Encyclopedia.of.Medical.Anthropology-0306477548

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  1. Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology Health and Illness in the World’s Cultures Volume I: Topics Volume II: Cultures
  2. Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology Health and Illness in the World’s Cultures Volume I: Topics Volume II: Cultures Edited by Carol R. Ember Human Relations Area Files at Yale University New Haven, Connecticut and Melvin Ember Human Relations Area Files at Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Published in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers New York • Boston • Dordrecht • London • Moscow
  3. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ISBN 0-306-47754-8 ©2004 Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York 233 Spring Street, New York, N. Y. 10013 http://www.kluweronline.com 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A C.I.P. record for this book is available from the Library of Congress All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise,without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Permissions for books published in Europe: permissions@wkap.nl Permissions for books published in the United States of America: permissions@wkap.com Printed in the United States of America
  4. Advisory Board GEORGE ARMELAGOS Emory University ELOIS ANN BERLIN University of Georgia GAY BECKER University of California at San Francisco PETER J. BROWN Emory University C. H. BROWNER University of California, Los Angeles JAMES W. CAREY Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ALEX COHEN Harvard University WILLIAM W. DRESSLER University of Alabama ROBERT EDGERTON University of California, Los Angeles RUTHBETH FINERMAN University of Memphis LINDA C. GARRO University of California, Los Angeles PAUL HOCKINGS University of Illinois at Chicago LESLIE SUE LIEBERMAN University of Central Florida MARGARET LOCK McGill University LENORE MANDERSON University of Melbourne MAC MARSHALL University of Iowa JAMES J. MCKENNA University of Notre Dame CARMELLA C. MOORE University of California, Irvine ARTHUR J. RUBEL (deceased) University of California, Irvine SUSAN C. WELLER University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston Managing Editor Jo-Ann Teadtke The Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology was prepared under the auspices and with the support of the Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF) at Yale University. The foremost international research organization in the field of cultural anthropology, HRAF is a not-for-profit consortium of 19 Sponsoring Member institutions and more than 400 active and inactive Associate Member institutions in nearly 40 countries. The mission of HRAF is to provide information that facilitates the worldwide comparative study of human behavior, society, and culture. The HRAF Collection of Ethnography, which has been building since 1949, contains nearly one million pages of information, organized by culture and indexed according to more than 700 subject categories, on the cultures of the world. An increasing portion of the Collection of Ethnography, which now covers more than 380 cultures, is accessible via the World Wide Web to member institutions. The HRAF Collection of Archaeology, the first installment of which appeared in 1999, is also accessible on the Web to member institutions. HRAF also prepares multivolume reference works with the help of nearly 2,000 scholars around the world, and sponsors Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science. v
  5. Contributors Thomas S. Abler, Department of Anthropology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf, Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Steven Acheson, Archaeology Branch, Government of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia Naomi Adelson, Department of Anthropology, York University, Toronto, Ontario Pascale A. Allotey, Department of Public Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Hans A. Baer, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Eric J. Bailey, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Gay Becker, Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California Brent Berlin, Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia Elois Ann Berlin, Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia James R. Bindon, Department of Anthropology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama Astrid Blystad, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Barry Bogin, Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan Erika Bourguignon, Professor Emerita, the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio David J. Boyd, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California George Brandon, Department of Behavioral Medicine, City University of New York, New York, New York Rae Bridgman, Department of City Planning, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba Leslie Butt, Department of Pacific and Asian Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia James W. Carey, Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Gloria Castillo, Universidad de San Carlos, San Carlos, Guatemala Arachu Castro, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Dia Cha, Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota Alex Cohen, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Jeannine Coreil, Department of Community and Family Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida Jay Bouton Crain, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Sacramento, California Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera, Department of Family Practice and Community Medicine, University of Minneapolis, Minneapolis, Minnesota Allan Clifford Darrah, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Sacramento, California Nancy Romero-Daza, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida Erin Picone-DeCaro, Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Linus S. Digim’Rina, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Papua New Guinea, Papua, New Guinea vii
  6. viii Contributors William W. Dressler, Department of Anthropology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama Bettina Shell-Duncan, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Mason Durie, Maori Research and Development, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand Delia Easton, Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Paul Farmer, Division of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities, Harvard Medical School, Boston Steven Ferzacca, Department of Anthropology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta Ruthbeth Finerman, Department of Anthropology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee Robbie E. Davis-Floyd, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Atwood D. Gaines, Anthropology, Bioethics, Nursing and Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University and the Schools of Medicine and Nursing, Cleveland, Ohio Linda C. Garro, Department of Anthropology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California Eugenia Georges, Department of Anthropology, Rice University, Houston, Texas Tyson Gibbs, Department of Anthropology, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas Irene Glasser, Community Renewal Team, Inc., Hartford, Connecticut Jody Glittenberg, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Nancie L. Gonzalez, Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Elisa J. Gordon, Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, Illinois Lawrence P. Greska, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Raymond Hames, Department of Anthropology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska Kate R. Hampshire, Department of Anthropology, University of Durham, Durham, England Anita Hardon, Medical Anthropology Unit, Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Janice Harper, Department of Anthropology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas Dwight B. Heath, Professor Emeritus, Anthropology Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island L. Carson Henderson, Department of Health Promotion Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma J. Neil Henderson, Department of Health Promotion Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Catherine Hagan Hennessy, Health Care and Aging Studies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Warren M. Hern, Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado Ylva Hernlund, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington David Himmelgreen, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida Paul Hockings, Adjunct Curator of Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois Darryl J. Holman, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Daniel J. Hruschka, Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Brad R. Huber, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina Carolina Izquierdo, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California Heather A. Joseph, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
  7. Contributors ix Sharon R. Kaufman, Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California Satish Kedia, Department of Anthropology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee Sunil K. Khanna, Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon Jill E. Korbin, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Brandon A. Kohrt, Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Waud H. Kracke, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Peter Kunstadter, Department of Medical Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California Robin Shrestha-Kuwahara, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Jennifer Kuzara, Anthropology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Michelle Lampl, Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Murray Last, Department of Anthropology, University College London, London, England Robert Lawless, Department of Anthropology, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas Barbara W. Lex, Former Professor of Anthropology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Leslie Sue Lieberman, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida Xingwu Liu, Department of Anthropology, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois Margaret Lock, Department of Social Studies of Medicine and Department of Anthropology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec Ron Loewe, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi Chris Lyttleton, Department of Anthropology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia Larry Leon Mai, Departments of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, California Frank Marlowe, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Gregory G. Maskarinec, Department of Family Practice and Community Health, University of Hawaii, Mililani, Hawaii Joanne McCloskey, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico Ann McElroy, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York Barbara Burns McGrath, Departments of Anthropology and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington James J. McKenna, Professor of Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana F. John Meaney, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Robert J. Meier, Chancellor’s Professor Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana William E. Mitchell, Department of Anthropology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont Mary Spink Neumann, Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec Kathleen A. O’Connor, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  8. x Contributors J. Bryan Page, Department of Anthropology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida Rebecca Plank, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Ronald Provencher, Professor Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois Susan J. Rasmussen, Department of Anthropology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas L.A. Rebhun, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Ole Bjørn Rekdal, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway Gun Roos, National Institute for Consumer Research, Oslo, Norway Zdenek Salzmann, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts Denise Saint Arnault, College of Nursing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Daphne Cobb St. John, Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Carolyn Sargent, Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas Deborah Schwartz, Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Ian Shaw, Centre for Research in Medical Sociology and Health Policy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England Glenn H. Shepard, Jr., Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas de Amazˆ nia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil o Russell P. Shuttleworth, Institute of Regional and Urban Development, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California Merrill Singer, Hispanic Health Council, Hartford, Connecticut Arushi Sinha, Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas Monique Skidmore, Centre for Cross-Cultural Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Elisa J. Sobo, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California Jay Sokolovsky, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Florida John R. Stepp, Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia Peter H. Stephenson, Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia Esther Sumartojo, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Anne Hartley Sutherland, Department of Anthropology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia Wenda R. Trevathan, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico Florencia Tola, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Douglas H. Ubelaker, Curator of Physical Anthropology, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Claudia R. Veleggia, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Sydney D. White, Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Linda M. Whiteford, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida at St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Florida Andrea Whittaker, The Melbourne Institute for Asian Languages and Societies, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
  9. Contributors xi Maureen Wilce, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Michael Winkelman, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona Norma H. Wolff, Department of Anthropology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa Louise Woodward, Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Nottingham, England Michael R. Zimmerman, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  10. Preface Illness and death are significant events for people everywhere. No one is spared. But medical beliefs and practices are not the same everywhere. How people understand the causes of illness and death and how they cope with these events vary from culture to culture. It is not surprising therefore that medical practitioners and others are becoming increas- ingly aware of the need to understand the influence of society and culture on medical belief and practice. Culture— the customary ways of thinking and acting in a society—often affects the outcome of illness, and even which illnesses occur. So those who are actively engaged in studying health and illness are coming to realize that biological and cultural factors need to be considered if we are to reduce human suffering. The professional medicine of Western cultures has been called “biomedicine,” because it mostly deals with the biology of the human body. But biomedicine, like the medicine of other cultures, is also influenced by conditions and beliefs in the culture, and therefore reflects the value and norms of its creators. So, if biomedicine is socially constructed and not just based on science, its beliefs and practices may partly derive from assumptions and biases in the culture. For example, it used to be thought that some people refrained from drinking milk because they were igno- rant. Now, biomedicine realizes that the avoidance of milk is a rational response to the likelihood that drinking milk results in diarrhea and other discomforts in people who lack an enzyme (lactase) that allows easy digestion of the sugar in milk (lactose). Anthropologists were the first to realize that drinking milk would cause serious problems for many people. The anthropologists’ fieldwork in other cultures around the world revealed that people in many places that have milking animals must sour the milk before they can drink it, to reduce or eliminate the sugar in it that would otherwise make them sick. Severe diarrhea may also be an effect of the culture’s system of social stratification. The direct causes of the diarrhea may be biological, in the sense that the deaths are caused by bacterial or other infection. But why are so many infants exposed to those infectious agents? Usually, the main reason is social or cultural. The affected infants may mostly be poor. Because they are poor, they are likely to live with infected drinking water. Similarly, malnutri- tion may be the biological result of a diet poor in protein. But such a diet is usually also a cultural phenomenon, reflect- ing a society that has different classes of people, with very unequal access to the necessities of life, and unequal access to decent medical care. For this and other reasons, medical anthropology is developing what has been called a “biocultural synthesis” in its studies of health and illness. Medical anthropology may even be in the forefront of the movement that is returning the entire field of anthro- pology to its biocultural roots. In any case, the growth of jobs in medical anthropology is one of the more striking developments in contemporary anthropology. Medical anthropology has developed into a very popular specialty, and the Society for Medical Anthropology is now the second largest unit in the American Anthropological Association. ORGANIZATION OF THIS ENCYCLOPEDIA A total of 53 thematic and comparative essays begin these volumes. These essays are grouped into five sections: gen- eral concepts and perspectives; medical systems; political, economic, and social issues; sexuality, reproduction, and the life cycle; and health conditions and diseases. Then there are 52 cultural portraits of health and illness, articles that describe the state of health and illness in 52 particular cultures around the world. Every cultural region of the world is represented, as are cultures at all levels of social complexity. The Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology is unique. In addition to providing a large range of thematic essays, representing the various perspectives in medical anthropology, these volumes are unique in focusing on so many particular cultures. No other single reference work comes close to matching the depth and breadth of information on the varying cultural background of health and illness around the world. We are able to provide the information contained here through the efforts of more than 100 contributors—generally xiii
  11. xiv Preface anthropologists but also other social scientists—who usually have firsthand experience with how medical cultures vary around the world. Focusing on comparative topics and how health and illness are viewed and treated in the world’s cultures is consistent with HRAF’s mission to encourage and facilitate comparative worldwide studies of human soci- ety, culture, and behavior. Our aim is to leave the reader with a real sense of how different cultures deal with health and illness, and what anthropology has contributed to understanding health and illness. ORGANIZATION OF THE ARTICLES The thematic and comparative essays vary in how they are organized, not just in their topics. The authors were encour- aged by the editors to structure their discussions as they saw fit. On the other hand, the articles on health and illness in particular cultures generally follow the same format to provide maximum comparability. That is, most of the cul- ture articles cover the same topics, the list of which we developed with the help of our Advisory Board (see the head- ings in boldface below). If there is substantial variation within the culture (e.g., by class or gender), the author was instructed to note it where appropriate, either in a particular section or at the end. A heading may be omitted if infor- mation on it is lacking or not applicable. The headings that follow are found in the vast majority of the articles to facil- itate search and retrieval of information. Thus, the reader may easily compare how the cultures of the world differ and are similar in the ways they deal with health and illness. The outline for the culture articles includes the following topics. Alternative Names of the Culture Other names or ethnonyms used in the literature. Location and Linguistic Affiliation Where the described culture is located (region of the world, country and location within the country, where appropri- ate). The language spoken by the people described, and the larger language family it belongs to. Overview of the Culture A summary of the culture to orient the reader, including information on demography, history, economy and occupa- tions, social and political conditions, family and kinship, religion, etc. The Context of Health: Environmental, Economic, Social, and Political Factors This section first provides an overview of the health situation, with epidemiological statistics if available, or with observer assessments if statistics are not available. Then there is a discussion of the global and local factors enhanc- ing or detracting from health, including social factors (historical and colonial, if appropriate), the impact of diet and nutrition (positive and negative), and the health infrastructure. Medical Practitioners Types of full-time and part-time practitioners in the society, and descriptions of their roles and the people they serve. Classification of Illness, Theories of Illness, and Treatment of Illness Discussion of the cultural understanding of illness (biomedical, other). Even where the biomedical paradigm is accepted, there may be alternative viewpoints, which will be described. Mental illness will also be described in this
  12. Preface xv section. Discussions of age-related conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease) will be reserved for the section on Health Through the Life Cycle (see below). Sexuality and Reproduction Discussion of sexual attitudes and practices, and their impacts on health and fecundity and fertility, and other factors affecting fecundity and fertility. Ideas about conception, ideal family size, and population controls and their conse- quences (e.g., the effect of infertility on a woman’s status). Health Through the Life Cycle Pregnancy and Birth. Beliefs, attitudes, and practices relating to pregnancy, abortion, miscarriage, and birth. Infancy. Postpartum practices, including breast-feeding. Reaction to multiple births, birth defects, treatment of the healthy and unhealthy infant, and number and types of caretakers. Definitions of and duration of infancy. Special risks for one gender as compared with another. Special protections against or treatments of illness in infancy. Childhood. Care of children, ideas about discipline and length of childhood, if known, parental acceptance and rejection, and cultural variation in concepts of child abuse. Special medical or health issues during this period. Adolescence. If there is no apparent difference in treatment of adolescents as compared with children, this is noted. Genital operations if any. Special medical or health issues during this period. Adulthood. Special health or medical issues that come up in adulthood or that are related to marriage (e.g., domes- tic abuse, unequal access by gender to medical care). Attitudes and practices regarding middle age (e.g., menopause) are addressed here. The Aged. Status and treatment of the aged. Discussion of the major medical problems of this age group. Dying and Death. Treatment of the dying, concepts about death, reactions to it, and treatment of the body. Risks to surviving spouses, if related to cultural practice (e.g., required suicide). Changing Health Patterns (optional) If changes over time have not been described in previous sections, this is where they will be described. References References to sources in the text are included to allow the reader to explore topics and cultures further. USING THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY This reference work can be used by a variety of people for a variety of purposes. It can be used both to gain a general understanding of medical anthropology and to find out about particular cultures and topics. A bibliography is provided at the end of each entry to facilitate further investigation.
  13. xvi Preface Beyond serving as a basic reference resource, the Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology also serves readers with more focused needs. For researchers interested in comparing cultures, this work provides information that can guide the selection of particular cultures for further study. For those interested in international studies, the bibliographies in each entry can lead one quickly to the relevant social science literature as well as provide a state-of-the-art assess- ment of knowledge about medical cultures around the world. For curriculum developers and teachers seeking to inter- nationalize the curriculum, this work is a basic reference and educational resource as well as a directory to other materials. For government officials, it is a repository of information not likely to be available in any other single publication; in many cases, the information provided here is not available at all elsewhere. For students, from high school through graduate school, it provides background and bibliographic information for term papers and class projects. And for travelers, it provides an introduction to the medical cultures of places they may be visiting. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many people to thank for their contributions. Eliot Werner, formerly at Plenum, played an important role in the planning of the project. The Advisory Board made valuable suggestions about the outline for the culture entries and possible topics to be covered in the thematic essays, and suggested potential authors. The editors were responsi- ble for the final selections of authors and for reviewing the manuscripts. For managing the project at HRAF, we are indebted to Jo-Ann Teadtke. We thank Teresa Krauss for overseeing the production process at Kluwer/Plenum and Tracy van Staalduinen for her efficient handling of the production of this Encyclopedia. Finally, and most of all, we thank the contributors for their entries. Without their knowledge and commitment, this work would not have been pos- sible. Carol R. Ember, Executive Director Melvin Ember, President Human Relations Area Files at Yale University
  14. Contents VOLUME I: TOPICS GENERAL CONCEPTS AND PERSPECTIVES Theoretical and Applied Issues in Cross-Cultural Health Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Elisa J. Sobo Cognitive Medical Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Linda C. Garro Critical Medical Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Merrill Singer Evolutionary and Ecological Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Ann McElroy Forensic Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Douglas H. Ubelaker Illness Narratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Ron Loewe Paleopathology and the Study of Ancient Remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Michael R. Zimmerman Psychoanalysis and Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Waud H. Kracke MEDICAL SYSTEMS Bioethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Elisa J. Gordon Biomedical Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Margaret Lock Biomedicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Atwood D. Gaines and Robbie Davis-Floyd Medical Pluralism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Hans A. Baer Medicalization and the Naturalization of Social Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Margaret Lock Phenomenology of Health and Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Gay Becker Possession and Trance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Erika Bourguignon Shamanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Michael Winkelman xvii
  15. xviii Contents POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL ISSUES Disasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Jody Glittenberg Health and Economic Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Arachu Castro and Paul Farmer Homelessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Irene Glasser and Rae Bridgman Nutrition and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Gun Roos Post-Colonial Development and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Steve Ferzacca Refugee Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Pascale A. Allotey Social Stratification and Health in the Western Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Arushi Sinha and Tyson Gibbs The Urban Poor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Delia Easton SEXUALITY, REPRODUCTION, AND THE LIFE CYCLE Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Jay Sokolovsky Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Carolyn Sargent Breast-Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Wenda R. Trevathan Child Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Barry Bogin Dying and Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Sharon R. Kaufman Female Genital Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund Immunization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Anita Hardon Population Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Robert J. Meier Reproductive Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Andrea Whittaker HEALTH CONDITIONS AND DISEASES Alcohol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Dwight B. Heath and Irene Glasser Child Abuse and Neglect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Jill E. Korbin Cholera and other Water-Borne Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Linda M. Whiteford
  16. Contents xix Chronic Diseases of Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Catherine Hagan Hennessy Culture-Bound Syndromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 L. A. Rebhun Culture, Stress, and Cardiovascular Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 William W. Dressler Diabetes Mellitus and Medical Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Leslie Sue Lieberman Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Elois Ann Berlin Disability/Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Russell P. Shuttleworth Drug Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 J. Bryan Page Emerging Infectious Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Vinh-Kim Nguyen Genetic Disease I: History and Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Larry Leon Mai Genetic Disease II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Larry Leon Mai HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 James W. Carey, Erin Picone-DeCaro, Mary Spink Neumann, Deborah Schwartz, Delia Easton, and Daphne Cobb St. John Malaria and other Major Insect Vector Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Jeannine Coreil Mental Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Alex Cohen Mental Retardation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 F. John Meaney Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS or Cot Death) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 James J. McKenna Tobacco Use in Medical Anthropological Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Merrill Singer Tuberculosis Research and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 R. Shrestha-Kuwahara, M. Wilce, H. A. Joseph, J. W. Carey, R. Plank, and E. Sumartojo VOLUME II: CULTURES African Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 Eric J. Bailey Amish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 Lawrence P. Greksa and Jill E. Korbin Argentine Toba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Claudia R. Valeggia and Florencia Tola Badaga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Paul Hockings Bangladeshis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 Darryl J. Holman and Kathleen A. O’Connor
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