Figure Drawing - Sea lion, Gorilla, Human

Chia sẻ: Nguyenhoang Phuonguyen | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:12

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Figure Drawing - Sea lion, Gorilla, Human

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Sea lion characteristics: Webbed flipper-like forefoot and hind foot. Front flipper thicker on front edge. Skin of flipper extends past tips of toe bones, supported by individual cartilages attached to ends of toe bones. Noticeable claws on three middle toes of hind foot; other claws tiny and inconspicuous. Front flipper triangular; hind flipper rectangular. Hind limb can be advanced forward—can walk, but thigh and lower leg encased in skin of abdomen (seals can't walk—their hind limbs permanently extended backward). Elbow also enclosed in body skin, but forearms are free. Body streamlined (torpedo-shaped) for swimming. Thick insulating blubber layer between...

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Nội dung Text: Figure Drawing - Sea lion, Gorilla, Human

  1. 200 SEA LION > ANATOMY (from specimen;after blainviller) Sea lion characteristics: Webbed flipper-like forefoot and hind foot. AbDIL Abductor digit! I longus; BiFem Biceps femoris; Brcph Brachiocephalicus; Front flipper thicker on front edge. Skin of flipper extends past tips of Brrad Brachioradialis; Bucc Buccinator; Delt Deltoid; Digas Digastric; ECRB Extensor carpi radialis brevis; ECRL Extensor carpi radialis longus; ECU Extensor toe bones, supported by individual cartilages attached to ends of toe carpi ulnaris; EDI Extensor digiti I; ED1L Extensor digiti I longus; EDBr Extensor bones. Noticeable claws on three middle toes of hind foot; other claws digitorum brevis; EDC Extensor digitorum com munis; EDLat Extensor digitorum tiny and inconspicuous. Front flipper triangular; hind flipper rectangular. lateralis; EDLon Extensor digitorum longus; ExAbO External abdominal oblique; FCR Flexor carpi radialis; FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FD1L Flexor digiti I longus; FDP Hind limb can be advanced forward—can walk, but thigh and lower leg Flexor digitorum profundus; FDS Flexor digitorum superficialis; Gastr encased in skin of abdomen (seals can't walk—their hind limbs perma- Gastrocnemius; GluMe Gluteus medius; GluSu Gluteus superficialis; Grac Gracilis; nently extended backward). Elbow also enclosed in body skin, but fore- Ilioc Iliocostalis; LatDo Latissimus dorsi; LeNas Levator nasolabialis; LLaMx arms are free. Body streamlined (torpedo-shaped) for swimming. Thick Levator labii maxillaris; Long! Longissimus; Mass Masseter; Myloh Mylohyoid; Omohy Omohyoid; OrOc Orbicularis oculi; OrOr Orbicutaris oris; PalLo Palmaris insulating blubber layer between skin and muscles. Thick, flexible, mus- longus; PecPr Pectoralis profundus; PecSu Pectoralis superficialis; PerBr cular neck. Pelvis and femur small. Sternum has forward projection. Peroneus brevis; PerLo Peroneus longus; Plant Plantaris; PrTer Pronator teres; Small external ears present (absent in seals). Ears and slit-like nostrils RecAb Rectus abdominis; SeiVT Serratus ventralis thoracis; Smemb can be closed under water. Short, stubby tail. Very short hair; fur much Semimembranosus; Splen Splenius; Stmas Sternomastoid; Stthh Sternothyrohyoid; Temp Temporalis; Ten FA Tensor fasciae antibrachii; TenFL darker when wet. Body uniform in color (no spots). Males larger than Tensor fasciae latae; TibCr Tibialis cranialis; Trap Trapezius; TriLa Triceps brachii, females. Closely related to terrestrial carnivores. Pinniped is not scientif- lateral head; TriLo Triceps brachii, long head; VasLa Vastus lateratis. ic classification, but means "fin footed."
  2. SEA LION + ANATOMY 201 (after muriee) CALIFORNIA SEA LION (FEMALE) Zalophus californianus MALE IN BACKGROUND
  3. 202 PINNIPED > PROPORTION SEA LION (CALIFORNIA) SEAL (HARBOR)
  4. PINNIPED + PROPORTION 203 WALRUS
  5. 204 GORILLA * ANATOMY LOWLAND GORILLA (MALE) (from specimensd) Gorilla gorilla Gorilla characteristics: Walks on ends of uppermost phalanges of hand; Deltoid, acromial portion; DelSp Deltoid, spinal portion; Digas Digastric; DLI middle phalanges rest on ground. Short thumb does not touch the Depressor labii inferioris (mandibularis); ECRB Extensor carpi radialis brevis; ECRL Extensor carpi radialis longus; ECU Extensor carpi ulnaris; EDS Extensor ground. Walks on sole and heel of foot. Thumb and big toe opposable; digiti V (Extensor digitorum lateralis); EDBr Extensor digitorum brevis; EDC large big toe angles out, away from foot. Nails on digits. Well-developed Extensor digitorum communis; EDLon Extensor digitorum longus; EHB Extensor clavicle attached to scapula and sternum. Forearm rotates halluds brevis; EHL Extensor halluds longus; EPBr Extensor pollicis brevis; EPL Extensor pollicis longus; ExAbO External abdominal oblique; FCR Flexor carpi (pronates/supinates). Arms longer than legs. Upper arm longer than fore- radialis; FCU Flexor carpi ulnaris; FDBr Flexor digitorum brevis; FDLon Flexor digi- arm (about equal in chimps). Five digits on each limb. Shoulders thrust torum longus; FDP flexor digitorum profundus; FDS Flexor digitorum superfi- forward. Thigh longer than lower leg. Stocky body, large abdomen. cialis; FPB Flexor pollicis brevis; FPL Flexor pollicis longus; Front Frontalis; GasLa Sloping forehead, large brow ridges, rounded muzzle. Large bony crest on Gastrocnemius, lateral head; GasMe Gastrocnemius, medial head; GluMe Gluteus medius; GluMx Gluteus maximus (superfidalis); Grac Gradlis; Ilioc Iliocostalis; top of skull in male. Thick crown pad of skin layers and hair on top of the Infra Infraspinatus; Inter Interossei; LatDo Latissimus dorsi; LLSAN Levator labii head, especially in male. Large nostrils. Small, deep-set eyes face forward superioris alaeque nasi (levator nasolabialis); LLSup Levator labii superioris for binocular vision. Small ears (chimps have large ears). Large canine (maxillaris); Longi Longissimus; Mass Masseter; Omohy Omohyoid; OrOc teeth. Foramen magnum (hole for spinal cord) located near bottom of cra- Orbicularis oculi; OrOr Orbicularis oris; PalLo Palmaris longus; PecMa Pectoralis major; PecQu Pectoralis quartus; PerBr Peroneus brevis; PerLo Peroneus longus; nium. No tail. Face, ears, bottoms of hands and feet naked. Longest hair PrTer Pronator teres; RecAb Rectus abdominis; RecFe Rectus femoris; Risor on arms, ends at wrist. Thick fur layer on top of gluteal muscles. Risorius; Sart Sartorius; SerAn Serratus anterior (serratus ventralis thorads); Sol Soleus; Splen Splenius; Stend Semitendinosus; Sthy Sternohyoid; Stman Sternomandibularis; Stthy Sternothyroid; TeMaj Teres major; TeMin Teres minor; AbDiS Abductor digit! V; AbDM Abductor digiti minimi; AbHal Abductor halluds; Temp Temporalis; Ten FA Tensor fasciae antibrachii; TenFL Tensor fasciae latae; AbMDS Abductor metatarsi digiti V; AbPB Abductor pollicis brevis; AbPL Abductor TibAn Tibialis anterior (cranialis); TibPo Tibialis posterior (caudalis); Trap pollicis longus; AdHal Adductor halluds; AdPol Adductor pollicis; Anc Anconeus; Trapezius; TriLa Triceps brachii, lateral head; TriLo Triceps brachii, long head; BicLH Biceps brachii, long head; BicSH Biceps brachii, short head; BiFemLH VasLa Vastus lateralis; VasMe Vastus medialis; ZygMa Zygomaticus major(zygo- Biceps femoris, long head; BiFemSH Biceps femoris, short head; Brach Brachialis; maticus); ZygMi Zygomaticus minor. Brrad Brachioradialis; Bucc Buccinator; DAnOr Depressor anguli oris; DelAc
  6. GORILLA > ANATOMY 205 (after reven ) LOWLAND GORILLA (MALE) Gorilla gorilla
  7. 2O6 APE > PROPORTION LOWLAND GORILLA CHIMPANZEE
  8. APE > PROPORTION 20/ ORANGUTAN GIBBON
  9. 208 HUMAN » ANATOMY (from speccimens) Human characteristics: Enormous braincase, flat face. Upright forehead inferioris (mandibularis); ECRB Extensor carpi radialis brevis; ECRL Extensor carpi (small brow ridges in male). Eyes face forward for binocular vision. Small radialis longus; ECU Extensor carpi ulnaris; EDBr Extensor digitorum brevis; EDC Extensor digitorum communis; EDLon Extensor digitorum longus; EH L Extensor canine teeth same size as adjacent teeth. Highest development of facial hallucis longus; EPBr Extensor poliicis brevis; EPL Extensor poliicis longus; muscle control to broadcast facial expressions. Foramen magnum on ExAbO External abdominal oblique; FCR flexor carpi radialis; FCU Flexor carpi bottom of cranium—skull balanced on top of vertical spine when stand- ulnaris; FDLon Flexor digitorum longus; FDS Flexor digitorum superficialis; FHL Flexor hallucis longus; FPB Flexor poliicis brevis; FPL Flexor poliicis longus; Front ing. Upright spine has four curves—neck and lumbar portions curve for- Frontalis; GasLa Gastrocnemius, lateral head; GasMe Gastrocnemius, medial ward; thoracic and sacral portions curve backward. Well-developed clavi- head; GluMe Gluteus medius; GluMx Gluteus maximus (superficialis); Grac cle attached to scapula and sternum. Scapula on back surface of rib cage Gracilis; Ilioc Iliocostalis; Infra Infraspinatus; Inter Interossei; LatDo Latissimus (on side in four-legged animals); rib cage compressed front to back (side dorsi; LevSc Levator scapulae (serratus ventralis cervicis); LLSAN Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi (levator nasolabialis); LLSup Levator labii superioris to side in four-legged animals). Thumb opposable; big toe is not. Flat (maxillaris); Long! Longissimus; Malar Malaris; Mass Masseter; Ment Mentalis; nails on digits. Five digits on each limb. Walks upright on two legs, on Nasal Nasalis; Occip Occipitalis; Omohy Omohyoid; OrOc Orbicularis oculi; OrOr sole and heel of foot. Legs longer than arms. Upper arm longer than Orbicularis oris; PalLo Palmaris longus; PecMa Pectoralis major; PerBr Pemneus forearm. Thigh longer than lower leg. Forearm rotates brevis; PerLo Peroneus longus; PerTe Pemneus tertius; Proc Proceros; PrTer Pronator teres; RecAb Rectus abdominis; RecFe Rectus femoris; Rhom Rhomboid; (pronates/supinates). No tail. Rlsor Risorius; Sart Sartorius; SerAn Serratus anterior (serratus ventralis tho- racis); Smemb Semimembranosus; Sol Soleus; Splen Splenius; Stend AbDM Abductor digiti minimi; AbHal Abductor hallucis; AbPB Abductor poliicis Semitendinosus; Sthy Sternohyoid; Stmas Sternomastoid; TeMaj Teres major; brevis; AbPL Abductor poliicis longus; MitAg Adductor magnus; AdPol Adductor TeMin Teres minor; Temp Temporalis; TenFL Tensor fasciae latae; TibAn Tibialis poliicis; kncAnconeus; Bleep Biceps brachii; BiFemLH Biceps femoris, long head; anterior (cranialis); TibPo Tibialis posterior (caudalis); Trap Trapezius; TriLa BiFemSH Biceps femoris, short head; Brach Brachialis; Brrad Brachioradialis; Triceps brachii, lateral head; TrILo Triceps brachii, long head; TriMe Triceps Bucc Buccinator; DAnOr Depressor anguli oris; DelAc Deltoid, acromial portion; brachii, medial head; VasLa Vastus lateralis; VasMe Vastus medialis; ZygMa DelSp Deltoid, spinal portion; DepSu Depressor supercilii; DLI Depressor labii Zygomaticus major (zygomaticus).
  10. HUMAN + ANATOMY 2Op (from dissectinos) Homo sapiens
  11. 21O HUMAN » PROPORTION
  12. HUMAN > PROPORTION 211 (all after richer)
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