Figure Drawing - Giraffe - Camel - Hippopotamus

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Figure Drawing - Giraffe - Camel - Hippopotamus

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Giraffe characteristics: Very tall with long neck (elongated neck vertebrae) and long limbs. Bony prominences of neck vertebrae can be seen on the surface; brachiocephalicus and omotransversarius muscles, which usually cover the neck, begin low on the side of the neck, rather than up at the skull and first neck vertebra. Back line slopes downward toward rear. Usually three, permanent, bony "horns" in both male and female, covered with skin and fur. Two located on either side of rear of skull (may be topped with hairy tufts); third horn (sometimes only a knob) wider, stubbier, and of variable size,...

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Nội dung Text: Figure Drawing - Giraffe - Camel - Hippopotamus

  1. 164 GIRAFFE » ANATOMY Giraffe characteristics: Very tall with long neck (elongated neck vertebrae) and long limbs. Bony prominences of neck vertebrae can be seen on the surface; brachiocephalicus and omotransver- sarius muscles, which usually cover the neck, begin low on the side of the neck, rather than up at the skull and first neck vertebra. Back line slopes downward toward rear. Usually three, permanent, bony "horns" in both male and female, covered with skin and fur. Two located on either side of rear of skull (may be topped with hairy tufts); third horn (sometimes only a knob) wider, stubbier, and of variable size, located on midline in front of the other horns, is more developed in the male. Long, mobile, prehensile lips; long tongue. Nostrils closable. Large eyes with long lashes. No front teeth in upper jaw. Two digits with hoofs per limb. Walks on toes. Long tail with long hair from tip. Upright mane on midline of neck. AbDIL Abductor digit! I longus; Brach Brachialis; Brcph Brachiocephalicus Bucc Buccinator; Canin Caninus; DelAc Deltoid, acromial portion; DelSc Deltoid, scapular portion; ECR Extensor carpi radialis; EDC Extensor digitorum communis; EDLat Extensor digitorum lateralis; EDLon Extensor digitorum longus; ExAbO External abdominal oblique; FCR Flexor carpi radialis; FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FDP Flexor digitorum profundus; FDS Flexor digitorum superflcialis; Front Frontatis; GasLa Gastrocnemius, lateral head; GasMe Gastrocnemius, medial head; Glubi Gluteobiceps; GluMe Gluteus medius; Ilioc Iliocostalis; Infra Infraspinatus; Inttr Intertransversarii; LatDo Latissimus dorsi; LeNas Levator nasolabialis; LLaMx Levator labii maxillaris; LngCa Longus capi- tis; LngCo Longus colli; LonAt Longissimus atlantis; LonCa Longissimus capitis; LonCe Longissimus cervicis; Long! Longissimus; Malar Malaris; Mass Masseter; OCCau Obliquus capitis caudalis; Omohy Omohyoid; Omotr Omotransversarius; OrOc Orbicularis oculi; OrOr Orbicularis oris; PecAs Pectoralis ascendens; PecDe Pectoralis descendens; PecTr Pectoralis transversus; PerLo Peroneus longus; PerTe Peroneus tertius; Pop Popliteus; RecFe Rectus femoris; ScalV Scalenus ventralis; SemCa Semispinalis capitis; SerVC Serratus ventralis cervicis; Smemb Semimembranosus; Splen Splenius; Stend Semitendinosus; Sthy Sternohyoid; Stman Sternomandibularis; SusLi Suspensory ligament; Temp Temporalis; TenFL Tensor fasciae latae; TibCr Tibialis cranialis; Trach Trachea; Trap Trapezius; TriLa Triceps brachii, lateral head; TriLo Triceps brachii, long head; UlLat Ulnaris lateralis; VasLa Vastus lateralis; Zyg Zygomaticus. (after blainvilee;skull from specimen)
  2. GIRAFFE > ANATOMY 165 BARINGO GIRAFFE (FEMALE) (after murie;soluonias;rear limb from dissections; Giraffa cametopardatis
  3. 166 GIRAFFID > PROPORTION OKAPI
  4. GIRAFFID * PROPORTION 167 GIRAFFE
  5. 168 CAMEL » ANATOMY DROMEDARY CAMEL (after smuts;blainville) Camel characteristics: Dromedary with one hump; Bactrian, with two. apicalis; DLaMx Depressor labii maxillaris; ECR Extensor carpi radialis; ECU Same family as the wild guanaco and vicuna, as well as the domesticat- Extensor carpi ulnaris; EDC Extensor digitorum communis; EDLat Extensor digito- rum lateralis; EDLon Extensor digitorum longus; ExAbO External abdominal ed llama and alpaca (both derived from the guanaco). Cleft upper lip, oblique; FCR Flexor carpi radialis; FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FDP Flexor digitorum slit-like nostrils, which can be closed. Long, thin, upcurved neck, flat- profundus; FDS Flexor digitorum superflcialis; Front Frontalis; GasLa Gastrocne- tened side-to-side. Thin legs (Bactrian with shorter legs). Ulna and fibula mius, lateral head; GasMe Gastrocnemius, medial head; Glubi Gluteobiceps; GluMe Gluteus medius; Grac Gracitis; Ilioc Iliocostalis; Infra Infraspinatus; InDCe reduced. Long, vertical femur and low knee joint keeps thigh away from Intertransversarii dorsalis cervicis; InVCe Intertransversarii ventralis cervicis; abdomen and makes leg appear very long. Two digits per limb, splayed LatDo Latissimus dorsi; LeNas Levator nasolabialis; LLaMx Levator labii outward to widen foot. Last two toe bones almost horizontal. Undivided maxitlaris; LonAt Longissimus atlantis; LonCa Longissimus capitis; LonCe sole of foot expanded into broad pad. Nail, not hoof, on toe. Single can- Longissimus cervicis; Long! Longissimus; Mass Masseter; Ment Mentalis; Myloh Mylohyoid; NuLig Nuchal ligament; OCCau Obliquus capitis caudaiis; OCCra non (metacarpal/metatarsal) bone divided at lower end for attachment Obtiquus capitis cranialis; Omohy Omohyoid; OrOc Orbicularis oculi; OrOr of two toes. When lying on belly, knee touches ground (femur angled Orbicularis oris; PecAs Pectoralis ascendens; PecDe Pectoralis descendens; PecTr downward); sole and heel of foot rest on ground. Heavy skin calluses on Pectoralis transversus; PerLo Peroneus longus; PerTe Peroneus tertius; Pop front of wrist (carpus), knee, and bottom of rear end of sternum (on Popliteus; RecAb Rectus abdominis; RecFe Rectus femoris; ScalV Scalenus ven- tralis; SemCa Semispinalis capitis; SerDC Serratus dorsalis caudaiis; SerVC enlarged portion of bony sternum) for kneeling and resting on ground. Serratus ventralis cervicis; SerVT Serratus ventralis thoracis; Stcph Sterno- Brachiocephalicus muscle reduced—does not cover neck. Hump made of cephalicus; Stend Semitendinosus; Sthy Sternohyoid; Supra Supraspinatus; soft, fatty tissue—largest when well fed. SusLi Suspensory ligament; Temp Temporalis; TenFL Tensor fasciae tatae; TibCr Tibialis cranialis; Trap Trapezius; TriLa Triceps brachii, lateral head; TriLo Triceps brachii, long head; UlLat Ulnaris lateralis; VasLa Vastus lateralis; VasMe Vastus AbDIL Abductor digit! I longus; Bleep Biceps brachii; Brach Brachialis; Brcph medialis; Zyg Zygomaticus. Brachiocephalicus; Bucc Buccinator; Canin Caninus', Coccy Coccygeus; DelAc Deltoid, acromial portion; DelSc Deltoid, scapular portion; DiNAp Dilator nan's
  6. CAMEL » ANATOMY 169 DROMEDARY CAMEL (after smuts) DROMEDARY CAMEL (FEMALE) Came/us dromedarius
  7. I/O CAMEL > PROPORTION DROMEDARY CAMEL
  8. CAMEL + PROPORTION 1/1 BACTRIAN CAMEL
  9. 172 HIPPOPOTAMUS > ANATOMY (after blainville;skull from specimen) Hippopotamus characteristics: Large tusk-like incisors and canines, EDC Extensor digitorum communis; EDLat Extensor digitorum lateralis; EDLon especially inner pair of lower incisors. Lower canines much larger than Extensor digitorum longus; ExAbO External abdominal oblique; FCR Flexor carpi radialis; FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FDP Flexor digitorum profundus; FDS Flexor dig- upper canines. Wide snout; nostrils on top of snout. Nostrils and ears itorum superficialis; GasLa Gastrocnemius, lateral head; GasMe Gastrocnemius, can be closed under water. Huge mouth opens very wide to display medial head; Glubi Gluteobiceps; GluMe Gluteus medius; Ilioc Iliocostalis; Infra tusks. Rear of lower jaw projects downward. Four digits per limb; all sup- Infraspinatus; LatDo Latissimus dorsi; LeNas Levator nasolabialis; LLaMx Levator labii maxillaris; Long! Longissimus; Mass Masseter; Omotr Omotransversarius; port weight. Nail-like hoofs on toes. Massive, barrel-shaped body; short, OrOc Orbicularis oculi; OrOr Orbicularis oris; PecAs Pectoralis ascendens; PecSu stocky legs. Belly close to ground. Hairless. Thick layer of body fat. Skin Pectoralis superficialis; PerLo Peroneus longus; PerTe Peroneus tertius; Pop glands produce oily reddish-pink secretions ("blood sweat"). Short tail. Popliteus; RAOL Retractor anguli oculi lateralis; RecAb Rectus abdominis; RecFe Good swimmer and diver. Rectus femoris; SerDC Serratus dorsalis caudalis; SerVT Serratus ventralis tho- racis; Smemb Semimembranosus; Stend Semitendinosus; Stmas Sternomastoid; Stthh Sternothyrohyoid; Subcl Subclavius; Supra Supraspinatus; Temp AbDIL Abductor digit! I longus; AbDiS Abductor digit! V; Anc Anconeus; Bleep Temporalis; TenFL Tensor fasciae latae; TibCr Tibialis cranialis; Trap Trapezius; Biceps brachii; Brach Brachialis; Brcph Brachiocephalicus; Bucc Buccinator; Canin TrILa Triceps brachii, lateral head; TriLo Triceps brachii, long head; UlLat Ulnaris Caninus; Clmas Cleidomastoid; ClOcc Cleido-occipitalis; DelAc Deltoid, acromial lateral's; VasLa Ifosfus lateralis; Zyg Zygomaticus. portion; DelSc Deltoid, scapular portion; Digas Digastric; DLaMn Depressor labii mandibularis; ECR Extensor carpi radialis; EDBr Extensor digitorum brevis;
  10. HIPPOPOTAMUS > ANATOMY 1/3 after curvier Hippopotamus amphibius
  11. 1/4 HIPPOPOTAMUS > PROPORTION HIPPOPOTAMUS
  12. HIPPOPOTAMUS > PROPORTION 1/5 PYGMY HIPPOPOTAMUS
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