Giáo án bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi anh văn lớp 9 - 2

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Verb forms

English tenses

Present Continuous
* Examples
He is sleeping.
I am visiting grandpa in the afternoon.
You are always coming late for the meetings!
The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the
moment of speaking. The Present Continuous also describes activities generally in progress (this
means that they don't have to take place right now). Another use of the tense is to talk about
temporary actions or future plans.
* USES
• Present actions
• Temporary actions
• Longer actions in progress
• Future (personal) arrangements and plans
• Tendencies and trends (xu hướng, khuynh hướng và chiều hướng)
• Irritation (sự chọc tức; tình trạng bị làm phát cáu, tình trạng bị chọc tức­ phàn nàn)
USE 1: Present Actions
Most often, we use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of
speaking.
Examples:
He is eating a dinner.
Mary is talking with her friends.
They are swimming in the pool.
Stative (State) Verbs
There is a certain group of verbs that usually does not appear in the Continuous form. They are
called Stative (State) Verbs, and if used in the Continuous form, they have a different meaning.
Examples:
I think you look pretty today! meaning: Opinion
I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco! meaning: Act of thinking
USE 2: Temporary Actions
This tense is also used for activities continuing only for a limited period of time.
Examples:
- I'm riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. Temporary Action (His car will
soon be repaired)
- They are not talking with each other after the last argument. Temporary Action (They will
soon make up)
- Mary is working at McDonald's. Temporary Action (She is working there only during the
summer holidays)
USE 3: Longer Actions in Progress
We also use the Present Continuous when we are in the middle of doing something time-consuming
(i.e. something that takes time to complete). An example of such an activity is writing a book,
saving money or studying for an exam.
Examples:
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
-They are working hard to earn money.
-I am training to become a professional footballer.
-Mike is studying hard to become a doctor.
-Elizabeth is currently writing a children's book titled I am the World.
USE 4: Future (Personal) Arrangements and Plans
Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to show that something is planned and will be done in the
near future.
Examples:
-I'm meeting Katie in the evening.
-He's flying to Rome in September.
-We're not going anywhere tomorrow.
USE 5: Tendencies and Trends
This tense is also used for expressing tendencies or trends.
Examples:
-Our country is getting richer.
-The Internet is becoming less of a novelty.
-The Universe is expanding .
USE 6: Irritation or Anger
And the last use of this tense is to express irritation or anger over somebody or something in the
present with adverbs such as: always, continually or contantly.
Examples:
-She is continually complaining about everything!
-Johny is always asking stupid questions!
-My boss is contantly critising me!

Present Simple
* Examples
-John lives in New York.
-We play football every day.
-You are really kind.
-The meeting starts at 3 PM
The Present Simple is the most basic and common tense in the English language. Because of its
easy form, it is the best tense to start learning/teaching English tenses. It is also an interesting tense
because it can express both the present and the future. In the below list, there are 7 uses of this
tense. It's a lot, but don't worry: most of them are easy to understand.
*USE
• Facts, generalizations and universal truths (tổng quát, khái quát)
• Habits and routines
• Permanent situations
• Events that are certain to happen
• Arrangements that we can't change (e.g. timetables, official meetings)
• State verbs (e.g. be, have, suppose, know)
• Narrations (e.g. telling a joke), instructions or commentaries
*Note
Apart from the above uses, this tense is also used in:
Zero Conditional — If it rains, I go play football.
First Conditional — We won't get our pocket money, if we don't pass this exam.

Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
In sentences after when, before, till, after, as soon as. ("Before you leave, please take the
keys")
USE 1: Facts, Generalizations and Univeral Truths
We use the Present Simple to talk about universal truths (for example, laws of nature) or things we
believe are, or are not, true. It's also use it to generalize about something or somebody.
Examples:
-Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius. Universal Truths
-It is a big house. Facts
-The Earth goes around the Sun. Universal Truths, Facts
-Dogs are better than cats. Generalization
-Berlin is the capital city of Germany. Facts
-The Elephant doesn't fly. Facts
-London is the capital city of France. Facts (REMEMBER: the sentence does not have to be
true)
USE 2: Habits and Routines
We also used this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example: habits, routines,
tendencies.
Examples:
-We leave for work at 7:30 AM every morning. Routine
-My husband watches the TV in the evening. Habit, Routine
-Susan often meets with her friends after school. Habit, Routine
-They usually play football on Sunday. Habit, Routine
-Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother. Tendency
-Pinocchio usually told lies. Tendency
Adverbs of Frequency
The Present Simple is often used with the frequency adverbs:
always
frequently/often
usually
seldom/rarely
nowadays
never
every week/year
sometimes/occasionally
from time to time
every now and then
A few examples how to use them in sentences:
-I always go to church on Sundays.
-I never eat anything after 10 PM.

USE 3: Pernament Situations
Use the Present Simple to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time.
Examples:
-I live in Boston
-He works as a fireman.
-Margaret drives a Volkswagen.
-Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool.
USE 4: Events Certain to Happen
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Use the Present Simple when an event is certain to happen in the future.
Examples:
-My grandmother turns 100 this July.
-Winter starts on 21 December.
USE 5: State Verbs
You should use the Present Simple with state verbs.
Examples:
-I like swimming.
-We know this man.
*Note
Some of the verbs used in the simple form can also appear in the continuous form. This is typically
when they have an active meaning or emphasize change.
Examples:
-I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco
-I'm loving your new hairdo!
USE 6: Future Arrangements
Use the Present Simple to talk about events that we can't change (for example, an official meeting or
a train departure).
Examples:
-The meeting starts at 4 PM.
-The train leaves at the noon.
-When does the plane take off?
-Jerry doesn't teach maths at high school.
USE 7: Narrations, Instructions or commentaries
The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e.g. to tell a story or a joke), instructions (e.g.
cooking) or commentaries (especially sport commentaries).
Examples:
A man goes to visit a friend and is amazed to find him playing chess with his dog. He
watches the game in astonishment for a while [...]
FORM
Forming a sentence in the Present Simple is easy. To form a declarative sentence, all you need is the
subject of the sentence (e.g. I, you, he, a dog) and the verb (e.g. be, talk, swim). Questions and
negative sentences are only a little more difficult, because they require an auxiliary verb.

Simple Present – Present Progressive
• Form
Simple Present Present Progressive
infinitive form of 'be' and verb + ing
(3rd person singular: infinitive + 's')
I speak I am speaking
you speak you are speaking
he / she / it speaks he / she / it is speaking
we speak we are speaking
they speak they are speaking
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 's' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' :
For can, may, might, must, do not add s. Silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee)
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Example: he can, she may, it must Example: come - coming
After o, ch, sh or s, add es. but: agree - agreeing
Example: do - he does, wash - she washes After a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant
After a consonant, the final consonant y is doubled.
becomes ie. (but: not after a vowel) Example: sit - sitting
Example: worry - he worries After a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in
but: play - he plays British English (but not in American English).
Example: travel - travelling (British English)
but: traveling (American English)
Final ie becomes y.
Example: lie - lying
• Use
In general or right now?
Do you want to express that something happens in general or that something is happening right
now?
Simple Present Present Progressive
in general (regularly, often, never) right now
Colin plays football every Tuesday. Look! Colin is playing football now.
present actions happening one after also for several actions happening at the same
another time
First Colin plays football, then he watches Colin is playing football and Anne is watching.
TV.
Signal words
always at the moment
every ... at this moment
often today
normally now
usually right now
sometimes Listen!
seldom Look!
never
first
then
Note: The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present:
be, have, hear, know, like, love, see, smell, think, want
Timetable / Schedule or arrangement?
Do you want to express that something is arranged for the near future? Or do you refer to a time set
by a timetable or schedule?
Simple Present Present Progressive
action set by a timetable or schedule arrangement for the near future
The film starts at 8 pm. I am going to the cinema tonight.
Daily routine or just for a limited period of time?
Do you want to talk about a daily routine? Or do you want to emphasis that something is only going
on for a limited (rather short) period of time?
Simple Present Present Progressive
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
daily routine only for a limited period of time (does not
Bob works in a restaurant. have to happen directly at the moment of
speaking)
Jenny is working in a restaurant this week.
Certain Verbs
The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present (not in the progressive form).
state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit
Example: We are on holiday.
possession: belong, have
Example: Sam has a cat.
senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch
Example: He feels the cold.
feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish
Example: Jane loves pizza.
brain work: believe, know, think, understand
Example: I believe you.
Introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say
Example: “I am watching TV,“ he says.

Present Perfect
*Examples
-I have read this book.
-The man has gone away.
-John has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in
the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the
present moment.
*USE
• Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now
• Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment
• Actions which began in the past and continue in the present
USE 1: Indefinite time before now
Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. It does not
matter when exactly they happened.
Examples:
-I have already had a breakfast.
-He has been to England.
Remember
You should not use this tense with time expressions like yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc.
USE 2: Effect on the present moment
We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment.
Examples:
-He has finished his work. (so he can now rest)
-I have already eaten the dinner. (so I'm not hungry)
-He has had a car accident. (that's why he is in the hospital)
USE 3: Continuation in the present
We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present.

Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Examples:
- has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
-Patrick has achieved a lot in his life.
For and Since
Since and For are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect.
We use For with a period of time, for example:
I have lived here for 20 years.
When talking about a starting point, we use Since, for example:
I have lived here since 1960.
*FORM
To form a sentence in the Present Perfect, you need:
The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have".
The Past Participle of your verb.
1. Auxiliary Verb "to have"
We conjugate the auxiliary verb "to have" the same way we would conjugate the normal verb "to
have".


Person Singular Plural
First I have We have
Second You have You have
Third He/she/it has They have
As you can see, the third person singular is irregular.

More examples:
She has never seen my brother.
Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck.

2. The Past Participle
The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The past participle
can be either regular or irregular.
The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb:


Verb Past Participle
talk talked
explain explained
use used
deliver delivered
include included
achieve achieved

The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. Therefore, they should be
memorized.
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Verb Past Participle Learn more
be been be
become become become
see seen see
go gone go
eat eaten eat
grow grown grow

Declarative Sentences
Subject Auxiliary verb Past participle
+ +
e.g. I/a
has/have e.g. slept/taken/goneetc.
dogetc.

Examples Use
(Use
We have already had breakfast
1)
(Use
I have bought new shades
2)
(Use
I have already been to Paris
1)
(Use
John has been a plumber for 2 years
3)
(Use
Someone has just taken my bag!
1,2)
(Use
Jane has never been so angry
3)
He has been our most serious partner for so
(Use
long that I can assure you he's a very
3)
decent man
Questions
Auxiliary
Subject Past participle
verb
+ +
e.g. I/a
has/have e.g. slept/taken/goneetc.
dogetc.
Examples Use
Have you ever seen this program? (Use 1)

Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Where has she lived for the past 21 years? (Use 3)
Have you found the telephone number? (Use 1,2)
Have you ever been to France? (Use 1)
Has anyone taken my bag? (Use 1,2)


Present perfect continuous
Form of Present Perfect Progressive
Positive Negative Question
I / you / we / they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking?
he / she / it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking?
Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example
final e is dropped come – coming
(but: ee is not changed) (but: agree – agreeing)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting
l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling
final ie becomes y lie – lying
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
• puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
• action that recently stopped or is still going on
Example: I have been living here since 2001.
• finished action that influenced the present
Example: I have been working all afternoon.
Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

Present Perfect Simple – Present Perfect Progressive
*Form
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of form of 'have' + been + verb + ing
irregular verbs
Example: Example:
I / you / we / they have spoken I / you / we / they have been speaking
he / she / it has spoken he / she / it has been speaking
regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed
Example:
I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 'ed' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' :

Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
when the final letter is e, only add d silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee)
Example: Example: come - coming
love - loved aber: agree - agreeing
after a short, stressed vowel, the final after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant
consonant is doubled is doubled
Example: Example: sit - sitting
admit - admitted after a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in
final l is always doubled in British English (not British English (but not in American English).
in American English) Example: travel - travelling
Example: final ie becomes y.
travel - travelled Example: lie - lying
after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not
after a vowel)
Example:
worry - worried
but: play - played
*Use
Both tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just
finished. In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use
the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result.
We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action.
• Result or duration?
Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet?
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
Result (what / how much / how often) Duration (how long)
I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London I have been writing for an hour.
twice.
• Certain verbs
The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form).
state: be, have (for possession only)
Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks.
senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch
Example: He has touched the painting.
brain work: believe, know, think, understand
Example: I have known him for 3 years.
• Emphasis on completion or duration?
Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody
spent his time)?
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
Emphasis on completion Emphasis on duration
I have done my homework. (Meaning: My I have been doing my homework. (Meaning:
homework is completed now.) That's how I have spent my time. It does not
matter whether the homework is completed
now.)
• Result or side effect?

Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an
unwanted side effect?
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
desired result unwanted side effect
I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the
now.) car. (side effect: I became wet when I was
washing the car. It does not matter whether the
car is clean now.)
• Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action?
In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action
took place or since the beginning of the action?
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
since the last time since the beginning
I haven't played that game for years. (Meaning: I haven't been playing that game for an hour,
It's years ago that I last played that game.) only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: It's not even an
hour ago that I started to play that game.)
• Permanent or temporary?
If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would
usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present
Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency.
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
permanent temporary
James has lived in this town for 10 years. James has been living here for a year. (Meaning:
(Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this This situation is only temporary. Maybe he is an
town.) exchange student and only here for one or two
years.)
Signal words
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive
how often how long
... times since
for


Simple Past (Past Simple)
The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be
used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.
Form of Simple Past
Positive Negative Question
no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak?
For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs,
just add “ed”.
Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’
Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example
after a final e only add d love – loved

Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit – admitted
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried
Use of Simple Past
• action in the past taking place once, never or several times
Example: He visited his parents every weekend.
• actions in the past taking place one after the other
Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.
• action in the past taking place in the middle of another action
Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
• if sentences type II (If I talked, …)
Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

Signal Words of Simple Past
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)


Past Progressive (Past Continuous)
The past progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past.
Form
Positive Negative Question
I / he / she / it I was speaking. I was not speaking. Was I speaking?
you / we / they You were speaking. You were not speaking. Were you speaking?

Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example
final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed) come – coming
(but: agree – agreeing)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting
l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling
final ie becomes y lie – lying

Use of Past Progressive
• puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past
Example: He was playing football.
• two actions happening at the same time (in the past)
Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes.
• action going on at a certain time in the past
Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
Signal Words of Past Progressive
when, while, as long as



Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Simple Past – Past Progressive
• Form
Simple Past Past Progressive
irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular past form of 'be' + ing form of verb
verbs
I spoke I was speaking
regular verbs: verb + ed you were speaking
I worked he / she / it was speaking
we were speaking
they were speaking
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 'ed' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' :
when the final letter is e, only add d. silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee)
Example: love - loved Example: come - coming
after a short, stressed vowel, the final but: agree - agreeing
consonant is doubled after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant
Example: admit - admitted is doubled
final l is always doubled in British English (not Example: sit - sitting
in American English) final l is always doubled in British English (not
Example: travel - travelled in American English)
after a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not Example: travel - travelling
after a vowel) final ie becomes y.
Example: worry - he worried Example: lie - lying
but: play - he played
• Use
1. After another or at the same time?
Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time?
Simple Past Past Progressive
after another at the same time
She came home, switched on the computer and Simon was playing on the computer while his
checked her e-mails. brother was watching TV.
2. New action or already in progress?
If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both
tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress.
Simple Past Past Progressive
new action action already in progress
My mobile rang (when I was sitting in a While I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile
meeting.) suddenly rang.)
3. Only mentioning or emphasising progress?
Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do
you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time?
Simple Past Past Progressive
just mentioning emphasising progress
Colin played football yesterday. Yesterday at six o'clock, Colin was playing
football.
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
4. Certain Verbs
The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Past (not in the progressive form).
state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit
Example: We were on holiday.
possession: belong, have
Example: Sam had a cat.
senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch
Example: He felt the cold.
feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish
Example: Jane loved pizza.
brain work: believe, know, think, understand
Example: I did not understand him.
introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say
Example: “I am watching TV,“ he said.
• Signal words
Simple Past Past Progressive
first when
then while
If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …) as long as


Simple Past – Present Perfect Simple
1. Form
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of
verbs irregular verbs
Example: Example:
I spoke I / you / we / they have spoken
he / she / it has spoken

regular verbs: infinitive + ed regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed
Example: Example:
I worked I / you / we / they have worked
he / she / it has worked
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding 'ed':
when the final letter is e, only add d
Example:
love - loved
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
Example:
admit - admitted
final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)
Example:
travel - travelled
after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)
Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Example:
worry - worried
but: play - played
2. Use
In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time
expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must
decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.
Note that the following explanations and exercises refer to British English only. In American
English, you can normally use Simple Past instead of Present Perfect. We cannot accept this in our
exercises, however, as this would lead to confusions amongst those who have to learn the
differences.
• Certain time in the past or just / already / yet?
Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few
seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened?
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
certain time in the past just / already / not yet
Example: Example:
I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago. I have just phoned Mary.
• Certain event in the past or how often so far?
Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has
happened till now?
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
certain event in the past whether / how often till now
Example: Example:
He went to Canada last summer. Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to
Canada twice.
• Emphasis on action or result?
Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a
past action's consequence in the present)?
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
Emphasis on action Emphasis on result
Example: Example:
I bought a new bike. (just telling I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence I actually want
what I did in the past.) to express that I have a new bike now.)
3. Signal Words
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
yesterday just
... ago already
in 1990 up to now
the other day until now / till now
last ... ever
(not) yet
so far
lately / recently


Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
Past Perfect Simple
The past perfect simple expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past.

1. Form of Past Perfect Simple

Positive Negative Question


no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular
verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example


after final e, only add d love – loved


final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit – admitted
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel – travelled


final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried


2. Use of Past Perfect
action taking place before a certain time in the past

(putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration)
Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.

Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past)


Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

3. Signal Words
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present)

If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, …)


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Simple Past – Past Perfect Simple

1.Form

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple

2nd column of irregular verbs had + 3rd column of irregular verbs
Example: Example:
I spoke I had spoken


regular verbs: infinitive + ed regular verbs: form of have + infinitive + ed
Example: Example:
I worked I had worked
Exceptions

Exceptions when adding ed:
when the final letter is e, only add d

Example:
love - loved
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled

Example:
admit - admitted
final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)

Example:
travel - travelled
after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)

Example:
worry - worried
but: play - played

2. Use
We use Simple Past if we give past events in the order in which they occured. However, when we
look back from a certain time in the past to tell what had happened before, we use Past Perfect.

Normal order in the past or looking back to an event before a certain time in the past?
Do you just want to tell what happened some time in the past or do you want to tell what had
happened before/up to a certain time in the past?

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple

some time in the past before/up to a certain time in the past

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Example: Example:
Jane got up at seven. She opened her Before her sixth birthday, Jane had never
birthday presents and then the whole been to the zoo.
family went to the zoo.

3. Signal Words

Simple Past Past Perfect Simple

first already
then up to then
before that day
after*

*Note: "After" is only used as a signal word for Past Perfect if it is followed by a subject + verb,
meaning that one action had been completed before another action began (the new action is in
Simple Past).
Example:
After the family had had breakfast, they went to the zoo.
However, if "after" is followed by object + subject + verb, the verb belongs to the new action and is
therefore in Simple Past.
Example:
After her visit to the zoo, Jane was exhausted.
More exceptions with signal words
When
Depending on the situation, "when" can be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. Compare the
following examples:
Example:
When Jane saw the elephants, she was amazed. (at the same time)
When Jane had seen the elephants, she wanted to see the giraffes. (second action happened
after the first action had been completed)
When Jane went to see the elephants, she had already seen the lions. (second action had been
completed when the first action took place)

Before
"Before" as well can either be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. If the action after "before" is a
new action, use Simple Past. If the action after "before" started (and was not completed) before a
certain time in the past, use Past Perfect. Compare the following examples:
Example:
Jane had read a lot about elephants before she went to the zoo.
Jane went to the zoo before she had finished reading her new book about elephants.

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FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE

English does not have a verb form specifically used to express future tense. We have to choose
from a variety of forms (using 'will'/'shall', 'going to', the present continuous, the present simple,
etc.) to talk about future events. The future expressed with the modal auxiliaries will and shall + the
base form of the verb is known as the future simple tense or 'will' future. Keep in mind,
however, that 'will' doesn't always serve to indicate the future. We can use 'will' to talk about
events happening at the present. (For example: This car won't start.)

We use the Future
Structure Examples
Simple Tense:
The future simple tense is to say that something will
1. I will finish my report
composed of two parts: happen in the future. Adverbs
later today.
will/shall + base verb. Will of time that will indicate such
2. The sun will rise at 6:03
and shall are often tense may include,
am.
contracted to 'll. tomorrow, today, later
3. I'll go to the market today, in five minutes, in
tomorrow.
Affirmative form two hours, on Monday, on
4. There will be another Saturday afternoon, next
conference next month.
I + shall / week/month, this year, etc.
5. I'll come to see you on
will + work
Sunday.
we ! Note that when we talk
6. We'll be back on Friday about prior plans, strong
afternoon.
you intentions or fixed
7. Tom will visit his parents
he/she/it + will + work arrangements we do not
next week.
they normally use 'will':
8. They will paint the fence
blue.
1. I shall/will write her I am going to meet him this
9. I will return in two
tomorrow. afternoon. ('to be' + 'going
hours.
2. We shall/will go shopping to' + main form of the verb)
10. He will finish his
together during the holidays. I'm going to buy a new car
homework in twenty this year. ('to be' + 'going to'
minutes. + main form of the verb)
Note: 'Will' is used with
11. Jane will turn 18 this I am going to a party
all persons. 'Shall' can be
year. tommorrow night. (the
used instead of 'will' with
12. The wedding will take present continuous)
I/we. In modern English,
place on May 8th. The Tina is getting married next
particularly in American
ceremony will begin at 4pm, month. (the present
English, 'shall' with a future
followed by a meal and a big continuous)
reference is rarely used.
party.
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Negative form Note: In certain situations ! Note: 'Will' is used instead
we use 'will' to emphasize: of 'going to' when a formal
I SHALL + NOT style is required, particularly
we /SHAN'T/ + in the written language (See
13. You will drink your
WORK 12)
milk!
14. I will find a job.
I
1. I'll close the window.
you WILL + NOT
2. I'll have a cup of tea,
he/she/it /WON'T/ to express spontaneous
please.
we + WORK decision /
3. - The phone is ringing.
they to volunteer to do something
- I'll answer it.
(the action is decided at the
4. - Oops, I dropped my
I won't answer that moment of speaking)
pencil.
question.
- I'll pick it up.
They won't accept this
offer. to predict future events
(for example, to say what we
Interrogative form 1. I think it will rain. think or believe will happen),
2. The weather tomorrow we use both 'will' and 'going
To form interrogative will be sunny and warm. to'
sentences we use will with 3. I think David Brown will
all persons: be the next mayor of our ! But note that we use 'going
city. to' (not 'will') to make
WILL I WORK? 4. Everything will be fine. predictions about events
we 5. You are going to be a when there is a concrete
famous artist some day. evidence:
you 6. I think you are going to
WILL he/she/it WORK? marry a wrong person. Look at those dark clouds in
they the sky. It is going to rain
soon.
Will you open the window,
please? 1. I'll be there at 7 p.m., I
Will you do it for me? promise. to make promises or
2. I'll tell your parents what threats
Note: We use shall to you did.
make offers, ask for advices
1. Will you please help me
or suggestions, etc. (mainly
to do my homework? to request help or to offer
in British English)
2. That suitcase is too heavy. help
I’ll help you.
1. Shall I close the door?
2. Shall we go to picnic 1. I'll probably get there by with words and
tomorrow? my car. expressions such as:
3. Shall I study English? 2. You must read this book. probably, possibly,
I'm sure you'll like it. perhaps, (I'm) sure, (I)
'Shall' is also used as an 3. I expect Tom will pass expect
imperative in formal or legal his exam.

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1. If it begins to rain, I'll to talk about
certainly nead an umbrella. consequences (with if, when,
2. She will tell him when he provided, unless, as, as soon
calls. as, as long as, etc.)
1. I'll be in Athens
when the main verb is be
tomorrow.
even if we talk about planned
2. I'll be at a conference next
events
week.
More examples:
written statements:
1. Will you go shopping?
2. I will not permit that
1. The Chairman shall be
kind of behaviour.
present at the Company's
3. Will our theacher come
general meetings.
with us?
2. The accused shall be
Yes, he will. No, he
present during the trial.
won't.
4. Our teacher won't come
with us.




FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
1. How to make the Future Continuous Tense?

The Future Continuous is made with the future form of the verb "to be" (I will be,
you will be, he/she/it will be, we will be, you will be, they will be) + the '-ing' form
of the main verb. The '-ing' form of the verb is called the Present Participle.




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2. Contracted forms:

I will = I'll he/she/it will = he'll/she'll/it'll
you will = you'll
I will not = I won't he/she/it will not = he won't/she won't/it won't
you will not = you won't

we will = we'll they will = they'll
we will not = we won't they will not = they won't

Examples:

1. I'll be watching TV. 3. They'll be having a lunch.

2. She won't be swimming at the pool. 4. Will you be waiting for me?

3. Using the Future Continuous Tense.The most common use of the Future
Continuous Tense is to describe an activity that will occur in the future and
continue for a certain period of time. We can specify the time when the activity is
going to take place:

Examples:

Tom will be attending the conference next month.

They'll be shopping at the mall all afternoon.

I'll be working late at the office tonight.
We'll be flying over the Atlantic Ocean for three hours.
Tonight at 11 p.m, we will be dancing at the party.

- The Future Continuous is also used when we talk about an activity that will
continue over a period of time from now into the future (expresses an activity in
progress that started at the present moment or at some time around the present
moment):

Examples:
1. They'll be studying until 5 o'clock.
2. She'll be playing tennis until she gets tired.
3. Susan will be waiting for the bus 10 more minutes.

- We can use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future
will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future (in this case the shorter action in
the future is expressed with Present Simple):

Examples: 1. I'll be making dinner when he arrives tonight.
2. She'll be playing the piano when her parents come home.

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- We can also use the Future Continuous to project ourselves into the future and
see something happening:

Examples: 1. You'll recognize me when you get there. I'll be wearing jeans and a
white
t-shirt. I'll be sitting at a table at the corner and reading a newspaper.
2. This time tomorrow I'll be having dinner at one of the New York's finest
restaurants.

- The Future Continuous is used to talk about what we believe or guess is
happening at the moment of speaking (1) and (2) or will be happening at a particular
time in the future (3):

Examples: 1. Don't call him now, he'll be doing his homework.
2. I don't want to disturb them. Im sure they'll be cleaning their house at the
moment.
3. Please, don't come at 9 o'clock. she'll be sleeping at that time.

- We can also use the Future Continuous to talk about things that we expect to
happen in the usual course of events (the event is certain and will happen naturally):

Examples: 1. I will be seeing Ann tomorrow at the office. (we work together)
2. We will be meeting Mike at the festival this weekend.

-The Future Continuous is also used for predictions or expected trends in the
future:

Example: By 2030, most people in Africa will be living in urban areas.




- Sometimes we can use the Future Continuous to make polite enquiries, when we
wish to know what somebody's plans are:

Examples: 1. Will you be coming with me to the concert tonight?
2. Will you be going to the next meeting in December?


Remarks:
………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………


Date:………………………………….
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