Giáo trình: Marketing Management_ Chapter 05

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Giáo trình: Marketing Management_ Chapter 05

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Tài liệu giáo trình môn Marketing management_ Chapter " Organizational Buying Behavior", dành cho sinh viên bậc đại học, cao học đang theo học các ngành kinh tế, marketing...

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  1. Organizational Buying Behavior Chapter 5 5-1
  2. Key Learning Points The key differences between consumer and industrial marketing. Market segmentation for marketing to organizations. Understanding why organizational buyers make decisions. Understanding how organizations make purchasing decisions. The importance of knowing where and when such purchases are made. 5-2
  3. Product & Service Decisions “When a firm markets a product or service to another organization, it is called organizational marketing, industrial marketing, and since the Internet boom of the late 1990s, B-to-B (business-to-business) marketing.” - Russell S. Winer 5-3
  4. Organizational Buying Buying Centers – A group of individuals who are collectively involved in an organizational buying decision. – Key distinction between consumer and industrial purchase decision making as the dynamics of group decision making differ significantly from an individual’s decision-making process. 5-4
  5. Industrial vs. Consumer Marketing Key Differences Between Industrial and Consumer Purchasing Behavior – Demand is derived. – Industrial products are typically more complex than consumer goods. – Buyer-seller interdependence via the supply chain. – Industrial buying process is more complex. 5-5
  6. Product & Service Who Are the Customers? Decisions Segmentation Variables for Key Decisions Business Markets Operating Situational Variables Factors Purchasing Personal Approaches Characteristics Demographic 5-6
  7. Product & Service Who Are the Customers? Decisions Key Segmentation for Medical Decisions Equipment Manufacturer Number of Samples Processed Per Researcher Number of Many Researchers Many Researchers Few Samples Many Samples Researchers Using Equipment Few Researchers Few Researchers Few Samples Many Samples 5-7
  8. Who Are the Customers? Regardless of descriptors chosen, resulting segments must behave differently & desire different benefits. Organizations make different types of purchases, which can be classified into buy classes – Straight rebuys – Modified rebuys – New task purchases 5-8
  9. Who Are the Customers? Typical of frequently Buy Classes purchased routine items such as paper, Straight Rebuy toner, etc. Modified Purchase decision Rebuy complexity: simple New Task Time frame: short Purchase Number of suppliers considered: one 5-9
  10. Who Are the Customers? Routine purchases Buy Classes that have changed in some way (e.g., hard Straight Rebuy drive size, processor speed, amount of Modified computer RAM.) Rebuy Purchase decision New Task complexity: moderate Purchase Time frame: medium Number of suppliers considered: few 5 - 10
  11. Who Are the Customers? Expensive, seldom- Buy Classes purchased products (e.g. specialized Straight Rebuy consulting services) Modified Purchase decision Rebuy complexity: complex New Task Time frame: long Purchase Number of suppliers considered: many 5 - 11
  12. Who Are the Customers? Segmenting in Technology-Based Markets – Similar to consumers, some companies will be earlier adopters of new technologies than will be others. – Innovators are often used for beta testing, and can help new technologies be adopted. – However, the standard diffusion model must be modified for high-tech markets. 5 - 12
  13. Product & Service High-tech Decisionsinnovators to companies rely on help spread the word about new technology. Siebel uses endorsements from IBM, Bayer, and Avaya for their new CRM software in the ad at left. 5 - 13
  14. Who Are the Customers? Segmenting in Technology-Based Markets: The Chasm Model – The diffusion of innovations model indicates a smooth transition from one stage to the next. The Chasm Model recognizes this as a fallacy. • Gap between visionaries (early adopters) and pragmatists (early majority) is called the chasm. • Smaller gaps exist between other categories. 5 - 14
  15. Figure 5-2: The Chasm Model 5 - 15
  16. Who Are the Customers? Marketing Research Implications – Data Collection • Little primary research is conducted; judgment often replaces hard data. • Syndicated research and secondary sources of information are used most often. • Trade associations and consulting firms often provide data useful for segmentation purposes. • Figure 5.3 demonstrates behavioral data that may be useful for segmentation. 5 - 16
  17. Figure 5-3: Workstation Brand Mindshare Report 5 - 17
  18. Who Are the Customers? Marketing Research Implications – Developing Target Markets • Does the segmentation scheme explain differences in the behavioral variable of interest? • How many customers are there? • What is the forecasted growth rate? • Are there particular environmental factors associated with the segment that make it more or less attractive? • What is your potential competitive position? 5 - 18
  19. Why Do Customers Buy? Eight-step business-to-business purchase decision process: – Identify need – Determine characteristics – Establish specifications – Identify potential sources – Request proposals – Evaluate proposals – Select supplier – Make postpurchase evaluation 5 - 19
  20. Why Do Customers Buy? Need recognition phase varies: – New task purchase: • Company recognizes they must buy something new to solve problem or fill need. • Both external and internal parties stimulate need recognition. – Straight rebuy: • Need is triggered when inventory is low. – Modified rebuy: • Manager would be generally aware that different options are available but would need to research alternatives. 5 - 20
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