Essential LightWave 3D- P17

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Essential LightWave 3D- P17

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Essential LightWave 3D- P17: What you have in your hands is, quite simply, a collection of tools and techniques that many professional LightWave artists use every single day doing what we do in our various fields. The tools and techniques explored in this book are essential to creating the caliber of imagery that you see on film and television and in print and video games.

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  1. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4. Back under the Geometry tab, set the Blending Mode for both nulls to Additive. Then, under Blending Group, you’ll need to create a new group. Name this group Mix, and set it as the Blending Group for both nulls. Figure 18-18: An shows two different colored spheres that slightly intersect. Figure 18-19 An shows that the two spheres now “blob” into one another! (Wherever the dashed lines representing the influences of the HyperVoxel surfaces, seen in Figure 18-16, come in contact with another whose Blending Mode is also set to Additive and which is also a part of the same blending group, the “surfaces” begin to “reach toward” one another — behaving like a viscous liquid.) Figure 18-20 468
  2. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s Figure 18-22: The HyperTexture actually affects the silhouette of the HyperVoxel surface. You can see it smoothly blending into the left voxel, which Figure 18-21 doesn’t have a HyperTexture assigned. PC-Specific Info 5. How does the HyperTexture work with HyperVoxel surfaces? For the Right Since we’re using Dented, PC results will vary from the results shown here, which are null, click to the HyperTexture tab, and rendered on a Mac. set its Texture to Dented, its Scale to 2.45, its Frequency to 0.605, and its Texture Amplitude to –7%. (Power and 6. Clear your scene and load the Voxel- Octaves should already be at 3 and 6, Ground object from the companion respectively.) Set the Scale for all three CD (Objects\Chapter18\Voxel- axes to 100 mm. (See Figure 18-21.) Ground.lwo). Move your camera in so that it matches Figure 18-23 and then press to do a test ren- der. Your results will look a lot like Figure 18-24. Not very interesting, huh? Figure 18-23: An application of all this can be explored by loading Scenes\Chapter_18\HV_Landscape_Setup.lws. 469
  3. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7. Bring up the HyperVoxels interface, and activate HyperVoxels for VoxelGround. Then open the Presets window and select the Rock library. Double-click on Rocky to load its set- tings onto your HyperVoxel object. When LW asks if you’d like to keep your current particle size when loading the settings for Rocky, click No since after we load the settings, we need to change Particle Size to 3 m anyway. Set Size Variation to 5% (this will make Figure 18-24: Doing an reveals pretty much each particle deviate by a fixed-random what one would expect, given the scene in Figure 18-23. number of between +/– 5%). (See Figure 18-25.) 8. Press to do another test render. While the render takes quite a bit longer, the results are well worth it. Take a look at the change shown in Figure 18-26. PC-Specific Info The Rocky preset uses Dented as its HyperTexture, so once again, this will look different on a PC than what you’re seeing here. Figure 18-25 (Scenes\Chapter_18\HV_Land- scape_ F .lws is the scene used to create Figure 18-26.) Figure 18-26: When you render this time, what you see is a “whole other story.” Every point in the object is handled as a HyperVoxel particle! Because all these particles are in the same object, they all blend smoothly into one another. 470
  4. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s HyperVoxel “Sprites” something a bit more exciting in the “background department,” under Something you can do that greatly reduces Effects | Backdrop, activate Gradi- the time LightWave needs to render Hyper- ent Backdrop and set the Zenith Voxels is to not render the whole volume Color to 20, 0, 47, the Sky and Ground but to render only a “slice” of it. LightWave Colors to 98, 92, 169, and the Nadir doesn’t need to calculate the whole volume, Color to 176, 182, 200. (See Figure only a tiny fraction of it — a plane that runs 18-27.) directly through its center, always aiming at the viewer (camera or viewport angle). 2. Next, activate HyperVoxels for This is similar in its result to “mapping” HV_Sprite. Bring up the presets for our explosion sequence onto the plane in HyperVoxels, and open the Generic the last chapter, except LightWave takes library. Double-click on Sand_Explo- care of all the details for us. All we need to sion to load in its settings, changing its do is use the reduced HyperVoxel controls Particle Size to 2 m and its Object Type to set how our sprite looks, and LightWave to Sprite. When you check Show Par- does the rest! ticles, you get much more than a linear representation of the voxel — you get a 1. Start with a new scene running at 24 real-time image of the sprite, complete FPS. Set the End Frame to 120 (for with OpenGL transparency. (See Figure both the scene itself and within the 18-28.) (To increase the detail of the Rendering Options). Add a null, naming sprite, choose a higher resolution from it HV_Sprite. Set its Y position to the Sprite Texture Resolution pop-up 800 mm. Then, under the camera’s menu; this will impact your graphics Motion Options, set the camera’s Tar- accelerator, however.) get Item to HV_Sprite. To give us Figure 18-27 471
  5. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Figure 18-28 Figure 18-29: A render of what we’ve done shows us a “slice” of our voxel. Figure 18-30 472
  6. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s 3. You can increase the quality of your Noise Type to Gradient Noise (just a rendered voxel by increasing the num- different kind of “fractal engine” pow- ber of slices (found on the Shading | ering our Dented procedural texture). Basic tab). Comparing Figure 18-30 Set Texture Amplitude to 150%, Tex- with Figure 18-29, there is a marked ture Effect to Turbulence, and Effect increase in detail, and the render time Speed to 50%. is still light-years away from the (Double-check your settings against the lengthy render we would have were we above text and Figure 18-31. If your set- to set our Object Type to Volume. tings don’t match mine, your render won’t 4. Now, let’s do something really cool. either.) Under the Geometry tab, set the Parti- cle Size to 20 m, the Stretch Direction to Y, and the Stretch Amount to 4% (this will “squish” our voxel down to 4% of its natural spherical shape along the Y axis). You may as well deactivate Show Particles, since the effect we’re creating isn’t “captured” by the Show Particles engine. Under the Shading | Basic tab, set Color to 200, 200, 200, Luminosity to 100%, Opacity to 0%, Density to 80%, and Number of Slices Figure 18-32 to 1. Then, under the HyperTexture tab, set Texture to Dented (double- A render shows something that looks check that Scale is 4, Power is 3, Fre- like high-altitude clouds. What we’ve done quency is 0.8, and Octaves is 6). Set is quickly fake volumetric ground fog (the misty, wispy stuff that hovers in quiet hollows on nights when the moon is full). You can move through this ground fog, and you can set the fog’s exact position above the ground by positioning the null. It won’t “catch” shadows very well, but if you ever try “real” volu- metric ground fog, you’ll appreciate the time-in-render-land this hack provides. Figure 18-31 473
  7. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · But wait! There’s more! If you act now 18-32 and the following movie: Renders\ and render this scene to a movie, you’ll see Chapter18\RoilingClouds.mov. that you’ve not only created some nifty fake 1. Now, there’s something else Hyper- ground fog, but you’ll see that this hack can Voxel sprites can do that is most also be used to recreate the way clouds roil excellent. Load in Scenes\Chapter_18\ in time-lapse photography! (Effect Speed is HV_Sprite_02_Setup.lws to get us the setting that controls the speed of the ready to go with a null object “flying” roiling.) into frame from behind the camera. Scenes\Chapter_18\HV_Sprite_ 01_F .lws is the scene that created Figure Figure 18-33 Figure 18-34 474
  8. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s 2. Activate HyperVoxels for the null. Set 3. I’ve created a sequence of frames that its Object Type to Sprite and its Parti- looks something like a science-fiction cle Size to 400 mm, and check Show “torpedo.” In the Image Editor, load Particles. On the Shading | Basic tab, Images\TorpedoFrames\Torpedo_ set Color to 134, 201, 234, Luminosity 000.jpg. Then, set its Image Type to to 200%, Opacity to 100%, Density to Sequence (LightWave’s default han- 100%, and Number of Slices to 1. dling of the image sequence is shown Under the HyperTexture tab, set the here). Then, on the Shading | Clips tab Texture to (none). (See Figure 18-34.) of the HyperVoxel interface for your null, select Torpedo_(sequence) from the Add Clip pop-up menu. Make sure Alpha is set to Luminosity and that Use Color, AntiAliasing, and Solid are all checked. Select Fixed Random for the Frame Offset. (See Figure 18-36.) Figure 18-35: The obligatory . (Oooh, a blue dot. How nice.) Figure 18-36 475
  9. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4. When rendering a movie of this scene, Chapter_18\HV_ Sprite_02_F .lws is I recommend using Enhanced Low the finished scene of this example, and Antialiasing (without Adaptive Sam- the movie of the final render is Ren- pling), Dithered Motion Blur, and a ders\Chapter18\ Torpedo.mov.) Blur Length of 100%. (Scenes\ Figure 18-37: (Yet another .) Our “blue dot” is now a glowing “bolt” of plasma that renders extremely quickly. Figure 18-38 476
  10. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s Note A really cool thing about HyperVoxel sprite clips of explosions “do their thing” when a pro- clips is that you can load in more than one clip jectile impacts its target! (For something even onto an HV object. Each clip will be assigned, more complex, if you have clips of splashing in turn, to the next point of the HV object’s water and create a particle simulation of water point order. flowing where “splash” particles are spawned So, assuming you have a few nice clips of when the “water” particles collide with objects, some flame and smoke sequences, you could you will have recreated the “two-and-a-half- (using particles, which we touch on next) cre- D” used to create the breathtaking water ate the same fire effect as seen on the Balrog effects seen in feature films from Tarzan to The in Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Road to El Dorado.) And (just to plant ideas in your head) using To find out how to have particles react with Particle Age as the clip’s Frame Offset and one another and with objects in your scene, LightWave’s ability to have collisions “spawn” dive into the LW manuals. It’s all there for you, new particles, you could have non-looping just waiting to be unearthed! Particles Note emitted. A little Properties window will As you may have guessed from the previous also open when you add an emitter this parenthetical, I’m not going to show you way.) Under the Generator tab of the everything there is to know about LightWave emitter’s Properties window, assign a particles here. (That would be a complete Birth Rate of 300. This means that 300 book unto itself.) As with the rest of this book, I’m going to show you the essentials. particles will be created each second, as You’ll have enough to start exploring and set in the Generated By pop-up menu learning on your own — where you go from immediately below it. Set the X, Y, and there is up to you! Z of the Generator Size to 100 mm, and set the Particle Limit (the maxi- 1. Start with a fresh, new scene. With mum number of particles on screen at Objects selected, choose Items | Add any one time from this particular parti- | Dynamic Obj | Particle. Accept the cle producer) to 300. name Emitter and the Emitter Type of When you’re done with all that, set HV Emitter. (A little box will appear the End Frame to 120, and then move when you click OK that represents the the camera to –3 m in the Z axis. place where the particles will be 477
  11. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Figure 18-39 Note Figure 18-40: There are a few ways to get to the Properties window for a PFX (Particle FX) item. With the object selected, you can choose FX Property from the Plugins | Additional pop-up menu. You can also open the Object Properties window and double-click on the FX Emitter custom object entry on the Geometry tab. Or if you’d rather not open a separate window, you can make all of your adjustments right in the Object Properties window by double-clicking the Effects Emitter in the Dynamics tab. 478
  12. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s Figure 18-41 2. On the Particle tab of the FX-Emitter Power to –100%. Now, when you scrub window, set Particle Weight +/– to the frame slider, you see your particles 0.25 (which will make our particles “falling into” this “singularity” that “weigh” between 0.75 and 1.25 units). you’ve created. Although, unlike a Set the Life Time (frame) to 120, “true” singularity, the particles con- which will make each particle “live” tinue falling right on through the gravi- 120 frames (the length of our scene) tational central point, accelerating out before “dying” and being “reborn.” the other side. (Maybe that’s the way Then, on the Motion tab, set Explo- black holes really do work — we have sion(m/s) to 5 (meters per second). no way to prove one way or the other.) Move our emitter to –1 m on the Y 4. Let’s have a little bit of fun here. axis. When you scrub the frame slider, Before we do any rendering, add Tex- you see particles “exploding” from our tured Environment under Effects | emitter. (See Figure 18-41.) Backdrop | Add Environment. Click 3. Select Items | Add | Dynamic Obj | on the Texture button to open the Gravity (leaving it at X=0, Y=0, Texture Editor window, and assign a Z=0). Set Gravity Mode to Point, Fall- Procedural Texture to the Layer off Mode to OFF Radius to 10 m, and , Type. Set the Procedural Type to Underwater, Texture Color to 151, 0, 0, Wave Sources to 6, Wavelength to 1, Wave Speed to 0.02, and Band Sharpness to 1. (This will make the background of our render a little more interesting….) (See Figure 18-43.) Figure 18-42 479
  13. Chapter 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Figure 18-43 Figure 18-44 5. Activate HyperVoxels for the Emitter. then choose No when LightWave asks Then click on Load and choose Sur- if you’d like to keep your current parti- faces\HV_Surface_ch18.hv. The cle size. Doing this replaces the Select Settings window will appear. entirety of the HyperVoxel settings. Leave everything checked, click OK, (See Figure 18-44.) 480
  14. · · · · · · · · · · S i m u l a t i o n s 1 : H y p e r Voxe l s a n d Pa r t i c l e s 6. Lastly, before we render our scene, set Light Type to Spotlight and Spotlight Soft Edge Angle to 30º. This will give our scene a little depth as the particles move through the spotlight’s “beam.” Frames from the final render have a kind of surrealist, expressionistic feel to them. The rendered movie of the scene (Renders\ Chapter18\Particles.mov) looks like it would fit right in with the music of Kimball Collins or Judge Jules. Figure 18-45 Figure 18-46 Conclusion We’ve covered quite a bit of ground in this one person could ever envision in their chapter. I’m sure you’ll agree that Hyper- entirety, you have hopefully touched upon Voxels and particles are powerful tools for one of the greatest truths: Knowing the creating special effects. By exploring these answer is not important. Knowing how to simulations and appreciating the levels of solve the question is. detail their mathematics create, details no 481
  15. Chapter 19 Simulations 2: Dynamics One of the most highly touted features of properties such as weight, air resistance, LightWave 8 is the new Dynamics system, and gravity. They allow you to create every- consisting of hard and soft body simulators, thing from realistic-looking clothes to particle emitters, natural force generators, debris-filled explosions. Complex effects collision objects, and effect linkers, each that would take hours to animate by hand with the ability to interact with one another. can now be done in a matter of minutes. In The attention given to these tools is well this chapter, we’ll look at these incredible deserved. Dynamics allow you to imbue tools and cover the essential information your objects with real-world physical you need to get started using them. An Introduction to Dynamics dy·nam·ic Noun 1. An interactive system property to the object. This can be done by or process, especially one involving com- opening the Object Properties panel and peting or conflicting forces. clicking on the Add Dynamic pop-up menu —Dictionary.com on the Dynamics tab. When we talk about dynamics, we are refer- ring to the simulation of real-world physical properties within an artificial 3D environ- ment. As strange as it may seem, to a 3D application such as LightWave, a leaf is just as heavy as a car and concrete is as perme- able as water. That’s because 3D applications cannot differentiate between objects. It’s all just points and polygons in the eyes of the program. Therefore, if we want to simulate real-world phenomena, we have to tell our software about the unique characteristics of each object. We have to tell LightWave that a leaf is light, a car is heavy, water is permeable, and concrete is not. We do this by adding a dynamic Figure 19-1: Dynamic properties can be added from the Object Properties panel. 482
  16. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Simulations 2: Dynamics There are seven types of dynamic proper- the ability to generate particles from the ties. The first four are what I call “personal object’s points or to cover the entire sur- dynamics.” They directly affect the individ- face of an object with particles. ual object to which they are applied. The last three are what I call “social dynamics.” Social Dynamics They affect the behavior of other dynamic objects within the scene. Wind The Wind dynamic allows you to apply a Personal Dynamics repelling force to your object. As a social dynamic, Wind does not affect the object to Cloth which it is applied. Rather, it affects the Don’t let the name fool you: ClothFX isn’t other dynamic objects around it. For exam- just for clothing. This is LightWave’s ple, you could add Wind to the model of a full-featured soft body dynamics engine, fan, causing any hard, soft, or particle capable of simulating everything from the objects to be pushed away when they pass billowing of a superhero’s cape to the vio- in front of it. lent splash of water on the surface of a pool. ClothFX is the evolution of Motion Collision Designer, the soft body simulator found in The Collision dynamic operates as an indi- LightWave 7.5. cator to other dynamic objects. It tells hard bodies, soft bodies, and particles that they Soft cannot pass through the polygons of the New to LightWave 8, SoftFX is a soft body Collision object. For example, if you applied simulator well suited to producing “second- HardFX to a ball and dropped it onto a ary animation” for your objects. For ground plane, it would simply pass through example, you could animate a character the ground and continue falling. However, running, then apply SoftFX to get the stom- adding the Collision dynamic to the ground ach to jiggle and bounce in response to the would cause the ball to bounce off its motion. surface. Hard Gravity HardFX is LightWave’s new rigid body The Gravity dynamic is similar to the Wind dynamics engine. It allows you to simulate dynamic. It is a force that can be tied hard objects such as metal and stone. You directly to an object. But where Wind is can use HardFX to create the explosion of a generally used as a repelling force, Gravity spaceship or the breaking of a window as a is used as an attracting force. It causes per- baseball crashes through it. sonal dynamic objects to be pulled toward it. Emitter The Emitter dynamic turns your object into Relational Dynamics a particle emitter. Adding this dynamic In addition to the personal dynamics and property to your object gives you more social dynamics, there are also “relational options than stand-alone emitters, such as dynamics” called Effect Links. Effect Links 483
  17. Chapter 19 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · work on the children of dynamic objects, chain, you might think of adding HardFX allowing them to inherit the properties of since chains are hard. But HardFX would their parent. They are applied from the Add only see the object in one of two ways: as Displacement pop-up menu in the Deform an entire (solid) chain or as individual links. tab of the Object Properties panel. It would not understand that the links are actually connected to one another. There- fore, HardFX would not work for this simulation. ClothFX would keep the links together and allow the chain to dangle, but it would deform every point in the mesh, causing your links to stretch like rubber. What you need is a way to get the motion of ClothFX with the properties of HardFX. HardLink allows you to do this. MetaLink MetaLink functions similarly to HardLink, but rather than applying rigid body qualities to your child object, it applies soft body qualities. MetaLink is useful for those instances where you want to maintain the volume (or shape) of an object but still give it a degree of flexibility. For example, if you wanted to animate a rope rather than a chain, you could use ClothFX on a simple Figure 19-2: Effect Links can be added from object (such as a two-point polygon chain) the Deform tab of the Object Properties and apply MetaLink to the rope object. panel. ClothFX will give you the motion you want, and MetaLink will help the rope to keep its While not true Dynamics in and of them- basic shape. selves, Effect Links are often used to apply the dynamic properties of a simple object to a higher resolution mesh. This not only The Dynamics Community speeds up the calculation of complicated When you add a dynamic property to an simulations, but it also opens the door for object, you are telling it what behavioral effects that would otherwise be difficult to tendencies it will have. In essence, you are achieve. giving it a personality. Taken this way, the process of building a Dynamics simulation HardLink can be seen as a form of social engineering. HardLink applies the dynamic properties of You begin by building a community — a a parent object to its child using rigid body Dynamics Community — where each qualities. The obvious question to ask is, object is given a personality and told how it “Why would you want to do this?” Here’s should react to the other objects within the an example: If you wanted to animate a community. 484
  18. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Simulations 2: Dynamics Knowing the difference between the var- Dynamic Decisions ious dynamics properties (or personalities) Dynamics can be incredibly powerful, but is important. But knowing how they work they are far from foolproof. Just as people together is equally (if not more) important. can be temperamental, so can Dynamics. You see, when you assign a dynamic prop- There have been numerous occasions erty to an object, you are really asking where making a single adjustment has sent LightWave to perform a simulation of phys- my entire simulation into chaotic fits. And ics on the object. Physics is the study of since every simulation is different, it can be matter (hard objects, soft objects, particles) difficult to troubleshoot. The important and energy (wind, gravity, collision). But thing to consider, then, is whether or not more specifically, physics deals with the it’s worth the time to set up a Dynamics interaction between the two. Assigning a simulation. You must ask yourself, “Can I dynamic property to your object is not do this by hand faster or easier than the enough. You need to understand how each time it’s going to take to set up and tweak a of the properties work together in order to simulation?” If I’m animating a basketball produce a successful simulation. player shooting hoops, it would be easier Think about Newton’s Third Law of for me to animate the ball by hand than it Motion. It states that for every action there would be to set up a simulation. But if I is an equal and opposite reaction. In terms were animating a pool hall junkie shooting a of the Dynamics Community, we would say: game of 8-ball, that would be a different For every personal dynamic, you should also story. Animating the complex interaction of have a social dynamic to which it is each ball on the pool table while accurately accountable. replicating its rotation and constantly Consider this. When you place a can of changing velocity would be time consuming soda on your desk, the can doesn’t fall to say the least. But it can be done with straight to the ground because it collides Dynamics in a matter of minutes. So let this with the desk. To build this as a Dynamics serve as sage advice to you. Dynamics are a simulation, you would apply HardFX to the can of soda and Collision to the desk. One without the other would cause the simulation to fail, but together they produce the desired results. You should keep this rule in mind as you build your Dynamics Community. When you add a personal dynamic, make sure that you have a social dynamic some- where in your scene to which it is accountable. This brings me to the most important issue of them all: When is it right to build a Dynamics simulation and, more Figure 19-3: Animating a pool table is the perfect job for to the point, when is it not? Dynamics. 485
  19. Chapter 19 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · lot of fun and can produce incredible your deadline because you opted to use results. But you don’t want to find yourself Dynamics on an animation that could be in a production environment about to miss done just as easily by hand. Applied Dynamics In the next few sections we’re going to look Emitter will appear and the FX_Emit- at four of the most commonly used ter properties window will open. Dynamics properties: HardFX, ClothFX, Change Birth Rate to 500 (so that the SoftFX, and Collision Effects. We’ll be set- particles appear more quickly), then ting up simulations that will give you a taste switch to the Etc tab and change Grav- of the power these tools offer. The manual ity in the Y axis to –9.8 meters (which and online help system provide detailed simulates real-world gravity). When information on each of these tools and you you’re finished, close the window. should refer to them when you need more information on a specific setting. The knowledge you gain over the next few Note pages can be expanded upon to create many You’ll notice that the Particle Emitter has its of the complex animations that you see in own gravity setting. In fact, each of the per- sonal dynamics (except SoftFX, which we’ll movies and on TV . talk about later) has its own internal gravity Bring up Layout and we’ll begin. setting. Adding internal gravity applies the effect to the object globally throughout the scene. This eliminates the need for (and dif- Collision Effects ferentiates it from) the social dynamic of Gravity, which is typically used to apply the Collisions are perhaps the most frequently effect to a limited region of your scene. used social dynamic, and it’s not uncommon to have more than one of them in a simulation. Let’s set up a simple scene to see how they work with other dynamic objects. 1. Add a Particle Emitter from the Items | Add | Dynamic Obj menu. From the Add Particle Emit- ter window that appears, accept the defaults and press OK. A new Particle Figure 19-4: Add a Particle Emitter, and change the Birth Rate to 500 and Gravity in the Y axis to –9.8 meters. 486
  20. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Simulations 2: Dynamics Figure 19-5: Add a Collision object and set its size to 500 mm. 2. Now let’s add a Collision object. From another key at frame 40 with the same the Items | Add | Dynamic Obj settings as frame 20. Finally, at frame menu, choose Collision. The Add Col- 60 move the Collision object back to 5 lision Effector window will appear. meters on the Z axis. Accept the defaults by pressing OK. Switch to a full-screen Perspective You will then be presented with the view and then press the Play button. FX_Collision window. Change Radius/ Spin around in the Perspective view as Level to 500 mm and leave the the animation plays and check the remaining settings at their default. results. We now have one personal dynamic and one social dynamic, forming a simple but com- plete Dynamics Community. Let’s see how these two Dynamics interact. 3. At frame 0, move the Collision object back about 5 meters on the Z axis. At frame 20, reset the Collision object so that it’s at 0 on the Z axis. Set Figure 19-6: The Collision object impacts the Particle Emitter. 487
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