Chapter 5 - OSI Network Layer CCNA Exploration version 4.0

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Chapter 5 - OSI Network Layer CCNA Exploration version 4.0

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Identify the role of the Network Layer, as it describes communication from one end device to another end device Examine the most common Network Layer protocol, Internet Protocol (IP), and its features for providing connectionless and best-effort service Understand the principles used to guide the division or grouping of devices into networks Understand the hierarchical addressing of devices and how this allows communication between networks Understand the fundamentals of routes, next hop addresses and packet forwarding to a destination network ...

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Nội dung Text: Chapter 5 - OSI Network Layer CCNA Exploration version 4.0

  1. Chapter 5 - OSI Network Layer CCNA Exploration version 4.0
  2. Overview • Identify the role of the Network Layer, as it describes communication from one end device to another end device • Examine the most common Network Layer protocol, Internet Protocol (IP), and its features for providing connectionless and best-effort service • Understand the principles used to guide the division or grouping of devices into networks • Understand the hierarchical addressing of devices and how this allows communication between networks • Understand the fundamentals of routes, next hop addresses and packet forwarding to a destination network H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 2
  3. Network Layer Protocols and Internet Protocol (IP) • Define the basic role of the Network Layer in data networks • The protocols of the OSI model Network layer specify addressing and processes that enable Transport layer data to be packaged and transported. The Network layer encapsulation allows its contents to be passed to the destination within a network or on another network with minimum overhead. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 3
  4. Network Layer – Communication from Host to Host • Layer 3 uses four basic processes: 1. Addressing 2. Encapsulation 3. Routing: Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. The role of the router is to select paths for and direct packets toward their destination. This process is known as routing. 4. Decapsulation ( Refer to 5.1.1 ) H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 4
  5. Network Layer Protocols • Protocols implemented at the Network layer that carry user data include: – Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)* – Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)* – Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). – AppleTalk. – Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet). H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 5
  6. The roles of IPv4 protocol • IPv4 is currently the most widely-used version of IP • The Internet Protocol was designed as a protocol with low overhead. It provides only the functions that are necessary to deliver a packet from a source to a destination over an interconnected system of networks. • The protocol was not designed to track and manage the flow of packets. These functions are performed by other protocols in other layers. • IPv4 basic characteristic – Connectionless. – Best-effort. – Media Independent. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 6
  7. The IPv4 protocol – Connectionless • Describe the implications for the use of the IP protocol as it is connectionless. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 7
  8. The IPv4 protocol – Best Effort • Describe the implications for the use of the IP protocol as it is considered an unreliable protocol • Unreliable means simply that IP does not have the capability to manage, and recover from, undelivered or corrupt packets. • Since protocols at other layers can manage reliability, IP is allowed to function very efficiently at the Network layer. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 8
  9. The IPv4 protocol – Media independent • Describe the implications for the use of the IP as it is media independent • One major characteristic of the media that the Network layer considers: the maximum size of PDU that each medium can transport. This characteristic is referred to as the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). Part of the control communication between the Data Link layer and the Network layer is the establishment of a maximum size for the packet. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 9
  10. IPv4 packet – Packaging the Transport layer PD • In some cases, an intermediary device - usually a router - will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller MTU. This process is called fragmenting the packet or fragmentation. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 10
  11. IPv4 packet header • Identify the major header fields in the IPv4 protocol and describe each field's role in transporting packets H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 11
  12. Network Layer Fields • 4 bits • Indicates version of IP used • IPv4: 0100; IPv6: 0110 H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 12
  13. Network Layer Fields • 4 bits • Indicates datagram header length in 32 bit words H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 13
  14. Network Layer Fields • 8 bits • Specifies the level of importance that has been assigned by upper-layer protocol H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 14
  15. Network Layer Fields • 16 bits • Specifies the length of the entire packet in bytes, including data and header H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 15
  16. Network Layer Fields • 16 bits • Identifies the current datagram H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 16
  17. Network Layer Fields • 3 bits(R, DF. MF) – R(reserved): set to 0. – DF(Don’t fragment): • 0: Fragment if necessary. • 1: Do not fragment. – MF(More fragment): • 0: This is the last fragment. • 1: More fragment follow this fragment. H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 17
  18. Network Layer Fields • 13 bits • Used to help piece together datagram fragments H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 18
  19. Network Layer Fields • 8 bits • Specifies the number of hops a packet may travel. This number is decreased by one as the packet travels through a router H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 19
  20. Network Layer Fields • 8 bits • Indicates which upper-layer protocol, such as TCP(6) or UDP(17), receives incoming packets after IP processing has been completed H c vi n m ng Bách khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 20
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