Chapter 1: Computer Abstraction and Technology

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Chapter 1: Computer Abstraction and Technology

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The Computer Revolution: Progress in computer technology: Underpinned by Moore’s Law. Makes novel applications feasible: Computers in automobiles, Cell phones, Human genome project, World Wide Web, Search Engines. Computers are pervasive.

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  1. dce 2009 KIẾN TRÚC MÁY TÍNH CS2009 Khoa Khoa học và Kỹ thuật Máy tính BK BM Kỹ thuật Máy tính TP.HCM Võ Tấn Phương http://www.cse.hcmut.edu.vn/~vtphuong
  2. dce 2009 Course Syllabus • The Content – Chapter1 (week1-2): Introduction to Computer Abstraction and Technology – Chapter2 (week3-5): Instructions – Language of the Computer – Chapter3 (week6-7): Arithmetic for Computers – Chapter4 (week10-12): The Processor – Chapter5 (week13-14): Storage and Other IO topics – Chapter6 (week15-16): Memory Systems • References – David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization & Design – The Hardware/Software Interface, 4th Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2008 – William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for Performance, 7th Edition, Pearson International Edition, 2006. • Homepage: http://www.cse.hcmut.edu.vn/~anhvu/teaching/2009/504002CS/ • Grading Policy: – Homework: 20% – Midterm examination: 30% – Final examination: 50% 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department 2
  3. dce 2009 Course Overview • Principle and organization of digital computers, • Bus organization and memory design, • Principle of computer’s instruction set and programming in assembly language (some popular processors are used such as MIPS, Intel x86, ARM, …), • Interface between the processor and peripherals, • Performance issues in computer architecture. 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department 3
  4. dce 2009 Why study Computer Architecture • To be a professional in any field of computing today, you should not regard the computer as just a back box that executes program by magic. • You should understand a computer system’s functional components, their characteristics, their performance, and their interactions. • You need to understand computer architecture in order to build a program so that it runs efficiently on a machine. • When selecting a system to use, you should be able to understand the tradeoff among various components, such as CPU clock speed vs. memory size. 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department 4
  5. dce 2009 Chapter 1 Computer Abstraction and Technology Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, 4th Edition, Patterson & Hennessy, © 2008 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department 5
  6. dce 2009 The Computer Revolution • Progress in computer technology – Underpinned by Moore’s Law • Makes novel applications feasible – Computers in automobiles – Cell phones – Human genome project – World Wide Web – Search Engines • Computers are pervasive 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 6
  7. dce 2009 Classes of Computers • Desktop computers – General purpose, variety of software – Subject to cost/performance tradeoff • Server computers – Network based – High capacity, performance, reliability – Range from small servers to building sized • Embedded computers – Hidden as components of systems – Stringent power/performance/cost constraints 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 7
  8. dce 2009 The Processor Market 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 8
  9. dce 2009 What You Will Learn • How programs are translated into the machine language – And how the hardware executes them • The hardware/software interface • What determines program performance – And how it can be improved • How hardware designers improve performance • What is parallel processing 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 9
  10. dce 2009 Understanding Performance • Algorithm – Determines number of operations executed • Programming language, compiler, architecture – Determine number of machine instructions executed per operation • Processor and memory system – Determine how fast instructions are executed • I/O system (including OS) – Determines how fast I/O operations are executed 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 10
  11. dce 2009 Below Your Program • Application software – Written in high-level language • System software – Compiler: translates HLL code to machine code – Operating System: service code • Handling input/output • Managing memory and storage • Scheduling tasks & sharing resources • Hardware – Processor, memory, I/O controllers 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 11
  12. dce 2009 Levels of Program Code • High-level language – Level of abstraction closer to problem domain – Provides for productivity and portability • Assembly language – Textual representation of instructions • Hardware representation – Binary digits (bits) – Encoded instructions and data 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 12
  13. dce 2009 Components of a Computer The BIG Picture • Same components for all kinds of computer – Desktop, server, embedded • Input/output includes – User-interface devices • Display, keyboard, mouse – Storage devices • Hard disk, CD/DVD, flash – Network adapters • For communicating with other computers 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 13
  14. dce 2009 Anatomy of a Computer Output device Network cable Input Input device device 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 14
  15. dce 2009 Anatomy of a Mouse • Optical mouse – LED illuminates desktop – Small low-res camera – Basic image processor • Looks for x, y movement – Buttons & wheel • Supersedes roller-ball mechanical mouse 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 15
  16. dce 2009 Through the Looking Glass • LCD screen: picture elements (pixels) – Mirrors content of frame buffer memory 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 16
  17. dce 2009 Opening the Box 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 17
  18. dce 2009 Inside the Processor (CPU) • Datapath: performs operations on data • Control: sequences datapath, memory, ... • Cache memory – Small fast SRAM memory for immediate access to data 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 18
  19. dce 2009 Inside the Processor • AMD Barcelona: 4 processor cores 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 19
  20. dce 2009 Abstractions The BIG Picture • Abstraction helps us deal with complexity – Hide lower-level detail • Instruction set architecture (ISA) – The hardware/software interface • Application binary interface – The ISA plus system software interface • Implementation – The details underlying and interface 9/14/2009 ©2009, CE Department Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 20
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