Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology, Networking

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Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology, Networking

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Communication products are characterized by the fact that the benefit that results from their use is mainly dependent on the number of users of the product, the so-called installed base, and only dependent to a minor degree on the actual product characteristics. The utility of a videoconferencing system, for example, is quite small at the product launch because only a few users are present with whom adopters can communicate. Only the increase in the number of users leads to an enhancement of the utility for each user....

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  1. Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking Margherita Pagani I-LAB Centre for Research on the Digital Economy, Bocconi University, Italy IDEA GROUP RE.ERENCE Hershey • London • Melbourne • Singapore
  2. Acquisitions Editor: Renée Davies Development Editor: Kristin Roth Senior Managing Editor: Amanda Appicello Managing Editor: Jennifer Neidig Copy Editors: Julie LeBlanc, Shanelle Ramelb, Sue VanderHook and Jennifer Young Typesetters: Diane Huskinson, Sara Reed and Larissa Zearfoss Support Staff: Michelle Potter Cover Design: Lisa Tosheff Printed at: Yurchak Printing Inc. Published in the United States of America by Idea Group Reference (an imprint of Idea Group Inc.) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Suite 200 Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust@idea-group.com Web site: http://www.idea-group-ref.com and in the United Kingdom by Idea Group Reference (an imprint of Idea Group Inc.) 3 Henrietta Street Covent Garden London WC2E 8LU Tel: 44 20 7240 0856 Fax: 44 20 7379 3313 Web site: http://www.eurospan.co.uk Copyright © 2005 by Idea Group Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of multimedia technology and networking / Margherita Pagani, ed. p. cm. Summary: "This encyclopedia offers a comprehensive knowledge of multimedia information technology from an economic and technological perspective"--Provided by publisher. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-59140-561-0 (hard cover) -- ISBN 1-59140-796-6 (ebook) 1. Multimedia communications--Encyclopedias. I. Pagani, Margherita, 1971- TK5105.15.E46 2005 2005005141 British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. All work contributed to this encyclopedia set is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this encyclopedia set are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.
  3. Editorial Advisory Board Raymond A. Hackney, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK Leslie Leong, Central Connecticut State University, USA Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, University of Geneva, Switzerland Lorenzo Peccati, Bocconi University, Italy Steven John Simon, Stetson School of Business and Economics - Mercer University, USA Andrew Targowski, Western Michigan University, USA Nobuyoshi Terashima, Waseda University, Japan Enrico Valdani, Bocconi University, Italy
  4. List of Contributors Ahmed, Ansary / Open University of Malaysia, Malaysia Ajiferuke, Isola / University of Western Ontario, Canada Akhtar, Shakil / United Arab Emirates University, UAE Ally, Mohamed / Athabasca University, Canada Angehrn, Albert A. / Center for Advanced Learning Technologies, INSEAD, France Angelides, Marios C. / Brunel University, UK Arbore, Alessandro / Bocconi University, Italy Auld, Jonathan M. / NovAtel Inc., Canada Baralou, Evangelia / University of Sterling, Scotland Barolli, Leonard / Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Japan Benrud, Erik / American University, USA Bhattacharya, Sunand / ITT Educational Services, Inc., USA Bignall, Robert J. / Monash University, Australia Bradley, Randy V. / Troy University, USA Buche, Mari W. / Michigan Technological University, USA Butcher-Powell, Loreen Marie / Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, USA Cannell, Jeremy C. / Gannon University, USA Cardoso, Rui C. / Universidade de Beira Interior, Portugal Cavallaro, Andrea / Queen Mary, University of London, UK Chakrobartty, Shuvro / Minnesota State University, USA Chan, Tom S. / Southern New Hampshire University, USA Chbeir, Richard / University of Bourgogne, France Chen, Jeanne / HungKuang University, Taiwan Chen, Kuanchin / Western Michigan University, USA Chen, Tung-Shou / National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taiwan Cheng, Meng-Wen / National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taiwan Chochcliouros, Ioannis P. / Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S.A. (OTE), Greece Cirrincione, Armando / SDA Bocconi School of Management, Italy Connaughton, Stacey L. / Purdue University, USA Cragg, Paul B. / University of Canterbury, New Zealand Cruz, Christophe / University of Bourgogne, France da Silva, Elaine Quintino / University of São Paulo, Brazil da Silva, Henrique J. A. / Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal Danenberg, James O. / Western Michigan University, USA de Abreu Moreira, Dilvan / University of São Paulo, Brazil de Amescua, Antonio / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain Dellas, Fabien / University of Geneva, Switzerland Dhar, Subhankar / San Jose State University, USA Di Giacomo, Thomas / University of Geneva, Switzerland
  5. Diaz, Ing. Carlos / University of Alcala, Spain Dunning, Jeremy / Indiana University, USA Duthler, Kirk W. / The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA El-Gayar, Omar / Dakota State University, USA Esmahi, Larbi / Athabasca University, Canada Esteban, Luis A. / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain Falk, Louis K. / Youngstown State University, USA Farag, Waleed E. / Zagazig University, Egypt Fleming, Stewart T. / University of Otago, New Zealand Fraunholz, Bardo / Deakin University, Australia Freeman, Ina / University of Birmingham, UK Freire, Mário M. / Universidade de Beira Interior, Portugal Galanxhi-Janaqi, Holtjona / University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA Gao, Yuan / Ramapo College of New Jersey, USA García, Luis / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain Ghanem, Hassan / Verizon, USA Gibbert, Michael / Bocconi University, Italy Gilbert, A. Lee / Nanyang Business School, Singapore Goh, Tiong-Thye / Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Grahn, Kaj J. / Arcada Polytechnic, Finland Grover, Akshay / Brigham Young University, USA Guan, Sheng-Uei / National University of Singapore, Singapore Gupta, P. / Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India Gurãu, Cãlin / Centre d’Études et de Recherche sur les Organisations et la Management (CEROM), France Gutiérrez, Jairo A. / The University of Auckland, New Zealand Hackbarth, Klaus D. / University of Cantabria, Spain Hagenhoff, Svenja / Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Germany Handzic, Meliha / Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, BiH, Croatia Hentea, Mariana / Southwestern Oklahoma State University, USA Heywood, Malcolm I. / Dalhousie University, Canada Hin, Leo Tan Wee / Singapore National Academy of Science and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Hosszú, Gábor / Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Turkey Hu, Wen-Chen / University of North Dakota, USA Hughes, Jerald / Baruch College of the City University of New York, USA Hulicki, Zbigniew / AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland Hurson, Ali R. / The Pennsylvania State University, USA Iossifides, Athanassios C. / COSMOTE S.A., Greece Ishaya, Tanko / The University of Hull, UK Janczewski, Lech J. / The University of Auckland, New Zealand Joslin, Chris / University of Geneva, Switzerland Jovanovic-Dolecek, Gordana / INAOE, Mexico Jung, Jürgen / Uni Duisburg-Essen, Germany Kacimi, Mouna / University of Bourgogne, France Kanellis, Panagiotis / National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Karaboulas, Dimitrios / University of Patras, Greece Karlsson, Jonny / Arcada Polytechnic, Finland Karoui, Kamel / Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Tunis, Tunisia
  6. Kaspar, Christian / Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Germany Kaur, Abtar / Open University of Malaysia, Malaysia Kaushik, A.K. / Electronic Niketan, India Kayacik, H. Gunes / Dalhousie University, Canada Kelic, Andjelka / Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Kemper Littman, Marlyn / Nova Southeastern University, USA Kinshuk / Massey University, New Zealand Knight, Linda V. / DePaul University, USA Kontolemakis, George / National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Kotsopoulos, Stavros A. / University of Patras, Greece Kou, Weidong / Xidian University, PR China Koumaras, Harilaos / University of Athens, Greece Kourtis, Anastasios / Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications NCSR Demokritos, Greece Koyama, Akio / Yamagata University, Japan Kwok, Percy Lai-yin / Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Labruyere, Jean-Philippe P. / DePaul University, USA Lalopoulos, George K. / Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S.A. (OTE), Greece Lang, Karl Reiner / Baruch College of the City University of New York, USA Lang, Michael / National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland Larkin, Jeff / Brigham Young University, USA Lawson-Body, Assion / University of North Dakota, USA Lee, Chung-wei / Auburn University, USA Lee, Maria Ruey-Yuan / Shih-Chien University, Taiwan Li, Chang-Tsun / University of Warwick, UK Li, Qing / City University of Hong Kong, China Liehr, Marcus / University of Hohenheim, Germany Lin, Joanne Chia Yi / The University of New South Wales, Australia Lorenz, Pascal / University of Haute Alsace, France Louvros, Spiros / COSMOTE S.A., Greece Lowry, Paul Benjamin / Brigham Young University, USA Lumsden, Joanna / National Research Council of Canada IIT e-Business, Canada Luo, Xin / Mississippi State University, USA Ma, Keh-Jian / National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taiwan Madsen, Chris / Brigham Young University, USA Maggioni, Mario A. / Università Cattolica di Milano, Italy Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia / University of Geneva, Switzerland Magni, Massimo / Bocconi University, Italy Maris, Jo-Mae B. / Northern Arizona University, USA Markus, Alexander / University of Western Ontario, Canada Martakos, Drakoulis / National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Mbarika, Victor / Southern University and A&M College, USA McManus, Patricia / Edith Cowan University, Australia Melliar-Smith, P. M. / University of California, Santa Barbara, USA Mills, Annette M. / University of Canterbury, New Zealand Mitchell, Mark / Brigham Young University, USA Mohamedally, Dean / City University London, UK Monteiro, Paulo P. / SIEMENS S.A. and Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal Morabito, Vincenzo / Bocconi University, Italy Moser, L. E. / University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
  7. Moyes, Aaron / Brigham Young University, USA Mundy, Darren P. / University of Hull, UK Murphy, Peter / Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Nah, Fiona Fui-Hoon / University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA Nandavadekar, Vilas D. / University of Pune, India Neveu, Marc / University of Burgundy, France Ngoh, Lek Heng / Institute for Infocomm Research, A*STAR, Singapore Nicolle, Christophe / University of Bourgogne, France Nur, Mohammad M. / Minnesota State University, USA Nur Zincir-Heywood, A. / Dalhousie University, Canada O’Dea, Michael / University of Hull, UK O’Hagan, Minako / Dublin City University, Ireland Olla, Phillip / Brunel University, UK Otenko, Oleksandr / University of Kent, UK Pace, Stefano / Bocconi University, Italy Pagani, Margherita / Bocconi University, Italy Pai, Feng Yu / Shih-Chien University, Taiwan Panjala, Shashidhar / Gannon University, USA Pantic, Maja / Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Pereira, Rui G. / Universidade de Beira Interior, Portugal Petrie, Helen / City University London, UK Poole, Marshall Scott / Texas A&M University, USA Portilla, J. Antonio / University of Alcala, Spain Portougal, Victor / The University of Auckland, New Zealand Prata, Alcina / Higher School of Management Sciences, Portugal Proserpio, Luigi / Bocconi University, Italy Provera, Bernardino / Bocconi University, Italy Pulkkis, Göran / Arcada Polytechnic, Finland Rahman, Hakikur / SDNP, Bangladesh Raisinghani, Mahesh S. / Texas Woman’s University, USA Rajasingham, Lalita / Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Raju, P.K. / Auburn University, USA Ratnasingam, Pauline / Central Missouri State University, USA Ripamonti, Laura Anna / Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy Robins, Wiliam / Brigham Young University, USA Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C. / Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal Rotvold, Glenda / University of North Dakota, USA Rotvold, Justin / Techwise Solutions, LLC, USA Rowe, Neil C. / U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, USA Roy, Abhijit / Loyola College in Maryland, USA Ruela, Jose / Faculdade de Engennaria da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Portugal Sánchez-Segura, Maria-Isabel / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain Sankar, Chetan S. / Auburn University, USA Schizas, Christos / University of Cyprus, Cyprus Shankar P., Jaya / Institute for Infocomm Research, A*STAR, Singapore Shepherd, Jill / Simon Fraser University, Canada Shuaib, Khaled A. / United Arab Emirates University, UAE Singh, Richa / Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India Singh, Shawren / University of South Africa, South Africa
  8. Sockel, Hy / Youngstown State University, USA Sofokleous, Anastasis / Brunel University, UK Sonwalkar, Nishikant / Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Spiliopoulou-Chochliourou, Anastasia S. / Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S.A. (OTE), Greece St.Amant, Kirk / Texas Tech University, USA Standing, Craig / Edith Cowan University, Australia Stephens, Jackson / Brigham Young University, USA Stern, Tziporah / Baruch College, CUNY, USA Still, Brian / Texas Tech University, USA Subramaniam, R. / Singapore National Academy of Science and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Sun, Jun / Texas A&M University, USA Suraweera, Theekshana / University of Canterbury, New Zealand Swierzowicz, Janusz / Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland Syed, Mahbubur R. / Minnesota State University, USA Szabados, Anna / Mission College, USA Tan, Christopher Yew-Gee / University of South Australia, Australia Tandekar, Kanchana / Dakota State University, USA Tassabehji, Rana / University of Bradford, UK Terashima, Nobuyoshi / Waseda University, Japan Tiffin, John / Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Ting, Wayne / The University of Auckland, New Zealand Todorova, Nelly / University of Canterbury, New Zealand Tong, Carrison KS / Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital and Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine / Griffith University, Australia Uberti, Teodora Erika / Università Cattolica di Milano, Italy Unnithan, Chandana / Deakin University, Australia Vatsa, Mayank / Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India Vician, Chelley / Michigan Technological University, USA Vitolo, Theresa M. / Gannon University, USA Voeth, Markus / University of Hohenheim, Germany Volino, Pascal / University of Geneva, Switzerland Wang, Pin-Hsin / National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taiwan Warkentin, Merrill / Mississippi State University, USA Wei, Chia-Hung / University of Warwick, UK Wilson, Sean / Brigham Young University, USA Wong, Eric TT / The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Wong-MingJi, Diana J. / Eastern Michigan University, USA Wright, Carol / Pennsylvania State University, USA Yang, Bo / The Pennsylvania State University, USA Yang, Jun / Carnegie Mellon University, USA Yetongnon, Kokou / University of Bourgogne, France Yusof, Shafiz A. Mohd / Syracuse University, USA Zakaria, Norhayati / Syracuse University, USA Zaphiris, Panayiotis / City University London, UK Zhuang, Yueting / Zhejiang University, China Zwitserloot, Reinier / Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
  9. Contents by Volume VOLUME I Adoption of Communication Products and the Individual Critical Mass / Markus Voeth and Marcus Liehr ....... 1 Affective Computing / Maja Pantic ......................................................................................................................... 8 Agent Frameworks / Reinier Zwitserloot and Maja Pantic .................................................................................... 15 Application of Genetic Algorithms for QoS Routing in Broadband Networks / Leonard Barolli and Akio Koyama ................................................................................................................................................ 22 Application Service Providers / Vincenzo Morabito and Bernardino Provera ..................................................... 31 Assessing Digital Video Data Similarity / Waleed E. Farag .................................................................................... 36 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line / Leo Tan Wee Hin and R. Subramaniam ....................................................... 42 ATM Technology and E-Learning Initiatives / Marlyn Kemper Littman ............................................................... 49 Biometric Technologies / Mayank Vatsa, Richa Singh, P. Gupta and A.K. Kaushik ............................................ 56 Biometrics Security / Stewart T. Fleming ................................................................................................................. 63 Biometrics, A Critical Consideration in Information Security Management / Paul Benjamin Lowry, Jackson Stephens, Aaron Moyes, Sean Wilson and Mark Mitchell .................................................................. 69 Broadband Solutions for Residential Customers / Mariana Hentea ....................................................................... 76 Challenges and Perspectives for Web-Based Applications in Organizations / George K. Lalopoulos, Ioannis P. Chochliouros and Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou-Chochliourou ......................................................... 82 Collaborative Web-Based Learning Community / Percy Kwok Lai-yin and Christopher Tan Yew-Gee ............... 89 Constructing a Globalized E-Commerce Site / Tom S. Chan .................................................................................... 96 Consumer Attitude in Electronic Commerce / Yuan Gao ......................................................................................... 102 Content Repurposing for Small Devices / Neil C. Rowe .......................................................................................... 110
  10. Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval / Chia-Hung Wei and Chang-Tsun Li .......................................................... 116 Context-Awareness in Mobile Commerce / Jun Sun and Marshall Scott Poole .................................................... 123 Core Principles of Educational Multimedia / Geraldine Torrisi-Steele ................................................................... 130 Corporate Conferencing / Vilas D. Nandavadekar ................................................................................................ 137 Cost Models for Telecommunication Networks and Their Application to GSM Systems / Klaus D. Hackbarth, J. Antonio Portilla and Ing. Carlos Diaz ........................................................................................................... 143 Critical Issues in Global Navigation Satellite Systems / Ina Freeman and Jonathan M. Auld ............................... 151 Dark Optical Fibre as a Modern Solution for Broadband Networked Cities / Ioannis P. Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou-Chochliourou and George K. Lalopoulos ............................................................. 158 Decision Making Process of Integrating Wireless Technology into Organizations, The / Assion Lawson-Body, Glenda Rotvold and Justin Rotvold ............................................................................... 165 Designing Web-Based Hypermedia Systems / Michael Lang ................................................................................ 173 Digital Filters / Gordana Jovanovic-Dolecek .......................................................................................................... 180 Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Applications / Ioannis P. Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou-Chochliourou and George K. Lalopoulos .................................................................................. 197 Digital Watermarking Based on Neural Network Technology for Grayscale Images / Jeanne Chen, Tung-Shou Chen, Keh-Jian Ma and Pin-Hsin Wang ......................................................................................... 204 Digital Watermarking for Multimedia Security Management / Chang-Tsun Li ....................................................... 213 Distance Education Delivery / Carol Wright ........................................................................................................... 219 Distanced Leadership and Multimedia / Stacey L. Connaughton ........................................................................... 226 Dynamics of Virtual Teams, The / Norhayati Zakaria and Shafiz A. Mohd Yusof ................................................. 233 E-Commerce and Usability / Shawren Singh ........................................................................................................... 242 Educational Technology Standards / Michael O’Dea ............................................................................................. 247 Efficient Method for Image Indexing in Medical Application / Richard Chbeir ..................................................... 257 Elaboration Likelihood Model and Web-Based Persuasion, The / Kirk W. Duthler ............................................... 265 E-Learning and Multimedia Databases / Theresa M. Vitolo, Shashidhar Panjala and Jeremy C. Cannell ........... 271 Electronic Commerce Technologies Management / Shawren Singh ....................................................................... 278 Ethernet Passive Optical Networks / Mário M. Freire, Paulo P. Monteiro, Henrique J. A. da Silva and Jose Ruela ............................................................................................................................................................ 283 Evolution of GSM Network Technology / Phillip Olla ........................................................................................... 290
  11. Evolution of Mobile Commerce Applications / George K. Lalopoulos, Ioannis P. Chochcliouros and Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou-Chochliourou .......................................................................................................... 295 Exploiting Captions for Multimedia Data Mining / Neil C. Rowe ............................................................................ 302 Face for Interface / Maja Pantic .............................................................................................................................. 308 FDD Techniques Towards the Multimedia Era / Athanassios C. Iossifides, Spiros Louvros and Stavros A. Kotsopoulos ....................................................................................................................................... 315 Fiber to the Premises / Mahesh S. Raisinghani and Hassan Ghanem .................................................................... 324 Fiber-to-the-Home Technologies and Standards / Andjelka Kelic ......................................................................... 329 From Communities to Mobile Communities of Values / Patricia McManus and Craig Standing .......................... 336 Future of M-Interaction, The / Joanna Lumsden ..................................................................................................... 342 Global Navigation Satellite Systems / Phillip Olla .................................................................................................. 348 Going Virtual / Evangelia Baralou and Jill Stepherd ............................................................................................. 353 Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Using a Wireless ATM Platform / Spiros Louvros, Dimitrios Karaboulas, Athanassios C. Iossifides and Stavros A. Kotsopoulos ..................................................................................... 359 HyperReality / Nobuyoshi Terashima ...................................................................................................................... 368 Improving Student Interaction with Internet and Peer Review / Dilvan de Abreu Moreira and Elaine Quintino da Silva .................................................................................................................................... 375 Information Hiding, Digital Watermarking and Steganography / Kuanchin Chen ................................................. 382 Information Security Management / Mariana Hentea ............................................................................................. 390 Information Security Management in Picture-Archiving and Communication Systems for the Healthcare Industry / Carrison KS Tong and Eric TT Wong ................................................................................................ 396 Information Security Threats / Rana Tassabehji ..................................................................................................... 404 Information Systems Strategic Alignment in Small Firms / Paul B. Cragg and Nelly Todorova ............................ 411 Information Technology and Virtual Communities / Chelley Vician and Mari W. Buche ...................................... 417 Integrated Platform for Networked and User-Oriented Virtual Clothing / Pascal Volino, Thomas Di Giacomo, Fabien Dellas and Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann ................................................................................................ 424 Interactive Digital Television / Margherita Pagani ................................................................................................ 428 Interactive Memex / Sheng-Uei Guan ...................................................................................................................... 437 Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education in Developing Countries / Hakikur Rahman ......... 447 Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education Systems / Hakikur Rahman ................................... 454
  12. International Virtual Offices / Kirk St.Amant ........................................................................................................... 461 Internet Adoption by Small Firms / Paul B. Cragg and Annette M. Mills .............................................................. 467 Internet Privacy from the Individual and Business Perspectives / Tziporah Stern ................................................. 475 Internet Privacy Issues / Hy Sockel and Kuanchin Chen ....................................................................................... 480 Interoperable Learning Objects Management / Tanko Ishaya ................................................................................ 486 Intrusion Detection Systems / H. Gunes Kayacik, A. Nur Zincir-Heywood and Malcolm I. Heywood ................. 494 Investment Strategy for Integrating Wireless Technology into Organizations / Assion Lawson-Body ................. 500 IT Management Practices in Small Firms / Paul B. Cragg and Theekshana Suraweera ........................................ 507 iTV Guidelines / Alcina Prata .................................................................................................................................. 512 Leadership Competencies for Managing Global Virtual Teams / Diana J. Wong-MingJi ....................................... 519 Learning Networks / Albert A. Angehrn and Michael Gibbert ............................................................................... 526 Learning through Business Games / Luigi Proserpio and Massimo Magni ........................................................... 532 Local Loop Unbundling / Alessandro Arbore ......................................................................................................... 538 Local Loop Unbundling Measures and Policies in the European Union / Ioannis P. Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou-Chochliourou and George K. Lalopoulos ............................................................. 547 VOLUME II Making Money with Open-Source Business Initiatives / Paul Benjamin Lowry, Akshay Grover, Chris Madsen, Jeff Larkin and William Robins .................................................................................................. 555 Malware and Antivirus Procedures / Xin Luo and Merrill Warkentin ................................................................... 562 Measuring the Potential for IT Convergence at Macro Level / Margherita Pagani .............................................. 571 Message-Based Service in Taiwan / Maria Ruey-Yuan Lee and Feng Yu Pai ....................................................... 579 Methods of Research in Virtual Communities / Stefano Pace ................................................................................. 585 Migration to IP Telephony / Khaled A. Shuaib ....................................................................................................... 593 Mobile Ad Hoc Network / Subhankar Dhar ........................................................................................................... 601 Mobile Agents / Kamel Karoui ............................................................................................................................... 608 Mobile Commerce Security and Payment / Chung-wei Lee, Weidong Kou and Wen-Chen Hu .............................. 615 Mobile Computing for M-Commerce / Anastasis Sofokleous, Marios C. Angelides and Christos Schizas ........... 622
  13. Mobile Location Based Services / Bardo Fraunholz, Jürgen Jung and Chandana Unnithan .............................. 629 Mobile Multimedia for Commerce / P. M. Melliar-Smith and L. E. Moser .............................................................. 638 Mobile Radio Technologies / Christian Kaspar and Svenja Hagenhoff ................................................................ 645 Mobility over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks / Lek Heng Ngoh and Jaya Shankar P. .................................. 652 Modeling Interactive Distributed Multimedia Applications / Sheng-Uei Guan ...................................................... 660 Modelling eCRM Systems with the Unified Modelling Language / Cã lin Gurã u .................................................. 667 Multimedia Communication Services on Digital TV Platforms / Zbigniew Hulicki ................................................. 678 Multimedia Content Representation Technologies / Ali R. Hurson and Bo Yang .................................................. 687 Multimedia Data Mining Concept / Janusz Swierzowicz ......................................................................................... 696 Multimedia Information Design for Mobile Devices / Mohamed Ally ..................................................................... 704 Multimedia Information Retrieval at a Crossroad / Qing Li, Jun Yang, and Yueting Zhuang ................................. 710 Multimedia Instructional Materials in MIS Classrooms / Randy V. Bradley, Victor Mbarika, Chetan S. Sankar and P.K. Raju .......................................................................................................................................... 717 Multimedia Interactivity on the Internet / Omar El-Gayar, Kuanchin Chen and Kanchana Tandekar ................ 724 Multimedia Proxy Cache Architectures / Mouna Kacimi, Richard Chbeir and Kokou Yetongnon ...................... 731 Multimedia Technologies in Education / Armando Cirrincione ............................................................................. 737 N-Dimensional Geometry and Kinaesthetic Space of the Internet, The / Peter Murphy ......................................... 742 Network Intrusion Tracking for DoS Attacks / Mahbubur R. Syed, Mohammad M. Nur and Robert J. Bignall ................................................................................................................................................. 748 Network-Based Information System Model for Research / Jo-Mae B. Maris ......................................................... 756 New Block Data Hiding Method for the Binary Image, A / Jeanne Chen, Tung-Shou Chen and Meng-Wen Cheng ................................................................................................................................................ 762 Objective Measurement of Perceived QoS for Homogeneous MPEG-4 Video Content / Harilaos Koumaras, Drakoulis Martakos and Anastasios Kourtis .................................................................................................... 770 Online Discussion and Student Success in Web-Based Education, The / Erik Benrud ......................................... 778 Open Source Intellectual Property Rights / Stewart T. Fleming .............................................................................. 785 Open Source Software and International Outsourcing / Kirk St.Amant and Brian Still ........................................ 791 Optical Burst Switching / Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues, Mário M. Freire, Paulo P. Monteiro and Pascal Lorenz ....... 799 Peer-to-Peer Filesharing Systems for Digital Media / Jerald Hughes and Karl Reiner Lang ................................. 807
  14. Personalized Web-Based Learning Services / Larbi Esmahi ................................................................................... 814 Picture Archiving and Communication System in Health Care / Carrison KS Tong and Eric TT Wong ................ 821 Plastic Optical Fiber Applications / Spiros Louvros, Athanassios C. Iossifides, Dimitrios Karaboulas and Stavros A. Kotsopoulos ....................................................................................................................................... 829 Potentials of Information Technology in Building Virtual Communities / Isola Ajiferuke and Alexander Markus ............................................................................................................................................... 836 Principles for Managing Information Security / Rana Tassabehji ........................................................................... 842 Privilege Management Infrastructure / Darren P. Mundy and Oleksandr Otenko ................................................. 849 Production, Delivery and Playback of 3D Graphics / Thomas Di Giacomo, Chris Joslin, and Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann ........................................................................................................................................... 855 Public Opinion and the Internet / Peter Murphy ...................................................................................................... 863 Quality of Service Issues Associated with Internet Protocols / Jairo A. Gutiérrez and Wayne Ting .................... 869 Reliability Issues of the Multicast-Based Mediacommunication / Gábor Hosszú ................................................... 875 Re-Purposeable Learning Objects Based on Teaching and Learning Styles / Abtar Kaur, Jeremy Dunning, Sunand Bhattacharya and Ansary Ahmed ......................................................................................................... 882 Risk-Control Framework for E-Marketplace Participation, A / Pauline Ratnasingam ............................................. 887 Road Map to Information Security Management / Lech J. Janczewski and Victor Portougal .............................. 895 Security Laboratory Design and Implementation / Linda V. Knight and Jean-Philippe P. Labruyere .................. 903 Security Vulnerabilities and Exposures in Internet Systems and Services / Rui C. Cardoso and Mário M. Freire ................................................................................................................................................... 910 Semantic Web / Rui G. Pereira and Mário M. Freire ............................................................................................. 917 Software Ad Hoc for E-Learning / Maria-Isabel Sánchez-Segura, Antonio de Amescua, Luis García and Luis A. Esteban .................................................................................................................................................... 925 Supporting Online Communities with Technological Infrastructures / Laura Anna Ripamonti ............................. 937 Teletranslation / Minako O’Hagan .......................................................................................................................... 945 Telework Information Security / Loreen Marie Butcher-Powell ............................................................................. 951 Text-to-Speech Synthesis / Mahbubur R. Syed, Shuvro Chakrobartty and Robert J. Bignall ............................. 957 2G-4G Networks / Shakil Akhtar .............................................................................................................................. 964 Type Justified / Anna Szabados and Nishikant Sonwalkar ................................................................................... 974 Ubiquitous Commerce / Holtjona Galanxhi-Janaqi and Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah ..................................................... 980
  15. Understanding the Out-of-the-Box Experience / A. Lee Gilbert .............................................................................. 985 Unified Information Security Management Plan, A / Mari W. Buche and Chelley Vician ..................................... 993 Universal Multimedia Access / Andrea Cavallaro ................................................................................................. 1001 Usability / Shawren Singh ....................................................................................................................................... 1008 Usability Assessment in Mobile Computing and Commerce / Kuanchin Chen, Hy Sockel and Louis K. Falk ....................................................................................................................................................... 1014 User-Centered Mobile Computing / Dean Mohamedally, Panayiotis Zaphiris and Helen Petrie ......................... 1021 Using Semantics to Manage 3D Scenes in Web Platforms / Christophe Cruz, Christophe Nicolle and Marc Neveu ......................................................................................................................................................... 1027 Virtual Communities / George Kontolemakis, Panagiotis Kanellis and Drakoulis Martakos .............................. 1033 Virtual Communities on the Internet / Abhijit Roy ................................................................................................... 1040 Virtual Knowledge Space and Learning / Meliha Handzic and Joanne Chia Yi Lin .............................................. 1047 Virtual Learning Communities / Stewart T. Fleming ................................................................................................ 1055 Virtual Reality and HyperReality Technologies in Universities / Lalita Rajasingham and John Tiffin .................. 1064 Web Content Adaptation Frameworks and Techniques / Tiong-Thye Goh and Kinshuk ...................................... 1070 Web Site Usability / Louis K. Falk and Hy Sockel ................................................................................................. 1078 Web-Based Learning / James O. Danenberg and Kuanchin Chen ......................................................................... 1084 Webmetrics / Mario A. Maggioni and Teodora Erika Uberti ................................................................................ 1091 Wireless Emergency Services / Jun Sun .................................................................................................................. 1096 WLAN Security Management / Göran Pulkkis, Kaj J. Grahn, and Jonny Karlsson ............................................. 1104
  16. xvi Foreword Multimedia technology and networking are changing at a remarkable rate. Despite the telecoms crash of 2001, innovation in networking applications, technologies, and services has continued unabated. The exponential growth of the Internet, the explosion of mobile communications, the rapid emergence of electronic commerce, the restructuring of businesses, and the contribution of digital industries to growth and employment, are just a few of the current features of the emerging digital economy. The Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking captures a vast array of the compo- nents and dimensions of this dynamic sector of the world economy. Professor Margherita Pagani and her editorial board have done a remarkable job at compiling such a rich collection of perspectives on this fast moving domain. The encyclopaedia’s scope and content will provide scholars, researchers and professionals with much current information about concepts, issues, trends and technologies in this rapid evolving industrial sector. Multimedia technologies and networking are at the heart of the current debate about economic growth and performance in advanced economies. The pervasive nature of the technological change and its widespread diffusion has profoundly altered the ways in which businesses and consumers interact. As IT continues to enter workplaces, homes and learning institutions, many aspects of work and leisure are changing radically. The rapid pace of technological change and the growing connectivity that IT makes possible have resulted in a wealth of new products, new markets and new business models. However, these changes also bring new risks, new challenges, and new concerns. In the multimedia and technology networks area broadband-based communication and entertainment services are helping consumer and business users to conduct business more effectively, serve customers faster, and organise their time more effectively. In fact, multimedia technologies and networks have a strong impact on all economic activity. Exponential growth in processing power, falling information costs and network effects have allowed productivity gains, enhanced innovation, and stimulated further technical change in all sectors from the most technology intensive to the most traditional. Broadband communications and entertainment services are helping consumer and business users conduct their business more effectively, serve customers faster, organise their time more effectively, and enrich options for their leisure time. At MIT, I serve as co-director of the Communications Futures Program, which spans the Sloan School of Management, the Engineering School, and the Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). By examining technology dynamics, business dynamics, and policy dynamics in the communications industry, we seek to build capabilities for roadmapping the upcoming changes in the vast communications value chain. We also seek to develop next-generation technological and business innovations that can create more value in the industry. Furthermore, we hope that gaining a deeper understanding of the dynamics in communications will help us not only to make useful contributions to that field, but also to understand better the general principles that drive industry and technology dynamics. Biologists study fruit flies because their fast rates of evolution permit rapid learning that can then be applied to understanding the genetics of slower clockspeed species, like humans. We think of the communications industry as the industrial equivalent of a fruit fly; that is, a fast
  17. xvii clockspeed industry whose dynamics may help us understand better the dynamic principles that drive many industries. Convergence is among the core features of information society developments. This phenomenon needs to be analyzed from multiple dimensions: technological, economic, financial, regulatory, social, and political. The integrative approach adopted in this encyclopaedia to analyze multimedia and technology networking is particularly welcome and highly complementary to the approach embraced by our work at MIT. I am pleased to be able to recommend this encyclopedia to readers, be they looking for substantive material on knowledge strategy, or looking to understand critical issues related to multimedia technology and networking. Professor Charles H. Fine Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management Cambridge, October 2004
  18. xviii Preface The term encyclopedia comes from the Greek words åãêýêëéïò ðáéäåßá , enkyklios paideia (“in a circle of instruction”). The purpose of the Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking is to offer a written compendium of human knowledge related to the emerging multimedia digital metamarket. Multimedia technology, networks and online interactive multimedia services are taking advantage of a series of radical innovations in converging fields, such as the digitization of signals, satellite and fibre optic based transmission systems, algorithms for signal compression and control, switching and storage devices, and others, whose combination has a supra-additive synergistic effect. The emergence of online interactive multimedia (OIM) services can be described as a new technological paradigm. They can be defined by a class of new techno economic problems, a new pool of technologies (techniques, competencies and rules), and a set of shared assumptions. The core of such a major shift in the evolution of information and communications services is the service provision function. This shirt occurs even if the supply of an online interactive multimedia service needs a wide collection of assets and capabilities pertaining also to information contents, network infrastructure, software, communication equipment and terminals. By zooming in on the operators of telecommunications networks (common carriers or telecoms), it is shown that though leveraging a few peculiar capabilities in the technological and managerial spheres, they are trying to develop lacking assets and competencies through the set-up of a network of collaborative relations with firms in converging industries (mainly software producers, service providers, broadcasters, and media firms). This emerging digital marketplace is constantly expanding. As new platforms and delivery mechanisms rapidly roll out, the value of content increases, presenting content owners with both risks and opportunities. In addition, rather than purely addressing the technical challenge of the Internet, wireless and interactive digital television, much more emphasis is now being given to commercial and marketing issues. Companies are much more focused on the creation of consistent and compelling user experiences. The use of multimedia technologies as the core driving element in converging markets and virtual corporate structures will compel considerable economic and social change. Set within the framework of IT as a strategic resource, many important changes have taken place over the last years that will force us to change the way multimedia networks develop services for their users. • The change in the expectations of users, leading to new rapid development and implementation techniques; • The launch of next generation networks and handsets; • The rapid pace at which new technologies (software and hardware) are introduced; • Modularization of hardware and software, emphasizing object assembly and processing (client server computing); • Development of non-procedural languages (visual and object oriented programming);
  19. xix • An imbalance between network operators and independent application developers in the value network for the provision of network dependent services; • Telecommunications integrated into, and inseparable from, the computing environment; • Need for integration of seemingly incompatible diverse technologies. The force behind these realities is the strategic use of IT. Strategic management which takes into consideration the basic transformation processes of this sector will be a substantial success factor in securing a competitive advantage within this deciding future market. The change from an industrial to an information society connected therewith, will above all else be affected by the dynamics of technological developments. This strategic perspective manifests itself in these work attributes: • an appreciation of IT within the context of business value; • a view of information as a critical resource to be managed and developed as an asset; • a continuing search for opportunities to exploit information technology for competitive advantage; • uncovering opportunities for process redesign; • concern for aligning IT with organizational goals; • a continuing re-evaluation of work assignments for added value; • skill in adapting quickly to appropriate new technologies; • an object/modular orientation for technical flexibility and speed in deployment. Accelerating economic, technological, social, and environmental change challenges managers and policy makers to learn at increasing rates, while at the same time the complexity of the systems in which we live is growing. Effective decision making and learning in a world of growing dynamic complexity requires us to develop tools to understand how the structure of complex systems creates their behaviour. THE EMERGING MULTIMEDIA MARKET The convergence of information and communication technology has lead to the development of a variety of new media platforms that offer a set of services to a community of participants. These platforms are defined as media which enable the exchange of information or other objects such as goods and services (Schmid, 1999). Media can be defined as information and communication spaces, which based on innovative information and communication technology (ICT), supports content creation, management and exchange within a community of agents. Agents can be organizations, humans, or artificial agents (i.e., software agents). The multimedia metamarket—generated by the progressive process of convergence involving the television, informatics and telecommunication industries—comes to represent the «strategic field of action» of this study. According to this perspective, telecommunications, office equipment, consumer electronics, media, and computers were separate and distinct industries through the 1990s. They offered different services with different methods of delivery. But as the computer became an “information appliance”, businesses moved to take advantage of emerging digital technologies, virtual reality, and industry boundaries blurred. As a result of the convergence process, we cannot, therefore, talk about separate and different industries and sectors (telecommunications, digital television, and informatics). Such sectors are propelled towards an actual merging of different technologies, supplied services and the users’ categories being reached. A great ICT metamarket is thus originated. Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, and scientific research.
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