Chapter 4: ALKANES

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Chapter 4: ALKANES

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Limitations: The Wurtz reaction is limited to the synthesis of symmetric alkanes from alkyl iodides & bromides. If two dissimilar alkyl halides are taken as reactants, then the product is a mixture of alkanes that is, often, difficult to separate. A side reaction also occurs to produce an alkene. The side reaction becomes more significant when the alkyl halides are bulky at the halogen-attached carbon.

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Nội dung Text: Chapter 4: ALKANES

  1. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr Nam T. S. Phan Faculty of Chemical Engineering HCMC University of Technology Office: room 211, B2 Building Phone: 8647256 ext. 5681 Email: ptsnam@hcmut.edu.vn 1
  2. Chapter 4: ALKANES 2
  3. NOMENCLATURE OF ALKANES 3
  4. ALKYL SUBSTITUENTS 4
  5. IUPAC NAMES OF BRANCHED ALKANES Determine the parent hydrocarbon – the longest continuous carbon chain 5
  6. • Substituents are listed in alphabetical order • Carbon chain is numbered with the lowest possible number in the compound Substituents are 6 the same
  7. • Di, tri, tetra, n, sec, and tert are ignored in alphabetizing substituents • Iso, neo, and cyclo are not ignored 7
  8. 8
  9. NATURAL SOURCES OF ALKANES C1-4 C5-11 Natural gas & C9-16 petroleum (fossil fuels) C15-25 9
  10. PREPARATION OF ALKANES Catalytic hydrogenations of alkenes / alkynes 10
  11. Reduction reactions 11
  12. Wurtz reactions symmetric alkane Limitations: + The Wurtz reaction is limited to the synthesis of symmetric alkanes from alkyl iodides & bromides + If two dissimilar alkyl halides are taken as reactants, then the product is a mixture of alkanes that is, often, difficult to separate + A side reaction also occurs to produce an alkene + The side reaction becomes more significant when the alkyl 12 halides are bulky at the halogen-attached carbon
  13. Corey-House synthesis – the reaction of a lithium dialkyl cuprate with an alkyl halide to form a new alkane Corey-House synthesis overcomes some of 13 the limitations of the Wurtz reaction
  14. REACTIVITY OF ALKANES • Alkanes have only strong σ bonds • Electronegativity of C & H are approximately the same • None of the atoms in alkanes have any significant charge • Neither nucleophiles nor electrophiles are attracted Alkanes are very unreactive 14
  15. HALOGENATION OF ALKANES 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION It must be easier to abstract a hydrogen atom from a 18 secondary carbon than from a primary carbon
  19. Reactivity - relative rate at which a particular hydrogen is abstracted in chlorination reactions: At room temperature 19
  20. Product distribution can be estimated: 20
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