For many manufacturing enterprises, assembly is an important portion of the final costs. Effectiveness
was traditionally hunted for by reducing complex schedules into unit tasks (scientific work organization)
and by enabling sequential assembly lines (vertical flow-shop). The approach leads to the highest productivity,
and it is prised for mass production. Flow-lines and fixed schedules, however, require amortisation
plans based on steady programmes on duty horizons corresponding to product volumes exceeding
some minimal threshold. Market saturation and trade instability look for quick updating of the offered
items, properly adapted to wider classes of buyers’ needs, possibly, down to the limit situation of oneof-
a-kind customised quality. Worldwide enterprises...