The M&M synchronizer needs only one synchronized sample per symbol, taken at the estimated decision instant. Let us investigate the tracking performance of the M&M synchronizer. Assuming that tik = al, for all !Z and 6 = 00, it follows from (6-68) that
where Nk is defined by (6-103). This yields the following timing error detector characteristic:
g,(e) = E[zE(k;2)] = h(T - eT) - h(-T - eT) (6-144)
As h(t) is an even function of time, it follows that g (0) = 0, so that e = 0 is a stable equilibrium point. The resulting timing error detector...