Drugs and Poisons in Humans - A Handbook of Practical Analysis (Part 71 and End)

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Drugs and Poisons in Humans - A Handbook of Practical Analysis (Part 71 and End)

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Introduction: Determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood is important for the diagnosis of poisoning by oxidants, such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, chlorite, alkyl nitrites, nitroglycerin, aniline and other compounds. In 1938, Evelyn and Malloy [1] had devised a photoelectric method for determination of Met-Hb in blood. Minor modifications of this method were made by several researchers to increase sensitivity [2–4]. These methods are based on a phenomenon that the absorbance maximum of weakly acidic Met-Hb at 630 nm disappears by addition of cyanide. Met-Hb concentration can be easily determined as the ratios of the absorbance changes induced by cyanide before...

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  1. 8.6 II.8.6 Methemoglobin by Keizo Sato Introduction Determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood is important for the diagnosis of poison- ing by oxidants, such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, chlorite, alkyl nitrites, nitroglycerin, aniline and other compounds. In 1938, Evelyn and Malloy [1] had devised a photoelectric method for determination of Met-Hb in blood. Minor modifications of this method were made by several researchers to increase sensitivity [2–4]. These methods are based on a phenomenon that the absorbance maximum of weakly acidic Met-Hb at 630 nm disappears by addition of cyanide. Met-Hb concentration can be easily determined as the ratios of the absorbance changes in- duced by cyanide before and after addition of potassium ferricyanide. In forensic science practice, there are many cases, in which Met-Hb has to be measured for blood specimens containing high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb); e.g., especially in the cases of fire and exhaust gas poisoning [5]. However, the above methods [1–4] are not suitable for specimens containing high levels of CO-Hb. In 1981, the author et al. [6] developed a modification of the methods, which enabled accurate determination of blood Met-Hb even in the presence of high concentrations of CO-Hb by using about a 100-fold excess of potassium ferricynade to be added to the Hb iron. In this chapter, a simple procedure of the modified spectrophotometric method for Met-Hb is briefly described. Reagents and their preparation • Potassium ferricyanide, 4 % (w/v) in distilled water. It should be stored in a dark bottle, and be prepared monthly. • Phosphate buffer solution, 0.1 M, pH 6.8. • Phosphate buffer solution, 40 mM, pH 6.9. It can be prepared by dilution of two parts of the above reagent with three parts of distilled water. • Potassium cyanide, 5 % (w/v) dissolved in the above 40 mM phosphate buffer solution. It should be prepared just before use. Analytical instrument A Hitachi 557 dual-wavelength spectrophotometera (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Procedure i. A 6-mL volume of distilled water is placed in a test tube. A 0.2-mL volume of whole blood is added to the tube and mixed well. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005
  2. 656 Methemoglobin ii. After allowing the tube to stand for 5 min, 4-mL of 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution is added to the mixture and mixed well. iii. The hemolysate is centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 min, and the clear supernatant is trans- ferred to another test tube. The pH of the supernatant should be around 6.9. iv. Four 4-mL volume cuvettes of the same type are cleaned well by washing with distilled water. The four cuvettes are designated as A, B, C and D. v. To cuvettes A and B, a 0.5-mL volume each of distilled water is added. To cuvettes C and D, a 0.5-mL volume each of 4 % potassium ferricyanide solution is added. vi. To cuvettes A and C, a 3-mL volume each of 40 mM phosphate buffer solution is added. To cuvettes B and D, a 3-mL volume each of the supernatant of the above hemolysate is added. Each cuvette is mixed well. vii. The absorbance of cuvette B at 630 nm is read using cuvette A as reference, and this read- ing is A1. After allowing cuvette D to stand for 10 min, the absorbance at 630 nm is read using cuvette C as reference, and this reading is A3. viii. To all cuvettes, a 30-µL volume each of 5 % potassium cyanide solution is added and mixed well. ix. After allowing the cuvettes to stand for 2 min, the absorbances of cuvettes B and D at 630 nm are read using cuvettes A and C as references, respectively. These readings are A2 and A4, respectively. x. The percentage of Met-Hb is calculated by the following equation: Met-Hb % = 100 (A1–A2)/ (A3–A4). Assessment and some comments on the method The present method for analysis of Met-Hb in blood is simple and rapid, and is not interfered with by the coexistence of high concentrations of CO-Hb [6]. As low as about 0.2 % of Met-Hb can be measured accurately. However, when high concentrations of sulfhemoglobin (SHb) may interfere with the pres- ent assay [7]; but SHb concentrations in putrefied blood not older than 7 days are usually not high, and do not probably influence the present assay. Caution should be, therefore, made for blood specimens obtained from living subjects or cadavers of sulfide or polysulfide poisoning (see the chapter “Hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite” of this book). Met-Hb in blood is not stable at room temperature and even at –30 °C. When analysis of Met-Hb has to be made later, the blood specimens should be stored at –80 °C or even lower temperature [8], or at –30 °C in the presence of a cryoprotective solutionb [9, 10]. Toxic and fatal concentrations Clinical symptoms according to the concentrations of Met-Hb are presented in >Table 5.1 of the previous chapter (Chapter II.8.5, “Nitrate and nitrite compounds”).
  3. Methemoglobin 657 Notes a) Any type of spectrophotometers can be used, regardless of manufacturers. b) The cryoprotectant is aqueous solution containing 28 % glycerol, 3 % mannitol and 0.65 % NaCl. It should be added to blood samples at the ratio of 1:1. References 1) Evelyn KA, Malloy HAT (1938) Microdetermination of oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin in a single sample of blood. J Biol Chem 126:655–662 2) Leahy T, Smith R (1960) Notes on methemoglobin determination. Clin Chem 6:148–152 3) van Kampen EJ, Zijlstra WG (1965) Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives. Adv Clin Chem 8:141– 187 4) Hegesch E, Gruener S, Cohen R et al. (1970) A sensitive micromethod for the determination of methemoglobin in blood. Clin Chim Acta 30:679–682 5) Katsumata Y, Aoki M, Oya M et al. (1980) Simultaneous determination of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglo- bin in victims of carbon monoxide poisoning. J Forensic Sci 25:546–549 6) Sato K, Katsumata Y, Aoki M et al. (1981) A practical method for the accurate determination of methemoglobin in blood containing carboxyhemoglobin. Forensic Sci Int 17:177–184 7) Sato K (1983) A method for determination of methemoglobin in blood containing carboxyhemoglobin. Jpn J Legal Med 37:133–144 (in Japanese with an English abstract) 8) Sato K, Tamaki H, Okajima H et al. (1988) Long-term storage of blood samples as whole blood at extremely low temperatures for methemoglobin determination. Forensic Sci Int 37:99–104 9) Sato K, Katsumata Y, Aoki M et al. (1987) Long-term storage of blood samples at freezing temperatures in the presence of a cryoprotectant for hemiglobin assay. Biochem Med Metab Biol 37:190–196 10) Sato K, Tamaki K, Tsutsumi H et al. (1990) Storage of blood for methemoglobin determination: comparison of storage with a cryoprotectant at –30 °C and without any additions at –80 °C or –196 °C. Forensic Sci Int 45: 129–134
  4. Subject index 659 Subject index A aldehyde dehydrogenase anaphylactic shock 395 α-bromoisovalerylurea 293 123, 137 angel’s trumpet 516 5α-cholestane 188–190 aldicarb 566 angel dust 241 α-DEX 120 150 aldrin 529 angina pectoris 153 α-hydroxytriazolam 283, alkylated adducts 85 anhydride 208 287, 289, 290 alkylated DNAs 85 aniline 151, 655 α-methylene-γ-butyrolac- alkylation 30 anti-inflammatory 325 tone 248 alkyl nitrites 153, 655 antidepressants 271, 272, acebutolol 373 allobarbital 305, 308 274, 276 acephate 537 allylesterase 624 antiepileptics 351, 355 2-acetamidophenol 339, allyxycarb 566 antimony 644 574 alminoprofen 325, 330, 332 antitussives 195 acetaminophen 335, 336, alprazolam 284, 285, 290 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid 338, 393 alternative specimens 9 331, 332 acetonitrile extraction 538 Amanita neoovoidea 480 an Oasis HLB 3 cc 260 acetylacebutolol 373 Amanita pantherina 469 AP 171, 179–182 acetylcholinesterase 84, 535, Amanita phalloides 469 APAP 335 559, 619 Amanita verna 469, 474 APAP-3-mercapturic acid acetylcholine receptors 365 Amanita virosa 469, 473 337, 338 6-acetylmorphine 195, 198, amanitin 473, 477, 479 APAP-glucuronide 335, 336, 201 amido-type local anesthetic 338 6-acetylmorphine-TMS 201 385 APAP-N-sulfate 335, 336, acetylsalicylic acid 343, 344, 1-amino-4-phenylbutane 338 346, 348, 392 173 APC 564 acid 187, 377 2-amino-6-hydroxymethyl- APCI 40, 525 acidosis 123 8-hydroxyquinazoline apronalide 295, 421 aconine 458, 461 482 ArCl+ 42 aconite toxins 455 aminomethyl phosphonic ArCl+ ion 645 aconitine 455, 458, 459 acid 546 argride 42 aconitum alkaloids 455 7-aminonitrazepam 19 arrythmia 458 acylation 30 5-aminoquinoline 499 arsenic 637 adhesives 149 amitriptyline 271, 274, 276 arsenic (III) oxide 637 adulterant 491 amniotic fluid 12 arsenic poisoning 645 advanced automated sample amobarbital 301, 303, 305, arsenious acid 637, 646 processors 31 308, 309 arsenite 637, 646 AED 81 amoxapine 271, 274, 276 arsenocholine 646 A-esterase 535 amoxicillin 398 arylesterase 535 air bags 629 amphetamine 171, 172, 178 As2O3 637 alachlor 529 ampicillin 395 ASA 343 alcohol 135 amyl nitrite 153 Asahi-Pak GS-320 366 alcohol dehydrogenase 123 analgesic-antipyretics 325 ascorbic acid 117 ALD-type 2 137 analysis mailing list 52 aspirin 343 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005
  5. 660 Subject index atenolol 370, 373 belladonna alkaloids 509 breath ethanol 137, 139, 141 atmospheric chemical benactyzine 315 bromadiolone 599, 600 ionization 40 bensil 5C18-C 426 bromazepam 284, 285 atmospheric pressure benthiocarb 564 bromisovalum 293, 295, chemical ionization 364, bentone-34 150 296, 421 525, 541 benzalkonium chlorides Bromocresol green reagent atomic absorption 407, 410 325 spectrometry 43 benzene 149, 151, 165 2-bromohexanoylurea 295, atrazine 597 benzodiazepines 283, 285 297 atropa belladonna 516 benzophenones 287 2-bromoisobutyrylurea 298 atropine 509, 514 benzoylaconine 458, 460 bromovalerylurea 293 atropine-d3 509 benzoylecgonine 207 bromperidol 263, 265, 268 automated pretreatments benzoylhypaconine 460 brompheniramine 320 31 benzphetamine 171 brotizolam 284, 285 autosuppressor 629 benzyldimethyldodecylam- Brovarin 293 azeotropic effects 501 monium 408 BSA 198, 201 benzyldimethylhexadecyl- BSTFA 75, 191, 205 B ammonium 408 bupivacaine 384, 387 β-adrenergic receptor benzyldimethyltetradecyl- bupranolol 373 antagonists 369 ammonium 408 1,4-butanediol 247 β-blockers 369, 371, 373, benzylpenicillin 395 butyl nitrite 153 374, 375 betaxolol 373 butyl rubber septa 167 β1-blockers 369 bialaphos 545 butyrophenones 263 β2-blockers 369 bismuth 644 by-products 83 β-CD 173 bisoprolol 373, 375 BZP 171 β-cyclodextrin 173, 582 bis(1-phenyl-3-methyl-5- β-DEX 225 174 pyrazolone) 114 C β-glucuronidase 184, 231, bleaching powder 403 C9 base 482, 484, 489 238, 232, 287, 479, 581 blood 2 Ca(ClO)2 403 β-glucuronidase K-2 372 blood ethanol 138 cadmium 637 β-glucuronidase-sulfatase body builders 247 caffeine 229, 491, 494, 495 337 Bond Elut C1 366 calcium hypochlorite 403 β-hydroxyethyltheophylline Bond Elut C18 593 calcium oxalate 452 395 Bond Elut CBA 363 camphor 443 β-lactam antibiotics 395 Bond Elut Certify 197 cannabichromene 189 β-phenylethylamine 18 Bond Elut Certify®II 191, cannabidiol 187 bacteria 18 556 cannabinoids 187 bacterial food poisoning 2 Bond Elut Certify LRC 479 cannabinol 187 bacterial translocation 18 Bond Elut Glass 242 cannabis 187 BAL 85 Bond Elut SCX 233, 486 Cannabis sativa L. 187 barbital 303, 308 Bond Elut SI 331, 457 Capcell Pak C18 MG 293 barbiturates 301, 302, bone marrow 297 Capcell Pak C18 UG-80 259 304–307, 309 borax 431 Capcell Pak SCX 231 BASTA Fluid® 545 boric acid 431 capillary electrophoresis 60, 1,4-BD 247, 250 boric ball 431 177, 181, 403 BE 207, 211, 214, 216 brain-to-blood ratios 213 capillary HPLC 38
  6. Subject index 661 carbamate pesticides 559 chemical warfare agents 69, city gas 91 carbamazepine 271, 272, 609 Cl– 404 274, 276, 278, 351, 353, chemical weapons 69, 73, clandestine tablets 233 354 609 Claviceps purpurea 225 carbamazepine-diol 353, Chemical Weapons clemastine 315 354 Convention 69, 609 clinical analytical toxicology carbamazepine-epoxide 353, chiral analysis 181, 514 59 354 Chiral Drug Column 177 clinical toxicology 59 carbaryl 529 chiral GC/MS 174, 182 Clitocybe acromelalga 469 carbendazole 563 chiral LC/MS 177, 180 Clitocybe clavipes 469 carbinoxamine 315, 384 chloramine T 113 Clitocybe gibba 469 carbofuran 567 chlorate 655 ClO– 404 – carbon monoxide 91, 144 chlorate ion 404 ClO3 404 carboxyesterase 535 chlordene 529 clomipramine 271, 274, carboxyhemoglobin 91, 144, chlordene-cis 530 276 655 chlordene-trans 530 clonazepam 284, 285 carboxylic acid 30 chlordiazepoxide 285 clorazepate 285 cardiac glucosides 519 chlorine gas 403 clordiazepoxide 284 cardiac puncture 5 chlorite 655 clospirazine 259 cardiopulmonary resuscita- chlorocyanogen 115 cloxacillin 395 tion 22 chloroephedrine 171 clozapine 19 carry-over 533 chlorofenavinphos 537 club drugs 247 carteolol 373, 375 chlorofluorocarbon 143 CO 91, 144 catechol 3-hydroxyamino- chloroform 143, 145 CO2 poisoning 37 2– phen 337, 338 chloromethylephedrine 171 CO3 404 CBC 189 1.8-chlorotheophylline 391 cocaine 207, 212, 215, 377, CBD 187, 189 8-chlorotheophylline 321, 383, 387 CBN 187, 189 393 cockroaches 431 CBP-1 311, 331 chlorpheniramine 315, 320, codeine 195, 196 CE 172, 177, 403 322 codeine-TMS 201 CE/MS 514, 515 chlorpromazine 255, 258 codeine glucuronide 204 cefotaxime 398 chlorpropham 566 COHb 91, 92, 144 cefoxitin 398, 400 chlorpyrifos 537 cold trap 160, 161 cefuroxime 398, 400 chlorpyrifos-methyl 537 collision induced celiprolol 373 cholinesterase 17, 208, 364, dissociation 41 cephalexin 398, 400 535 color tests 113 cephaloridine 398, 400 cholinesterase inhibitor 208, combined SIM mode 221 cephalosporins 395 384 complex partial seizures 351 cephamycins 395 chromium 637 computer system for cephems 395 CI 40 diagnosis 45 cerebrospinal fluid 479 cigarettes 499 conductivity detector 39 changed form of MEGX cigarette butts 506 Conway microdiffusion cell 387 cigarette smoke 113 112, 629 chasmanine 455 cinerins 425 copper 637 ChemElut 500, 507 cis-permethrin 427 Coprinus atramentarius 469 chemical ionization 40 cis and trans isomers 425 coronary artery dilators 649
  7. 662 Subject index cosmosil 5CN-MS 266 DAET 624 diarsenic trioxide 637, 644 COT 37, 138, 141 Datura (Brugmansia) diatomite column 501 cotinine 499, 501, 503 suaveolens 516 Diazald® 536 coumachlor 599, 600 Datura ferox 516 Diazald kit 193 coumafuryl 599 Datura metel 509, 515 diazepam 284, 285, 352, 353 coumarin rodenticides 599, Datura stramonium 516 diazine herbicides 591 603 Datura tatula 516 diazinon 529, 537 coumatetralyl 599, 600 DB-1 135, 144, 156, 160, diazomethane 30, 75, 191, CO oximeter 653 167, 190, 197, 231, 261, 537 CP-Sil5 311 303, 316, 384, 537, 563, dibucaine 384, 387 cresol 581 593, 620, 650 dibutylamine 321 cresol isomers 581, 585 DB-5 78, 174, 190, 283, 384, 1,4-dichlorobenzene 443 cryogenic oven trapping 37, 456, 483, 537, 563 dichloroindophenol reagent 120, 138, 141 DB-17 160, 167, 220, 231, 325 cryoprotectant 657 316, 385, 489, 492, 494, dichloromethane 143, 145 crystal 241 593 dichlorvos 18, 537 cultivation kits 475 DB-210 537 dicloxacillin 395 curcumin 431 DB-5MS 174, 500, 546, 563, didemethylchlorpheniramine cutoff values 210 600 320 CVAA 85 DB-624 248 didrex 171 CWC 69, 86, 609, 619 DB-WAX 584 dieldrin 529 cyanide 113, 633, 655 DDVP 529, 532, 537, diethofencarb 564 cyanide poisoning 153 543 differential refractometer cyanmethemoglobin 115 DEA 610, 611, 618 433 cyanmethemoglobobin deadly nightshade 516 digitoxigenin 519 reagent 94 dealkylating reaction 535 digitoxin 523 cyanofenphos 529 decomposition products 83 digoxin 519, 523 Cyanoline Blue® 120 decontamination 86 2-(diisopropylamino)etha- cyanophos 529, 537, 543 defoliants 609 nethiol 624 cyclized GHB 250 demethylchlorpheniramine 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl cyclobarbital 308 320 chloride hydrochloride cypermethrin 529 depolarizing-type muscle 620 3-cysteinyl APAP 337, 338 relaxant 365 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) cytochrome oxidase 113, deprenyl 171 methoxide 620 123, 633 deproteinization methods 25 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) cytochrome P450 535 derivatization 29, 75 methyl sulfide 619 desacetyloleandrin 519, 525 diisopropylmethylphos- D desipramine 271, 274, 276 phonate 611, 617 ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol detection methods 33 diisopropyl phosphoro- 187 develosil Diol-5 366 fluoridate 610 Δ9-THC 187, 189 develosil ODS-UG-5 174 dimenhydrinate 321 Δ9-THC-11-oic acid destroying angel 473 2,3-dimercaptopropanol 85 187, 190–193 dextromethorphan 219–223 dimethoate 537, 543 d-hyoscyamine 515 DFP 610, 611, 617 dimethylamphetamine 171, DAD 174, 266, 370 di-n-butylamine 349 178 DAEMS 619, 622 dialysis 26 dimethylarsinic acid 637
  8. Subject index 663 dimethyldodecylammonium doxylamine 315 EPN 529, 537, 543 411 Dragendorff reagent 225, ergot alkaloid 225 dimethyl methylphosphonate 325, 360 Erythroxlon coca Lam 207 610 drug-facilitated sexual Erythroxlon novogranatense 2,4-dimethylpentane 165 assaults 247, 283 207 1,7-dimethylxanthine 493, dual column GC 385, 386 erythroxylaceae 207 494 Duboisia myoporoides 516 eserine 208 diode 266, 268 dynamic headspace 161 ESI 41, 177, 266, 397, 363, diode array detector 174, dyphylline 491 364 275, 552 esmolol 373 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclo- E estazolam 284, 285 dextrin 173 ECD 38, 156 ester-type local anaesthetics diphenhydramine 315, 321, ecgonine 207 377 421 ecgonine methyl ester 207 esterase 349 diphenyhydramine 319 eclipse XDB-C8 275 esterases 535 diphenylmethane antihista- ecotrin 348 esterification 30 minics 315, 316, 318 ecstasy 230 esterification reaction 155 diphenylpyraline 315 edifenphos 543 1,2-ethanedithiol 75 dipotassium clorazepate 284 EI 39 ethanol 18, 21, 137 diprophylline 491 EI mass spectra 156 ethenzamide 295, 297 diquat 571, 572, 578 electrochemical detector ethion 537 diquat-dipyridone 574, 576, 203, 268, 337, 478, 638 ethosuximide 352–354 578 electron capture detector 38 ethotoin 351 diquat-monopyridone 574, electron impact 39 ethylbenzene 165 576, 578 electrospray ionization 40, ethylene glycol 449, 451 direct injection method 161 177, 266, 363, 542 ethylene glycol-d4 451 direct inlet method 226, 227 ELISA 35 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 431 direct inlet MS 362 electrophoresis 172 ethylmorphine-TMS 201 discovery C18 512 EME 207, 211, 214, 216 4-ethylphenol 581, 583 disodium arsenate 646 emergency medicine 59 ethyltheophylline 369 disulfoton 537 EMPC 566 ethylthiomethon 529 dithiol type 535 empenthrin 425 4-ethyltoluene 165 dl-2-amino-3-phosphono- emulsion formation 533 ethyl alcohol 135 propionic acid 546 endogenous ethanol 136 ethylmethylphosphonic acid dl-AP 173 endogenous GHB 251, 252 619 dl-hyoscyamine 509 endogenous glucuronidase ethylmorphine 195 dl-scopolamine 509 588 ethyl paraquat 574 d-MA 173 endosulfan 529 ethyl viologen 574 DM-β-CD 173 endotracheal intubation 22, etizolam 284, 285 DMA 171, 179, 180 359, 386 explosives 649 DMAA 637 endrin 529 extraction methods 25, 27 DMA abuser 178, 179, 180 entactogen 229, 237 Extra Strength 338 doping drugs 369 enteric bacteria 136 Extrelut® 27, 209, 214, 215, doping tests 375 environmental pollution 159 294, 295, 385, 410, 501 dosulepin 271 enzyme-immunoassays 35 Extrelut NT-20 509 double-phase system 632 ephedrine 171 Extrelut NTI® 410, 420
  9. 664 Subject index F frit-fast atom bombardment GH-C18 (III) 520 FactorFour VF-5ms 242 40 GHB 247 false-positive reaction 115 frit fast atom bombardment gitoxigenin 519 femoral vein 21 ionization 364 GL-SPE Vacuum Manifold fenitrothion 529, 535, 537, FT-IR 35 204 543 FTD 38, 119, 379, 387, 537, glufosinate 545 fenitrothion-d6 527 597 glycolic acid 449 fenobucarb 529, 564 fugu (puffer) fish poisoning glyphosate 545 fenoprofen 325, 330, 332 481 GPC 366 fenoxycarb 566 Fugu niphobles 486 grand mal 351 fenthion 529, 537, 543 GS-Q 121, 167 fenvalerate 529 G FID 38, 94, 124, 144, 149, γ-aminobutyric acid 247 H 154, 160, 174, 188 γ-BHC 529 H2S 101 Finepak SIL C18 565 γ-butyrolactone 247 hair 3, 9 fingers 11 γ-hydroxybutyric acid 247 hair dyes 415 fire 113, 159 gasoline 151, 159, 162, 164, hair dye components flame ionization detector 38 165 416–418 flame photometric detector gastrolavage fluid 3 hair dye couplers 416, 419 38, 102, 537 gas chromatography 36, 37 hallucinations 469 flame thermionic detector GBL 247, 250 hallucinatory drugs 225 38, 379, 537, 597 GC 36, 37, 76, 93, 95, 97, 99, hallucinogen 241 flame thermionic ionization 118, 119, 123, 135, 137, haloperidol 263, 265, 267, detector 563 140, 144, 145, 149, 156, 268 florisil 188 160, 174, 188, 189, 195, handling specimens 1 fludiazepam 284, 285 248, 249, 251, 253, 303, haptene 377 flunitrazepam 284, 285 331, 332, 346, 379, 478, hashish 187 9-fluorenylmethyl 492, 536, 563, 593, 650 HClO 403 chloroformate 545 GC-FID 178 HCN 113 4-fluorophenol 339 GC-NPD 178, 307 headspace-GC 118, 119, fluorophotometer 34 GC/MS 40, 62, 78, 103, 105, 121, 143, 153 fluorotabun 81 160, 162, 164, 165, 174, headspace extraction 135, flupentixol 259 181, 190, 191, 193, 195, 143, 164, 167 fluphenazine 259 199, 201, 208, 220, 231, headspace gas chromatogra- flurazepam 284, 285 234, 236, 242, 258, 264, phy (HS-GC) 113 flurbiprofen 325, 330, 332 265, 271, 274, 283, 304, headspace GC/MS 437 flushing phenomenon 469 317, 331, 371, 373, 374, headspace method 160, 438 flutoprazepam 284, 285 408, 417, 427, 437, 443, headspace SPME 124, 127, formaldehyde 123 444, 449, 456, 478, 483, 161, 164 formalin 123 499, 509, 511, 527, 536, headspace SPME-GC 126, formetanate 566 545, 563, 584, 585, 600, 129 formic acid 123, 125, 127– 602, 610, 611, 620, 631 headspace vapor 150 129, 131, 133 GC/MS/MS 41, 85 heat-decomposition 607 Fourier transform infrared gentisic acid 343, 344 heavy oil 159 spectrophotometer 35 Gewodin® 172 hemp 187 FPD 38, 102, 537 GE SE-30 160 henbane 516
  10. Subject index 665 heptafluorobutyric anhydride hydrazoic acid 630 imipramine 271, 274, 276, 216 hydrocarbons 159 319 heptanesulfonate 38 hydrogen cyanide 113 imipramine-d3 278 1-heptene 165 hydrogen methylphospho- imperfect combustion 91, heroin 18, 195, 196, 203 nofluoridate 615 113 hexafluoroisopropanol 208, hydrogen sulfide 101 impurity profiling analysis 216 hydrogen sulfide poisoning 644 hexamethyldisilazane 349 104 inductively coupled hexanesulfonate 504 hydroxyl aprenolol 373 plasma-MS 41 hexobarbital 303, 305, 308 14-hydroxy-LSD 228 inductively coupled plasma HFIP 208, 216 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- emission spectrometry higenamine 455 amphetamine 230 638 high-performance (HP) TLC 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- Inertsil® ODS-2 550 34, 325, 328, 333 ethylamphetamine 238 Inertsil® Ph-3 552 high-performance liquid 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- Inertsil OD-3 477 chromatography 38 methamphetamine 230 Inertsil ODS-2 485 high-pressure injection 408, 9-hydroxymethyl-10- Inertsil ODS-3 504 417, 423 carbamyl acridan 353 infrared absorption HMA 230, 236 hydroxyl metoprolol 373 spectroscopy 34 HMDMA 233, 234 hydroxyl oxprenolol 373 infrared absorption HMMA 230, 236 hydroxyl penbutolol 373 spectrum 635 homochlorcyclizine 315 4-hydroxyl propranolol inorganic nitrite 649 household insecticide 431 373 inorganic poisons 637 HP-1 384 hydroxyl propranolol 373 interface 40 HP-5 264, 384 4-hydroxytriazolam 283, International Normalized HP-50+ 385 287, 289, 290 Ratio 605 HP-5MS 188, 272, 510, 610 6-hydroxywarfarin 601 intratracheal contents 168 HP-5 Trace Analysis 584 7-hydroxywarfarin 601 intratracheal gas 161, 162 HP-Wax 154 hydroxyzine 315, 320, 322 in vitro interval 218 HPLC 38, 174, 175, 179, hyoscine 509 iodoplatinate reagent 201, 204, 265, 273, 275, Hyoscyamine niger 516 225, 361 277, 279, 281, 293, 295, hypaconine 461 ion chromatography 39, 296, 306, 308, 309, 319, hypaconitine 455, 459 434, 629, 638 320, 395, 398, 400, 327, hypersil 311 IonPac AS10 638 330, 335–338, 343–346, hypochlorite 403, 404 IonPac AS15 column 629 352, 353, 355, 371, 391, ion-pairing 38, 632 393, 411, 426, 433, 477, I ion-pairing reagent 366, 478, 485, 502, 503, 512, ibuprofen 325, 330, 332, 632 513, 520, 541, 550, 552, 333 ion spray ionization 542 565, 574, 576, 581, 583 IC 39 isoamyl alcohol 380 HPLC-DAD 266, 267, 477 IC-A15 638 isoamyl nitrite 158 HPLC-ECD 480 IC/ICP-MS 638, 641 isobutanol 140 HPLC-UV 276 ICP 41, 42 isobutyl alcohol 153, 155, HPTLC 34, 328 ICP-AES 638, 644 156 HP PLOT Q 118 ICP-MS 41, 638 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine HSCN 115 illudin S 474 494
  11. 666 Subject index isobutyl nitrite 153, 155, latent period 554 malathion 529, 535, 537, 156 LC/MS 40, 62, 175, 180, 540, 543 isofenphos 537 231, 265, 268, 287, 521, malpractice 395 Isolute® HAX 547 541, 565 maprotiline 271, 274, 276 isopentane 165 LC/MS/MS 41, 85, 260, 363, marijuana 187 isopropylamino drugs 369 397 mass spectrometry 39 isopropylmethylphosphonic lead 637 MA abuser 179, 181, 182 acid 609, 626 leading phenomenon 412, MBDB 229, 234 isotope dilution technique 423 MBTFA 371 440 lead azide 629 MDA 62, 63, 229, 234 isoxathion 529, 537 levobunolol 373 MDEA 229, 234 levomepromazine 255, 258 MDMA 62, 63, 212, 229, J lewisite 81, 83, 85 234 Japan Information Network LiChrosorb RP-18 345 MDN-5S 188 51 LiChrospher RP-18 329 meclizine 315 Japan Poison Information lidocaine 22, 377, 381, 386, meconium 12 Center 45 387 medazepam 284, 285 jasmolins 425 Liebermann’s reagent 325 medical accidents 395 jesaconitine 455, 459 light oil 159, 164 medium-bore capillary 36, jimsonweed 509 liquified petroleum 159 141 judicial autopsy 2 liquid-liquid extraction 26, MEGX 377, 381, 385 27, 74, 153, 155, 160, 190, meperidine 241 K 198, 210, 215, 232, 279, mephenytoin 351 keratolytic agent 391 294, 409, 417, 531, 538, mepindolol 373 kerosene 159, 162, 164 562, 593 mepivacaine 383, 387 ketamine 229, 379, 382 local anaesthetic 17, 207, mesaconine 461 ketoprofen 325, 330, 332, 377, 382 mesaconitine 455, 459 333 lofepramine 271 Met-Hb 91, 655 KI3 362 loss of eyesight 128 metabolism of drugs 17 Kieselgel 226 loxoprofen 325, 330, 332 metal-plating 113 kobusine 455 LSD 225, 227 metallurgy 113 König’s reaction 115 Lysergic acid diethylamide methamphetamine 171, 225 178 L lysergide 225 methanol 123, 125, 126 L-column ODS 175 metharbital 303, 305, 308 l-deprenyl 171 M methemoglobin 91, 117, l-hyoscyamine 509 µBondapak C18 337 153, 649, 652, 655 l-MA 171 µBondapak C18 Radial-Pak methemoglobinemia 649, l-scopolamine 509 391 652 labetalol 373 m,p-xylene 165 methemoglobin reductase lamotrigine 353, 354 m-cresol 583 649 lampterol 474 m-xylene 150 methidathion 529, 537, Lampteromyces japonicus MA 171, 179–183 543 469, 474 magic mushrooms 469, methiocarb 564 large-volume injection 410, 475 methomyl-oxime 564, 420 major tranquilizers 255 565
  12. Subject index 667 3-methoxy-APAP 337, 338 methylxanthine derivatives N methylallobarbital 304 491 N,N-diethylaniline 610 methylamobarbital 304 methyl alcohol 123 N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)aceta- Methylating reagent 536 methyl formate 127 mide 198 methylation 75 methyl parathion 537 N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triflu- 2-methylbenzoic acid 343, methylphosphonic acid 617 oroacetamide 75, 191, 344 methyl phosphonic dichloride 205, 347 3-methyl butyrylurea 295 610 N-(phosphonomethyl)- methylcyclobarbital 304 methyl salicylate 392 β-alanine 555 methylene chloride 143 metoprolol 375 N-acetyl-p-phenylene- methylene dichloride 143 metribuzin 529 diamine 415 3,4-methylenedioxyamphet- mexazolam 284, 285 N-allylcarbamate herbicides amine 62, 63, 229 mianserin 271, 274, 276 559 3,4-methylenedioxyethylam- microdiffusion/pyridine- n-butylbenzene 159 phetamine 229 pyrazolone method 113, N-chloromethylphthalimide 3,4-methylenedioxymetham- 115, 117 327 phetamine 62, 63, 212, midazolam 284, 285 N-de-ethyl-LSD 228 229 Mightysil RP18 502 n-decane 165 methylephedrine 171 Millicup-HV 202, 205 n-heptane 165 methylhexobarbital 304 Milli Q water 280 n-hexane 165 methylmephobarbital 304, ml-anal 52 N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylene- 305 Molecular Sieve 5A 94 dioxyphenyl)-2-butan- methylmetharbital 304 monocrotophos 537 amine 229 1-methyl-3-nitro-1- monoethylglycinexylidide N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylene- nitrosoguanidine 193 377 dioxyphenyl)-3-butan- 1-methylnaphthalene 441 morphine 195, 196, 199, amine 233 2-methylnaphthalene 441 203, 204 N-methyl-bis(trifluoro- methylphenobarbital 304, morphine-3-glucuronide acetamide) 371 305 195, 204 N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)- 5-(4-methylphenyl)-5- morphine-6-glucuronide trifluoroacetamide 371 phenylhydantoin 306, 195, 204 N-methyl-N-nitroso-p- 308, 352, 353 morphine-6-sulfate 204 toluenesulfonamide 536 methylphosphonic acid 609, morphine-TMS 201 N-methylcarbamate 619 mothball 443 insecticides 559 methylphosphonic chloro- moth repellant 425, 437, n-octane 165 fluoride 618 443 n-pentane 165 methylphosphonic dichloride MS 39, 41, 226, 227 n-propanol 18, 136, 140 618 MS/MS 41, 520, 525 n-propylbenzene 165 methylphosphonic difluoride MSTFA 371 n-propyl nitrate 155 618 muscle relaxants 359, 364 NaClO 403 methylphosphonofluoridic mushroom poisonings nadolol 373 acid isopropyl ester 609 470 NaF 18 3-methylphosphinico- mushroom toxins 469 nafcillin 395 propionic acid 545 mustard gas 81 nails 3, 11 methylsecobarbital 304 mustard sulfone 84 naled 537 3-methylthio-APAP 338 mustard sulfoxide 84 nalorphine 204
  13. 668 Subject index nalorphine-TMS 201 non-depolarizing type on-column derivatization naphthalene 437, 439 muscle relaxant 365 238 naphthalene-d8 439 non-smokers 115 on-column methylation 303, naphthalin 437 nonfreezing coolants 449 311, 333 naphthols 440 5′-nor-Δ8–THC-4′-oic acid opiates 195 naphthoquinone 440 190 opium alkaloids 195 naproxen 325, 330, 332 norephedrine 171 optical isomers 428 narcotic analgesics 195 normorphine-3-glucuronide optic nerves 123 natural gas 91 204 organophosphate pesticides necarboxylic acid 331, 332 nortriptyline 271, 274, 276 535 negative ion chemical Nova-Pak C18 202, 581 organophosphorus com- ionization 631 Novapak 343 pounds 208 negative ion CI 40 NPD 38, 118, 120, 174, 303, organophosphorus neostigmine 379, 385 305, 306, 593 pesticides 535 Nerium indicum 519 nuclear weapon of the poor orphenadrine 315, 322 Nerium oleander 519 609 2 % OV-225 Gas Chrom W nerve agents 84, 621 Nucleosil7C18 370 347 neuroleptics 255 Nucleosil C18 5 µm 565 oxacillin 397 neuromuscler junctions N 7-2-[(hydroxyethyl)thio]- oxalic acid 449 365 ethyl guanine 85 oxaprozin 325 neuromuscular blocking oxazepam 352, 353 agents 359 O oxazolam 284, 285 nickel catalyst 94 O-alkylmethylphosphonic oxidative polymerization Nicotiana tabacum 499 84 416 nicotine 412, 499, 501, 503 o-cresol 583 2-oxo-LSD 228 nicotine chewing gum 507 O-isopropylmethylphospho- oxprenolol 373, 375 nicotine patch 507 nofluoridate 609 ozone layer 143 nicotine sulfate solution 499 o-xylene 165 nicotine yield 503 Oasis®MX 556 P nimetazepam 284, 285 Oasis® MCX 215, 563 p-aminobenzoic acid 377 ninhydrin reagent 325 Oasis® MAX 327 p-cresol 583 nirvanol 351 Oasis® HLB 273, 285, 339, p-cresol glucuronide- NIST library 78 512, 584 conjugate 586 nitrate 649, 650, 655 2-octane 165 p-cresol sulfate-conjugate nitrazepam 19, 284, 285, octanesulfonate 38 586 352, 353 ODS-1 Spherisorb 319 p-dichlorobenzene 443, 445 nitric acid-reducing bacteria ODS-80 Ts 307 p-dichlorobenzene-d4 445 649 O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylami- p-dimethylbenzaldehyde nitrite 649, 650, 655 noethyl methylphosphono- reagent 225 nitrofen 529 thiolate 619 p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl nitrogen-phosphorus OHMA 181 ester 346, 348 detector 38, 303, 593, OHnorBZP 171, 179, 183 p-hydroxymethamphetamine 650 oleandrigenin 519 171, 180 nitrogen monoxide 153 oleander poisoning 524 p-nitrobenzoic acid 553 nitroglycerin 655 oleander toxins 519 p-nitrobenzoyl chloride 552 NMR 614, 616 oleandrin 519, 521, 523, 525 p-oxybenzoic acid 377
  14. Subject index 669 p-phenylenediamine 415, phenotrin 425 poisoning 165 422 phenoxymethylpenicillin poison control centers 2, 55 p-xylene 150 395 polymer-bound tributyl- P. subcubensis 476 phenthoate 537 methylphosphonium paints 149 phenylacetic acid 171 bromide 631 paracetamol 335 phenylacetoacetonitrile 171 polymer-bound tributylme- paradichlorobenzene 443 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane thylphosphonium chloride paraoxonase 535 171 633 paraquat 571, 572, 578 phenylboronic acid 449 polymer-phase-transfer paraquat-dipyridone 574 1-phenyl-2-dimethyl- catalyst 632 parathion 529, 535, 537 amonopropane 171 polyolefin 426 Partisil ODS-3 399 2-phenylethylamine 173 polystyrene 426 PCP 62, 64, 241 1-phenyl-2-methylamino- polysulfide 105, 656 penicillins 395, 397 propane 171 postmortem changes 19 pentachlorophenol 529 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5- postmortem diffusion 21 pentafluorobenzyl azide pyrazolone 114 postmortem inspection 4 632 phenyltoloxamine 315 postmortem interval 218 pentafluoropropionic phenyltrimethylammonium postmortem production 18, anhydride 208, 216 hydroxide 331 93, 136, 140 pentavalent arsenates 637 phenytoin 293, 351, postmortem production of pentazocine 219, 222 353–356 GHB 252 pentazocine abuse 219 phosalone 537 postmortem redistribution pentifylline 494 phosmet 537 19 pentobarbital 303, 305, 308, phosphatase 535 potassium arsenite 646 309, 310 phosphate type 535 potassium ferricyanide 93, pentoxyfylline 494 phosphonic acid 84 655 pentyl nitrite isomers 158 phosphorotriester hydrolases potassium tert-butoxide 412 perazine 259 535 pp′-DDD 529 perhydroxyl radical 116 phosphorus-containing pp′-DDE 529 pericardial fluid 13 amino acid-type pp′-DDT 529 peripheral-acting muscle herbicides 545 pranoprofen 330, 332 relaxants 359 photodiode array detector prazepam 284, 285 permethrin 425, 529 266, 268, 541, 569 pretreatments of human perphenazine 259 pinacolylmethylphosphonic specimens 25 pesticides 527 acid 626 primidone 352–354 pethidine 241 pindolol 373 procaine 383, 387 petroleum components 159 piperilate 315 prochlorperazine 259 petroleum gas 159 pirimiphos 537 profenofos 537, 542, 543 PFPA 208 pirimiphos-methyl 529 programmed temperature phalloidin 473, 477 pitfalls 17 vaporizing 412, 423 phencyclidine 62, 64, 241 pituri 516 promazine 408, 420 phenobarbital 301, 302, 303, plasticizers 428 promethazine 255, 256, 258, 305, 308, 309, 351, 353, plunger-in-needle syringe 271, 274, 278 354 138 propamocarb 564 phenol 583 pOHMA 171, 182 propanil 529 phenothiazines 255, 258 poison-net 51 propericiazine 259
  15. 670 Subject index propham 566 retention index 78 Sep-Pak PS-2 484 propionic acid derivative retention indexes 279 setiptiline 271, 274, 276, analgesic-antipyretics Rhodophyllus rhodopolius 277, 278 325, 326, 328, 330, 332 469, 470 SGE BPX35 408, 417 propionic anhydride 205 Rhodophyllus sinuatus 469 Shim-pack CLC-ODS (M) prostaglandin biosynthesis RI 78 413 325 Roundup® fluid 555 Shim-pack SCR-102H prothiofos 537, 543 Rtx-1 256, 437, 444 433 prothrombin time test 605 Rtx-17 449 Shimalite-Ni 94 protonated-molecular ion Rtx-5MS 208 sick house syndrome 149 40 Rtx-BAC2 123, 126, 135, SID 38, 256, 261, 385 proxyphylline 375, 491 138, 149 silanol group 366 pseudocholinesterase 377 rust preventives 649 silanol groups 279, 281, psilocin 476, 478, 479 517 Psilocybe argentipes 469 S Silica Gel 60 F254 361 Psilocybe cubensis 476 saccharolactone 588 silylation 30, 75, 347 psilocybin 476, 478 salicylic acid 343, 344, 346, SIM 40 PTAH 331 348, 391, 393 simazine 529 PTV 408, 412, 417, 423 salicylism 391 Simon’s reaction 176 pulmonary vein 22 salicyluric acid 343, 344, 346 Simon’s reaction-HPLC Puresil C18 574 salithion 529, 537, 543 175, 179 purge-and-trap 161, 167 saliva 11, 115 Simon’s reaction TLC putrefaction 93, 136 salting-out effect 152, 268 183 pyrethrins 425 saponin 93 Simon’s reagent 173 pyrethroids 425 sarin 84, 609, 616, 617, 621 slimming drug 171 pyridaphenthion 543 scalp hair 642 smokers 115 pyridine-pyrazolone method scheduled chemicals 69, 609 smoking 93 116 scopolamine 208, 215 smuggling incident 130 Scopolia japonica 516 sodium-ion channels 458 Q screening tests 61 sodium arsenite 646 quality assurance 210 SE-30 190 sodium azide 629 quality control 210 secobarbital 303, 305, 308 sodium fluoride 208, 216, quinonediimine 415 second-derivative spectro- 349, 384 photometry 571 sodium hydrosulfite 571 R sedimentation 26 sodium hypochlorite 403 racemic MA 172 segmental analysis 10, 645 sodium tetraborate 431 radar charts 644 selected ion monitoring 40 sodium thiosulfate 102 radioimmunoassays (RIA) selected reaction monitoring solid-phase extraction 28, 35 41 29, 75, 191, 198, 215, 233, raves 230 selegiline 171 279, 285, 356, 538, 562, reduced bromperidol 264, selegiline user 181 563, 593 265 selenium 644 solid-phase microextraction reduced haloperidol 264, Sep-Pak®C18 202, 220, 28, 260 265, 267 257, 294, 315, 322, 356, solprin 348 reduced Hb 92 385, 483, 492, 536, 562, solvents 149 resuscitation treatments 22 575, 594 soman 609, 621
  16. Subject index 671 sonic spray ionization 175, T thinner solvents 149 520, 525 tabun 616 thiocyanate 633 sotalol 373, 375 Takifugu rubripes 481 thiocyanic acid 115 SPB-1 311 tandem MS 41 thiodiglycol 84 SPEC · PLUS™ · DAU 215 tar 503 thiodiglycol sulfoxide 84 spectrophotometer 34, 91 TC-1 251, 384, 387 thiol type 535 spectrophotometric method TC-17 385, 387 thiometon 529 655 TC-5 379 thiono type 535 spectrophotometry 431 TDMBA 103 thiopental 303, 308, 309, Spherisorb ODS 397 Tenax 82, 161 310 SPME 120, 124, 127, 130, TEPP 535 thioproperazine 259 260 terbucarb 566 thioridazine 256, 258 sport athletes 375 terodiline 315 thiosulfate 108 SPring-8 645 tert-butanol 135 thrombo test 605 SRM 41 tertiary amino group 261 tiaprofenic 332 SSI 175, 520, 525 tertiary butylamino drugs timolol 373 static headspace 161 369 tin 644 stomach 21 tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) TLC 34, 226, 325, 359 stomach contents 5 30 TMAH 303, 311, 333 stomach puncture 5 tetracaine 383, 387 TMCS 191, 205 storage of specimens 93 tetracyclic antidepressants tobaccos 503 styrene 149, 151 271 tobacco amblyopia 117 suboccipital puncture 6 tetradecyldimethylbenzyl- tobacco exudate 503 succinylcholine 359 ammonium 103 toes 11 succinylmonocholine 360 tetradecyldimethylbenzyl- tofisopam 284, 285 Sulf-Hb 93 ammonium chloride Tokyo Sarin Incident 45 sulfatase 581 631 Tokyo Subway Sarin Incident sulfhemoglobin 656 Tetralin® 633 611 sulfide 104, 656 tetramethylammonium toluene 149, 151, 165 sulfurated hemoglobin 93 hydroxide 333 toluene-d8 167 sulfur mustard 84 tetrodotoxin 481 trachea 21 Supelcosil LC-18 353 TFAA 208 trans-permethrin 427 Supelcowax 10 124 TFET 216 Triage® 35, 61 super-warfarin 599 thallium 637 trial for quality of analysis superoxide anion radical theobromine 491, 494 56 116 theophylline 335, 393, 491, triazine herbicides 591 suppressor 39 494 triazolam 283, 284, 285, surface ionization detection thermal desorption device 287, 289, 290 256 82 trichlorfon 532, 537, 543 surface ionization detector thermospray 40 Tricholoma ustale 469 38, 385 thermospray ionization 364 tricyclic antidepressants 271 surfactants 407 thiamylal 303 triethylamine 279, 281 sweat 12 thiaprofenic acid 325 trifluoperazine 259 switching valve 39 thiethylperazine 259 trifluoroacetic acid 366 symmetry Shield RP18 296 thin-layer chromatography trifluoroacetic anhydride synthetic pyrethroids 425 34 205, 208, 214, 216, 374
  17. 672 Subject index trifluoroacetyl chloride TSK gel Super-Octyl 276 W (TFA-Cl) 30 TSK gel super-ODS 352 Wakopak WS GP-N6 288 trifluoroethanol 214, 216 TTX 485, 488 warfarin 599, 600, 604 triflupromazine 256, 258 TTX excretion 488 warfarin alcohol 601 triisopropyl phosphate 610, Twister™ 28 wide-bore capillary 36, 123, 611 137, 145, 149, 410, 423 trimethylanilium hydroxide U wide-bore capillary column 303 Ultra#1 311 135 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene Ultra-2 528 wide-bore capillary GC 125, 165 Ultra-II 371 126, 128 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ultrafiltration 26 Woodward rule 429 165 unnatural death 2 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene 165 urinary bladder 21 X trimethylchlorosilane 191 urine 3 xanthine derivatives trimethylsilylation 191 491 trimethylsilyldiazomethane V X-ray diffraction profile 600 Vac-Elut® system 329 635 trimethyl phosphate 617 vamidothion 537 X-ray fluorescence 42, 637, 1,3,9-trimethylxanthine variation in drug concentra- 639 494 tion 20 XTI-5 160 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β- Vegetamine® 302, 310 xylene 149, 151 cyclodextrin 514 verification analysis 73 xylene isomers 150 trimipramine 271, 276 Vicks Inhaler 171 2,4-xylenol 583 triple-phase system 632 vital reaction 163 xylenol 583 triprolidine 315, 321 vitamin K-dependent Xylocaine™ 386 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy) coagulant factors 599 Xylocaine™ jelly 22 propane 102 vodka 130 Xyrem® 247 trivalent arsenic compound volatile organic compounds 637 37 Z tropane alkaloids 509, 511, vomitus fluid 3 zaltoprofen 325, 332 513 VX 84, 613, 619 Zorbax ODS 311

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