Bản tóm tắt chương trình ngữ pháp anh văn lớp 12

Chia sẻ: smart_girl

Cho dù bạn có ý kiến gì đi nữa thì ngữ pháp vẫn là một phần không thể thiếu trong từng câu bạn nói, nghe, đọc và viết. Ngữ pháp đơn giản là qui luật từ vựng mà người sử dụng ngôn ngữ tuân theo. Chúng ta đều cần những qui tắc này giống như là luật chơi của 1 trò chơi

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  1.  Bản tóm tắt chương trình ngữ pháp anh văn lớp 12
  2. BAØI MÔÛ ÑAÀU ÑOÄNG TÖØ VERB Ñoäng töø ñöôïc duøng ñeå laøm haønh ñoäng cho chuû töø. Ñeå phaân bieät caùc loaïi ñoäng töø tö (kinds of verbs), chuùng ta haõy quan saùt sô ñoà döôùi ñaây: Auxiliary verb : (do, have, be) Special verb : Modal verb : (must, can, may, might, could, should …) Verb : Regular verb : (open, close, clean, remember…) Ordinary verb : Irregular verb : (run, write, speak, drive…) Ñoäng töø tieáng Anh coù hai loaïi: ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät (special verb) vaø ñoäng töø thöôøng (ordinary verb). (1) Ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät goàm coù: * Ñoäng töø trôï (auxiliary verb) : be (duøng ñeå chia caùc thì tieáp dieãn, theå thuï ñoäng), have (duøng ñeå chia caùc thì hoaøn thaønh), do (duøng ñeå chia caùc theå phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán). - He is working hard this month. (thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn) - The house was built five years ago. (theå thuï ñoäng) - He has learned English for two years. (thì hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh) - Do you like tea ? (theå nghi vaán) - She does not like coffee. (theå phuû ñònh) * Ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát (modal verb) : caàn phaûi coù ñoäng theo sau. - We must study hard. - He can play the piano. Ñaëc ñieåm chung cuûa caùc ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät laø khi ñoåi sang theå phuû ñònh ta chæ caàn theâm NOT vaøo sau caùc ñoäng töø ñoù vaø khi ñoåi sang theå nghi vaán ta ñöa caùc ñoäng töø ñoù ra ñaàu caâu. - He is not working hard this month. - Is he working hard this month ? - He has not found his book. - Have you seen her yet ? - She cannot swim. - Should we go there ? (2) Ñoäng töø thöôøng goàm coù : 1
  3. * Ñoäng töø coù qui taéc (regular verb) : laø ñoäng töø khi thaønh laäp thì quaù khöù ñôn (simple past) hay quaù khöù phaân töø (past paticiple) ta chæ caàn theâm –ED vaøo sau ñoäng töø ñoù. - I opened the door this morning. (simple past ) - I have opened the door. (past participle) * Ñoäng töø baát qui taéc (irregular verb) : laø ñoäng töø coù hình thöùc quaù khöù (xem coät 2 cuûa baûng ñoäng töø baát qui taéc) vaø quaù khöù phaân töø (xem coät 3) rieâng. to go went gone to write wrote written to run ran run to hit hit hit - He went to the cinema last night. (simple past ) - He has gone out. (past participle) Ñoäng töø thöôøng coù chung ñaëc ñieåm laø khi ñoåi sang theå phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán ta phaûi duøng ñoäng töø trôï “to do”. Ta theâm NOT vaøo sau caùc ñoäng töø trôï ôû theå phuû ñònh vaø ñöa ñoäng töø trôï ra ñaàu caâu neáu ôû theå nghi vaán. - He did not go to the pub last night. - Did he go to the cinema last night ? - I do not like tea. - Do you enjoy classical music ? - She does not know the answer. - Does he understand the lesson ? * Ñoäng töø “to do” vöøa laø ñoäng töø thöôøng vöøa laø ñoäng töø trôï. - He does his homework. (ñoäng töø thöôøng) - He does not understand the lesson. (ñoäng töø trôï) 2
  4. Baøi 1: 1: CAÙCH DUØNG CAÙC THÌ (THE USE OF TENSES) Thì bieåu thò thôøi gian vaø traïng thaùi cuûa haønh ñoäng ñöôïc dieãn ñaït baèng ñoäng töø. Coù 12 thì ôû daïng chuû ñoäng cuûa ñoäng töø tieáng Anh. Ñeå hieåu ñöôïc hình thaùi cuûa caùc thì, ta coù theå nghieân cöùu caùch chia ñoäng töø TO WORK trong baûng döôùi ñaây : Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous - I (You / We / - I am working - I (You / We / - I (You / We / Present They) work - He (She / It) is They) have worked They) have been - He ((She / It) working - He (She / It) has working works - You ((We / They) worked - He ( She / It) has working are working been working Past - I (You / He / - I (He / She / It) - I (You / He / She / - I (You / He / She / She / It / We / was working It / We / They) had It / We / They) had They) worked - You (We / They) worked been working were working Future - I (We) shall - I (We) shall be - I (We) shall have - I (We) shall have work working worked been working - You (He / - You (He / She / It - You (He / She / it / - You (He / She / It / She / it / They) / They) will be They) will have They) will have will work working worked been working 1. *1 SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE PRESENT VAØ THÌ PRESENT CONTINUOUS Tieáng Anh coù hai thì hieän taïi maø ña soá caùc em hoïc sinh hay laãn loän caùch söû duïng. Ñoù laø thì hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present vaø thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous Simple Present) Present Continuous). * Thì Simple Present ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng dieãn ra trong thôøi gian noùi chung, khoâng nhaát thieát phaûi laø thôøi gian ôû hieän taïi. Thôøi gian noùi chung laø thôøi gian maø söï vieäc dieãn ra moãi ngaøy (every day moãi tuaàn (every week moãi thaùng (every every day), every week), every month moãi naêm (every year moãi muøa (every spring / summer / autumn / winter)… month), every year), every autumn 3
  5. - He goes to school every day. - Mrs Brown travels every summer. * Thì Present Continuous ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra (a current a activity) activity hay moät söï vieäc chuùng ta ñang laøm baây giôø (now/ at present/ at this moment now/ moment ent), hoâm nay (today tuaàn naøy (this week naêm nay (this year today), today this week), this year)… - We are learning English now. - Mary is playing the piano at the moment. Haõy so saùnh : - I work in a bakery every day. - I’m working in a bakery this week. * CHUÙ YÙ : (1) + Thì Simple Present thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc ñoäng töø chæ tri giaùc (verbs of perception) nhö : feel, see, hear vaø caùc ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi nhö : know, understand, hear… mean, like, prefer, love, hate, need, want, remember, recognize, believe… + Ngoaøi ra chuùng ta coøn duøng thì Simple Present vôùi ñoäng töø : be, appear, belong, have to… + Thì Simple Present coøn ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc traïng töø chæ taàn suaát laäp ñi laäp laïi (adverbs of frequency) nhö : always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, generally, generally, rarely, never… - That child needs care. - This book belongs to me. - He never comes late. + Chuùng ta cuõng duøng thì Simple Present ñeå chæ moät chaân lyù hay moät söï thaät hieån nhieân (a general truth). - The sun rises in the east. - Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom. (2) Thì Present Continuous coøn ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ haønh ñoäng ôû moät töông lai gaàn (a near future action) vaø thöôøng ñi vôùi caùc traïng töø chæ töông lai nhö : tomorrow, next week, next month, next year, next summer… Exercise I : Put the verbs in brackets in the present simple or the present continuous tense. 1/ I (have) __________ coffee for breakfast every day. 2/ My brother (work) __________ in a shoe store this summer. 3/ The student (look) ___________ up that new word now. 4/ She (go) __________ to school every day. 5/ We (do) __________ this exercise at the moment. 4
  6. 6/ Miss Helen (read) ___________ a newspaper now. 7/ It (rain) __________ very much in the summer. It (rain) _________ now. 8/ Bad students never (work) __________ hard. 9/ He generally (sing) __________ in English, but today he (sing) __________ in Spanish. 10/ We seldom (eat) __________ before 6.30. 11/ She sometimes (buy) ___________ vegetables at his market. 12/ Be quiet. The baby (sleep) ____________. 13/ We always (do) ___________ our exercises carefully. 14/ Look. A man (run) ___________ after the train. He (want) ___________ to catch it. 15/ It (be) __________ very cold now. 16/ John (travel) __________ to England tomorrow. 17/ I (need) ____________ some money for my textbooks. 18/ Tom (like) __________ to go to the museums. 19/ Mary (love) __________ ice-cream. 20/ My mother (cook) ___________ some food in the kitchen at present. She always (cook) __________ in the mornings. 21/ I often (leave) __________ the city at weekends. 22/ The guests (watch) __________ the TV programmes now. 23/ I (see) ___________ you (wear) ___________ your best clothes. 24/ The sun (set)___________ in the west. 25/ My friend (study) __________ English for an hour every night. 26/ Listen. I (hear)___________ someone knocking at the front door. 27/ I (do) __________ an exercise on the present tense at the moment and I (think) __________ that I (know) __________ how to use it now. 28/ Honesty (be) __________ the best policy. 29/ The earth (goes) __________ round the sun. 30/ Two and two (make) __________ four. *2 SO SAÙNH THÌ PRESENT PERFECT VAØ THÌ SIMPLE PAST 5
  7. * Thì Present perfect (Hieän Taïi Hoaøn Thaønh) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät quaù khöù khoâng roõ thôøi ñieåm coøn lieân laïc vôùi hieän taïi. * Thì Simple Past (Quaù Khöù Ñôn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät quaù khöù coù thôøi ñieåm roõ reät caét ñöùt vôùi hieän taïi. + CHUÙ YÙ : (1) Thì Present Perfect thöôøng ñi vôùi nhöõng töø nhö : up to now up to the present now, present, so far (cho tôùi nay), not … yet (vaãn chöa), for, since, ever (ñaõ töøng), never, several times (nhieàu laàn), just (vöøa), recently (vöøa môùi), lately (môùi ñaây) ... - Have you ever seen a tiger ? - The train has not arrived yet. - We have lived here for 6 years. - The bell has just rung. (2) * Thì Simple Past thöôøng ñi vôùi nhöõng tieáng chæ thôøi gian quaù khöù xaùc ñònh nhö : yesterday the day before yesterday last week last month, last year last yesterday, yesterday erday, week, year, summer, ago. summer ago - We came here a month ago. - He went to the cinema yesterday. * Thì Simple Past coøn ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät chuoãi caùc haønh ñoäng keá tieáp xaûy ra trong quaù khöù. - He closed all the windows, locked the doors and then went out. Exercise II : Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect or the simple past tense. 1/ We (never watch) __________ that TV programme. 2/ We (wacth) __________ a good programme on TV last night. 3/ He (read) __________ that novel many times before. 4/ He (read) __________ that novel again during my last vacation. 5/ I (have) __________ a little trouble with my car last week. 6/ However, I (have) __________ no trouble with my car since then. 7/ I (not see) __________ John for a long time. I (see) __________ him 3 weeks ago. 8/ The school bell (ring) __________. We must go now. 9/ I (meet) __________ Mary last night. She (become) __________ a very big girl. 10/ He is very thirsty. He (not drink) __________ since this morning. 11/ It is very hot. Summer (come) __________. 12/ They (study) __________ at this school for 7 years now. 6
  8. 13/ They (begin) __________ to study at this school 7 years ago. 14/ Since when (you know) ___________ her ? 15/ How long ago (he start) __________ to learn French ? 16/ She (lose) __________ her handbag on the train yesterday morning. 17/ My mother (be) ________ in hospital for a long time and she cannot go home yet. 18/ His dog (just run) __________ out of the garden. 19/ Mr Brown (travel) __________ by air several times in the past. 20/ He (travel) ___________ to Mexico by air last summer. * 3. SO SAÙNH THÌ PRESENT PERFECT VAØ THÌ PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS + Thì Present perfect (Hieän Taïi Hoaøn Thaønh) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ keát quaû cuûa moät tình traïng ôû hieän taïi (the result of the present state), moät vieäc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng roõ thôøi ñieåm, laäp ñi laäp laïi nhieàu laàn vaø keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi. + Thì Present Perfect Continuous (Hieän Taïi Hoaøn Thaønh Tieáp Dieãn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ söï tieáp dieãn cuûa moät haønh ñoäng (the continuity of an action) cho tôùi hieän taïi. - I have been waiting for two hours, but she has not come yet. - He has been living here since 1975. - We have been working in the garden all morning. + Thì Present Perfect Continuous coøn ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc ñoäng töø nhö : lie, wait, sit, stand, study, learn, live, rest, stay… - They have been learning English since 1995. - The chair has been lying in the store window for ages. Exercise III : Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense. 1/ I (try) __________ to learn French for years, but I (not succeed) __________ yet. 2/ She (read) _________ all the works of Dickens.How many (you read) _________ ? 3/ I (wait) __________ here nearly half an hour for my girlfriend; do you think she (forget) __________ to come ? 4/ Mary (rest) __________ in the garden all day because she (be) __________ ill. 7
  9. 5/ Although John (study) __________ at the University for 5 years, he (not get) __________ his degree yet. 6/ Jack (go) __________ to Switzerland for a holiday. He (never, be) __________ there. 7/ We (live) __________ here for the last six months, and (just, decide) __________ to move. 8/ That book ( lie) __________ on the table for weeks. You (not read) _________ it yet ? 9/ He (not be) ___________ here since Christmas; I wonder where he (live) __________ since then. 10/ He (lose) ___________ his books. He (look) ____________ for them all afternoon, but they (not turn up) ___________ yet. 11/ She (work) ___________ so hard this week that she (not have) ___________ time to go to the cinema. 12/ Your hair is wet. (You swim) __________ for a long time ? 13/ Bill is still a bad driver although he (drive)__________ cars for six years. 14/ You look very tired. (You work) __________very hard ? 15/ The phone (ring) __________ for 2 minutes, but I (not answer) __________ it yet. Exercise IV : Put the verbs in brackets in the present tenses. 1/ I (be) __________ sorry. I (forget) __________ that fellow’s name already. 2/ Jack (look) __________ forward to his vacation next June. 3/ I (have) __________ no trouble with my english lessons up to now. 4/ Mr and Mrs Brown (be) ___________ in New York for 2 months. 5/ Michael (work) __________ 38 hours a week. 6/ At present, that author (write) ___________ a novel. 7/ George (do) __________ good work in this class so far. 8/ The weather( generally, get) __________ hot in July . 9/ You must wake her up. She (sleep) __________soundly for 10 hours. 10/ Listen! I (think) __________ someone (knock) __________ at the front door. 11/ How long (you learn) __________ English? 12/ That student (know) __________ all the new words very well now. 13/ Alice (lose) __________ her Vienamese-English dictionary. 8
  10. 14/ Fred (just, graduate) __________ from Oxford University. 15/ The earth (circle) __________ the sun once every 365 days. 16/ That grandfather clock (stand) __________ there for as long as I can remember. 17/ That brown briefcase (belong) __________ to Dr.Rice. 18/ Jim (work) __________ on his report this year. 19/ Robert (wait) __________ for you since noon. 20/ That museum (stand) ___________ here for ceturies. 21/ The sun (get) __________ very hot during the afternoon. 22/ Tom (buy) ___________ a new car next week. 23/ The boys and girls (go) ___________ home after this lesson. 24/ Davis (play) __________ football every afternoon. 25/ Up to the present, we (write) __________ almost every lesson in this book. * 4. SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE PAST VAØ THÌ PAST CONTINUOUS + Thì Simple Past (Quaù Khöù Ñôn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng ngaén (thình lình) xaûy ra trong quaù khöù. - I met him in the street yesterday. + Thì Past Continuous (Quaù Khöù Tieáp Dieãn) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng keùo daøi trong quaù khöù töông öùng vôùi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc cuõng trong quaù khöù. - I met him while he was crossing the street. - She was going home when she saw an accident. + Thì Past Continuous coøn dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng keùo daøi taïi ñieåm thôøi gian xaùc ñònh ôû quaù khöù hoaëc hai haønh ñoäng lieân tieáp song song vôùi nhau. - My father was watching TV at 8 o’clock last night. - I was doing my homework while my father was watching TV. Exercise V : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past continuous tense. 1/ He (sit) __________ in a bar when I (see) __________ him. 2/ When I (go) __________ out, the sun (shine) __________. 3/ The light (go) __________ out while I (have) __________ tea. 4/ When it (rain) __________ , she(carry) __________ an umbrella. 5/ We (walk) __________ to the station when it (begin) __________ to rain. 9
  11. 6/ He (teach) __________ English for 2 months when he (live) in Germany and (work) __________ as a journalist. 7/ The house (burn) __________ fast, so we (break) __________ the window to get out. 8/ He (eat) __________ three sandwiches while you (talk) __________ to him. 9/ The servant (drop) __________ two cups while she (wash up) __________ last night; neither of them (break) __________. 10/ While I (write) __________ a letter, the telephone (ring) __________; as he (go) __________ to answer it, he (hear) __________ a knock on the door; the telephone (still, ring) __________ while he (walk) __________ to the door, but just as he (open) __________ it, it (stop) __________. * 5. SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE PAST VAØ THÌ PAST PERFECT + Thì Past Perfect ( (Quaù Khöù Hoaøn Thaønh) duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc cuõng trong quaù khöù (past action). - When he had finished his work, he went home. - By the time I arrived at the station, the train had gone gone. + Thì Past Perfect coøn dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc moät ñieåm thôøi gian xaùc ñònh ôû quaù khöù. - By 10 o’clock last night, I had gone to bed. Exercise VI : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past perfect tense tense ense. 1/ They (go) __________ home after they (finish) __________ their work. 2/ He (do) _________ nothing before he (see) ___________ me. 3/ He (thank) __________ me for what I (do) __________ for him. 4/ I (be) __________ sorry that I (hurt) __________ him. 5/ After they (go) __________ , I (sit) __________ down and (rest) __________. 6/ When I (arrive), the dinner (already, begin) ______________. 7/ My friend (not see) __________ me for many years when I (meet) __________ last week. 8/ He (learn) __________ English before he (leave) __________ for England. 9/ In England, he soon (remember) __________ all he (learn) __________. 10/ They (tell) __________ him they (not meet) __________ him before. 10
  12. 11/ He (ask) __________ why we (come) __________ so early. 12/ She (say) __________ that she (already, see) ___________ Dr. Rice. 13/ By the time Bill (get) __________ there, the meeting (start) __________. 14/ When we (arrive) __________ at our place, we (find) __________ that a burglar (break) ____________ in. 15/ Almost everybody (leave) _________ for home by the time we (arrive) ________. * 6. SO SAÙNH THÌ PAST PERFECT VAØ THÌ PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS + Thì Past Perfect Continuous (Quaù Khöù Hoaøn Thaønh Tieáp Dieãn) duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính lieân tuïc cuûa haønh ñoäng tröôùc khi moät haønh ñoäng quaù khöù khaùc xaûy ra. Haõy so saùnh : - She had been studying English before she came here for classes. (Haønh ñoäng had been studying xaûy ra lieân tuïc cho tôùi khi haønh ñoäng came for classes xaûy ra). - She had studied English before she came for classes. (Haønh ñoäng had studied chaám döùt tröôùc haønh ñoäng came for classes) Vaø haõy so saùnh : - It had been raining when I got up this morning. (Möa ñaõ döùt khi toâi thöùc daäy.) - It was raining when I got up this morning. (Möa vaãn coøn khi toâi thöùc daäy.) Exercise VII : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past perfect continuous tense. 1/ I (ask) _________ him what he (do) __________. 2/ Tom (be) _________ tired. He (run) __________ for an hour. 3/ Although he (go) __________ to the doctor for 6 months, he (not, feel) __________ any better. 4/ The telephone (ring) __________ for 5 minutes before it (be) __________ answered. 5/ They (tell) __________ me you (live) __________ in London before the war. 6/ The poor man (wait) __________ for 6 hours before he (be) __________ brought into the room. 11
  13. 7/ By noon that day, we (drive) __________ for 5 hours. 8/ The robber who (watch) __________ him running to the tree (sit) __________ down under its branches and (begin) __________ to attack him. 9/ I (ask) _________ her what she (do) _______ since she (arrive) ________ in England. 10/ She (tell) __________ me that she (study) __________ English literature. * 7. SO SAÙNH THÌ SIMPLE FUTURE VAØ THÌ FUTURE CONTINUOUS + Thì Simple Future (Töông Lai Ñôn) dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra (coù hoaëc khoâng coù thôøi gian xaùc ñònh ôû töông lai); coøn thì Future Continuous (Töông Lai Tieáp Dieãn) dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng lieân tieán taïi ñieåm thôøi gian xaùc ñònh ôû töông lai. - He will go to the stadium next Sunday. - We will / shall have the final test. Haõy so saùnh : - I will eat breakfast at 6 o’clock tomorrow. (Vaøo luùc 6 giôø saùng mai, toâi seõ baét ñaàu duøng böõa ñieåm taâm.) - I will be eating breakfast at 6 o’clock tomorrow. (Vaøo luùc 6 giôø saùng mai, toâi seõ ñang duøng böõa ñieåm taâm.) + Trong caùc meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ thôøi gian (adverb clause of time) hay meänh ñeà ñieàu kieän (adverb clause of condition), thì Simple Present ñöôïc duøng ñeå thay theá cho thì Simple Future. - I shall not go until I see him. - If he comes tomorrow, he will do it. + Chuù yù : WILL coøn ñöôïc duøng cho taát caû caùc ngoâi. Exercise VIII : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present or the simple future tense. 1/ We (go) __________ out when the rain (stop) __________. 2/ I (stay) _________ here until he (answer) __________ me. 3/ Wait until I (catch) __________ you. 4/ I (be) _________ ready before you (count) _________ ten. 5/ John must eat his breakfast before he (go) __________ out. 6/ Miss Helen (help) ___________ you as soon as she (finish) _________ that letter. 7/ He (tell) _________ you when you (get) __________ there. 8/ She (not come) __________ until you (be) _________ ready. 9/ He (tell) __________ you when you (ask) __________ him. 12
  14. 10/ I (come) ________ and (see) _________ you before I (leave) ________ for England. * 8. PERFECT SO SAÙNH THÌ FUTURE PERFECT VAØ THÌ FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS + Thì Future Perfect (Töông Lai Hoaøn Thaønh) ñöôïc duøng ñeå chæ moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn thaønh tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai hay moät ñieåm thôøi gian ôû töông lai. - The taxi will have arrived by the time you finish dressing. arrived - By next Christmas, he will have lived in Dalat for 5 years. + Ñeå nhaán maïnh tính lieân tuïc cuûa haønh ñoäng, chuùng ta duøng thì Future Perfect Continuous (Töông Lai Hoaøn Thaønh Tieáp Dieãn). - By the time you receive this letter, we shall have been travelling through Russia. - By next June, they will have been working in this factory for 12 years. Exercise IX : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present, simple future, present perfect or future perfect tense. tense. 1/ I’ll wait until he (write) __________ his next novel. 2/ When you (come) _________ back, he (already buy) __________ a new house. 3/ Don’t come until I (finish) _________ lunch. 4/ I (hope) _________ it (stop) __________ raining by 5 o’clock this afternoon. 5/ The river (not begin)_________ to rise until some rain (fall)__________. 6/ I (stay) __________ here until you (finish) _________ your work. 7/ By next month, I (leave) _________ for India. 8/ He (finish) _________ his work before you (leave) __________. 9/ Before you (go) __________, they (leave) __________ the country. 10/ The meeting (finish) _________ by the time we (get) _________ there. Exercise X : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present, simple future, future continuous or future perfect tense. 1/ We (send) __________ you a telegram as soon as we (arrive) _________ in London. 2/ When George (come) __________ this afternoon, he (bring) __________ his friends. 13
  15. 3/ I (speak) _________ to you about that matter after the meeting tonight. 4/ By the time you (receive) __________ this letter, we (cross) __________ the Atlantic Ocean. 5/ By this time next week, you (meet) __________ my boyfriend, Ali. 6/ I (wait) __________ for you right here when you (come) __________ out of the building. 7/ She (wait) __________ for you at 5 o’clock this afternoon. 8/ I (give) __________ it back as soon as he (want) __________ it. 9/ I (not move) __________ from here until you (get) __________ back. 10/ They (not come) __________ home until they (see) __________ everything. Exercise XI : Supply the correct tense. 1/ They (just decide) __________ that they (undertake) ___________ the job. 2/ We (go) ___________ to the theatre last night. 3/ He usually (write) __________ in green ink. 4/ She (play) __________ the piano when our guests (arrive) __________ last night. 5/ We (do) __________ an English exercise at the moment. 6/ She (just come) __________ in and (see) __________ you in 5 minutes. 7/ I (come) __________ as soon as my work is finished. (You be) __________ ready ? 8/ Where (you go) __________ for your holiday last year ? 9/ I (not leave) _________ Paris since we (go) _________ to Dieppe three years ago. 10/ My mother (come) __________ to stay with us next weekend. 11/ We (meet) __________ only yesterday and (already decide) __________ to get married. 12/ I (never see) __________ snow. 13/ Violets (bloom) __________ in spring. 14/ We (not live) ___________ in England for the last two months. 15/ I (lose) _________ my keys; I cannot remember where I last (see) _________ them. 16/ He (not arrive) __________ when I (write) __________ my last letter to you. 14
  16. 17/ Whenever you (go) _________ to town nowadays, you (spend) _________ a lot of money. 18/ I (never forget) __________ what you (just tell) __________ me. 19/ They (prepare) __________ the Christmas dinner today. 20/ When I last (stay) ___________ in Cairo, I (ride) __________ to the Pyramids on a camel that my friend (borrow) ____________ the day before. 21/ I (finish) ___________ the book before my next birthday. 22/ “Hello! (You make) __________ a cake ? 23/ He (walk) __________ very quickly when I (meet) __________ him yesterday. 24/ We (meet) __________ you tomorrow after you (finish) __________ your work. 25/ Yesterday I (buy) __________ a new watch as my old one (be) __________ stolen. Exercise XII : Supply the correct tense. 1/ He said he (be) __________ sorry he (give) __________ me so much trouble. 2/ I am sorry that I (not know) _________ you (leave) __________ your pipe when you (come) __________ to see me last Thursday. 3/ He (be) __________ so good to me when I was a boy that to this day I (not forget) __________ his kindness, and I hope that I (never forget) __________. 4/ He (sleep) __________ and (not understand) ___________ what you (say) __________ to him. He (wake) __________ if you (speak) __________ louder. 5/ Some animals (not eat) ___________ during the winter and only (come) __________ out in spring. 6/ After leaving school he (study) __________ French in Paris for two years and then (move) __________ to America, where he now (live) _________. He (visit) __________ England once or twice and (know) __________ English well; but (not have) __________ yet the opportunity of visiting European countries. 7/ I (know) __________ him for a very long time. 8/ When my friend Tom grows a beard, even his closest friends (not recognize) __________ him. 9/ When I (meet) __________ him in the street, he (go) __________ to the pictures. 10/ I (study) _________ English for six years now. 15
  17. 11/ I expect he (leave) __________ for France as soon as he (get) __________ a visa. 12/ He (visit) ______ his friend yesterday and (find) _______ that he (be) ________ out. 13/ They (sell) _________ all the dresses before we (get) __________ there. 14/ After she (work) __________ at the hospital for two years, she (decide) __________ to give up the job. 15/ He will come at once because I (tell) __________ him by phone that you (need) __________ him urgently. I’m sure he (find) __________ his way easily although he (never visit) __________ this house before. 16/ By the time you get back, I (finish) __________ all my correspondence and then I (can help) ______________ you with yours. 17/ In a few minutes’ time, when the clock (strike) __________ six, I (wait) __________ here for an hour. 18/ He (know) ________ her a long time before he finally (get) _______ married to her. 19/ I hope it (not rain) __________ when the bride (leave) __________ the church. 20/ I (tell) a lie if I said that I (like) __________ you. 21/ They (intend) __________ to go there next week; but now they (find) __________ they (not have) __________ enough money. 22/ When he grew old he often (think) __________ of all the things he (do) ___________ when he (be) __________ young. 23/ When we (go) __________ to see them last night, they (play) __________ cards; they (say) __________ they (play) __________ since six o’clock. 24/ This is the second time you (break) __________ a cup; you (break) __________ one yesterday. My last servant (never break)____________ anything, and you (break) ___________ nearly half the things in the house. 25/ I always (tell) ___________ you to comb your hair, but you never (do) ___________ what I (say) ___________ . EXERCISE XIII : Use the correct tense of the verbs in brackets. 1/ Mrs Reed (turn) _________ on the radio in her car while she (drive) _________ home yesterday. She (listen) ___________ to some music when she suddenly (hear) ___________ a siren. She (look) ____________ in her mirror and (see) _________ an ambulance behind her. She immediately (pull) ________ her car to the side of the road and (wait) _________ for the ambulance (pass) _________. 16
  18. 2/ My mother (call) ___________ me around 5 o’clock. My husband (come) _________ home a little after that. When he (come) __________ home, I (talk) ___________ to my mother on the phone. 3/ Next month I (have) _________ a week’s vacation. I (plan) _________ to take a trip. First I (go) _________ to Madison, Wisconsin to visit my brother. After I (leave) ________ Madion, I (go) _________ Chicago to see a friend who (study) _________ at a university there. She (live) _________ in Chicago for three years, so she (know) _________ her way around the city. She (promise) _________ to take me to many interesting places. I (never, be) _________ in Chicago, so I (look) _________ forward to going there. 4/ Yesterday John (eat) _____________ breakfast at 8:00. He (already, eat) _________ breakfast when he (leave) ____________ for class at 8:45. He (always, eat) _________ breakfast before he (go) _____________ to class. I (usually, not eat) _________ breakfast before I (go) _________ to class. But I (usually, get) _________ hungry about midmorning. Tomorrow before I (go) _____________ to class, I (eat) _________ breakfast. 5/ Last year, I (go) __________ mountain climbing for the first time. It was exciting and terrifying at the same time. We (move) ___________slowly and carefully, and it (take) ___________ three days to get to the top. When we climbed onto the summit, we (find) ___________ another group of climbers. They (arrive) ___________ several hours ahead of us. They (have) ___________ dinner and listening to Beethoven. We (laugh) __________ and they (invite) ___________ us to join them. The climb (be) ___________, to say the least, an unforgettable experience. 6/ The weather (be) ___________ terrible lately. It (rain) ___________ off and on for two days, and the temperature (drop) ___________ at least twenty degrees. It (be) ___________ in the low 40s right now. Just three days ago, the sun (shine) ___________ and the weather was pleasant. The weather certainly (change) ___________ quickly here. I never know what to expect. Who knows ? When I (wake) ___________ up tomorrow morning, maybe it (snow) ___________. 7/ A taxi driver (drive) ____________ along a street when he suddenly (black out) ___________ and lost control of his vehicle. The taxi (plunge) _________ into a nearby river. A hawker, who (see) ______________ the accident, rushed from his coffee stall and (dive) ___________ into the water. He (have) ___________ to swim twenty five metres before he could get to the taxi. The taxi driver (try) ______________ to wind down the window. The hawker reached into the taxi for the safety-belt. After he (release) __________ the safety-belt, he pulled the driver out through the partially open window. At the hospital, the driver (say) ____________ that the black out might (cause) ______________ by his high blood pressure condition. 17
  19. 8/ Marie Curie, the Polish-born chemist, was a courageous and determined woman. She (leave) ___________ her home for Paris to pursue her interest in science. Living in poverty, she still (manage) ___________ to graduate at the top of her class. She (meet) ___________ Pierre Curie shortly after graduation and (marry) ___________ him a year later. Together, Pierre and Marie (form) ___________ the most famous husband-and- wife partnership in science history. They (discover) ___________ the radioactive elements, Polonium and Radium. They (award) ___________ the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903. 18
  20. Baøi 2 : CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN Sentence) (Conditional Sentence) Moät caâu ñieàu kieän coù hai meänh ñeà : meänh ñeà chæ ñieàu kieän (töùc meänh ñeà phuï) coøn ñöôïc goïi laø meänh ñeà coù if (If-clause vaø meänh ñeà chæ keát quaû coøn ñöôïc goïi laø meänh ñeà If- If clause) chính (main clause). main - If he works harder, he will succeed in his examination. (if-clause) (main clause) Chuùng ta cuõng coù theå ñaët meänh ñeà chính ôû ñaàu caâu : - He will succeed in his examination if he works harder. Trong tieáng Anh coù 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän chính : * Type I : ÑIEÀU KIEÄN COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ÑÖÔÏC (probable condition Type probable condition) 1/ YÙ nghóa : Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät söï vieäc coù theå xaûy ra hoaëc khoâng theå xaûy ra ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai; nhöng chuùng ta coù nhieàu hy voïng noù xaûy ra. 2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø : If- clause Main clause Simple future Simple present (shall / will + verb) - If the rain stops, we shall go for a walk. - He will come if you call him. * Ngoaøi ra chuùng ta coøn coù theå duøng caùc khieám khuyeát ñoäng töø nhö : CAN, MUST MUST, MAY … ñeå thay cho shall hoaëc will ôû meänh ñeà chính. - If you ask me, I can help you. - You must study harder if you want to pass the coming exam. * Meänh ñeà chính coù theå laø moät meänh leänh hoaëc thænh caàu : - Come to me if you need help. - If you have time, perfect your English. (Present- Con) * Type II : ÑIEÀU KIEÄN KHOÂNG COÙ THAÄT ÔÛ HIEÄN TAÏI. (Present- unreal Con 1/ YÙ nghóa : Loaïi ñieàu kieän naøy dieãn taû moät ñieàu kieän khoù coù theå xaûy ra hay moät söï vieäc khoâng thöïc hieän ñöôïc ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. 2/ Thì cuûa ñoäng töø : If-clause Main clause Past Subjunctive Present Conditional 19
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