Giáo án bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi anh văn lớp 9 - 2

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Giáo án bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi anh văn lớp 9 - 2

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  1. Verb forms English tenses Present Continuous * Examples He is sleeping. I am visiting grandpa in the afternoon. You are always coming late for the meetings! The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the moment of speaking. The Present Continuous also describes activities generally in progress (this means that they don't have to take place right now). Another use of the tense is to talk about temporary actions or future plans. * USES • Present actions • Temporary actions • Longer actions in progress • Future (personal) arrangements and plans • Tendencies and trends (xu hướng, khuynh hướng và chiều hướng) • Irritation (sự chọc tức; tình trạng bị làm phát cáu, tình trạng bị chọc tức­ phàn nàn) USE 1: Present Actions Most often, we use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking. Examples: He is eating a dinner. Mary is talking with her friends. They are swimming in the pool. Stative (State) Verbs There is a certain group of verbs that usually does not appear in the Continuous form. They are called Stative (State) Verbs, and if used in the Continuous form, they have a different meaning. Examples: I think you look pretty today! meaning: Opinion I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco! meaning: Act of thinking USE 2: Temporary Actions This tense is also used for activities continuing only for a limited period of time. Examples: - I'm riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. Temporary Action (His car will soon be repaired) - They are not talking with each other after the last argument. Temporary Action (They will soon make up) - Mary is working at McDonald's. Temporary Action (She is working there only during the summer holidays) USE 3: Longer Actions in Progress We also use the Present Continuous when we are in the middle of doing something time-consuming (i.e. something that takes time to complete). An example of such an activity is writing a book, saving money or studying for an exam. Examples: Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  2. -They are working hard to earn money. -I am training to become a professional footballer. -Mike is studying hard to become a doctor. -Elizabeth is currently writing a children's book titled I am the World. USE 4: Future (Personal) Arrangements and Plans Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to show that something is planned and will be done in the near future. Examples: -I'm meeting Katie in the evening. -He's flying to Rome in September. -We're not going anywhere tomorrow. USE 5: Tendencies and Trends This tense is also used for expressing tendencies or trends. Examples: -Our country is getting richer. -The Internet is becoming less of a novelty. -The Universe is expanding . USE 6: Irritation or Anger And the last use of this tense is to express irritation or anger over somebody or something in the present with adverbs such as: always, continually or contantly. Examples: -She is continually complaining about everything! -Johny is always asking stupid questions! -My boss is contantly critising me! Present Simple * Examples -John lives in New York. -We play football every day. -You are really kind. -The meeting starts at 3 PM The Present Simple is the most basic and common tense in the English language. Because of its easy form, it is the best tense to start learning/teaching English tenses. It is also an interesting tense because it can express both the present and the future. In the below list, there are 7 uses of this tense. It's a lot, but don't worry: most of them are easy to understand. *USE • Facts, generalizations and universal truths (tổng quát, khái quát) • Habits and routines • Permanent situations • Events that are certain to happen • Arrangements that we can't change (e.g. timetables, official meetings) • State verbs (e.g. be, have, suppose, know) • Narrations (e.g. telling a joke), instructions or commentaries *Note Apart from the above uses, this tense is also used in: Zero Conditional — If it rains, I go play football. First Conditional — We won't get our pocket money, if we don't pass this exam. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  3. In sentences after when, before, till, after, as soon as. ("Before you leave, please take the keys") USE 1: Facts, Generalizations and Univeral Truths We use the Present Simple to talk about universal truths (for example, laws of nature) or things we believe are, or are not, true. It's also use it to generalize about something or somebody. Examples: -Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius. Universal Truths -It is a big house. Facts -The Earth goes around the Sun. Universal Truths, Facts -Dogs are better than cats. Generalization -Berlin is the capital city of Germany. Facts -The Elephant doesn't fly. Facts -London is the capital city of France. Facts (REMEMBER: the sentence does not have to be true) USE 2: Habits and Routines We also used this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example: habits, routines, tendencies. Examples: -We leave for work at 7:30 AM every morning. Routine -My husband watches the TV in the evening. Habit, Routine -Susan often meets with her friends after school. Habit, Routine -They usually play football on Sunday. Habit, Routine -Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother. Tendency -Pinocchio usually told lies. Tendency Adverbs of Frequency The Present Simple is often used with the frequency adverbs: always frequently/often usually seldom/rarely nowadays never every week/year sometimes/occasionally from time to time every now and then A few examples how to use them in sentences: -I always go to church on Sundays. -I never eat anything after 10 PM. USE 3: Pernament Situations Use the Present Simple to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time. Examples: -I live in Boston -He works as a fireman. -Margaret drives a Volkswagen. -Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool. USE 4: Events Certain to Happen Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  4. Use the Present Simple when an event is certain to happen in the future. Examples: -My grandmother turns 100 this July. -Winter starts on 21 December. USE 5: State Verbs You should use the Present Simple with state verbs. Examples: -I like swimming. -We know this man. *Note Some of the verbs used in the simple form can also appear in the continuous form. This is typically when they have an active meaning or emphasize change. Examples: -I'm thinking of moving to San Francisco -I'm loving your new hairdo! USE 6: Future Arrangements Use the Present Simple to talk about events that we can't change (for example, an official meeting or a train departure). Examples: -The meeting starts at 4 PM. -The train leaves at the noon. -When does the plane take off? -Jerry doesn't teach maths at high school. USE 7: Narrations, Instructions or commentaries The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e.g. to tell a story or a joke), instructions (e.g. cooking) or commentaries (especially sport commentaries). Examples: A man goes to visit a friend and is amazed to find him playing chess with his dog. He watches the game in astonishment for a while [...] FORM Forming a sentence in the Present Simple is easy. To form a declarative sentence, all you need is the subject of the sentence (e.g. I, you, he, a dog) and the verb (e.g. be, talk, swim). Questions and negative sentences are only a little more difficult, because they require an auxiliary verb. Simple Present – Present Progressive • Form Simple Present Present Progressive infinitive form of 'be' and verb + ing (3rd person singular: infinitive + 's') I speak I am speaking you speak you are speaking he / she / it speaks he / she / it is speaking we speak we are speaking they speak they are speaking Exceptions Exceptions when adding 's' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' : For can, may, might, must, do not add s. Silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee) Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  5. Example: he can, she may, it must Example: come - coming After o, ch, sh or s, add es. but: agree - agreeing Example: do - he does, wash - she washes After a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant After a consonant, the final consonant y is doubled. becomes ie. (but: not after a vowel) Example: sit - sitting Example: worry - he worries After a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in but: play - he plays British English (but not in American English). Example: travel - travelling (British English) but: traveling (American English) Final ie becomes y. Example: lie - lying • Use In general or right now? Do you want to express that something happens in general or that something is happening right now? Simple Present Present Progressive in general (regularly, often, never) right now Colin plays football every Tuesday. Look! Colin is playing football now. present actions happening one after also for several actions happening at the same another time First Colin plays football, then he watches Colin is playing football and Anne is watching. TV. Signal words always at the moment every ... at this moment often today normally now usually right now sometimes Listen! seldom Look! never first then Note: The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present: be, have, hear, know, like, love, see, smell, think, want Timetable / Schedule or arrangement? Do you want to express that something is arranged for the near future? Or do you refer to a time set by a timetable or schedule? Simple Present Present Progressive action set by a timetable or schedule arrangement for the near future The film starts at 8 pm. I am going to the cinema tonight. Daily routine or just for a limited period of time? Do you want to talk about a daily routine? Or do you want to emphasis that something is only going on for a limited (rather short) period of time? Simple Present Present Progressive Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  6. daily routine only for a limited period of time (does not Bob works in a restaurant. have to happen directly at the moment of speaking) Jenny is working in a restaurant this week. Certain Verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present (not in the progressive form). state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit Example: We are on holiday. possession: belong, have Example: Sam has a cat. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He feels the cold. feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish Example: Jane loves pizza. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I believe you. Introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say Example: “I am watching TV,“ he says. Present Perfect *Examples -I have read this book. -The man has gone away. -John has worked as a teacher for over 25 years. The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment. *USE • Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now • Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment • Actions which began in the past and continue in the present USE 1: Indefinite time before now Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. It does not matter when exactly they happened. Examples: -I have already had a breakfast. -He has been to England. Remember You should not use this tense with time expressions like yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc. USE 2: Effect on the present moment We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment. Examples: -He has finished his work. (so he can now rest) -I have already eaten the dinner. (so I'm not hungry) -He has had a car accident. (that's why he is in the hospital) USE 3: Continuation in the present We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  7. Examples: - has worked as a teacher for over 25 years. -Patrick has achieved a lot in his life. For and Since Since and For are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect. We use For with a period of time, for example: I have lived here for 20 years. When talking about a starting point, we use Since, for example: I have lived here since 1960. *FORM To form a sentence in the Present Perfect, you need: The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have". The Past Participle of your verb. 1. Auxiliary Verb "to have" We conjugate the auxiliary verb "to have" the same way we would conjugate the normal verb "to have". Person Singular Plural First I have We have Second You have You have Third He/she/it has They have As you can see, the third person singular is irregular. More examples: She has never seen my brother. Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck. 2. The Past Participle The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The past participle can be either regular or irregular. The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb: Verb Past Participle talk talked explain explained use used deliver delivered include included achieve achieved The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. Therefore, they should be memorized. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  8. Verb Past Participle Learn more be been be become become become see seen see go gone go eat eaten eat grow grown grow Declarative Sentences Subject Auxiliary verb Past participle + + e.g. I/a has/have e.g. slept/taken/goneetc. dogetc. Examples Use (Use We have already had breakfast 1) (Use I have bought new shades 2) (Use I have already been to Paris 1) (Use John has been a plumber for 2 years 3) (Use Someone has just taken my bag! 1,2) (Use Jane has never been so angry 3) He has been our most serious partner for so (Use long that I can assure you he's a very 3) decent man Questions Auxiliary Subject Past participle verb + + e.g. I/a has/have e.g. slept/taken/goneetc. dogetc. Examples Use Have you ever seen this program? (Use 1) Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  9. Where has she lived for the past 21 years? (Use 3) Have you found the telephone number? (Use 1,2) Have you ever been to France? (Use 1) Has anyone taken my bag? (Use 1,2) Present perfect continuous Form of Present Perfect Progressive Positive Negative Question I / you / we / they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking? he / she / it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking? Exceptions in Spelling Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example final e is dropped come – coming (but: ee is not changed) (but: agree – agreeing) after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling final ie becomes y lie – lying Use of Present Perfect Progressive • puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours. • action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001. • finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon. Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week Present Perfect Simple – Present Perfect Progressive *Form Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of form of 'have' + been + verb + ing irregular verbs Example: Example: I / you / we / they have spoken I / you / we / they have been speaking he / she / it has spoken he / she / it has been speaking regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed Example: I / you / we / they have worked he / she / it has worked Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' : Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  10. when the final letter is e, only add d silent e is dropped. (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: Example: come - coming love - loved aber: agree - agreeing after a short, stressed vowel, the final after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant consonant is doubled is doubled Example: Example: sit - sitting admit - admitted after a vowel, the final consonant l is doubled in final l is always doubled in British English (not British English (but not in American English). in American English) Example: travel - travelling Example: final ie becomes y. travel - travelled Example: lie - lying after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - worried but: play - played *Use Both tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just finished. In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the Present Perfect Simple mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action. • Result or duration? Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Result (what / how much / how often) Duration (how long) I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London I have been writing for an hour. twice. • Certain verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form). state: be, have (for possession only) Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He has touched the painting. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I have known him for 3 years. • Emphasis on completion or duration? Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody spent his time)? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Emphasis on completion Emphasis on duration I have done my homework. (Meaning: My I have been doing my homework. (Meaning: homework is completed now.) That's how I have spent my time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.) • Result or side effect? Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  11. Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an unwanted side effect? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive desired result unwanted side effect I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the now.) car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.) • Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action? In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive since the last time since the beginning I haven't played that game for years. (Meaning: I haven't been playing that game for an hour, It's years ago that I last played that game.) only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.) • Permanent or temporary? If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency. Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive permanent temporary James has lived in this town for 10 years. James has been living here for a year. (Meaning: (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this This situation is only temporary. Maybe he is an town.) exchange student and only here for one or two years.) Signal words Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive how often how long ... times since for Simple Past (Past Simple) The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action. Form of Simple Past Positive Negative Question no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak? For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’ Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example after a final e only add d love – loved Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  12. final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit – admitted or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel – travelled final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried Use of Simple Past • action in the past taking place once, never or several times Example: He visited his parents every weekend. • actions in the past taking place one after the other Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down. • action in the past taking place in the middle of another action Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang. • if sentences type II (If I talked, …) Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you. Signal Words of Simple Past yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …) Past Progressive (Past Continuous) The past progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past. Form Positive Negative Question I / he / she / it I was speaking. I was not speaking. Was I speaking? you / we / they You were speaking. You were not speaking. Were you speaking? Exceptions in Spelling Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed) come – coming (but: agree – agreeing) after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling final ie becomes y lie – lying Use of Past Progressive • puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past Example: He was playing football. • two actions happening at the same time (in the past) Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes. • action going on at a certain time in the past Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang. Signal Words of Past Progressive when, while, as long as Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  13. Simple Past – Past Progressive • Form Simple Past Past Progressive irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular past form of 'be' + ing form of verb verbs I spoke I was speaking regular verbs: verb + ed you were speaking I worked he / she / it was speaking we were speaking they were speaking Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' : Exceptions when adding 'ing' : when the final letter is e, only add d. silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: love - loved Example: come - coming after a short, stressed vowel, the final but: agree - agreeing consonant is doubled after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant Example: admit - admitted is doubled final l is always doubled in British English (not Example: sit - sitting in American English) final l is always doubled in British English (not Example: travel - travelled in American English) after a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not Example: travel - travelling after a vowel) final ie becomes y. Example: worry - he worried Example: lie - lying but: play - he played • Use 1. After another or at the same time? Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time? Simple Past Past Progressive after another at the same time She came home, switched on the computer and Simon was playing on the computer while his checked her e-mails. brother was watching TV. 2. New action or already in progress? If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress. Simple Past Past Progressive new action action already in progress My mobile rang (when I was sitting in a While I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile meeting.) suddenly rang.) 3. Only mentioning or emphasising progress? Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time? Simple Past Past Progressive just mentioning emphasising progress Colin played football yesterday. Yesterday at six o'clock, Colin was playing football. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  14. 4. Certain Verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Past (not in the progressive form). state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit Example: We were on holiday. possession: belong, have Example: Sam had a cat. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He felt the cold. feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish Example: Jane loved pizza. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I did not understand him. introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say Example: “I am watching TV,“ he said. • Signal words Simple Past Past Progressive first when then while If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …) as long as Simple Past – Present Perfect Simple 1. Form Simple Past Present Perfect Simple irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of verbs irregular verbs Example: Example: I spoke I / you / we / they have spoken he / she / it has spoken regular verbs: infinitive + ed regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed Example: Example: I worked I / you / we / they have worked he / she / it has worked Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed': when the final letter is e, only add d Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel) Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  15. Example: worry - worried but: play - played 2. Use In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important. Note that the following explanations and exercises refer to British English only. In American English, you can normally use Simple Past instead of Present Perfect. We cannot accept this in our exercises, however, as this would lead to confusions amongst those who have to learn the differences. • Certain time in the past or just / already / yet? Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened? Simple Past Present Perfect Simple certain time in the past just / already / not yet Example: Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago. I have just phoned Mary. • Certain event in the past or how often so far? Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now? Simple Past Present Perfect Simple certain event in the past whether / how often till now Example: Example: He went to Canada last summer. Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice. • Emphasis on action or result? Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action's consequence in the present)? Simple Past Present Perfect Simple Emphasis on action Emphasis on result Example: Example: I bought a new bike. (just telling I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence I actually want what I did in the past.) to express that I have a new bike now.) 3. Signal Words Simple Past Present Perfect Simple yesterday just ... ago already in 1990 up to now the other day until now / till now last ... ever (not) yet so far lately / recently Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  16. Past Perfect Simple The past perfect simple expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past. 1. Form of Past Perfect Simple Positive Negative Question no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken? For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example after final e, only add d love – loved final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit – admitted or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel – travelled final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried 2. Use of Past Perfect action taking place before a certain time in the past  (putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration) Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack. Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past)  Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him. 3. Signal Words already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present)  If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, …)  Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  17. Simple Past – Past Perfect Simple 1.Form Simple Past Past Perfect Simple 2nd column of irregular verbs had + 3rd column of irregular verbs Example: Example: I spoke I had spoken regular verbs: infinitive + ed regular verbs: form of have + infinitive + ed Example: Example: I worked I had worked Exceptions Exceptions when adding ed: when the final letter is e, only add d  Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled  Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)  Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)  Example: worry - worried but: play - played 2. Use We use Simple Past if we give past events in the order in which they occured. However, when we look back from a certain time in the past to tell what had happened before, we use Past Perfect. Normal order in the past or looking back to an event before a certain time in the past? Do you just want to tell what happened some time in the past or do you want to tell what had happened before/up to a certain time in the past? Simple Past Past Perfect Simple some time in the past before/up to a certain time in the past Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  18. Example: Example: Jane got up at seven. She opened her Before her sixth birthday, Jane had never birthday presents and then the whole been to the zoo. family went to the zoo. 3. Signal Words Simple Past Past Perfect Simple first already then up to then before that day after* *Note: "After" is only used as a signal word for Past Perfect if it is followed by a subject + verb, meaning that one action had been completed before another action began (the new action is in Simple Past). Example: After the family had had breakfast, they went to the zoo. However, if "after" is followed by object + subject + verb, the verb belongs to the new action and is therefore in Simple Past. Example: After her visit to the zoo, Jane was exhausted. More exceptions with signal words When Depending on the situation, "when" can be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. Compare the following examples: Example: When Jane saw the elephants, she was amazed. (at the same time) When Jane had seen the elephants, she wanted to see the giraffes. (second action happened after the first action had been completed) When Jane went to see the elephants, she had already seen the lions. (second action had been completed when the first action took place) Before "Before" as well can either be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. If the action after "before" is a new action, use Simple Past. If the action after "before" started (and was not completed) before a certain time in the past, use Past Perfect. Compare the following examples: Example: Jane had read a lot about elephants before she went to the zoo. Jane went to the zoo before she had finished reading her new book about elephants. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  19. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE English does not have a verb form specifically used to express future tense. We have to choose from a variety of forms (using 'will'/'shall', 'going to', the present continuous, the present simple, etc.) to talk about future events. The future expressed with the modal auxiliaries will and shall + the base form of the verb is known as the future simple tense or 'will' future. Keep in mind, however, that 'will' doesn't always serve to indicate the future. We can use 'will' to talk about events happening at the present. (For example: This car won't start.) We use the Future Structure Examples Simple Tense: The future simple tense is to say that something will 1. I will finish my report composed of two parts: happen in the future. Adverbs later today. will/shall + base verb. Will of time that will indicate such 2. The sun will rise at 6:03 and shall are often tense may include, am. contracted to 'll. tomorrow, today, later 3. I'll go to the market today, in five minutes, in tomorrow. Affirmative form two hours, on Monday, on 4. There will be another Saturday afternoon, next conference next month. I + shall / week/month, this year, etc. 5. I'll come to see you on will + work Sunday. we ! Note that when we talk 6. We'll be back on Friday about prior plans, strong afternoon. you intentions or fixed 7. Tom will visit his parents he/she/it + will + work arrangements we do not next week. they normally use 'will': 8. They will paint the fence blue. 1. I shall/will write her I am going to meet him this 9. I will return in two tomorrow. afternoon. ('to be' + 'going hours. 2. We shall/will go shopping to' + main form of the verb) 10. He will finish his together during the holidays. I'm going to buy a new car homework in twenty this year. ('to be' + 'going to' minutes. + main form of the verb) Note: 'Will' is used with 11. Jane will turn 18 this I am going to a party all persons. 'Shall' can be year. tommorrow night. (the used instead of 'will' with 12. The wedding will take present continuous) I/we. In modern English, place on May 8th. The Tina is getting married next particularly in American ceremony will begin at 4pm, month. (the present English, 'shall' with a future followed by a meal and a big continuous) reference is rarely used. party. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
  20. Negative form Note: In certain situations ! Note: 'Will' is used instead we use 'will' to emphasize: of 'going to' when a formal I SHALL + NOT style is required, particularly we /SHAN'T/ + in the written language (See 13. You will drink your WORK 12) milk! 14. I will find a job. I 1. I'll close the window. you WILL + NOT 2. I'll have a cup of tea, he/she/it /WON'T/ to express spontaneous please. we + WORK decision / 3. - The phone is ringing. they to volunteer to do something - I'll answer it. (the action is decided at the 4. - Oops, I dropped my I won't answer that moment of speaking) pencil. question. - I'll pick it up. They won't accept this offer. to predict future events (for example, to say what we Interrogative form 1. I think it will rain. think or believe will happen), 2. The weather tomorrow we use both 'will' and 'going To form interrogative will be sunny and warm. to' sentences we use will with 3. I think David Brown will all persons: be the next mayor of our ! But note that we use 'going city. to' (not 'will') to make WILL I WORK? 4. Everything will be fine. predictions about events we 5. You are going to be a when there is a concrete famous artist some day. evidence: you 6. I think you are going to WILL he/she/it WORK? marry a wrong person. Look at those dark clouds in they the sky. It is going to rain soon. Will you open the window, please? 1. I'll be there at 7 p.m., I Will you do it for me? promise. to make promises or 2. I'll tell your parents what threats Note: We use shall to you did. make offers, ask for advices 1. Will you please help me or suggestions, etc. (mainly to do my homework? to request help or to offer in British English) 2. That suitcase is too heavy. help I’ll help you. 1. Shall I close the door? 2. Shall we go to picnic 1. I'll probably get there by with words and tomorrow? my car. expressions such as: 3. Shall I study English? 2. You must read this book. probably, possibly, I'm sure you'll like it. perhaps, (I'm) sure, (I) 'Shall' is also used as an 3. I expect Tom will pass expect imperative in formal or legal his exam. Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
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