Chất thải nguy hại - hazardous waste

Chia sẻ: Dinh Viet Thuy Thuy | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:11

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Chất thải nguy hại - hazardous waste

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Chất nguy hại là những chất có tính độc hại tức thời đáng kể hoặc tiềm ẩn đối với con người và sinh vật khác.

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Nội dung Text: Chất thải nguy hại - hazardous waste

  1. CHAÁT THAÛI NGUY HAÏI hazardous waste ThS. Traàn Minh Haûi 6/19/2005 1 Khaùi nieäm: Chaát nguy haïi (hazardous materials) laø nhöõng chaát coù tính ñoäc haïi töùc thôøi ñaùng keå hoaëc tieàm aån ñoái vôùi con ngöôøi vaø sinh vaät khaùc do: khoâng phaân huûy sinh hoïc hay toàn taïi laâu beàn trong töï nhieân; gia taêng soá löôïng ñaùng keå khoâng theå kieåm soaùt; lieàu löôïng tích luõy ñeán moät möùc naøo ñoù seõ gaây töû 6/19/2005 2 vong hay gaây ra nhöõng taùc ñoäng tieâu cöïc.
  2. Tính chaát Deã chaùy (Ignitability): T < 60oC, masat,… Tính aên moøn (Corossivity): pH < 3; pH >12,5; Hoaït tính hoaù hoïc cao (Reactivity) Tính ñoäc haïi (Toxicity): Khaû naêng gaây ung thö (Carcinogenicity) vaø ñoät bieán gen 6/19/2005 3 DOT Hazard Classes HAZARD CLASS HAZARD TYPE 1 Explosives 2 Gases 3 Liquids 4 Solids 5 Oxidizers, organic peroxides 6 Poisons, etiologic agents 7 Radioactive materials 8 Corrosives 9 Miscellaneous (ORMs) 6/19/2005 4
  3. Explosives Explosives: Designed to function with instantaneous release of gas and heat (i.e., by exploding). Blasting Agents: Designed to explode, but require a blasting cap to trigger the explosion 6/19/2005 5 Gases Poison A: Gases or liquids producing vapors highly hazardous to human health. Anhydrous Ammonia is classified as a non-flammable gas However, it is flammable and highly toxic! Chlorine gets its own placard because it is toxic, corrosive, and an oxidizer! 6/19/2005 6
  4. Liquids Flammable Liquid: Flash point < 100oF Combustible Liquid: Flash point > 100oF 6/19/2005 7 Solids Any solid material other than an explosive that is liable to cause fires through friction, through retained heat from manufacturing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns vigorously and persistently. 6/19/2005 8
  5. Oxidizers Liquid oxygen is an oxidizer and a cryogenic agent. Oxidizers will readily give up oxygen and support combustion. Organic oxidizers will readily give up oxygen, support combustion, and will burn! 6/19/2005 9 Poisons Class B Poisons: Solids and liquids known to be so toxic as to afford a risk to human health or which, in the absence of adequate data are assumed to be toxic to man. Irritants, substances that give off irritating fumes when heated or exposed to air, are included in Class 6, but are placarded only as DANGEROUS and only if >1000 pounds is present. Etiologic agents are included in Class 6 but are not placarded. 6/19/2005 10
  6. Radioactive Materials Vehicles transporting radioactive materials are placarded ONLY if the packages contains material measures >50 millirem/hr on the entire package surface or >3 millirem/hr at 3 feet. (Radioactive III package labeling) Defense material being moved under authority of the Department of Energy or Department of Defense is NOT placarded. 6/19/2005 11 Corrosives Materials that attack and destroy living tissue or that produce severe corrosion of steel. Frequently are also toxic and reactive. 6/19/2005 12
  7. Dangerous Class C Explosives Irritants Mixed motor vehicle loads of >1000 but
  8. Nhaõn baùo chaát nguy haïi 6/19/2005 15 Nhaõn baùo chaát nguy haïi Nhaõn höôùng daãn söû duïng Handling labels 6/19/2005 16
  9. Xöû lyù chaát nguy haïi Taän duïng Ñoát Thaûi boû cuoái cuøng 6/19/2005 17 Taän duïng dung moâi Ñoàng Nai, DNTN. Taân Phaùt Taøi 6/19/2005 18
  10. Taùch daàu khoaùng 6/19/2005 19 Loø nung thuøng quay Rotary kiln incinerator 6/19/2005 20
  11. Ñoát taàng soâi Bubbling fluidised bed 6/19/2005 21 Ñoát taàng soâi • Circulating fluidised bed 6/19/2005 22

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