Figure Drawing - Bird Horns

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Figure Drawing - Bird Horns

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Bird characteristics: Body always covered with feathers; feet (toes and usually tarsometatarsus) covered with scales (thickened skin). Aquatic birds have webbed toes. No teeth; horny beak. Lightweight skeleton in flying birds (many hollow bones), with keel on sternum for attachment of flight muscles (pectoral muscles). No keel in large flightless birds (ostrich, emu, rhea). Completely bony ribs (no rib cartilage). Clavicles fused into single bone, the furculum (wishbone). Numerous neck vertebrae (number varies by species) provide great neck flexibility. Some of the middle thoracic vertebrae fused in some species (chicken); posterior thoracic, all lumbar, and all sacral vertebrae fused into...

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Nội dung Text: Figure Drawing - Bird Horns

  1. 218 BIRD + ANATOMY CHICKEN SKELETON Callus gallus (all chicken drwings fro speimevs) Bird characteristics: Body always covered with feathers; feet (toes and Wing (arm) skeleton modified for flying (ostrich and penguins usually tarsometatarsus) covered with scales (thickened skin). Aquatic evolved from flying ancestors). Wrist joint automatically straightens birds have webbed toes. No teeth; horny beak. when elbow joint is straightened; conversely, wrist joint automatically Lightweight skeleton in flying birds (many hollow bones), with keel bends when elbow joint is bent. Individual hand and finger bones on sternum for attachment of flight muscles (pectoral muscles). No keel reduced in number and largely fused together for support of primaries in large flightless birds (ostrich, emu, rhea). Completely bony ribs (no rib (outer flight feathers). Three digits present; small third digit nonmov- cartilage). Clavicles fused into single bone, the furculum (wishbone). able. Short alular feathers attach to movable first digit. Secondaries Numerous neck vertebrae (number varies by species) provide (inner flight feathers) attach to rear edge of ulna. great neck flexibility. Some of the middle thoracic vertebrae fused in Three toes point forward and one points backward in most species some species (chicken); posterior thoracic, all lumbar, and all sacral ver- (e.g., chicken, hawk, crow), or two toes forward and two back (e.g., tebrae fused into synsacrum, which in turn is fused to the pelvis. Short, woodpecker, parrot). Ostrich has two toes per foot. Toes terminate with flexible tail terminates in stout bone (pygostyle) for support of highly claws. Male chicken has bony spur covered with horny sheath on mobile long tail feathers. tarsometatarsus.
  2. BIRD » ANATOMY 219 CHICKEN MUSCLES AbdAlu Abductor alulae; AbdDi2 Abductor digit! II; AbdDi4 Abductor digit! IV; Gastrocnemius tendon; IlioCr Iliotibialis cranialis; Iliofib Iliofibularis; IlioLa AbDiMa Abductor digit! majoris; Ad Man E Adductor mandibulae externus; Ascend Iliotibialis lateralis; IntDFl Intermediate digital flexors; Intert Intertransversarii; Ascendentes; BicBra Biceps brachii; BicSli Biceps slip; BivCer Biventer cervicis; IntVen Interosseus ventralis; LaDCau Latissimus dorsi caudalis; LaDCra Brach Brachialis; Complx Complexus; CutCos Cutaneus costohumeralis; DepCau Latissimus dorsi cranialis; LatCau Lateralis caudae; LevCau Levator caudae; Depressor caudae; DepMan Depressor mandibulae; EDLon Extensor digitorum LoCoVe Longus colli ventralis; ManEpi Mandibutaris epibranchialis; PecTho long us; EHL Extensor hallucis long us; ExAbOb External abdominal oblique; Pectoralis thoracis; PronPr Pronator profundus; PronSu Pronator superficialis; ExBrD4 Extensor brevis digit! IV; ExLDiM Extensor longus digit! majoris; ExMetR PubcEx Pubocaudalis externus; RecAbd Rectus abdominis; ReCaDo Rectus capitis Extensor metacarpi radialis; FCrL Flexor cruris lateralis; FCrM Flexor cruris medi- dorsalis; ReCaLa Rectus capitis lateralis; ReCaVe Rectus capitis ventralis; ScapCa alis; FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FDLon Flexor digitorum longus; FDMin Flexor digiti Scapulohumeralis caudalis; SerSuC Serratus superficialis caudalis; SpiCer minoris; FDP Flexor digitorum profundus; FDS Flexor digitorum superficialis; Spinalis cervicis; TenPro Tensorpropatagialis; TibCra Tibialis cranialis; TPLT Femtib Femorotibialis; FHB Flexor hallucis brevis; FHL Flexor hallucis longus; Tensor propatagialis long tendon; TPST Tensor propatagialis short tendon; TriBrH FibBrv Fibularis brevis; FibLon Fibularis longus; FlxTen Flexor tendons; GasEx Triceps brachii, humeral head; UlnimD Ulnimetacarpalis dorsalis; UlnimV Gastrocnemius, external head; Gasln Gastrocnemius, internal head; GasTen Ulnimetacarpalis ventralis.
  3. 22O BIRD > ANATOMY CHICKEN SKELETON FRONT VIEW AddAlu Adductor alulae; AdManE Adductor mandibulae extemus; BicBra Biceps head; IlioCr Iliotibialis cranialis; IlioLa Iliotibialis lateralis; IntDor Interosseus brachii; BicSli Biceps slip; Brach Brachialis; Complx Complexus; DeltMa Deltoid dorsalis; Intert Intertransversarii; IntVen Interosseus ventralis; LoCoVe Longus major; DeltMi Deltoid minor; Ectep Ectepicondyloulnaris; EDC Extensor digitorum colli ventralis; PecTho Pectoralis thoracis; ReCaDo ffecfus capitis dorsalis; ReCaLa communis; EDLon Extensor digitorum longus; EHL Extensor hallucis longus; Rectus capitis lateralis; ScapCa Scapulohumeralis caudalis; Supcor ELDM Extensor longus digiti majoris; ExBrAl Extensor brevis alulae; ExBrDB Supracoracoid; Ten Pro Tensor propatagialis; TibCra Tibialis cranialis; TPLT Tensor Extensor brevis digiti III; ExBrD4 Extensor brevis digiti IV; ExLoAl Extensor longus propatagialis long tendon; TPST Tensor propatagialis short tendon; TriBrH alulae; ExMetR Extensor metacarpi radialis; ExMetU Extensor metacarpi ulnaris; Triceps brachii, humeral head; TriBrS Triceps brachii, scapular head; UlnimD FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FDMin Flexor digiti minoris; FibBrv Fibularis brevis; Ulnimetacarpalis dorsalis. FibLon Fibularis longus; FlxTen Flexor tendons; Gasln Gastrocnemius, internal
  4. BIRD * ANATOMY 221 CHICKEN MUSCLES CHICKEN MUSCLES
  5. 222 BIRD + ANATOMY-FEATHERS CHICKEN SKELETON PIGEON (all pigeon drawings from specimens)
  6. BIRD » FEATHERS 223 PIGEON WINGS
  7. 224 HORNS & ANTLERS » BOVID HORNS AMERICAN BISON (MALE) AFRICAN BUFFALO (MALE)
  8. HORNS & ANTLERS » BOVID HORNS 225 WHITE-BEARDED WILDEBEEST (MALE) OX (MALE)
  9. 226 HORNS & ANTLERS * BOVID HORNS MOUNTAIN GOAT (MALE) BIGHORN SHEEP (MALE)
  10. HORNS & ANTLERS > BOVID & GIRAFFID HORNS 22/ PRONGHORN ANTELOPE (MALE) GIRAFFE (MALE)
  11. 228 HORNS & ANTLERS > CERVID (DEER FAMILY) ANTLERS WHITE-TAILED DEER (MALE) MOOSE (MALE)
  12. HORNS & ANTLERS * CERVID (DEER FAMILY) ANTLERS 229 AMERICAN ELK (MALE) CARIBOU (MALE)
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