Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML and CSS (2010)- P1

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Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML and CSS (2010)- P1

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Cuốn sách này đi độc giả thông qua quá trình tạo một trang web cơ bản từ đầu bằng cách sử dụng HMTL, cơ sở cho hàng tỷ trang web, và sau đó jazzing nó với kỹ thuật tiên tiến từ các trang web của tác giả đoạt giải thưởng. Điều này cập nhật phiên bản tính năng vật liệu mới cho thấy độc giả làm thế nào để thu hút khách truy cập vào một trang web và giữ chúng ở đó, bao gồm cả mới JavaScript ví dụ và phạm vi bảo hiểm của cascading style sheets và...

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  2. Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS Dave Taylor Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  4. Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  6. Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS Dave Taylor Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada Library of Congress Control Number: 2004100892 ISBN: 0-7645-5738-6 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1B/SQ/QU/QU/IN No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4447, E-Mail: permcoordinator@wiley.com. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESEN­ TATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Copyright © 1994-2003 World Wide Web Consortium (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Keio University). All Rights Reserved. http://www.w3.org/ Consortium/Legal/2002/copyright documents 20021231. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  8. About the Author Dave Taylor has been involved with the Internet since 1980, when he first logged in as an undergraduate at the University of California, San Diego. Since then, he’s been a research scientist at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in Palo Alto, California, reviews editor for SunWorld magazine, and founder of four companies: The Internet Mall, iTrack.com, AnswerSquad, and ClickThruStats.com. Currently, Dave is president of Intuitive Systems and is busy launching an electronic book publishing company called Intuitive Press. Dave has designed over 50 Web sites, both commercial and nonprofit, and has published more than 1000 articles about the Internet, Unix, Macintosh, interface design, and business topics. His books include Learning Unix for Mac OS X Panther (O’Reilly), Wicked Cool Shell Scripts (No Starch Press), Teach Yourself Unix in 24 Hours (Sams Publishing), and Solaris For Dummies (Wiley Publishing). Dave holds a master’s degree in Educational Computing from Purdue University, an M.B.A. from the University of Baltimore, an undergraduate degree in Computer Science from the University of California at San Diego, and is an adjunct professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and the University of Phoenix Online. You can find Dave Taylor online just about any time at http://www.intuitive.com/, or you can send him electronic mail at taylor@intuitive.com. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  10. Credits Senior Acquisitions Editor Project Coordinator Jim Minatel April Farling Development Editors Graphics and Production Specialists Jodi Jensen Beth Brooks Brian Herrmann Jonelle Burns Jennifer Heleine Production Editor Felicia Robinson Quality Control Technician Susan Moritz Technical Editing Wiley-Dreamtech India Pvt Ltd Permissions Editor Laura Moss Copy Editor Mary Lagu Media Development Specialist Angela Denny Editorial Manager Mary Beth Wakefield Book Designer Kathie S. Schnorr Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley Proofreading and Indexing Publication Services Vice President and Executive Publisher Bob Ipsen Cover Design Michael Trent Vice President and Publisher Joseph B. Wikert Executive Editorial Director Mary Bednarek Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  12. To Kiana, Gareth, and Ashley, my guardian angels Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  14. Preface W ho should buy this book? What’s covered? How do I read this book? Why should I read this book? HTML? XHTML? CSS? Sheesh! Why not just use a Web page editor? Who am I? Welcome! “Wow! Another Web book! What makes this one different?” That’s a fair question. I want you to be confident that Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS will meet your needs as well as provide fun and interesting reading. So spend a minute and breeze through my preface to ensure that this is the book you seek. . . . What This Book Is About In a nutshell, Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS is an introduction to HTML, XHTML, and Cascading Style Sheets. HTML is the HyperText Markup Language, and it’s the language that enables you to create and publish your own multimedia documents on the World Wide Web. Millions of users on the Internet and online services such as America Online, Earthlink, and the Microsoft Network are spending hours each day exploring the world of the Web from within their Web browser, be it Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, or any of a variety of other programs. XHTML is the modern “proper” version of HTML and is the future of the markup language. Cascading Style Sheets are also part of that future, and it’s a rare modern Web site that doesn’t use at least some element of CSS in its design and layout. By using all these technologies, you can learn to quickly and easily create attractive docu­ ments that are on the cutting edge of interactive publishing. I went through the pain of learn­ ing HTML back in 1994, the very dawn of the Web era, precisely because I wanted to spread my ideas to a global audience. For me, learning was hit or miss because the only references I could find were confusing online documents written by programmers and computer types. For you, it will be a lot easier. By reading this book and exploring the software and samples included on the companion Web site, you can learn not only the nuts and bolts of HTML, XHTML, and CSS, but also quite a lot about how to design and create useful, attractive Web sites and spread the word about them on the Net. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. xii Preface Before you delve into this book, you should know the basics: what the Internet is, how to get on it, and how to use your Web browser. If you seek detailed information on these topics, you can find many interesting and useful books from Wiley Publishing at http://www.wiley.com/ compbooks. After you have this basic knowledge, you’ll find that Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS is a fun introduction to the art and science of creating interesting— and, if I may say so, cool—Web sites that you’ll be proud of and that other users will want to visit and explore. Why Not Just Use a Web Page Builder? If you’ve already flipped through this book to see what’s covered, you’ve seen a ton of differ­ ent sample listings with lots and lots of < and > instructions. Yet the advertisements in every computer magazine are telling you that you don’t need to get your hands dirty with HTML and CSS when you can use a Web page editor. So what’s the scoop? The scoop—or the problem, really—is that every Web page editor I’ve used is designed to create pages for a particular Web browser and has at best a limited understanding of the rich, complex, evolving HTML language. Use Microsoft Front Page 2000, for example, and your site will almost certainly look best in Internet Explorer (a Microsoft product). It’s a subtle but insidious problem. One clue to this lurking problem is that surveys of Web developers invariably demonstrate that almost all the most popular Web sites are coded by hand, not with fancy page-building systems. A development company that I occasionally help with online design recently sent me a plea because they had encountered this inconsistency in browser presentation: Dave, Help! Everything looks different in the different browsers!! This is turning out to be a nightmare! How much effect do different browsers have on the appearance of the site? My customer is using AOL and from the e-mail she sent me, things are a mess. When I look at the site, it pretty much is ok. There are a few modifications to make - font, bold - but what’s going on? That’s one of the greatest frustrations for all Web site designers: Not only do different versions of Web browsers support different versions of HTML and CSS, but the exact formatting that results from a given HTML tag or CSS style varies by Web browser, too. It’s why the mantra of all good Web designers is “test, test, test.” In fact, if you’re going to get serious about Web development, I would suggest that you con­ sider a setup like I have: Before you officially say that you’re done with a project, check all the pages with the two most recent major releases of the two biggest Web browsers on both a Mac and a Windows system. (That’s a total of eight different browsers. Right now, I have the two most recent versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape loaded on both of my computers.) Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. Preface xiii Text Conventions Used in This Book Stuff I ask you to type appears in bold, like this: something you actually type. I also use bold in some lines of HTML source code to point out the specific tag or attribute that the discus­ sion is focusing on. Filenames, directories, URLs, and names of machines on the Net appear in a special type­ face, like this: http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/html/Guest_Book.html. HTML-formatted source code appears in that same special typeface, but on separate lines, like this: How to Create Cool Web Sites Icons Used to Help You Navigate I use the following icons to help you find your way around the text and to point out important additional information that I want to emphasize. This icon points out some expert tricks and techniques that can help you work tip more efficiently. Pay attention to this icon. It alerts you to possible pitfalls and may help you avoid caution trouble. Check out this icon for additional details that deserve special attention and may note help you work better in the long term. Jump to the chapters elsewhere in the book that this icon points you to. You’re x-ref bound to run into some good information or more details about the topic at hand. This icon points you to helpful information or samples on the companion Web site on the that accompanies this book (http://www.intuitive.com/coolsites/) or to sites web elsewhere on the Net. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. xiv Preface Who Should Read This Book? You can use this book to learn HTML, XHTML, CSS, and the techniques needed to create cool Web sites. All you need is a simple text editor, such as Notepad (which comes with Windows) or TextEdit (which is part of the Macintosh operating system), and a Web browser. If you’re already online and have a Web browser installed on your computer, you can easily explore all the examples in this book by going to this book’s accompanying Web site at http://www.intuitive.com/coolsites/. What’s on the Companion Web Site? What would a Web book be without a companion Web site? The Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML, and CSS Web site can be found at http://www.intuitive.com/ coolsites/. The site contains every single example in the book, pointers to every site men­ tioned, the extended table of contents for the book, and a sample chapter for your reading pleasure. In addition, you’ll find an errata page in case any typos or glitches have come to light between when we wrapped up production and when you picked up this book. From this site, you can also access my Booktalk weblog, which offers a fun and informal Q&A environ­ ment where you can ask me questions about specific issues that might puzzle or confuse you. Be Productive in No Time! By the time you’re halfway through this book, you’ll be able to whip up the kind of pages you see every day, guaranteed. And by the time you finish this book, you’ll know other ways to organize information to make creating Web versions of print material easy. You’ll also learn about the nuances of XHTML and the tremendous power and capabilities that Cascading Style Sheets add to the equation, as well as why it’s crazy not to include at least rudimentary CSS elements in your everyday site development work. Want to contact the author? Send e-mail to taylor@intuitive.com or visit my home page on the Web at http://www.intuitive.com/. If you’re ready, let’s go! Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. Acknowledgments N o writing project can be completed while the author is locked in a room, although if there’s a good Net connection, we can probably negotiate something! Seriously, a num­ ber of Internet folk have proven invaluable as I’ve written the different editions of this book— some for their direct help and others for simply having produced some wickedly cool Web pages that inspired me when things were moving a bit slowly. Special thanks go to my many students at The University of Phoenix Online and elsewhere who helped clarify what made sense and what didn’t in the previous editions of the book. I also particularly appreciate the continued assistance of the team at Wiley Publishing, includ­ ing notably Sharon Cox and Jodi Jensen, and Dreamtech for the technical edit. My friends and colleagues John Locke, Bo Leuf, Werner Klauser, Jon Shemitz, Richard Blum, and Jon Trelfa helped keep the content fresh and accurate and helped to continually remind me that there’s more to learn. Special thanks also to search engine expert Dan Murray for his help on Google page ranking algorithms. Most of the graphics presented in this book were created in GraphicConverter, a wonderful shareware application for the Macintosh, though I used Adobe Photoshop CS a few times. Screen shots were done with MW Snap on the PC and Snapz Pro X on the Macintosh. Most of the book was written on my aging Apple Macintosh G4/450 system (I have to admit, I’m a Mac guy at heart), and the Windows work was all done on a 900MHz Pentium III box running Windows XP. Finally, warm hugs to Linda, Ashley, Gareth, Jasmine, Karma, Angel, and, of course, the newest member of my family, Kiana, for ensuring that I took sufficient breaks to avoid carpal tunnel syndrome or any of the other hazards of overly intense typing. The time off would be a lot less fun without ya! Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  20. Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Part I: Building a Wicked Cool Web Page 1 Chapter 1: So What’s All This Web Jazz? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 What Is the Web Anyway? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Linear media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Hypermedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Cool spots on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Introduction to Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Launching Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Changing the default page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 All about URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 URLs to the rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reading a URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 FTP via URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Anonymous FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Nonanonymous FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Using FTP URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Special characters in URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 E-mail via URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Telnet via URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Usenet news via URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The heart of the Web: HTTP URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Chapter 2: Building Your First Web Page: HTML Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Basics of HTML Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 HTML and browsers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 If you open it, close it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Breaking at Paragraphs and Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Building Your First Web Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Launching your HTML editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Saving your file as HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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