
- His car runs as fast as a race car. (Xe hôi cuûa noù chaïy nhanh nhö xe ñua.)
- My house is the same height as his. (= My house is as high as his.)
… short Adj-ER + THAN … (…hôn…) ñaây laø daïng so saùnh hôn (comparative) cuûa
tính ngaén. Tính töø ngaén laø tính töø coù moät vaàn nhö :
hot, cold, sad… vaø tính töø coù hai vaàn taän cuøng baèng
–ow, -et, -y, er, -le nhö: narrow, quiet, happy,
- Today is hotter than yesterday. (Hoâm nay noùng hôn hoâm qua.)
- This street is narrower than that one.
… MORE + long Adj + THAN … (…hôn…) ñaây laø daïng so saùnh hôn cuûa tính töø daøi,
thöôøng coù töø hai vaàn trôû leân nhö : careful,
- This chair is more comfortable than that one.
- She is more careful than him.
Ta coù theå duøng far, much, a little, a bit
bit…tröôùc so saùnh hôn.
- A water melon is much sweeter than a lemon.
- His watch is far more expensive than mine.
… the short Adj-EST (…nhaát) laø daïng so saùnh cöïc caáp (superlative) cuûa tính töø
- He is the oldest in his class. (Noù laø ngöôøi lôùn tuoåi nhaát lôùp)
-Tom is the happiest man on earth. (Tom laø ngöôøi haïnh phuùc nhaát treân ñôøi)
… the MOST + long Adj. (…nhaát) laø daïng so saùnh cöïc caáp cuûa tính töø daøi.
- His car is the most expensive.
- Air pollution is one of the most serious problems in the city.
Moät soá tính töø coù hình thöù so saùnh rieâng nhö :
Good better best
Bad worse worst
Little less least
Many/ much more most
Far farther/further farthest/ furthest
… MORE + Adv + THAN … (..hôn…) laø daïng so saùnh hôn cuûa traïng töø, tröø caùc
traïng töø coù moät vaàn nhö :hard, fast, early, late
- He speaks English more fluently than she does.
- She drives more carefully than he does.
- He works harder than I do.
… the MOST + Adv (nhaát) laø daïng so saùnh cöc caáp cuûa traïng töø.
- Among his friends, he drives the most carefully.
- His car runs fastest.
Nhöng so saùnh cuûa : well better best
Vaø badly worse worst
The MORE…, the MORE… (caøng … caøng…) laø daïng so saùnh keùp
- The more you study, the smarter you will become.
- The sooner you take medicine, the better you will feel.
- The earth is getting hotter and hotter.
EXERCISE A : Translate into English using “Used To” or “Be Used To”
1/ Tröôùc ñaây ngöôøi ta vaãn thöôøng nghó raèng maët trôøi di chuyeån quanh traùi ñaát.
2/ Nhöõng coâng nhaân môùi naøy ñang quen daàn vôùi coâng vieäc naëng nhoïc cuûa nhaø maùy.
3/ Tröôùc ñaây treân ñöôøng ñi hoïc toâi vaãn thöôøng ñi qua moät hieäu saùch.
4/ Baø aáy bieát raèng baø aáy khoâng coøn ñeïp nhö xöa.
5/ Chuùng toâi vaãn thöôøng soáng ôû ñoàng queâ khi coøn beù.
6/ Caùc baïn seõ quen daàn vôùi phöông phaùp hoïc tieáng Anh môùi naøy.
7/ Tröôùc kia khoâng coù nhieàu cöûa haøng treân con ñöôøng naøy.
8/ Chuùng noù khoâng quen thöùc khuya.
9/ Tröôùc ñaây anh toâi thöôøng ñi taém bieån trong kyø nghæ heø.
10/ Ñoù laø nôi maø tröôùc ñaây gia ñình toâi sinh soáng.
EXERCISE B : Change “because” to “because of” and vice versa :
1/ He was not allowed to come in because he was late.
2/ I chose Mike for the job because you recommended him.
3/ Our train was late because of the thick fog.
4/ She couldn’t sleep because of the noise.
5/ Because of his deep love for her, he can’t live without her.
6/ Everyone loves her because of her good behaviour.
7/ He was given that position because his English was good.
8/ He answered those questions perfectly because he was intelligent.
9/ They stopped working because of the hot weather.
10/ We admired him because of his great ability.
11/ She didn’t go to class this morning because she had a bad cold.
12/ I couldn’t see anything because of the dark.
13/ The mechanic managed to repair the engine because he had experience.
14/ His health gets better and better because he does gymnastics regularaly.
15/ He said nothing about it because of his wife’s being there.
EXERCISE C : Use “In spite of” in place of “Although” and vice versa :
1/ In spite of all the noise outside, the students kept on studying.
2/ Though they are poor, they are always neatly dressed.
3/ We don’t feel tired although we have walked three miles.
4/ She ate very little in spite of the delicious food.
5/ Though I am fond of music, I can’t play any musical instruments.
6/ In spite of being warned, he still got an electric shock.
7/ My grandfather is till an active man despite his age.
8/ Despite the narrow streets in that city, they drive cars.
9/ Although she is wealthy, she is not happy.
10/ Nobody liked it though the price was low.
11/ He didn’t eat much in spite of being hungry.
12/ Although he was talented, nobody admired him.
13/ He didn’t get a promotion though his work was very good.
14/ He bought that car despite our advice.
15/ Our country will certainly become prosperous in spite of all the difficulties.
EXERCISE D1 : Conmbine these pairs of sentences using “so…that” :
1/ That woman was very tall. She could almost touch the ceiling.
- That woman was so tall that she could almost touch the ceiling.
2/ This coat is very big. I can’t wear it.
3/ The coffee was so strong. She couldn’t go to sleep.
4/ That bag was very heavy. None of us could carry it.
5/ The stadium is very large. It can hold 60,000 people.
6/ Those lessons are very difficult. He can’t understand them.
7/ She was very busy. She couldn’t do the housework.
8/ The clmate was very bad. All the plants couldn’t grow well.
9/ I’m very tired. I couldn’t keep my eyes open.
10/ That boy is very lazy. He never does his homework.
EXERCISE D2 : Combine these pairs of sentences using “too…to” :
1/ The bag was very heavy. She couldn’t carry it.
- The bag was too heavy for her to carry .
2/ He is very old. He can’t run.
- He is too old to run.
3/ She is very young. She can’t go to school.
4/ Tom is very short. He can’t play volleyball.
5/ It’s very late. We can’t go to the movies.
6/ The question was very hard. We couldn’t answer it.
7/ The TV programme is very exciting. The children won’t miss it.
8/ You’re very young. You can’t drive that car.
9/ She was tired. She didn’t go anywhere.
10/ These shoes are very small. I can’t wear them.
EXERCISE D3 : Combine these pairs of sentences using “such….that” :
1/ Tom was a tall man. He could almost touch the ceiling.
- Tom was such a tall man that he could almost touch the ceiling.
2/ Mary is a good swimmer. She has won two gold medals.
3/ He drank strong coffee. He couldn’t go to sleep.
4/ It was a long walk. The children got tired.
5/ He told interesting stories. They all like him.
6/ The boy made rapid progress. It surprised everybody.
7/ He had a difficult exercise. He couldn’t do it.
8/ The speaker gave a long talk. Most of the audience felt sleepy.
9/ We watched an exciting competition. We didn’t want to go home.
10/ It was an excellent show. We all enjoyed it.
EXERCISE E : Combine into a sentence using “so that” :
1/ The boys stood on the beach. They wanted to get a better view.
- The boys stood on the beach so that they could get a better view.
2/ We lowered the volume of the radio. We didn’t want to bother our neighbours.
3/ I will write to you. I want you to know my decision soon.
4/ These men were whispering. They didn’t want anyboby to hear their conversation.
5/ The lecturer spoke loudly. He wanted eveyone to hear him clearly.
6/ John gets up early. He doesn’t want to be late for class.
7/ Mary hid the novel under the pillow. She didn’t want her father to see it.
8/ They did their jobs well. They hoped the boss would increase their salary.
9/ You should walk slowly. Your sister can follow you.
10/ He hurried to the station. He didn’t want to miss the train.
EXERCISE F : Rewrite the sentences using “enough” instead of “ too…to” :
1/ He is too old to wear this coloured shirt.
- He is not young enough to wear this coloured shirt.
2/ She is too weak to carry this box.
3/ This pen is too expensive for me to buy.
4/ Bill was too stupid to understand what I had said.
5/ This bag is too heavy for her to carry.
6/ The test was too difficult for them to do.
7/ I’m too poor to help you with the money.
8/ This book is too dull to read.
9/ The room is too dark for us to study.
10/ The shelf is too high for her to reach.
EXERCISE G : Rewrite the sentences using “It takes / took…” :
1/ I go to school by bicycle in ten minutes.
- It takes me ten minutes to go to school by bicycle.
2/ He did that exercise in an hour.
3/ I need fifteen minutes to get to the post office.
4/ He spent the whole morning writing the composition.
5/ We needed two days to paint the house.
6/ He will need three hours to do this work.
7/ He spends one hour reading newspapers.
8/ They finished their work in three days.
9/ Jane will need a lot of time to complete this report.
10/ We spent a day cleaning the house.
EXERCISE H : Rewrite the sentences using the causative form :
1/ The Smiths are going to build a new house.
- The Smiths are going to have a new house built.
2/ Please tell someone to take my luggage to the station.
3/ We must find someone to add an extra room to the house.
4/ Order the porter to carry these boxes up to my room.
5/ She has just asked the dressmaker to make a new dress for her daughter.
6/ I paid a man to sharpen these knives and scissors yesterday.
7/ My mother is going to pay a doctor to test her eyesight.
8/ Did you order the boys to plant some trees in the garden?
9/ Bob doesn’t pay anyone to cook his meals. He cooks them hinself.
10/ He will ask someone to mend his shoes.
EXERCISE I : Rewrite the sentences using “It + be + adj + to inf” :
1/ Learning English is not easy.
- It is not easy to learn English.
2/ Knowing a foreign language is necessary.
3/ Swimming in the river is dangerous.
4/ Doing that exercise is not hard for us.
5/ Seeing you again is very nice.
6/ Practising morning exercise is good.
7/ Finding out the answer to that question is not easy.
8/ Telling her the news now is unwise.
9/ Working in that room was pleasant.
10/ Thinking of what will happen is horrible.
EXERCISE J.1 : Use the proper form of adjectives (or adverbs) in parenthese.
1. Mary is (pretty) _____________ as her sister.
2. A new house is (expensive) _____________than an old one.
3. His job is (important) _____________than mine.
4. Of the four ties, I like the red one (well) _____________.
5. Nobody is (happy) _____________ than Miss Snow.
6. Today English is the (international) _____________ of languages.
7. John is much (strong) _____________ than I thought.
8. Benches are (comfortable) _____________ than arm - chairs.
9. Bill is (good) _____________ than you thought.
10. Mr. Bush is the (delightful) _____________ person I have ever known.
11. Disk is the (careful) _____________ of the two workers.
12. Sam’s conduct is (bad) _____________ than Paul’s.
13. Thanks to the progress of science, human life is (good) _____________ and (good)
14. Bill is (lazy) _____________ and (lazy) _____________ .
15. The teacher speaks English (fluently) _____________ than we.
16. These boys are (ill - prepared) _____________ for employment than my children.
17. The competition makes the price of goods (cheap) _____________ and (cheap)
18. Charles is (hard working) _____________ than Tom.
19. Is this book (interesting) _____________ than the one you read last week ?
20. Of the two boys, Harry is the (ill - bred) _____________ .
EXERCISE J.2. : Complete the sentences using a comparative form.
1. It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ________ ?
2. This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit ________ ?
3. The hotel was surprisingly big. I expected it to be ________
4. The weather is too cold in this country. I expected it to be ________
5. My job is a bit boring, sometimes I’d like to do something ________
6. It was surprised how easy it was to use the computer. I though it would be ________
7. Your work isn’t very good. I’m sure you can do ________
8. Don’t worry. The situation isn’t so bad. It could be ________
9. You’re talking very loudly. Can you speak a bit ________ ?
10. You hardly ever phone me. Why don’t you phone me ________ ?
EXERCISE J.3 : Complete the sentences. Each time use the comparative form of one of the
words in the list. Use “than” where necessary.
big crowded early high important
easily peaceful reliable serious thin
1. I was feeling tired last night, so I went to bed ________ usual.
2. You look ________. Have you lost weight ?
3. I want a ________ flat. We don’t have enough space here.
4. Health and happiness are ________ money.
5. There were a lot of people on the bus. It was ________ usual.
6. I like living in the countryside. It’s ________ living in a town.
7. You’ll find your way around the town ________ if you have a good map.
8. In some parts of the country, prices are ________ in others.
9. I’d like to have a ________ car. The one I’ve got keeps breaking down.
10. Unfortunately her illness was ________ we thought at first.
EXERCISE J.4. : Read the situation and complete the sentences. Use a comparative
1. Yesterday the temperature was nine degrees. Today it’s only six degrees.
→ It’s -______________________________________________________
2. The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.
→ It takes ___________________________________________________
3. Chris and Joe both did badly in the exam. Chris got 20% but Joe only got 15%.
→ Joe did -______________________________________________________
4. I expected my friends to arrive at about 4 o’clock. In fact they arrived at 2.30.
→ My friends -_________________________________________________
5. We were very busy at work today. We’re not usually as busy as that.
→ We _________________________________________________________
EXERCISE J.5. : Complete the sentences using the structure “er and er” or “more and more”.
1. It’s become ________ to find a job. (hard)
2. That hole your pullover is getting ________. (big)
3. As I waited for my interview, I became ________. (nervous)
4. As the day went on, the weather got ________. (bad)
5. As the conversation went on, he became ________. (talkative)
EXERCISE J.6. : Complete the sentences with “than” or “as”.
1. I can’t reach as high as you. You’re taller ________.
2. He doesn’t know much. I know more ________.
3. We were very surprised. Nobody was more ________.
4. She’s not a very good player. I’m a better ________.
5. They’ve been very lucky. I wish we were ________.
Baøi 10 : CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ
[A] : CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÍNH TÖØ ÑÔN. (Formation of simple adjectives)
Noun + suffix Adjectives
ful Harmful, useful, successful, hopeful, helpful, peaceful…
less Childless, odourless, careless, hopeless, harmless, useless…
-ly Manly, worldly, hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly,friendly…
like Childlike, godlike, lifelike, ladylike, manlike…
-y Healthy, dirty, dusty, snowy, windy, rainy, cloudy, sunny, sandy…
-ish Childish, boyish, girlish, mannish, selfish…
-al Natural, national, industrial, agricultural, cultural, magical…
ous Dangerous, courageous, poisonous, mountainous…
ic Artistic, electric, electronic, alcoholic, economic…
able Respectable, knowledgeable, reasonable…
[B] : CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÍNH TÖØ KEÙP. (formation of compound adjectives)
Formula Coâng thöùc) Adjectives
Adj + adj Red hot, dark blue, light green…
Adj + present part Sweet-smelling, ill-dressing, good-looking…
Adj + past part Ready-made, soft-spoken, long-lived, white-painted…
Adj + noun-ED Left-handed, kind-hearted, blue-eyed, mild-mannered…
Noun + adj Homesick, seasick, lovesick, worldwide,nationwide,snow-white
Noun + present part House-keeping, heart-breaking, hair-raising, breath-taking….
Noun + past part Home-made, man-made, hand-made, sun-burnt…
Noun + noun-ED Lion-hearted, coffee-coloured, heart-shaped….
Adv + present part Hard-working, ever-lasting, well-being…
Adv + past part Well-prepared, well-known, newly-married, dearly-loved…
[C] : CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP DANH TÖØ. (Formation of simple nouns)
Verb+ER/ OR / ANT Teacher, manager, driver, actor, director, attendant, assistant…
Verb + ION / TION Action, invention, construction, direction, revolution, decision…
Verb + MENT / AL Development, appointment, refusal, removal, approval….
Verb + ING Swimming, teaching, jogging, training, building…
Adj + NESS Kindness, goodness, happiness, sadness, darkness, ilness….
Adj + TY Safety, loyalty, cruelty, variety, ability, honesty….
Adj + TH Length, depth, width, truth, warmth, strength…
Adj + DOM Freedom, wisdom, boredom…
Noun + IST / IAN Guitarist, novelist, violinist, musician, physician, historian…
Noun + ISM Patriotism, capitalism, socialism, heroism…
Noun + SHIP Friendship, leadership, scholarship, comradeship…
Noun + HOOD Childhood, brotherhood, neighbourhood, parenthood…
[D]: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP DANH TÖØ KEÙP.
(formation of compound nouns)
Formula Compound nouns
Noun + noun Alarm-clock, church bell, coffee cup, newspaper, post card…
Adj + noun Grandfather, blackboard, high school, redhead, yellow fever…
Adv / prep + noun Overcoat, overtime, overman, undergrowth…
Gerund + noun Dining room, dressing table, swimming pool, driving licence…
Noun + gerund Weight-lifting, lorry driving, fruit picking...
Noun + verb-ER / OR Bus-driver, holiday maker, dressmaker, film director…
[E]: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP ÑOÄNG TÖØ.
DIS + verb Dislike, disagree,discharge, disinvest, dislocate…
Mis + verb Misunderstand, misread, mislead…
Out + verb Outrun, outnumber, outweigh, outlive…
Over + verb Overact, overpay, overheat, overturn, overchange…
Re + verb Rewrite, reread, retell, recall…
Under + verb Undercharge, underdevelop, underdo, underline, undersign…
Adj + EN Weaken, sharpen, tighten, loosen, shorten, foften…
EN + Adj / Noun enrich, enable, enlarge, encourage, endanger…
Noun / Adj + ISE / IZE Sympathise, economise, socialize, memorize, industrialize…
Fill in the blanks with correct form of the word provided.
1. Film makers always try to show viewers the different life styles and interesting
________ aspects of many countries in the world. (culture)
2. Women nowadays have more ________ to participate in social activities. (Free)
3. “Hoang Le Nhat Thong Chi” is a ________ novel. (history).
4. He has a ________ for English novels. (prefer)
5. SAI GON GIAI PHONG is published seven days a week. It is a ________ newspaper.
6. If you burn the garbage, it will give off ________ odour. (poison)
7. Some children have to suffer from life time ________ (abnormal)
8. He is ________ active in spite of his old age. (wonder)
9. The company is very efficient and gives a ________ service. (speed)
10. When did ________ come to the village ? (electric)
11. She has a very busy ________ life. (society)
12. The plane arrived ________ after a violent storm. (safe)
13. Their study is getting on ________ (satisfy)
14. This company offered a lot of ________ jobs. (attract)
15. These snakes will not cause you any serious harm even if they bite you. They are
16. He was ________ right when he said that the man was guilty. (reason)
17. She looks ________ beautiful. (surpise)
18. They were ________ when they read the result. (disappoint)
19. He has no ________ of leaving the city. (intend)
20. I feel ________ in this book. (interest)
21. John’s ________ improved at his new school. (behave)
21. I’ll give you further ________ (explain)
22. This is a ________ of a previous talk. (repeat)
23. Much ________ work requires a good knowledge of mathematics. (science)
24. Movies have ________ dress fashions. (broad)
25. Our grandmother didn’t work outside the home when she was young. She only did her
______ task. (tradition)
26. His ________ to retire surprised us all. (decide)
27. You should be ________ to tell them exactly what you think. (decide)
28. Many people find it ________ to advertise. (waste)
29. The guests were ________ welcomed. (cordial)
30. He looks thin, but ________ he is very healthy, (actual)
31. This man led a ________ happy life. (complete)
32. He did some old jobs at home ________ (disappoint)
33. The new job ________ him. (disappoint)
34. Nitric oxide is ________ harmful. It acts as a poison, which may cause death or injury if
taken into the body. (high)
35. He was ________ in his job. (succeed)
36. The house was ________ with people. (crowd)
37. He is unhappy because of his ________ (deaf)
38. The government wants to ________ this training centre. (military)
39. We found out the ________ about him. (true)
40. I am ________ grateful to you for your help. (true)
41. I don’t think the food is very good, but it is ________ (tolerate)
42. They’ve got a ________ result. (satisfy)
43. Carbon dioxide occurs in the air in ________ form. (nature)
44. Children are ________ to overcome problems. (determine)
45. They got the ________ of being successful in life. (satisfy)
46. He is young man with great ________ (expect)
47. I like your new ________ machine. (calculate)
48. May I borrow your ________ ? (calculate)
49. The industrial ________ will lead to the country’s prosperity. (develop)
50. We must make ________ for our old age saving money. (provide)
51. I’m ________ sorry for the delay. (extreme)
52. It’s ________ kind of you. (awful)
53. The doctor told me to ________ in slowly. (breath)
54. It is often useful make a ________ between two things. (compare)
55. She has been worn down by ________ and illness. (poor)
56. Our pupils are raising money for the ________ (poor)
57. This is the greatest scientific ________ of the decade. (achieve)
58. Mary was ________ with long and difficult exercises. (bore)
59. I enjoy the football match. It was quite ________ (excite)
60. He has great ________ in God. (believe)
61. Violence is not the best ________ to an argument. (solve)
62. Not long ago, I was introduced to famous ________ (art)
63. The ________ of his wife was a great blow to him. (lose)
64. Toys are necessary for the mental ________ of children. (grow)
65. It is ________ to have short hair nowadays. (fashion)
66. The planets of our ________ system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiters, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. (sun)
67. Your rice field is more ________ than ours. (produce)
68. An ________ man has stolen all our money. (know)
69. In some places, the weather changes so quickly that it’s very ________ (predict)
70. They all passed their exams without the slightest ________ (difficult)
Baøi 11 : SÖÏ HOØA HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ & ÑOÄNG TÖØ
(THE AGREEMENT OF A VERB WITH ITS SUBJECT)
Theo luaät chung moät ñoäng töø bao giôø cuõng hoøa hôïp vôùi chuû töø cuûa no ù- töùc laø – neáu chuû
töø soá ít thì ñoäng töø theo sau cuõng ôû soá ít vaø ngöôïc laïi neáu chuû töø soá nhieàu thì theo sau laø ñoäng
soá nhieàu. Tuy mhieân, ta haõy chuù yù 10 luaät ñaëc bieät sau:
 : Hai hay nhieàu chuû töø soá ít ñöôïc noái bôûi lieân töø AND thì ñoøi hoûi moät ñoäng soá nhieàu.
- The boy and the girl love their parents dearly.
- Tom and Mary were late yesterday.
Tuy nhieân, neáu hai chöû töø naøy dieãn taû moät ngöôøi, moät vaät hay moät yù töôûng chung thì ñoäng
töø vaãn ôû soá ít.
- Bread and butter is my daily breakfast.
- To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness in life.
 : Hai chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau baèng AND maø tröôùc chuû töø ñaàuø coù EACH, EVERY, MANY
A, NO thì ñoäng töø phaûi ôû soá ít.
- Each boy and girl has a textbook.
- No teacher and student is present.
 : Khi hai chuû töø ñöôïc noái bôûi OR, EITHER… OR, NEITHER…NOR… thì ñoäng töø hoøa hôïp
cuøng ngoâi vôùi chuû töø gaàn noù nhaát.
- He or you are the best student in this class.
- Neither Jack nor I am willing to do that.
 : Khi hai chuû töø ñöôï noái bôûi AS WELL AS, NO LESS THAN, WITH thì ñoäng töø hoøa hôïp
vôùi chuû töø thöù nhaát.
- John, as well as you, is responsible for this act.
- Tom, with his friends, is in the car.
 : Moät danh töø taäp hôïp (collective noun) caàn moät ñoäng töø soá nhieàu khi ta nguï yù noùi tôùi töøng
caù nhaân taïo neân taäp hôïp aáy; nhöng ñoäng töø vaãn soá ít khi ta nguï yù noùi chung, coi caû taäp hôïp
nhö moät ñôn vò.
- The family of this dead soldier is noble.
- The family go to the movies every Sunday morning.
 : Khi chuû töøø laø danh töø coù hình thöùc laø soá nhieàu nhöng nghóa laïi laø soá ít thì ñoäng töø chia ôû soá
- No news is good news.
- Physics is more difficult than chemistry.
Caùc danh töø thöôøng gaëp nhö : news, physics, mathematics, politics, gymnastics,
phonetics, measles, mumps, rickets, the United States, the Philippines…
 : Khi chuû töø laø danh töø chæ troïng löôïng, ño löôøng, giaù caû hay giaù tieàn thì ñöôïc coi laø soá ít,
ñoäng töø theo sau cuõng ôû soá ít.
- Ten thousand dollars is a big sum of money.
- Five hundred miles is a long distance.
 : Khi chuû töø laø ñaïi töø baát ñònh nhö : everyone, something, nobody…thì ñoäng töø theo sau phaûi
ôû soá ít.
- Nobody has opened the door.
- Is everyone present ?
 : Trong caâu baét ñaàu baèng THERE thì ñoäng töø hoøa hôïp vôùi chuû töø theo sau noù.
- There stands a pagoda facing the little lake.
- There were a lot of people at the meeting.
 : Ñoäng töø coù chuû töø laø ñaïi töø quan heä thì phaûi hoøa hôïp cuøng ngoâi vaø soá vôùi tieàn vò töø cuûa
ñaïi töø aáy.
- He works for the factory which makes cars.
- The man who is living near my house teaches us English.
EXERCISE I : Choose the correct form of the verbs in parentheses in the following sentences.
1. John along with twenty friends, (is / are) ________ planning a party.
2. The picture of the soldiers (bring / brings) ________ back many memories.
3. The quality of these recordings (is / are) ________ not very good.
4. If the duties of these officers (isn’t / aren’t) ________ reduced, there will not be enough
time to finish the project.
5. Neither Bill nor Mary (is / are) ________ going to the play tonight.
6. Anything (is / are) ________ better than going to another movie tonight.
7. A number of reporters (was / were) ________ at the conference yesterday.
8. There (was / were) ________ some people at the meeting last night.
9. Each student (has / have) ________ answered the first three questions.
10. Either John or his wife (make / makes) ________ breakfast each morning.
11. The army (has / have) ________ eliminated this section of the training test.
12. The number of students who have withdrawn from class this quarter (is / are) appalling.
13. Every elementary school teacher (has / have) ________ to take this examination.
14. The police (come / comes) ________ to the site of the accident.
15. These pictures, as well as photograph (brighten / brightens) ________ the room.
16. What he told you (seem / seems) ________ to be of on importance.
17. Tow years (is / are) ________ a long time to wait.
18. Bread and butter (is / are) ________ what she asks for.
19. Measles (is / are) ________ cured without much difficulty nowadays.
20. After a long day’s work (is / are) ________ not the right time to dancing.
EXERCISE II : Either .... or .... Neither ... nor ...
Insert “is, am, are, was, were, has, have, do or does”
1. That clown shows that either snow or rain ________ about to fall.
2. Neither the cock nor the hens ________ in the ward.
3. By what time ________ either you or your father decided to go ?
4. Either one or tow apples ________ been picked up ripe.
5. Neither the moon nor stars ________ visible in this dark night.
6. To what place ________ either the man or his son wish to go ?
7. Neither the master nor his pupils ________ idle.
8. Neither he nor you ________ heard of this before.
9. No girl or boy ________ allowed to play in the school.
10. Neither the man nor his wife ________ much work.
EXERCISE III : As well as.
Insert “is, am, are, was, were, has, have, do or does”.
1. This house as well as that ________ for sale, which will you have ?
2. The horse as well as the rider ________ hurt by the fall.
3. James as well as Mary ________ won a prize this term.
4. Beauty as well as health ________ fallen to her lot in life.
5. I myself as well as James ________ gone to the party.
6. The cock as well as the hens ________ calling for food.
7. A garden as well as stables ________ attached to the house.
8. A garden as well as a stable ________ attached to the house.
9. The hens as well as the cock ________ calling for food.
10. Stables as well as a garden ________ attached to the house.
Baøi 12 : Giôùi Töø
Giôùi töø (preposition) laø töø duøng ñeå noái moät danh töø (noun) hoaëc ñaïi töø (pronoun) vôùi nhöõng
thaønh phaàn khaùc trong caâu.
- He goes to school every day.
- I usually get up at six o’clock.
- He’s been waiting for her since early morning.
[A] : Moät soá giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian thoâng duïng. (Some common prepositions of time)
* AT : Ta duøng at vôùi ñieåm thôøi gian (times)
at 5 o’clock at 11.45 at midnight at noon at lunchtime
- Tom usually leaves work at 5 o’clock.
Ta cuõng duøng at trong nhöõng thaønh ngöõ sau:
At night - I don’t like going out at night.
At the weekend / at weekends - Will you be here at the weekend?
At Christmas / at Easter - We give each other presents at Christmas.
At the moment / at present - Mr Benn is busy at the moment.
At the same time - Ann and I arrived at the same time.
At the age of… - Tom left school at the age of 16 / at 16.
* ON : Ta duøng on vôùi ngaøy trong tuaàn (days) vaø ngaøy trong thaùng (dates)
on March 12th on Friday on Christmas Day
- They got married on March 12th.
Ta cuõng coù theå noùi :
on Friday morning(s) on Sunday afternoon(s) on Saturday night(s)
on the morning of the fifth …
- I usually go out on Sunday evenings.
* IN : Ta duøng in vôùi khoaûng thôøi gian daøi hôn nhö : thaùng (months), naêm (years), muøa
in April in 1968 in (the) winter
in the 18th century in the 1970s in the Middle Ages
Ta cuõng coù theå noùi :
in the morning(s) in the afternoon(s) in the evening(s)
- I’ll see you in the morning.(nhöng I’ll see you on Friday morning.)
Ta khoâng ñöôïc duøng at / on / in tröôùc last vaø next
- I’ll see you next Friday.
- They got married last March.
Neáu sau in laø moät khoaûng thôøi gian thì thôøi gian ñoù ôû töông lai:
- The train will leave in a few minutes. (= a few minutes from now)
- Jack’s gone away. He’ll be back in a week. (= a week from now.)
- They are getting married in six months.
[B]: Moät vaøi giôùi töø chæ vò trí thoâng duïng. (Some common prepositions of position)
* AT : Ta duøng at khi ta muoán noùi ai ñoù ñang coù maët taïi moät söï kieän naøo ñoù ñang xaûy
ra (someone is at an event) nhö :
at a party at a meeting at a conference
at a concert at a football match at a cinema
- Were there many people at the party?
- I saw Jack at the football match on Saturday.
Chuùng ta noùi :
at home at university at the seaside in bed
on a farm at work station
at a station at sea (on a voyage)
in hospital at school at an airport in prison
- Julia is studying medicine at university.
- Tom’s father is in hospital.
- Have you ever worked on a farm?
* IN : Ta duøng in vôùi thaønh phoá (cities) vaø laøng maïc (villages).
- His parents live in London.
- He was born in a small village near Manchester.
Ta thöôøng noùi :
in a room in a building in the water in a row /in a line
in a garden in a park in the sea in a queue
in a town in a country in a river in an armchair
in a picture in a photogragh in a mirror in the sky
in your hand in a newspaper in your hand in the mountain
- “Who is that woman in that photogragh ?”
- It was a lovely day. There wasn’t a cloud in the sky.
- Don’t sit in that armchair. It’s broken.(nhöng Don’t sit on that chair.)
at the top at the end of the street at the back at the bus stop
at the bottom at the corner of the street at the front at the door
- Who is that man standing at the door ?
- Write your name at the top of the page.
- Jack’s house is a white one at the end of the street.
- There’s a telephone box at / on the corner of the street.
Nhöng : - The television is in the corner of the room.
on the ceiling on the wall on the floor on a page
on a board on a shelf chair
on a chair on your nose
on the left on the right on the ground on the beach
on an island on the coast on a road on the way
- In Britain we drive on the left.(…on the left-hand side.)
- Our flat is on the second floor of the building.
- Tom spent his holiday on a small island off the coast of Scotland.
[C] : Giôùi töø theo sau tính töø : (Prepositions following Adjectives.)
Coù moät soá tính töø maø theo sau chuùng buoäc phaûi coù nhöõng giôùi töø nhaát ñònh naøo ñoù (theo
caáu truùc Adjective + preposition Haõy hoïc thuoäc loøng caùc nhoùm tính töø döôùi ñaây :
* nice / kind / good / generous / mean / stupid / silly / intelligent / clever / (im)polite /
rude / unreasonable OF someone (to do something) :
- Thank you. It was very kind of you to help me.
- It’s stupid of her to go out without a coat. She’ll catch cold.
Nhöng : (to be) nice / kind / good / generous / mean/ (im)polite / rude/ (un)pleasant /
(un)friendly / cruel TO someone :
- She’s always been very nice to me.
- Why were you so rude to Ann?
* angry / annoyed / furious ABOUT something
angry / annoyed / furious WITH someone FOR doing something
- What are you so angry about ?
- They were furious with me for not inviting them to the party.
* delighted / pleased / satisfied / disappointed WITH something :
- I was pleased with the present you gave me.
- Were you disappointed with your examination results?
* bored / fed up WITH something :
- You get bored with doing the same thing every day.
* surprised / shocked / amazed / astonished AT / BY something
- Everybody was very surprised at the news.
* excited / worried / upset ABOUT something :
- Are you excited about going on holiday next week ?
- Ann is upset about not being invited to the party.
* afraid / frightened / terrified / scared OF someone / something :
- “Are you afraid of dogs ?” – “Yes, I’m terrified of them.”
* proud / ashamed OF someone / something :
- I’m not ashamed of what I did. In fact I’m quite proud of it.”
* jealous / envious / suspicious OF someone / something :
- Why are you always jealous of other paople?
- He didn’t trust me. He was suspicious of my intentions.
* aware / conscious OF something :
- “Did you know they were married ?” – “No, I wasn’t aware of that.”
* good / bad / excellent / brilliant / hopeless AT (doing) something :
- I’m good at repairing things.
* married / engaged TO someone :
- Linda is married to an American.
* sorry ABOUT something :
- I’m sorry about the noise last night. We were having a party.
Nhöng : sorry FOR doing something :
- I’m sorry for shouting at you yesterday.
Nhöng caùch noùi naøy thì ñöôïc duøng thöôøng hôn : I’m sorry I …
- I’m sorry I shouted at you yesterday.
* (feel / be) sorry FOR someone :
- I feel sorry for George. He’s got no friends and no money.
* impressed BY / WITH something :
- I wasn’t very impressed by the film.
* famous FOR something :
- Florence is famous for its art treasures.
* responsible (TO someone) FOR something :
- Who was responsible for all that noise last night ?
- I’ll be responsible to the principal for my teaching.
* different FROM (or TO) someone / something :
- The film was quite different from what I expected.
* interested IN something :
- Are you interested in art and architecture?
* capable / incapable OF something :
- I’m sure you are capable of passing the examination.
* fond OF someone / something :
- Mary is very fond of animals. She has three cats and two dogs.
* full OF something :
- The letter I wrote was full of mistakes.
* short OF something :
- I’m a bit short of money. Can you lend me some?
* tired OF something :
- Come on, let’s go. I’m tired of waiting.
* keen ON something :
- We stayed at home because Ann wasn’t very keen on going out in the rain.
* similar TO something :
- Your handwriting is similar to mine.
* crowded WITH (people) :
- The city centre was crowded with tourists.
Tuy nhieân, coù moät vaøi tính töø maø theo sau chuùng laø nhöõng giôùi töø khaùc nhau vaø nghóa
cuûa chuùng cuõng khaùc nhau:
- Swimming is good for health. (Bôi loäi coù lôïi cho söùc khoeû )
- Jack is good at Japanese. (Jack gioûi tieáng Nhaät)
- Mary is very good with her hands. (Mary raát kheùo tay)
- Mr Brown is good to all of us. (oâng Brown töû teá vôùi taát caû chuùng toâi)
EXERCISE I : Put in the correct prepositions: at, on or in.
1/ The course begins __________ 7 January and ends __________ 10 March.
2/ I went to bed __________ midnight and got up __________ 6.30 the next morning.
3/ Mozart was born __________ Salzburg __________ 1756.
4/ There are usually a lot of parties __________ New Year’s Eve.
5/ Mary and Henry always go out for a meal __________ their wedding anniversary.
6/ The price of electricity is going up __________ October.
7/ I might not be at home __________ the morning. Can you phone __________ the
8/ Tom doesn’t see his parents very often these days – usually only __________
Christmas and sometimes __________ the summer for a few days.
9/ Tom’s grandfather died __________ 1977 __________ the age of 79.
10/ I’m going out to do some shopping. I’ll be back __________ half an hour.
11/ The doorbell and the telephone rang __________ the same time.
12/ Do you fancy going to the cinema __________ Friday night ?
13/ Hurry up. We’ve got to go __________ five minutes.
14/ Are you doing anything special __________ the weekend ?
15/ Carol got married __________ 17, which is rather young to get married.
EXERCISE II : Complete these sentences with in, at or on.
1/ Turn left __________ the traffic lights.
2/ You’ll find the cups __________the top shelf.
3/ It can be dangerous when children play football __________ the street.
4/ We got stuck in a traffic jam __________ the way to the airport.
5/ Ann’s brother lives __________ a small village _________ the south coast of
6/ Paris is __________ the river Seine.
7/ Do you take sugar __________ your coffee ?
8/ Mr Brown’s office is __________ the first floor. When you come out of the lift, it’s
the third door __________ your left.
9/ Look at those beautiful horses __________ that field.
10/ I’ll meet you __________ the corner of the street __________ 10 o’clock.
11/ I can’t find Tom __________ this photogragh. Is he __________ it ?
12/ You’ll find the sports results __________ the back page of the newspaper.
13/ I didn’t see you __________ the party __________ Saturday. Where were you ?
14/ Tom’s ill. He wasn’t __________ work today. He was __________ home
15/ I haven’t seen Ken for some time. I last saw him __________ Dave’s wedding.
16/ Paul is a student __________ London University.
17/ The exhibition __________ the art gallery finished __________ Saturday
18/ What time did you arrive __________ London ?
19/ When we arrived __________ London Station, there was a long queue outside.
20/ He speaks quite good French. He studied __________ Paris for a year.
EXERCISE III: Supply the correct prepositions
1/ It’s very nice __________ you to let me use your car. Thank you very much.
2/ Why are you always so rude __________ your parents ? Can’t you be nice
__________ them ?
3/ It wasn’t polite __________ him to leave without saying thank you.
4/ I don’t understand people who are cruel __________ animals.
5/ Why do you always get so annoyed __________ little things ?
6/ The people next door are annoyed __________ us __________ making so much
noise last night.
7/ We enjoyed our holiday but we were rather disappointed __________ the hotel.
8/ I was surprised __________ the way he behaved. It was quite out of character.
9/ She doesn’t often go out at night. She’s afraid __________ the dark.
10/ I’ve been trying to learn Spanish but I’m not satisfied __________ my progress.
11/ Jill starts her new job on Monday. She’s quite excited __________ it.
12/ I was shocked __________ what you said. You should be ashamed __________
13/ Did you know that Linda is engaged __________ a friend of mine ?
14/ I had never seen so many people before. I was astonished __________ the crowds.
15/ Bill has been doing the same job for too long. He’s bored __________ it.
16/ These days everybody is aware __________ the dangers of smoking.
17/ Are you still upset __________ what I said to you yesterday ?
18/ She’s quite nice but I wouldn’t like to be married __________ her.
19/ I’m hopeless __________ repairing things.
20/ I’m not very good __________ tennis.
21/ I’d rather not go to an Indian restaurant. I’m not very keen __________ Indian
22/ I’m sorry __________ the smell in this room. It’s just been painted.
23/ The police are responsible __________ maintaining law and order.
24/ Ann is very fond __________ her younger brother.
25/ Britain certainly isn’t famous __________ its food.
26/ This place is always very lively at night. It’s usually crowded __________ people.
27/ That man’s very honest. He isn’t capable __________ telling a lie.
28/ Our house is similar __________ theirs – I think ours is a bit larger.
29/ I felt sorry __________ the children when we went on holiday.It rained very hard
and we had to spend most of the time indoors.
30/ Bill and I come from the same town but my accent is different __________ his.
EXERCISE IV : Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions :
1. Mr. Smith is very kind ________ us.
2. He is different ________ his wife.
3. We are pleased ________ the result of our work.
4. We are confident ________ the success.
5. Most people are afraid ________ snakes.
6. Our country is rich ________ natural resources.
7. Hue city is famous ________ its historical vestiges.
8. My mother is always busy ________ her housework.
9. Dirty air is harmful ________ our health.
10. We are proud ________ our people’s heroic tradition.
11. The teacher’s advice is profitable ________ the students.
12. The streets are crowded ________ vehicles at the rush hour.
13. The climate of our city is favourable ________ agriculture.
14. The air at the seaside is good ________ health.
15. My friend is good ________ maths and physics.
16. John is skilful ________ dancing.
17. This opportunity is lucky ________ us.
18. I’m not accquainted ________ those fellows.
19. Mr. Smith is not accustomed ________ hot weather.
20. Your words are contrary ________ your acts.
21. My home is far ________ school.
22. He is sad ________ his son’s laziness.
23. Many young people want to be independent ________ their parents.
24. We are grateful ________ our teacher.
25. I’m interested ________ current events.
26. Your profession is similar ________ mine.
27. This chemical is dangerous ________ humans.
28. This work is not suitable ________ him.
29. Her voice sounds familiar ________ me.
30. This student is eager ________ study.
31. My house is next ________ the post office.
32. This man is greedy ________ fame.
33. I was absent ________ class yesterday.
34. Children are fond ________ candies.
35. The beach is full ________. tourists in summer.
36. We are present ________ the lecture yesterday.
37. We must hurry, otherwise we should be late ________ school.
38. Air is necessary ________ life.
39. He is friendly ________ everybody.
40. This sweater will keep your safe ________ the cold.
Baøi 13 : CAÙCH BIEÁN ÑOÅI CAÂU
Caùch bieán ñoåi caâu laø caùch ta vieát laïi caâu theo moät caáu truùc môùi (thöôøng ñöôïc cho tröôùc) maø
khoâng thay ñoåi nghóa cuûa caâu ban ñaàu.
* Ví duï 1 : Haõy vieát laïi caâu sau ñaây :
- He didn’t go to school yesterday because he was ill.
Theo ví duï treân, ta vieát laïi caâu baèng “Because of…” , coù nghóa laø ta bieán meänh ñeà “ he was
ill” thaønh moät cuïm töø, vì sau “because of” ta phaûi duøng moät cuïm töø. Nhö vaäy, caâu vieát laïi coù
theå laø :
Because of his illness, he didn’t go to school yesterday.
Hoaëc Because of being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday.
Hoaëc Because of his being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday.
* Ví duï 2 : Haõy vieát laïi caâu sau ñaây :
- They built that house a century ago.
Theo ví duï treân, caâu vieát laïi baét ñaàu baèng “That house” – moät tuùc töø – coù nghóa laø ta vieát
laïi caâu naøy ôû daïng bò ñoäng (passive voice). Nhö vaäy, caâu vieát laïi nhö sau :
That house was built a century ago.
* Ví duï 3 : Haõy vieát laïi caâu sau ñaây :
- He didn’t go out because he didn’t have time.
Theo ví duï treân, caâu vieát laïi baét ñaàu baèng “If”, coù nghóa laø ta vieát laïi caâu naøy thaønh caâu
ñieàu kieän khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù (loaïi 3) vì thì cuûa ñoäng töø ôû quaù khöù. Caâu vieát laïi nhö sau :
If he had had time, he would have gone out.
* Ví duï 4 : Haõy vieát laïi caâu sau ñaây :
- The last time I saw her was five years ago.
Theo ví duï treân, caâu vieát laïi seõ ôû thì hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh vì caâu baét ñaàu baèng “I haven’t……”
I haven’t seen her for five years.
(ago khoâng ñöôïc duøng ôû thì hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh, neân ta duøng for ñeå thay theá.)
* Ví duï 5 : Haõy vieát laïi caâu sau ñaây :
- His house is bigger than mine.
My house isn’t………
Theo ví duï treân, caâu vieát laïi seõ chuyeån thaønh daïng so saùnh baèng ôû theå phuû ñònh.
My house isn’t as big as his.
Hay My house isn’t so big as his (house).
EXERCISE I: Rewrite the following sentences without changing their meanings:
1/ His father is taller than his mother.
- His mother is not _______________________________________
2/ Tom didn’t come to the party. Ann didn’t come to the party, either.
- Neither Tom _______________________________________
3/ Although the traffic was bad, I arrived on time.
- In spite of _________________________________________
4/ If you have a car, you are able to travel around more easily.
- Having a car enables __________________________________
5/ The sudden noise caused me to jump.
- The sudden noise made _________________________________
6/ My father said I could use his car.
- My father allowed ______________________________________
7/ She wouldn’t allow me to read the letter.
- She wouldn’t let _______________________________________
8/ Tom is ill. He became ill three days ago.
- Tom has _____________________________________________
9/ I can’t give up smoking, but I’d like to.
- I wish________________________________________________
10/ She often writes to him and he often writes to her.
- They ________________________________________________
11/ If you don’t hurry, you’ll be late.
- Unless _______________________________________________
12/ Jane is a better cook than Mary.
- Mary can’t ____________________________________________
13/ Jack is too young to get married.
- Jack is not _____________________________________________
14/ I don’t really want to go to the museum.
- I’d rather ______________________________________________
15/ Despite taking a taxi, Bill arrived late for the concert.
- Although ______________________________________________
16/ She made herself ill because she worked very hard.
- She worked so __________________________________________
17/ The book was so good that I couldn’t put it down.
- It was such _____________________________________________
18/ Nobody can solve this problem.
- This problem ___________________________________________
19/ The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
- The man who ___________________________________________
20/ That girl is very beautiful.
- What __________________________________________________
21/ Bill is not old enough to drive a car.
- Bill is too _______________________________________________
22/ His house is not as comfortable as hers.
- Her house is _____________________________________________
23/ It is said that he is 108 years old.
- He is said ________________________________________________
24/ Tom said : “I’m feeling ill.”
- Tom said that _____________________________________________
25/ I got all the information I need from Tom.
- Tom provided _____________________________________________
26/ Ann said to Bill : “Don’t forget to have your appoinment with Mr.Brown.”
- Ann reminded _____________________________________________
27/ They don’t understand him because he doesn’t speak clearly.
- If _______________________________________________________
28/ She didn’t buy the coat because she didn’t have enough money.
- If _______________________________________________________
29/ She was very stupid when she went out in the rain.
- It was ____________________________________________________
30/ I am always nervous when I travel by air.
- Travelling by air _____________________________________________
31/ The last time I saw her was in 1985.
- I haven’t ___________________________________________________
32/ That meal was excellent.
- How ______________________________________________________
33/ That factory is producing more and more pollution.
- More and more pollution ______________________________________
34/ We must leave now or we’ll miss the train.
- If _________________________________________________________
35/ She is a faster and more careless driver than I am.
- She drives __________________________________________________
36/ How old do you think this building is ?
- When do you think ___________________________________________
37/ He is sorry now that he didn’t invite Jane to his party.
- He wishes __________________________________________________
38/ This furniture is so old that it is not worth keeping.
- This is _____________________________________________________
39/ We spent five hours getting to London.
- It _________________________________________________________
40/ When I arrived in London, I wrote a letter home.
- On ________________________________________________________
41/ I hope to see you at Christmas.
- I’m looking forward ___________________________________________
42/ I’ve never seen such a mess in my life.
- Never in my life ______________________________________________
43/ Don’t try to escape. It’s no use.
- It’s no use __________________________________________________
44/ It won’t be difficult to get a ticket for the concert.
- You won’t have any __________________________________________
45/ Whose is this handbag ?
- Who _______________________________________________________
EXERCISE II : Rewrite these sentences as directed :
1. The number of discontented young men is increasing considerably. The reason for
situation is that they haven’t been given vocational guidance at home or in the school.
(Combine these two sentences, using “The reason why... ”)
2. He doesn’t speak much English. Only _________ words.
(Use an adjective of quantity).
3. Adolescents haven’t been give vocational guidance at home or in the school.
(change to the Active voice).
4. Most school leavers are badly prepared for employment. They know very little about
their future work.
(Use “so ..... that” to combine them).
5. Seldom did people travel far from home years ago.
(Use the ordinary word order).
6. My brother is a factory worker. He talked with you yesterday.
(Combine into one sentence).
7. That scientific discovery was so important that it has affected every man’s way of life
(Use “such” instead of “so”).
8. She asked him, “Do you like your job ?”.
(Write in the Reported speech).
9. The students have suggested that they should be given more employment guidance.
(Use Gerund as Object).
10. He was given a gift. So were you.
(Join into one sentence, using “as well as”).
11. My sister has already got married. So has my brother.
(Join into one sentence, using “both ... and”).
12. I don’t have any interesting book. I can’t lend you any.
(Reduce into one sentence, using an infinitive instead of a clause).
13. They desire to have good jobs.
(Use a noun instead of verb “desire”).
14. What you (do) if you had attended the meeting ?
(Supply the correct verb form).
15. Mr. Nam is an experienced doctor. He saved my brother from death.
(Combine into one sentence, using Relative pronoun).
EXERCISE III: Rewrite these sentences as directed :
1. Because of his love for teaching, David would continue his teaching career.
(Use “because” instead of “because of”)
2. Upon completion of his apprenticeship at the construction company, he worked for a
small garage to get more experience.
(Use an Adverb clause instead of a prepositional phrase).
3. Only when they have chosen a right career can they devote themselves to their jobs.
(Use the ordinary order).
4. He was given a chance to stay on at this garage for six more months to see how he got
on. (Change to the Active voice).
5. It always requires of man best efforts to overcome every difficulty in life.
(Use a gerund as Subject).
6. This maths problem is too difficult. He can’t solve it.
(Reduce into one sentence, using an infinitive instead of a clause).
7. She hasn’t done her homework. I haven’t done my homework.
(Join into one sentence, using “Neither ... nor”).
8. She has little knowledge of English Grammar.
(Transform the sentence using a verb instead of the knowledge).
9. Do you want to play football ? (Use “enjoy” instead of “want”).
10. She worked hard so she got high wages.
(Make a conditional sentence contrary to this fact).
11. It doesn’t rain enough. The plants don’t grow properly.
(Combine into one sentence, using “enough ... to”).
12. “How long will it take us to go to My Tho by car ?”
I don’t know it.
(Combine into one sentence, using an indirect question).
13. She said she didn’t mind rode her bicycle to school.
(Use a gerund as Object of he verb).
14. Some people think that it would be hard work to conserve natural resources.
(Use a gerund as Subject).
15. He paid little attention to his teacher’s explanation. (Make a question of quantity).
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