Fibre optic communication systems P2

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Fibre optic communication systems P2

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Optical Fibers The phenomenon of total internal reflection, responsible for guiding of light in optical fibers, has been known since 1854 [1]. Although glass fibers were made in the 1920s [2]–[4], their use became practical only in the 1950s, when the use of a cladding layer led to considerable improvement in their guiding characteristics [5]–[7]. Before 1970, optical fibers were used mainly for medical imaging over short distances [8]. Their use for communication purposes was considered impractical because of high losses (∼ 1000 dB/km). However, the situation changed drastically in 1970 when, following an earlier suggestion [9], the loss of optical...

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