Các mạng UTMS và công nghệ truy cập vô tuyến P2

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Các mạng UTMS và công nghệ truy cập vô tuyến P2

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SYSTEM ANALYSIS FUNDAMENTALS FUNDAMENTALS OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS Third generation systems focus on providing a universal platform to afford multifarious communications options at all levels, i.e. the radio as well as the core network sides. This implies the application of optimum techniques in multiple access and interworking protocols for the physical and upper layers, respectively.

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  1. The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology: Air Interface Techniques for Future Mobile Systems Jonathan P. Castro Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Print ISBN 0-471-81375-3 Online ISBN 0-470-84172-9  SYSTEM ANALYSIS FUNDAMENTALS 2.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS Third generation systems focus on providing a universal platform to afford multifarious communications options at all levels, i.e. the radio as well as the core network sides. This implies the application of optimum techniques in multiple access and inter- working protocols for the physical and upper layers, respectively. This chapter dis- cusses the background of the multiple access or radio part of the UMTS specification. Several sources [5–9] have already covered all types of fundamentals related to the air- interface. Thus, we focus only on the communications environment to access the radio link performance for coverage analysis and network dimensioning in forthcoming chap- ters. 2.1.1 Multiple Access Options The access technologies utilized in UTRA are unique because of the type of implemen- tation and not because they are new. The combination of CDMA and TDMA techniques in one fully compatible platform, make UTRA special. The WCDMA and hybrid TDMA/CDMA form the FDD and TDD modes to co-exist seamlessly to meet the UMTS services and performance requirements. In the sequel we cover the fundamental characteristics for each access technique which serves as a building block for the UTRA modes. 2.1.1.1 Narrow-band Digital Channel Systems The two basic narrow-band techniques include FDMA (using frequencies) and TDMA (using time slots). In the first case, frequencies are assigned to users while guard bands maintain between adjacent signal spectra to minimize interference between channels. In the second case, data from each user takes place in time intervals called slots. The ad- vantages of FDMA lie on efficient use of codes and simple technology requirements. But the drawbacks of operating at a reduced signal/interference ratio and the inhibiting flexibility1 of bit rate capabilities outweigh the benefits. TDMA allows flexible rates in multiples of basic single channels and sub-multiples for low-bit rate broadcast transmis- sion. It offers frame-by-frame signal management with efficient guard band arrange- ments to control signal events. However, it requires substantial amounts of signal proc- essing resources to cope with matched filtering and synchronization needs. _______ 1 The maximum bit per channel remains fixed and low.
  2. 14 The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology 2.1.1.2 Wide-band Digital Channel Systems Some of the drawbacks and limitations in the narrow-band channel systems made room for wide-band channel system designs. In wide-band systems the entire bandwidth re- mains available to each user, even if it is many times larger than the bandwidth required to convey the information. These systems include primarily Spread Spectrum (SS) sys- tems, e.g. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). In DSSS, emphasized in this book, the transmission bandwidth ex- ceeds the coherent bandwidth, i.e. the received signal after de-spreading resolves into multiple time-varying delay signals that a RAKE receiver can exploit to provide an in- herent time diversity receiver in a fading environment. In addition, DSSS has greater resistance to interference effects when compared to FDMA and TDMA. The latter greatly simplifies frequency band assignment and adjacent cell interference. In addition, capacity improvements with DSSS or more commonly referred to as DS-CDMA2, re- sulting from the voice activity factor, which we cannot apply effectively to FDMA or TDMA. With DS-CDMA, e.g. adjacent micro-cells share the same frequencies, whereas interference in FDMA and TDMA does not allow this. Other benefits and features can be found in [10–12]. Here we focus on the WCDMA or FDD mode and TDMA/ CDMA or TDD mode of the UTRA solution. 2.1.1.3 The UTRA FDD Mode: WCDMA Figure 2.1 illustrates some of the UTRA Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) charac- teristics. This mode uses Wide-band Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA), denoted WCDMA. To support bit rates up to 2 Mbps, it utilizes a variable spreading factor and multi-code links. It supports highly variable user data rates through the allocation of 10 ms frames, during which the user data rate remains constant, al- though the latter may change from frame to frame depending on the network control. It realizes a chip rate of 3.84 Mcps within 5 MHz carrier bandwidth, although the actual carrier spacing can be selected on a 200 kHz grid between approximately 4.4 and 5 MHz, depending on the interference situation between the carriers. ÃA…r„ˆrp’à à Wh…vhiyrÃiv‡Ã…h‡rà †r…‰vpr†Ã Q‚r…à CvtuÃiv‡Ã…h‡rà ##$ÃHC“à †r…‰vpr†Ã Uv€rà 9vssr…r‡Ã†ƒ…rhqvtÃshp‡‚…†Ã À†Ã rtÃhyy‚vtÃ'±"'#Ãxƒi†à Figure 2.1 The UTRA WCDMA or FDD mode characteristics. _______ 2 Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access.
  3. System Analysis Fundamentals 15 The FDD has a self timing point of reference through the operation of asynchronous BSs, and it uses coherent detection in the up- and downlink based on the use of pilot reference symbols. Its architecture allows the introduction of advanced capacity and coverage enhancing CDMA receiver techniques, e.g. multi-user detection and smart adaptive antennas. In addition, it will seamlessly co-exist with GSM networks through its inter-system handover functions of WCDMA. 2.1.1.4 The UTRA TDD Mode: TD/CDMA The 2nd UTRA mode results from the combination of TDMA–FDMA and exploits spreading as part of its CDMA component. It operates in Time Division Duplexing using the same frequency channel. ÃA…r„ˆrp’ Q‚r… ##$ÃHC“ Hˆy‡vp‚qr Uv€r Hˆy‡v†y‚‡  PV IUDPH Hˆy‡vp‚qrÃÃHˆy‡v†y‚‡ Wh…vhiyrÃTƒ…rhqvt Figure 2.2 UTRA TDD mode characteristics. In this mode, the MSs can only access a Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) chan- nel at specific times and only for a specific period of time. Thus, if a mobile gets one or more Time Slots (TS) allocated, it can periodically access this set of TSs throughout the duration of the frame. Spreading codes described in Chapter 4 separate user signals within one or more slots. Hence, in the TDD mode we define a physical channel by a code, one TS, and one frequency, where each TS can be assigned to either the uplink or the downlink depending on the demand. Users may obtain flexible transmission rates by occupying several TSs of a frame as illustrated in Figure 2.2, without additional proc- essing resources from the transceiver hardware. On the other hand, when more than one frequency channel gets occupied, utilization of transceiver resources will increase if the wide-band transmission cannot prevent it. We achieve variable data rates through either multi-code transmission with fixed spreading or through single code with variable spreading. In the 1st case, a single user or users may get multiple spreading codes within the same TS; while in the 2nd case, the physical channel spreading factor may vary according to the data rate.
  4. 16 The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology 2.1.2 Signal Processing Aspects In the following, we review Signal Processing characteristics for the WCDMA as well as TD/CDMA as a base to describe key functions of the UTRA FDD and TDD modes. These include spreading aspects and modulation and coding. 2.1.2.1 The Spread Spectrum Concept Digital designs of communications systems aim to maximise capacity utilization. We can for example increase channel capacity by increasing channel bandwidth, and/or transmitted power. In this context, CDMA operates at much lower S/N ratios as a result of the extra channel bandwidth used to achieve good performance at low signal-to-noise ratio. From Shannon’s channel capacity principle [22] expressed as: 6Þ & = % ORJ Î + Ï  
  5. Ð 1ß à where B is the bandwidth (Hz), C is the channel capacity (bits/s), S is the signal power, and N is the noise power; we can find a simple definition of the bandwidth as: & 1 %= ™  
  6.  6 Thus, for a particular S/N ratio, we can achieve a low information error rate by increas- ing the bandwidth used to transfer information. To expand the bandwidth here, we add the information to the spreading spectrum code before modulation. This approach ap- plies for example to the FDD mode, which uses a code sequence to determine RF bandwidth. The FDD mode has robustness to interference due to higher system process- ing gain3 Gp. The latter quantifies the degree of interference rejection and can be de- fined as the ratio of RF bandwidth to the information rate: % *S =  
  7. 5 From Ref. [23] in a spread-spectrum system, thermal noise and interference determine the noise level. Hence, for a given user, the interference is processed as noise. Then, the input and output S/N ratios can relate as: Ë6Û Ë6Û Ì Ü = *S Ì Ü  
  8. Í 1 ÝR Í 1 ÝL Relating the S/N ratio to the Eb/No ratio4, where Eb is the energy per bit and No is the noise power spectral density, we get: Ë6Û (E ™ 5 (E  Ì Ü = = ™  
  9. Í 1 ÝL 1 R ™ % 1 R *S From the preceding equations we can express Eb/No in terms of the S/N input and output ratios as follows: _______ 3 Reference processing gains for spread spectrum systems have been established between 20 and 50 dBs. 4 Unless otherwise specified, here we assume that N includes thermal and interference noise. o
  10. System Analysis Fundamentals 17 (E Ë6Û Ë6Û = *S ™ Ì Ü = Ì Ü  
  11. 1R Í 1 ÝL Í 1 Ý R 2.1.2.2 Modulation and Spreading Principles In wide-band spread-spectrum systems like the FDD mode, the entire bandwidth of the system remains available to each user. To such systems, the following principles apply: first, the spreading signal has a bandwidth much larger than the minimum bandwidth required to transfer desired information or base-band data. Second, data spreading oc- curs by means of a code spreading signal, where the code signal is independent of the data and is of a much higher rate than the data signal. Lastly, at the receiver, de- spreading takes place by the cross-correlation of the received spread signal with a syn- chronized replica of the same signal used to spread the data [23]. 2.1.2.2.1 Modulation If we view Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) as two independent Binary Phase- Shift Keying (BPSK) modulations, then we can assume the net data rate doubles. We now provide the background for QPSK to serve as background to the applications in UTRA presented in Chapter 4. For all practical purposes we start with M-PSK, where M = 2b, and b = 1, 2 or 3 (i.e. 2- PSK or BPSK, 4-PSK or QPSK and 8-PSK). In the case of QPSK modulation the phase of the carrier can take on one of four values 45°, 135°, 225°, or 315° as we shall see later. The QPSK power spectral density (V2/Hz) could be then defined as  Ñ VLQ Î p7V ( I - I F ) Þ á Ô àÔ  6 I
  12. = $ 7V Ò Ð  â 
  13. Ô Ð Ó Î p7V ( I - I F ) Þ Ô à ã where fc is the unmodulated carrier frequency, A is the carrier amplitude, and Ts is the symbol interval. When Tb is the input binary bit interval, Ts may be expressed as 7V = 7E ORJ  0  
  14. The power spectral density of an unfiltered M-PSK signal occupies a bandwidth which is a function of the symbol rate rs = (1/Ts). Thus, for a given transmitter symbol, the power spectrum for any M-PSK signal remains the same regardless of the number M of symbol levels used. This implies that BPSK, QPSK and 8-PSK signals each have the same spectral shape if Ts remains the same in each case. Spectral Efficiency For a M-ary PSK scheme each transmitted symbol represents log2M bits. Hence, at a fixed input bit rate, as the value of M increases, the transmitter symbol rate decreases; which means that there is in increase in spectral efficiency for larger M. Thus, if for any digital modulation the spectral efficiency hs, (i.e. the ratio of the input data rate rb and the allocated channel bandwidth B) is given by: UE hV =  ELWV +]
  15.  
  16. %
  17. 18 The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology the 8-PSK spectral efficiency will be three times as great as that for BPSK. However, this will be achieved at the expense of the error probability. Now allocating the RF bandwidth of a M-PSK signal we should remember that its spec- trum rolls off relatively slowly. Therefore, it is necessary to filter the M-PSK signal so that its spectrum is limited to a finite bandpass channel region avoiding adjacent chan- nel interference. Using Nyquist filtering or raised cosine filtering prevents the adjacent channel interference, as well as the intersymbol interference (ISI) due to filtering. The raised-cosine spectra are characterized by a factor aB, known as the excess bandwidth factor. This factor lies in the range 0–1, and specifies the excess bandwidth of the spec- trum compared to that of an ideal bandpass spectrum (aB = 0) for which the bandwidth would be B = rs. Typical values of aB used in practice are 0.3–0.5 [3]. Thus, for M-PSK transmission using the Nyquist filtering with roll-off aB the required bandwidth will be given by % = UV ( + a % )  
  18. Then the maximum bit rate in terms of the transmission bandwidth B, and the roll-off factor aB can be defined as % ORJ  0 UE =  
  19.  + a% However, if we assume an M-PSK with an ideal Nyquist filtering (i.e. aB = 0) the signal spectrum is centred on fc, it is constant over the bandwidth B = 1/Ts, and it is zero out- side that band. Then the transmitted bandwidth for the M-PSK signal, and the respective spectral efficiency are given by  U 
  20. %=  DQG hV = E = ORJ  0  7E ORJ  0 % Bit Error Rate (BER) Performance In M-PSK modulation, the input binary information stream is first divided into b bit blocks, and then each block is transmitted as one of M possible symbols; where each symbol is a carrier frequency sinusoid having one of M possible phase values [3]. Among the M-PSK schemes, BPSK and QPSK are the most widely used. Nevertheless, here we review only the QPSK scheme. In QPSK each transmitted symbol (Figure 2.3) represents two input bits as follows: Input bits Transmitted symbols 00 A cos(wct + 45°) 01 A cos(wct + 135°) 11 A cos(wct + 235°) 10 A cos(wct + 315°)

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