Ebook Tiếng Anh trong kỹ thuật tài nguyên nước (Tái bản): Phần 2

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Ebook Tiếng Anh trong kỹ thuật tài nguyên nước (Tái bản): Phần 2

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Phần 2 cuốn sách gồm 2000 thuật ngữ kỹ thuật trong lĩnh vực tài nguyên nước: Thủy văn, thủy nông, trạm bơm, hệ thống công trình tưới tiêu, các hạng mục của công trình đầu mối. Các thuật ngữ được trình bày dưới dạng khái niệm định nghĩa bằng tiếng Anh. Phần này giúp cho người đọc hiểu rõ bản chất của các thuật ngữ, từ đó ứng dụng dễ dàng khi đọc và viết các tài liệu có liên quan.

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Nội dung Text: Ebook Tiếng Anh trong kỹ thuật tài nguyên nước (Tái bản): Phần 2

526.<br /> <br /> Aquifer loss (Tổn thát qua tầng chứa nước): The head loss at a pumped or<br /> overflowing well associated with groundwater flow through the aquifer to the well<br /> face.<br /> <br /> 527.<br /> <br /> A q u ifer p ro p erties (C ác đạc tính tần g chứa nước): The properties of an aquifer<br /> that determine its hydraulic behaviour and its response to abstraction.<br /> <br /> 528.<br /> <br /> A q u ita rd (T ầng nước ngầm yếu): It is a formation which has low to medium<br /> permeability which is not sufficient to be a soure of water to flow on a regional<br /> scale, from one aquifer to the other due to leakage. Aquitards behave as semiconfining layers.<br /> <br /> 529.<br /> <br /> A rtesian free flow (Dòng chảy tự do của giếng phun): Natural over ground flow<br /> from well and springs in Ihe artesian basins.<br /> <br /> 530.<br /> <br /> C onfined aq u ifer (T ầng chứa nước có áp): An aquifer bounded above and below<br /> by impermeable beds. Bolh the aquifer and Ihe water it contains are said to be<br /> <br /> 531.<br /> <br /> G ro u n d w a te r b alance (C án bằng nước ngầm ): It is a concept which slates that all<br /> <br /> confined.<br /> inputs of water in a defined space and time are equal to the sum of all outputs of<br /> water, and the changes of water storage, in the same space and time.<br /> 532.<br /> <br /> G ro u n d w a te r basin (Lưu vực nước ngám ): Physiographic or geological unit<br /> containing at least one aquifer of significant area extent.<br /> <br /> 533.<br /> <br /> Im perm eable m aterial (V ật liệu không thấm ): Material that does not permit water<br /> to move through it at a perceptible rate under the hydraulic gradients normally<br /> present.<br /> <br /> 534. In term ed iate zone (V ùng tru n g gian): It is the portion of the zone of aeration<br /> which lies between Ihe soil water zone and the capillary fringe.<br /> 535.<br /> <br /> L eaky aq u ifer (T ầng ngậm nước bán áp): Aquifer overlain and/or underlain by a<br /> relatively thin semi-pervious layer, through which flow into or out of the aquifer can<br /> take place.<br /> <br /> 536.<br /> <br /> N a tu ra l rech arg c (Bổ cạp tự nhiên): It is that portion of water which pravitates to<br /> the zone o f saturation under natural conditions.<br /> <br /> 537.<br /> <br /> P eren n ial sp rin g (M ạch nước quan h năm ): A spring that discharges continuously<br /> in all seasons o f the year.<br /> <br /> 538. P erm eab le m a terial (V ật liệu thấm ): Material that permits water to move through<br /> it at perceptibleTates under the hydraulic gradients normally present.<br /> 539.<br /> <br /> P o ten tio m etric su rface (M ực thủy tĩnh nước ngầm ): The surface that represents<br /> <br /> 540.<br /> <br /> S a tu ra te d zone (V ùng bào lioà): That part of an aquifer, normally beneath the<br /> <br /> Ihe static head of groundwaler.<br /> <br /> deepest water table, in which ideally all voids arc filled with water under pressure<br /> greater than atmospheric.<br /> <br /> 129<br /> <br /> 541.<br /> <br /> Soil water zone (Vùng nước thổ nhuõng): Part of the zone of aeration lhal consuls<br /> of soil and other materials near the ground surface, capable o f discharging water in<br /> to the atmosphere by transpiration of plants or by evaporation. The zooe extends<br /> from the ground surface to major root zone and the thickness varies with the soil<br /> type and vegetation cover.<br /> <br /> 542.<br /> <br /> Cone of water - table depression, or Cone of pumping deression (Nón trflng<br /> nước ngầm hay nón trũng do bơm).<br /> <br /> 543.<br /> <br /> Unconsolidated aq u ifer (T ầng chứa nước không cố kết): An aquifer in which a<br /> water table serves as the upper surface of the zone of saturation.<br /> <br /> 544.<br /> <br /> Zone of fluctuation of water tabic, or Zone of phreatic fluctuations (Vùng dao<br /> dộng đường m ạt nước hay V ùng biến động nước ngầm ): The zone through which<br /> the water table fluctuates from its highest to tile lowest level within the formation, in<br /> response to the discharge and recharge conditions. Depending upon the position of<br /> the water table in the zone, a part of the zone will lie in the zone of aeration and the<br /> other part will lie in the zone of saturation.<br /> <br /> II.1.5. DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS - ĐO LƯU LƯỢNG<br /> 545<br /> <br /> O pen C onduit, or O pen channel (Lòng d ẫn hở hay kênh hở): Any conduit in<br /> which water flows wilh a free surface.<br /> <br /> 546.<br /> <br /> D ischarge, or R ate of flow (Lưu lượng hay suất dòng chảy): The volume of water<br /> which flows past a particular cross section of a channel or conduit in a unit of lime.<br /> <br /> 547.<br /> <br /> Dead w ater (Nước tù): Water which is not flowing with a significant velocity.<br /> <br /> ^48.<br /> <br /> S urface slope, Slope, YVaterslope (Độ dốc bề m ặt, độ dốc, độ dốc m ặt nnớc): The<br /> inclination o f Ihe water surface expressed as change o f elevation per unit of slope<br /> length; the sine of Ihe angle which ihe surfacc makes with the horizontal. The<br /> langent of the angle is ordinarily used, no appreciable error resulting excepc for the<br /> steepest slopes. Also called "waterslope" in Australia.<br /> <br /> 549.<br /> <br /> Mean m onthly discharge (Lưu lirợng bình quân tháng): Discharge observed or<br /> interpolated and averaged O' er a calendar month.<br /> <br /> 550.<br /> <br /> Discharge Coefficient (Hệ so hru lượng): The ratio of the actual discharge to the<br /> discharge calculated according to a theoretical formula.<br /> <br /> 551<br /> <br /> Stage - discharge relation, R ating curve, D ischarge ratin g curve, or Station<br /> ratin g curve (Q u an hệ mực nước • lưu lượng, dường cong mực nước - lưu lượng,<br /> đường copq q u an hệ mực nước - lưu lượng trạm đo): A curve which expresses<br /> graphically Ihe relation between ihc discharge and its corresponding slage (or<br /> elavutiun of water surface) in a stream or conduit at a given point.<br /> <br /> 552.<br /> <br /> Loope ra tin g curve (Đường cong quan hệ mực nước - lưu lượng dạng vòng day):<br /> Is the result of the differences in ihe water surface slope and bed roughness in rising<br /> and falling stages o f the hydrograph.<br /> <br /> 130<br /> <br /> 553.<br /> <br /> Discontinuous rating curve (Đường cong mực nước - lưu lượng gián đoạn): Is<br /> the result of the abrupt changes in bed configuration from a dum e bed with high<br /> roughness and low velocity to a flat bed with lesser roughness and higher velocity.<br /> <br /> 554.<br /> <br /> In sen sitiv e ra tin g cu rve (Đường cong m ực nước - lưu lượng p h án bãi ngập): This<br /> type o f a curve results largely from over bank flow where the stream flow may<br /> spread out from its well defined low-flow channel to cover a wide flood plain, where<br /> a large increase in discharge may result in an almost negligible change in stage.<br /> <br /> 555.<br /> <br /> S hiffting ra tin g cu rv e (Đường cong m ực nước - liru lương di chuycn): This type<br /> of a curve reflects local changes in water surface slope, local scour or fill at the<br /> rating section or if the shift is systematic with time, a long term aggradation or<br /> degradation process.<br /> <br /> 556.<br /> <br /> D ischarge m ass cu rv e (Đường cong lũy tích dòng chảy): A curve in which<br /> cum ulated values o f recorded discharge arc plotted against time. The slope of the<br /> curve at any time represents the discharge at that instant.<br /> <br /> 557.<br /> <br /> R esidual d ich arg e m ass curvc, or R esidual discharge m ass d iag ram (Đường<br /> cong lũy tích dòng chày hiệu số hoặc biểu đổ lũy tích (lòng chảy hiệu số): A<br /> plotting of the year-to-year residual departure of discharge from the arithmetic<br /> average accumulated for Ihe period under consideration.<br /> <br /> 558.<br /> <br /> R atin g , C a lib ratio n , C a lib ratin g (Kiểm định): 1- The relation, usually determined<br /> experimentally, between mutually dependent quantities, such as gauge and discharge<br /> of a stream; current m eter vane revolutions and waler velocity. Also "calibration". 2The taking of measurement or the making of observations to establish a rating<br /> "calibrating".<br /> <br /> 559.<br /> <br /> R a tin g cu rv e (Đường cong kiểm clinh): A graphic representation of a rating.<br /> <br /> 560.<br /> <br /> D isch arg e tab le, or R atin g (able (Bàng lưu lượng hay Bàng kicm định): A table<br /> showing the relation between gauge height and discharge of (i) a stream or conduit at<br /> a particular gauging stulion and (ii) oullcls, sluiccs, elc.<br /> <br /> 561.<br /> <br /> S tre am gauging (Đo đạc Ihủv ván): The operation of measuring the velocity of the<br /> flow of water in a channel or conduit, and the area of cross section of ihe flow for tile<br /> purpose o f determ ining discharge.<br /> <br /> 562.<br /> <br /> D ilution g auging, C hem ical gauging, C hcm ihydroinetry, R adioactive solution<br /> gauging (Đo liru lượng bang pliương pliiíp dùng chất chi báo, phương p h áp lioá<br /> học, phương p h á p llủiv hoá và plurơng pliáp dụng dịch plióng xạ) : A m ethod of<br /> m easuring the flow o f water by introducing a constant flow of a solution of known<br /> concentration for a sufficient lapse of lime at one section of Ihe water channel and<br /> llien by determ ining the resulting degree of dilution of this solution at another<br /> downstream section. "Chemical gauging", "electro-chemical gauging" and "radioactive<br /> solution gauging" are different forms of dilution gauging.<br /> <br /> 563.<br /> <br /> E lcctro - C hem ical gauging (Đo Uni lượng băng phương pháp hoá điện ): A<br /> m ethod for Ihe m easurement of flow of water based upon the nearly linear relation<br /> between the concentration and the cleclrical conductivity of a salt solution which<br /> <br /> 131<br /> <br /> m akes it possible to determine the degree o f dilution by integrating a conductivity<br /> time graph.<br /> <br /> 564.<br /> <br /> Cloud - velocity gauging, Allen's method of velocity gauging, colour velocity<br /> gauging (Đo lưu tốc theo phương pháp màn muối, phương pháp A-len, phương<br /> ph áp nhuộm m àu nước) : A method of determining the velocity of a slug of dye<br /> between two stations in the channel. This velocity, used as the mean velocity o f flow,<br /> in the case of adequate spreading, multiplied by the cross-sectionaJ area of the<br /> channel, gives the discharge. "Allen's method" and "colour-velocity method" arc<br /> different forms of cloud-velocity gauging.<br /> <br /> 565. Float gauging (Đo vận tốc bằng phao): Measurement of velocities of water by<br /> weighted floats for the determination of discharge.<br /> 566.<br /> <br /> Spot m easu rem en t (Đo điểm ): A single and random measurement of a stream as<br /> distinguished from a systematic or continuous record.<br /> <br /> 567. G auging statio n (T rạm thủy văn): A gauging station is a selected site on a stream<br /> equipped and operated to furnish basic data from which systematic records of<br /> discharge may be derived.<br /> 568. D ischarge site, G auging site, or Velocity - are a gauging statio n (Tuyến lưu<br /> <br /> lượng, tuyến đo hay trạm đo lưu lượng theo phương pháp lưu tốc m ạt ngang): A<br /> selected site on a stream for making observations of velocity and area of cross<br /> section with a view to determining the discharge.<br /> 569. Dosing statio n (T rạm đo dòng chảy dùng dung dịch hoá học): In chemical<br /> gauging, the station on the stream from where a chemical solution is fed into the<br /> water.<br /> 570. Sam pling statio n (T rạm lấy m ẫu nước): In chemical gauging, the station<br /> downstream of the dosing station from which samples of water are taken to find out<br /> the concentration of ihc diluted chemical solution with a view to determining the<br /> discharge.<br /> 571. Bench m ark (M ốc CƠ ban): A permanent point on a monument or permanent<br /> structure, whose elevation above a datum is known or fixed by precise levelling, and<br /> which is used as a point o f reference in the detemination of other elevations.<br /> <br /> 572. Gauging datum (Mặt chuẩn (mốc số 0) của trạm thủy văn): The elevation of the<br /> zero of the gauge above a certain point.<br /> 573. P erm an en t gauging (T rạm đo cố định): A gauge which is permanent.<br /> 574. D irection peg (Tuyên ngắm): A point on the direction peg line through which ray<br /> from one o f Ihe observation points passes when converging on Ihe pivot point.<br /> 575. C o ntrol, control section, com plete control, p a rtia control (M ạt cát khỏng chế,<br /> tuyên ngang thủy văn, m ặt cắt khống chế đầy đ ủ, m ăt cắt khống chế toàn<br /> ph ần ): 1- A section or reach of an open conduit or stream channel where artificial or<br /> natural conditions exist, such as the existence of a dam or a strcatch of rapids, that<br /> make the water level above it a stable index of the discharge. Controls may be<br /> <br /> 132<br /> <br /> com plete or partial. "Complete control" exists where the elevation of the water<br /> surface above the control is entirely independent of the fluctuations of water level<br /> downstream o f it. "Partial control” exists where downstream fluctuations have some<br /> effect on the upstream water level. 2- The cross section in a waterway which is the<br /> bottle neck for a given flow and which determines the enorgy head required to<br /> produce the flow. In the case of open channels, it is the poiru where the flow is at a<br /> critical depth; hydraulic conditions above the point being wholly dependent upon the<br /> characteristics of the control section and entirely in dependent of hydraulic<br /> conditions below the point. In the case of closed conduits, it is the point where the<br /> hydrostatic pressure in the conduil and cross-sectional area of flow are definitely<br /> fixed, except where the flow is limited at some other point by a hydrostatic pressure<br /> equal to the greatest vacuum that can be maintained unbroken al that point.<br /> <br /> 576.<br /> <br /> Shifting control, or Unstable control (Mạt cát không chế di động hay Mạt cát<br /> không ch ế không ổn định): A station is subject lo shifting control when the stagedischarge relation changes, either gradually or rapidly, as the result physical changes<br /> in the control.<br /> <br /> 577.<br /> <br /> G au g in g , or G age (T hủy chi): 1- An instrument, contrivance, graduated scale or<br /> ther device installed at a gauging station for observing or recording the stage of a<br /> stream. It may be an automatic gauge recorder or a non-recording gauge. 2- Height<br /> recorded by the gauge.<br /> <br /> 578.<br /> <br /> T em p o rary gauge (T rạm thủy vân tạm thời): A gauge, connected 10 the permanent<br /> gauge, for the purpose of recording watcr-surface levels under the prevailing<br /> conditions.<br /> <br /> 579.<br /> <br /> G au g e line (Tuyên do): The line across a channel passing through a given gauge.<br /> <br /> 580.<br /> <br /> G au g e line p illars (Cọc q u a n trá c m ục nước): The structural landmarks fixing the<br /> position o f the gauge line.<br /> <br /> 581.<br /> <br /> C h a in g auge, or T ap e gauge (Thước đo nước bàng xích hay dày): Device<br /> consisting of a tagged or indexed chain or other line allached to a weight which is<br /> lowered to the water surface, whereupon the gauge height is read on graduated staff<br /> or opposite an index. Especially suited to bridges.<br /> <br /> 582.<br /> <br /> F loat gauge (T rạm đo nước bằng pliao): Consists essentially of a float of wood,<br /> cork, or usually hollow zinc or coppcr which rides on the liquid surface and rises or<br /> falls with it, its movement being indicated on a scale.<br /> <br /> 583.<br /> <br /> Inclin ed g auge, Sloping gauge (T húy chi nghiêng): A staff gauge on a slope,<br /> graduated to read vertical heights above a datum. Sometimes referred to as a "sloping<br /> gauge".<br /> <br /> 584.<br /> <br /> Slope gauge (T uyến độ doc): Gauges with the same datum fixed above and below a<br /> discharge section for the pirpose of determining the water-surfacc slope belween the<br /> gauge run.<br /> <br /> 585.<br /> <br /> S taff gauge (Thước đo m ực nước): A graduated scale on a staff, plank, metal plate<br /> pier, wall, ect., by which the elevation of the water surface may be read.<br /> <br /> 133<br /> <br />
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