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Congratulations! If you’re reading this Introduction, you’ve probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry, you need to know Cisco.

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Nội dung Text: CCENT/CCNA ICND1 phần 1

  1. CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624 Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA
  2. ii CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition Wendell Odom Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Printing August 2007 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Odom, Wendell. CCENT/CCNA ICND1 official exam certification guide / Wendell Odom. p. cm. ISBN 978-1-58720-182-0 (hardback w/cd) 1. Electronic data processing personnel--Certification. 2. Computer net- works--Examinations--Study guides. I. Title. QA76.3.O358 2007 004.6--dc22 2007029241 ISBN-13: 978-1-58720-182-0 ISBN-10: 1-58720-182-8 Warning and Disclaimer This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco ICND1 (640-822), ICND2 (640-816), and CCNA (640-802) exams. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The author, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.
  3. iii Trademark Acknowledgments All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Corporate and Government Sales The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, and branding interests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 For sales outside the United States please contact: International Sales Feedback Information At Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Each book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members of the professional technical community. Reader feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments about how we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through e-mail at Please be sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. We greatly appreciate your assistance. Publisher: Paul Boger Copy Editor: Gayle Johnson and Bill McManus Associate Publisher: Dave Dusthimer Technical Editors: Teri Cook, Brian D’Andrea, and Steve Kalman Cisco Representative: Anthony Wolfenden Editorial Assistant: Vanessa Evans Cisco Press Program Manager: Jeff Brady Book and Cover Designer: Louisa Adair Executive Editor: Brett Bartow Composition: ICC Macmillan Inc. Managing Editor: Patrick Kanouse Indexer: Tim Wright Senior Development Editor: Christopher Cleveland Proofreader: Suzanne Thomas Senior Project Editor: San Dee Phillips and Meg Shaw
  4. iv About the Author Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He currently teaches QoS, MPLS, and CCNA courses for Skyline Advanced Technology Services ( He has also worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, instructor, and course developer. He is the author of all previous editions of the CCNA Exam Certification Guide, as well as the Cisco QOS Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition, Computer Networking First-Step, CCIE Routing and Switching Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition, and CCNA Video Mentor— all from Cisco Press.
  5. v About the Technical Reviewers Teri Cook (CCSI, CCDP, CCNP, CCDA, CCNA, MCT, and MCSE 2000/2003: Security) has more than ten years of experience in the IT industry. She has worked with different types of organizations in the private business and DoD sectors, providing senior-level network and security technical skills in the design and implementation of complex computing environments. Since obtaining her certifications, Teri has been committed to bringing quality IT training to IT professionals as an instructor. She is an outstanding instructor who uses real-world experience to present complex networking technologies. As an IT instructor, Teri has been teaching Cisco classes for more than five years. Brian D’Andrea (CCNA, CCDA, MCSE, A+, and Net+) has 11 years of IT experience in both medical and financial environments, where planning and supporting critical networking technologies were his primary responsibilities. For the last five years he has dedicated himself to technical training. Brian spends most of his time with The Training Camp, an IT boot camp provider. Using his real-world experience and his ability to break difficult concepts into a language that students can understand, Brian has successfully trained hundreds of students for both work and certification endeavors. Stephen Kalman is a data security trainer. He is the author or tech editor of more than 20 books, courses, and CBT titles. His most recent book is Web Security Field Guide, published by Cisco Press. In addition to those responsibilities he runs a consulting company, Esquire Micro Consultants, which specializes in network security assessments and forensics. Mr. Kalman holds SSCP, CISSP, ISSMP, CEH, CHFI, CCNA, CCSA (Checkpoint), A+, Network+ and Security+ certifications and is a member of the New York State Bar.
  6. vi Dedication For Brett Bartow. Thanks for being such a steady, insightful, and incredibly trustworthy guide through the publishing maze.
  7. vii Acknowledgments The team who helped produce this book has been simply awesome. Everyone who touched this book has made it better, and they’ve been particularly great at helping catch the errors that always creep into the manuscript. Brian, Teri, and Steve all did a great job TEing the book. Besides helping a lot with technical accuracy, Brian made a lot of good suggestions about traps that he sees when teaching CCNA classes, helping the book avoid those same pitfalls. Teri’s ability to see each phrase in the context of an entire chapter, or the whole book, was awesome, helping catch things that no one would otherwise catch. Steve spent most of his TE time on the ICND2 book, but he did lend great help with this one, particularly with his reviews of the security-oriented topics, an area in which he’s an expert. And more so than any other book I’ve written, the TEs really sunk their teeth into the specifics of every example, helping catch errors. Thanks so much! Another (ho-hum) all-star performance from Chris Cleveland, who developed the book. Now I empathize with sports writers who have to write about the local team’s star who bats .300, hits 40 homers, and drives in 100 runs, every year, for his whole career. How many ways can you say he does a great job? I’ll keep it simple: Thanks, Chris. The wonderful and mostly hidden production folks did their usual great job. When every time I see how they reworded something, and think, “Wow; why didn’t I write that?”, it makes me appreciate the kind of team we have at Cisco Press. The final copy edit, figure review, and pages review process required a fair amount of juggling and effort as well – thanks to Patrick’s team, especially San Dee, Meg, Tonya, for working so well with all the extra quality initiatives we’ve implemented. Thanks to you all! Additionally, several folks who didn’t have any direct stake in the book also helped it along. Thanks to Frank Knox for the discussions on the exams, why they’re so difficult, and about troubleshooting. Thanks to Rus Healy for the help with wireless. Thanks to the Mikes at Skyline for making my schedule work to get this book (and the ICND2 book) out the door. And thanks to the course and exam teams at Cisco for the great early communications and interactions about the changes to the courses and exams. Finally, thanks to my wife Kris for all her support with my writing efforts, her prayers, and her understanding when the deadline didn’t quite match with our vacation plans this summer. And thanks to Jesus Christ—all this effort is just striving after the wind without Him.
  8. viii This Book Is Safari Enabled The Safari® Enabled icon on the cover of your favorite technol- ogy book means that the book is available through Safari Book- shelf. When you buy this book, you get free access to the online edition for 45 days. Safari Bookshelf is an electronic reference library that lets you easily search thousands of technical books, find code samples, download chapters, and access technical information whenever and wherever you need it. To gain 45-day Safari Enabled access to this book: ■ Go to ■ Complete the brief registration form. ■ Enter the coupon code 6EM9-WNXL-7Z1E-9UL2-KAEC. If you have difficulty registering on Safari Bookshelf or access- ing the online edition, please e-mail customer-service@safari-
  9. ix Contents at a Glance Foreword xxvi Introduction xxvii Part I Networking Fundamentals 3 Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking Concepts 5 Chapter 2 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 17 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of LANs 41 Chapter 4 Fundamentals of WANs 71 Chapter 5 Fundamentals of IP Addressing and Routing 93 Chapter 6 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport, Applications, and Security 129 Part II LAN Switching 165 Chapter 7 Ethernet LAN Switching Concepts 167 Chapter 8 Operating Cisco LAN Switches 197 Chapter 9 Ethernet Switch Configuration 231 Chapter 10 Ethernet Switch Troubleshooting 267 Chapter 11 Wireless LANs 299 Part III IP Routing 329 Chapter 12 IP Addressing and Subnetting 331 Chapter 13 Operating Cisco Routers 399 Chapter 14 Routing Protocol Concepts and Configuration 435 Chapter 15 Troubleshooting IP Routing 471 Part IV Wide-Area Networks 509 Chapter 16 WAN Concepts 511 Chapter 17 WAN Configuration 539
  10. x Part V Final Preparation 563 Chapter 18 Final Preparation 565 Part VI Appendixes 575 Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes 577 Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 591 Appendix C ICND1 Exam Updates: Version 1.0 595 Glossary 599 Index 624 Part VII CD-Only Appendix C ICND1 Exam Updates: Version 1.0 Appendix D Subnetting Practice Appendix E Subnetting Reference Pages Appendix F Additional Scenarios Appendix G Subnetting Video Reference Appendix H Memory Tables Appendix I Memory Tables Answer Key Appendix J ICND1 Open-Ended Questions
  11. xi Contents Foreword xxvi Introduction xxvii Part I Networking Fundamentals 3 Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking Concepts 5 Perspectives on Networking 5 The Flintstones Network: The First Computer Network? 8 Chapter 2 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 17 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 18 Foundation Topics 21 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 22 The TCP/IP Application Layer 23 The TCP/IP Transport Layer 25 The TCP/IP Internet Layer 27 The TCP/IP Network Access Layer 28 Data Encapsulation Terminology 30 The OSI Reference Model 32 Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32 OSI Layers and Their Functions 34 OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35 OSI Encapsulation Terminology 36 Exam Preparation Tasks 38 Review all the Key Topics 38 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 38 Definitions of Key Terms 38 OSI Reference 39 Chapter 3 Fundamentals of LANs 41 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 41 Foundation Topics 45 An Overview of Modern Ethernet LANs 45 A Brief History of Ethernet 48 The Original Ethernet Standards: 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 48 Repeaters 50 Building 10BASE-T Networks with Hubs 51 Ethernet UTP Cabling 52 UTP Cables and RJ-45 Connectors 52 Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 54 UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX 55 1000BASE-T Cabling 58
  12. xii Improving Performance by Using Switches Instead of Hubs 58 Increasing Available Bandwidth Using Switches 61 Doubling Performance by Using Full-Duplex Ethernet 62 Ethernet Layer 1 Summary 63 Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 63 Ethernet Addressing 64 Ethernet Framing 65 Identifying the Data Inside an Ethernet Frame 67 Error Detection 68 Exam Preparation Tasks 69 Review All the Key Topics 69 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 69 Definitions of Key Terms 69 Chapter 4 Fundamentals of WANs 71 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 71 Foundation Topics 74 OSI Layer 1 for Point-to-Point WANs 74 WAN Connections from the Customer Viewpoint 77 WAN Cabling Standards 78 Clock Rates, Synchronization, DCE, and DTE 80 Building a WAN Link in a Lab 81 Link Speeds Offered by Telcos 82 OSI Layer 2 for Point-to-Point WANs 83 HDLC 83 Point-to-Point Protocol 85 Point-to-Point WAN Summary 85 Frame Relay and Packet-Switching Services 86 The Scaling Benefits of Packet Switching 86 Frame Relay Basics 87 Exam Preparation Tasks 91 Review All the Key Topics 91 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 91 Definitions of Key Terms 91 Chapter 5 Fundamentals of IP Addressing and Routing 93 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 93 Foundation Topics 98 Overview of Network Layer Functions 98 Routing (Forwarding) 99 PC1’s Logic: Sending Data to a Nearby Router 100 R1 and R2’s Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 100 R3’s Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 100
  13. xiii Network Layer Interaction with the Data Link Layer 101 IP Packets and the IP Header 102 Network Layer (Layer 3) Addressing 103 Routing Protocols 104 IP Addressing 105 IP Addressing Definitions 105 How IP Addresses Are Grouped 106 Classes of Networks 107 The Actual Class A, B, and C Network Numbers 109 IP Subnetting 110 IP Routing 114 Host Routing 114 Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 115 IP Routing Protocols 118 Network Layer Utilities 121 Address Resolution Protocol and the Domain Name System 121 DNS Name Resolution 122 The ARP Process 122 Address Assignment and DHCP 123 ICMP Echo and the ping Command 125 Exam Preparation Tasks 126 Review All the Key Topics 126 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 127 Definitions of Key Terms 127 Chapter 6 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport, Applications, and Security 129 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 129 Foundation Topics 133 TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 133 Transmission Control Protocol 134 Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 135 Popular TCP/IP Applications 138 Error Recovery (Reliability) 140 Flow Control Using Windowing 141 Connection Establishment and Termination 142 Data Segmentation and Ordered Data Transfer 144 User Datagram Protocol 145 TCP/IP Applications 146 QoS Needs and the Impact of TCP/IP Applications 146 The World Wide Web, HTTP, and SSL 149 Universal Resource Locators 150 Finding the Web Server Using DNS 150 Transferring Files with HTTP 152
  14. xiv Network Security 153 Perspectives on the Sources and Types of Threats 154 Firewalls and the Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) 158 Anti-x 160 Intrusion Detection and Prevention 160 Virtual Private Networks (VPN) 161 Exam Preparation Tasks 163 Review All the Key Topics 163 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 163 Definitions of Key Terms 163 Part II LAN Switching 165 Chapter 7 Ethernet LAN Switching Concepts 167 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 167 Foundation Topics 171 LAN Switching Concepts 171 Historical Progression: Hubs, Bridges, and Switches 171 Switching Logic 174 The Forward Versus Filter Decision 175 How Switches Learn MAC Addresses 177 Flooding Frames 178 Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 179 Internal Processing on Cisco Switches 180 LAN Switching Summary 182 LAN Design Considerations 183 Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 183 Collision Domains 183 Broadcast Domains 184 The Impact of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design 185 Virtual LANs (VLAN) 187 Campus LAN Design Terminology 188 Ethernet LAN Media and Cable Lengths 191 Exam Preparation Tasks 194 Review All the Key Topics 194 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 194 Definitions of Key Terms 195 Chapter 8 Operating Cisco LAN Switches 197 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 197 Foundation Topics 200 Accessing the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch CLI 200 Cisco Catalyst Switches and the 2960 Switch 201
  15. xv Switch Status from LEDs 202 Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 205 CLI Access from the Console 206 Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 208 Password Security for CLI Access 208 User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 210 CLI Help Features 211 The debug and show Commands 213 Configuring Cisco IOS Software 214 Configuration Submodes and Contexts 215 Storing Switch Configuration Files 217 Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 220 Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 221 Exam Preparation Tasks 226 Review All the Key Topics 226 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 226 Definitions of Key Terms 226 Command References 226 Chapter 9 Ethernet Switch Configuration 231 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 231 Foundation Topics 235 Configuration of Features in Common with Routers 235 Securing the Switch CLI 235 Configuring Simple Password Security 236 Configuring Usernames and Secure Shell (SSH) 239 Password Encryption 242 The Two Enable Mode Passwords 244 Console and vty Settings 245 Banners 245 History Buffer Commands 246 The logging synchronous and exec-timeout Commands 247 LAN Switch Configuration and Operation 248 Configuring the Switch IP Address 248 Configuring Switch Interfaces 251 Port Security 253 VLAN Configuration 256 Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 259 Exam Preparation Tasks 261 Review All the Key Topics 261 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 261 Definitions of Key Terms 262 Command References 262
  16. xvi Chapter 10 Ethernet Switch Troubleshooting 267 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 267 Foundation Topics 271 Perspectives on Network Verification and Troubleshooting 271 Attacking Sim Questions 271 Simlet Questions 272 Multiple-Choice Questions 273 Approaching Questions with an Organized Troubleshooting Process 273 Isolating Problems at Layer 3, and Then at Layers 1 and 2 275 Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 276 Verifying the Network Topology with Cisco Discovery Protocol 277 Analyzing Layer 1 and 2 Interface Status 282 Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 282 Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 284 Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 287 Analyzing the Layer 2 Forwarding Path with the MAC Address Table 289 Analyzing the Forwarding Path 292 Port Security and Filtering 293 Exam Preparation Tasks 295 Review All the Key Topics 295 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 295 Definitions of Key Terms 295 Command References 295 Chapter 11 Wireless LANs 299 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 299 Foundation Topics 302 Wireless LAN Concepts 302 Comparisons with Ethernet LANs 302 Wireless LAN Standards 304 Modes of 802.11 Wireless LANs 305 Wireless Transmissions (Layer 1) 307 Wireless Encoding and Nonoverlapping DSSS Channels 309 Wireless Interference 311 Coverage Area, Speed, and Capacity 311 Media Access (Layer 2) 314 Deploying WLANs 315 Wireless LAN Implementation Checklist 315 Step 1: Verify the Existing Wired Network 316 Step 2: Install and Configure the AP’s Wired and IP Details 317 Step 3: Configure the AP’s WLAN Details 317 Step 4: Install and Configure One Wireless Client 318 Step 5: Verify That the WLAN Works from the Client 319
  17. xvii Wireless LAN Security 320 WLAN Security Issues 320 The Progression of WLAN Security Standards 322 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) 322 SSID Cloaking and MAC Filtering 323 The Cisco Interim Solution Between WEP and 802.11i 324 Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) 325 IEEE 802.11i and WPA-2 325 Exam Preparation Tasks 327 Review All the Key Topics 327 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 327 Definitions of Key Terms 327 Part III IP Routing 329 Chapter 12 IP Addressing and Subnetting 331 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 331 Foundation Topics 336 Exam Preparation Tools for Subnetting 336 Suggested Subnetting Preparation Plan 337 More Practice Using a Subnet Calculator 338 IP Addressing and Routing 339 IP Addressing Review 339 Public and Private Addressing 341 IP Version 6 Addressing 342 IP Subnetting Review 343 IP Routing Review 345 Math Operations Used When Subnetting 347 Converting IP Addresses and Masks from Decimal to Binary and Back Again 347 Performing a Boolean AND Operation 349 Prefix Notation/CIDR Notation 351 Binary Process to Convert Between Dotted Decimal and Prefix Notation 352 Decimal Process to Convert Between Dotted Decimal and Prefix Notation 353 Practice Suggestions 355 Analyzing and Choosing Subnet Masks 355 Analyzing the Subnet Mask in an Existing Subnet Design 356 The Three Parts: Network, Subnet, and Host 356 Binary Process: Finding the Number of Network, Subnet, and Host Bits 357 Decimal Process: Finding the Number of Network, Subnet, and Host Bits 358 Determining the Number of Subnets and Number of Hosts Per Subnet 359 Number of Subnets: Subtract 2, or Not? 360 Practice Examples for Analyzing Subnet Masks 361
  18. xviii Choosing a Subnet Mask that Meets Design Requirements 362 Finding the Only Possible Mask 363 Finding Multiple Possible Masks 365 Choosing the Mask that Maximizes the Number of Subnets or Hosts 366 Practice Suggestions 367 Analyzing Existing Subnets 368 Finding the Subnet Number: Binary 368 Finding the Subnet Number: Binary Shortcut 371 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 372 Finding the Range of Valid IP Addresses in a Subnet 375 Finding the Subnet, Broadcast Address, and Range of Addresses: Decimal Process 377 Decimal Process with Easy Masks 377 Decimal Process with Difficult Masks 378 Finding the Broadcast Address: Decimal 381 Summary of Decimal Processes to Find the Subnet, Broadcast, and Range 382 Practice Suggestions 383 Design: Choosing the Subnets of a Classful Network 384 Finding All Subnets with Fewer Than 8 Subnet Bits 384 Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 388 Practice Suggestions 389 Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 389 More Practice Suggestions 393 Exam Preparation Tasks 394 Review All the Key Topics 394 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 396 Definitions of Key Terms 396 Read Appendix F Scenario 1, Part A 396 Subnetting Questions and Processes 396 Chapter 13 Operating Cisco Routers 399 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 399 Foundation Topics 403 Installing Cisco Routers 403 Installing Enterprise Routers 403 Cisco Integrated Services Routers 405 Physical Installation 406 Installing Internet Access Routers 407 A SOHO Installation with a Separate Switch, Router, and Cable Modem 407 A SOHO Installation with an Integrated Switch, Router, and DSL Modem 408 Regarding the SOHO Devices Used in This Book 409
  19. xix Cisco Router IOS CLI 409 Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI 410 Router Interfaces 411 Interface Status Codes 413 Router Interface IP Addresses 414 Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces 415 Router Auxiliary (Aux) Port 417 Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 417 Upgrading Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco IOS Software Boot Process 420 Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 420 The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 423 The Three Router Operating Systems 425 The Configuration Register 425 How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 426 The show version Command and Seeing the Configuration Register’s Value 429 Exam Preparation Tasks 431 Review All the Key Topics 431 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 431 Definitions of Key Terms 432 Read Appendix F Scenario 2 432 Command References 432 Chapter 14 Routing Protocol Concepts and Configuration 435 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 435 Foundation Topics 439 Connected and Static Routes 439 Connected Routes 439 Static Routes 442 Extended ping Command 444 Default Routes 446 Routing Protocol Overview 448 RIP-2 Basic Concepts 449 Comparing and Contrasting IP Routing Protocols 450 Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 451 Routing Protocol Types/Algorithms 452 Metrics 452 Autosummarization and Manual Summarization 454 Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 454 Convergence 455 Miscellaneous Comparison Points 455 Summary of Interior Routing Protocols 455
  20. xx Configuring and Verifying RIP-2 456 RIP-2 Configuration 456 Sample RIP Configuration 457 RIP-2 Verification 458 Interpreting the Output of the show ip route Command 460 Administrative Distance 461 The show ip protocols Command 462 Examining RIP Messages with debug 464 Exam Preparation Tasks 467 Review All the Key Topics 467 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 467 Definitions of Key Terms 468 Command References 468 Chapter 15 Troubleshooting IP Routing 471 “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 471 Foundation Topics 475 IP Troubleshooting Tips and Tools 475 IP Addressing 475 Avoiding Reserved IP Addresses 475 One Subnet, One Mask, for Each LAN 476 Summary of IP Addressing Tips 478 Host Networking Commands 478 Troubleshooting Host Routing Problems 482 Finding the Matching Route on a Router 483 Troubleshooting Commands 485 The show ip arp Command 485 The traceroute Command 486 Telnet and Suspend 487 A Routing Troubleshooting Scenario 491 Scenario Part A: Tasks and Questions 491 Scenario Part A: Answers 494 Scenario Part B: Analyze Packet/Frame Flow 495 Scenario Part B: Answers 496 Scenario Part B: Question 1 497 Scenario Part B: Question 2 498 Scenario Part B: Question 3 499 Scenario Part B: Question 4 501 Scenario Part B: Question 5 501 Scenario Part B: Question 6 502 Scenario Part B: Question 7 503 Scenario Part C: Analyze Connected Routes 503 Scenario Part C: Answers 503
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