Chapter 7: TCP/IP ATHENA

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Chapter 7: TCP/IP ATHENA

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The Binary System Computing devices communicate with 1s and 0s A groups of 8 bits = 1 byte Binary numbers are based on the powers of 2 because there are only 2 symbols: 0 and 1 Binary can be converted to decimal in a similar way that decimal numbers are figured ATHENA The Binary System (2) Binary can be converted to decimal in a similar way that decimal numbers are figured Example: 1010 = (1x23)+(0x22)+(1x21)+(0x20) = (1x8)+(0x4)+(1x2)+(0x1) = 8 + 0 + 2 + 0 1010 = 10

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  1. Chapter 7: TCP/IP ATHENA
  2. Objective Converting • Decimal to binary ( binary to decimal) • Decimal to hexadecimal (hexadecimal to decimal) • Binary to hexadecimal (hexadecimal to binary) Understanding TCP/IP • IP address and Subnetting Protocol for TCP/IP ATHENA
  3. The Binary System Computing devices communicate with 1s and 0s A groups of 8 bits = 1 byte Binary numbers are based on the powers of 2 because there are only 2 symbols: 0 and 1 Binary can be converted to decimal in a similar way that decimal numbers are figured ATHENA
  4. The Binary System (2) Binary can be converted to decimal in a similar way that decimal numbers are figured Example: 1010 = (1x23)+(0x22)+(1x21)+(0x20) = (1x8)+(0x4)+(1x2)+(0x1) = 8 + 0 + 2 + 0 1010 = 10 ATHENA
  5. The Decimal System Humans use the decimal number system base on the powers of 10 10 symbols are used: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 In a decimal number, each symbol represents 10 raised to a power according to its position that is then multiplied by that position ATHENA
  6. The Decimal System (2) Example: 261 = (2 x 102) + (6 x 101) + (1 x 100) (2 x 100) + (6 x 10) + (1 x 1) 261 = 200 + 60 + 1 ATHENA
  7. The Decimal System (3) Converting decimal to binary: • Example: 49 – 49/2 = 24 with a remainder of 1 – 24/2 = 12 with a remainder of 0 – 12/2 = 6 with a remainder of 0 – 6/2 = 3 with a remainder of 0 – 3/2 = 1 with a remainder of 1 – 1/2 = 0 with a remainder of 1 – 49 = 110001 ATHENA
  8. The Hexadecimal System A hexadecimal system based on power of the number 16 16 symbols are used: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F Example: 7FA2 = (7x163) + (Fx162) + (Ax161) + (2x160) 7FA2 = 28672 + 3840 + 160 + 2 7FA2 = 32674 ATHENA
  9. The Hexadecimal System (2) Converting decimal to hexadecimal: • Example: 127 – 127/16 = 7 with a remainder of 15 (F) – 127 = 7F ATHENA
  10. The Hexadecimal System (3) Converting hexadecimal to binary by divide binary to 4 bit groups: Binary Dec Hexa 0000 0 0 0001 1 1 0010 2 2 0011 3 3 0100 4 4 ATHENA
  11. The Hexadecimal System (4) Binary Dec Hexa 0101 5 5 0110 6 6 0111 7 7 1000 8 8 1001 9 9 ATHENA
  12. The Hexadecimal System (5) Binary Dec Hexa 1010 10 A 1011 11 B 1100 12 C 1101 13 D 1110 14 E 1111 15 F ATHENA
  13. The Hexadecimal System (6) Example: 1101 1010 0100 0110 = DA46 C9F7 = 1100 1001 1111 0111 ATHENA
  14. IP Addresses An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier for a node or host connection on an IP network. An IP address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values, each representing 8 bits Range 0 to 255 (known as octets) separated by decimal points Example: 140.179.220.200 ATHENA
  15. Introducing IP Addresses • Unique addressing allows communication between end stations. • Path choice is based on destination address. Location is represented by an address ATHENA
  16. IP Addressing ATHENA
  17. IP Addresses (2) Every IP address consists of two parts • One identifying the Net ID (network identifier) • One identifying the Host ID (host identifier) ATHENA
  18. Host Addresses ATHENA
  19. Network ID and Host IDs A Network ID is assigned to an organization by a global authority Host IDs are assigned locally by a system administrator Both the Network ID and the Host ID are used for routing ATHENA
  20. IP Address Classes Class A 0 NetID 0 NetID HostID HostID B 10 10 NetID NetID HostID HostID C 110 110 NetID NetID HostID HostID D 1110 Multicast Address Multicast Address 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits ATHENA
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