Giáo trình Toefl

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Tài liệu tham khảo Giáo trình Toefl . Danh từ đếm được có thể được dùng với số đếm do đó có hình thái số ít, số nhiều. Nó có thể dùng được dùng với a (an) và the. TOEIC, viết tắt của Test of English for International Communication, là một chứng chỉ tiếng Anh quốc tế về giao tiếp dành cho người đi làm không phải là nguoi sử dụng tiếng Anh làm tiếng mẹ đẻ. Danh...

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Nội dung Text: Giáo trình Toefl

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M cl c

Grammar Review .................................................................................................... 1
....................................................................................................
................................................................
1. Danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc (Count noun/ Non - count noun) ............................... 1
Qu¸n tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh "a" vµ "an" ......................................................................... 2
................................................................
.........................................
Qu¸n tõ x¸c ®Þnh "The"............................................................................................ 3
"The"............................................................................................
................................................................
C¸ch sö dông another vµ other................................................................................ 7
other. ...............................................................................
................................................................
C¸ch sö dông little, a little, few, a few ...................................................................... 8
................................................................
......................................
Së h÷u c¸ch ............................................................................................................ 9
............................................................................................................
................................................................
Verb...................................................................................................................... 11
Verb ................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
1) ..............................................................................................................................
................................................................
Present .............................................................................................................................. 11
1) Simple Present .........................................................................................................................11
2) Present Progressive (be + V-ing) .............................................................................................11
3) Present Perfect : Have + PII .....................................................................................................12
4) Present Perfect Progressive : Have been V-ing ......................................................................12
2. ................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................
Past ................................................................................................................................... 13
1) Simple Past: V-ed .....................................................................................................................13
2) Past Progresseive: Was/Were + V-ing .....................................................................................13
3) Past Perfect: Had + PII ..............................................................................................................14
4) Past Perfect Progressive: Had + Been + V-ing .......................................................................14
3. Future ................................................................................................................................
................................................................
Future ................................................................................................................................ 14
1) Simple Future: Will/Shall/Can/May + Verb in simple form.......................................................14
2) Near Future...............................................................................................................................15
3) Future Progressive: will/shall+verbing ......................................................................................15
4) Future Perfect: Whill/ Shall + Have + PII ..................................................................................16
Sù hßa hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ...................................................................... 17
hîp tõ......................................................................
................................................................
1. ................................................................
C¸c tr−êng hîp Chñ ng÷ ®øng t¸ch khái ®éng tõ ................................................................ 17
2. Ýt....................
C¸c danh tõ lu«n ®ßi hái c¸c ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i theo chóng ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.................... 17
3. No................................................................................................
..................................................................................................
C¸ch sö dông None vµ No .................................................................................................. 18
4. C¸ch sö dông cÊu tróc either...or (hoÆc...hoÆc) vµ neither...nor (kh«ng...mµ còng kh«ng) ... 18
neither...nor
5. V-ing lµm chñ ng÷ .............................................................................................................. 19
..............................................................................................................
................................................................
6. ............................................................................................................
................................................................
C¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ ............................................................................................................ 19
7. ................................................................
.........................................
C¸ch sö dông a number of, the number of: ......................................................................... 21
8. ................................................................
......................................................
C¸c danh tõ lu«n dïng ë sè nhiÒu ...................................................................................... 21
9. is, are..............................................................................................
................................................................
Thµnh ng÷ there is, there are.............................................................................................. 21
§¹i tõ .................................................................................................................... 24
....................................................................................................................
................................................................
1. ng÷)................................................................................................
................................................................
§¹i tõ nh©n x−ng (Chñ ng÷) ................................................................................................ 24
2. §¹i tõ nh©n x−ng t©n ng÷.................................................................................................... 25
§¹i ng÷....................................................................................................
................................................................................................




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3. ....................................................................................................................
................................................................
TÝnh tõ së h÷u .................................................................................................................... 25
4. ......................................................................................................................
................................................................
§¹i tõ së h÷u ...................................................................................................................... 25
5. .................................................................................................................
................................................................
§¹i tõ ph¶n th©n ................................................................................................................. 26
T©n ng÷ ................................................................................................................ 27
................................................................................................................
................................................................
1. ................................................................
............................................................
§éng tõ nguyªn thÓ lµ t©n ng÷ ............................................................................................ 27
2. ng÷................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
Verb -ing dïng lµm t©n ng÷................................................................................................. 27
3. biÖt................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
Bèn ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt........................................................................................................... 28
4. ................................................................
..............................................................
C¸c ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ .............................................................................................. 28
5. V-
VÊn ®Ò c¸c ®¹i tõ ®øng tr−íc ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ hoÆc V-ing dïng lµm t©n ng÷. ................. 29
C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ b¸n khiÕm khuyÕt ......................................................... 31
.........................................................
1. ................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................
Need .................................................................................................................................. 31
1) Dïng nh− mét ®éng tõ th−êng: ®−îc sö dông ra sao cßn tïy vµo chñ ng÷ cña nã ..................31
2) Need ®−îc sö dông nh− mét ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt .................................................................31
2. ................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................
Dare ................................................................................................................................... 32
1) Khi dïng víi nghÜa lµ "d¸m"......................................................................................................32
2) Dare dïng nh− mét ngo¹i ®éng tõ ............................................................................................32
C¸ch sö dông to be trong mét sè tr−êng hîp.......................................................... 33
hîp................................
..........................................................
C¸ch sö dông to get trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt............................................ 35
biÖt................................
............................................
1. .........................................................................................................................
................................................................
To get + P2 ......................................................................................................................... 35
2. V- V- ................................................................
.........................................
Get + V-ing = Start + V-ing: B¾t ®Çu lµm g× ......................................................................... 35
3. +V- ®Çu............................................................................
................................................................
Get sb/smt +V-ing: Lµm ai/ c¸i g× b¾t ®Çu............................................................................ 35
4. ...................................................................................................................
................................................................
Get + to + verb ................................................................................................................... 35
5. Get + to + Verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò hµnh ®éng) = Come + to + Verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò nhËn thøc) =
....................................................................................................................
................................................................
Gradually = dÇn dÇn .................................................................................................................... 35
C©u hái ................................................................................................................. 36
.................................................................................................................
................................................................
1. .................................................................................................................
................................................................
C©u hái Yes/ No ................................................................................................................. 36
2. ..............................................................................................................
................................................................
C©u hái th«ng b¸o .............................................................................................................. 36
a) Who/ what lµm chñ ng÷ ............................................................................................................36
b) Whom/ what lµm t©n ng÷ ..........................................................................................................36
c) C©u hái nh¾m vµo c¸c bæ ng÷: When, Where, How vµ Why....................................................37
3. ................................................................................................................
................................................................
C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp ................................................................................................................ 37
4. ..................................................................................................................
................................................................
C©u hái cã ®u«i .................................................................................................................. 37
Lèi nãi phô häa kh¼ng ®Þnh vµ phñ ®Þnh ................................................................. 39
®Þnh.................................................................
................................................................
1. Kh¼ng ®Þnh ......................................................................................................................... 39
.........................................................................................................................
................................................................
2. ®Þnh................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
Phñ ®Þnh ............................................................................................................................. 39
C©u phñ ®Þnh......................................................................................................... 41
®Þnh................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................
MÖnh lÖnh thøc ..................................................................................................... 43
.....................................................................................................
................................................................
§éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ............................................................................................ 44
khuyÕt............................................................................................
................................................................
C©u ®iÒu kiÖn ........................................................................................................ 45
........................................................................................................
................................................................



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1. ................................................................
...........................................
§iÒu kiÖn cã thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ........................................................................... 45
2. ................................................................
.....................................
§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ..................................................................... 45
3. ................................................................
....................................
§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø .................................................................... 45
C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ will, would, could, should sau if ..................................... 46
if................................
.....................................
Mét sè c¸ch dïng thªm cña if ................................................................................ 47
................................................................
................................................
1. .............................................................................................................
................................................................
If... then: NÕu... th× ............................................................................................................. 47
2. If dïng trong d¹ng c©u kh«ng ph¶i c©u ®iÒu kiÖn: §éng tõ ë c¸c mÖnh ®Ò diÔn biÕn b×nh
................................................................
.............................................................
th−êng theo thêi gian cña chÝnh nã. ............................................................................................. 47
3. If... should = If... happen to... = If... should happen to... diÔn ®¹t sù kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n (Xem
.........................................................
thªm phÇn sö dông should trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ) ......................................................... 47
4. ................................................................................................................
................................................................
If.. was/were to... ................................................................................................................ 47
5. If it + to be + not + for: NÕu kh«ng v×, nÕu kh«ng nhê vµo. .................................................. 47
vµo.................................
..................................................
6. Not ®«i khi ®−îc thªm vµo nh÷ng ®éng tõ sau if ®Ó bµy tá sù nghi ngê, kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n. .. 48
thªm
7. viÕt).................
It would... if + subject + would... (sÏ lµ... nÕu – kh«ng ®−îc dïng trong v¨n viÕt) ................. 48
8. If... –d have... –have: Dïng trong v¨n nãi, kh«ng dïng trong v¨n viÕt, diÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn
kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë qu¸ khø.......................................................................................................... 48
khø................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
9. .......................................................
If + preposition + noun/verb... (subject + be bÞ l−îc bá) ....................................................... 48
10. ®Þnh..................
If dïng kh¸ phæ biÕn víi mét sè tõ nh− any/anything/ever/not diÔn ®¹t phñ ®Þnh .................. 48
11. Adjective lµ)....................................................................................
................................................................
If + Adjective = although (cho dï lµ) .................................................................................... 49
C¸ch sö dông to Hope, to Wish. ............................................................................ 50
................................................................
............................................
1. ................................................................
.....................................................
§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë t−¬ng lai ..................................................................................... 50
2. ................................................................
.....................................
§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ..................................................................... 50
3. ................................................................
....................................
§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø .................................................................... 50
C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ as if, as though (gÇn nh− lµ, nh− thÓ lµ)........................... 52
lµ)...........................
Used to, to be/get used to...................................................................................... 53
to......................................................................................
................................................................
C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ would rather ................................................................... 54
dông ................................................................
...................................
1. ng÷................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
Lo¹i c©u cã mét chñ ng÷..................................................................................................... 54
2. ng÷................................................................................................
......................................................................................................
Lo¹i c©u cã hai chñ ng÷ ...................................................................................................... 54
a) Lo¹i c©u gi¶ ®Þnh ë hiÖn t¹i .......................................................................................................54
b) Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ...........................................................................55
c) Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø ..........................................................................55
C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ Would like....................................................................... 56
like.......................................................................
................................................................
C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë hiÖn t¹i ......... 57
tr¹ng
1. ....................................................
Could, May, Might + Verb in simple form = Cã lÏ, cã thÓ. .................................................... 57
2. form..............................................................................................
................................................................
Should + Verb in simple form .............................................................................................. 57
3. Must + Verb in simple form ................................................................................................. 57
.................................................................................................
................................................................
C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë qu¸ khø........ 59
khø ........
1. ................................................................
...........................................
Could, may, might + have + P2 = cã lÏ ®· ........................................................................... 59
2. ...................................................
Could have + P2 = LÏ ra ®· cã thÓ (trªn thùc tÕ lµ kh«ng) ................................................... 59




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3. V- ................................................................
......................................
Might have been + V-ing = Cã lÏ lóc Êy ®ang ...................................................................... 59
4. ................................................................
.............................................
Should have + P2 = LÏ ra ph¶i, lÏ ra nªn ............................................................................. 59
5. have ®·................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
Must have + P2 = h¼n lµ ®· ................................................................................................. 59
6. V- ................................................................
............................................
Must have been V-ing = h¼n lóc Êy ®ang ............................................................................ 59
C¸c vÊn ®Ò sö dông should trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ ................................... 60
...................................
TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ................................................................................................... 62
...................................................................................................
................................................................
§éng tõ nèi ........................................................................................................... 64
...........................................................................................................
................................................................
C¸c d¹ng so s¸nh cña tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ................................................................. 66
................................................................
.................................
1. .....................................................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh b»ng ..................................................................................................................... 66
2. ...............................................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh h¬n kÐm ............................................................................................................... 66
3. s¸nh ...................................................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh hîp lý ................................................................................................................... 68
4. biÖt................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
So s¸nh ®Æc biÖt................................................................................................................. 68
5. ...................................................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh ®a béi ................................................................................................................... 69
6. s¸nh .......................................................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh kÐp ....................................................................................................................... 69
7. ®·....................................................................
................................................................
CÊu tróc No sooner... than = Võa míi ... th× ®·... ................................................................. 70
8. vËt.........................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh gi÷a 2 ng−êi hoÆc 2 vËt ......................................................................................... 71
9. ...............................................................................................................
................................................................
So s¸nh bËc nhÊt ............................................................................................................... 71
Danh tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ ....................................................................................... 72
................................................................
.......................................................
Enough ................................................................................................................. 73
.................................................................................................................
................................................................
Mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ dïng Much & Many ........................................................ 74
........................................................
Ph©n biÖt thªm vÒ c¸ch dïng alot/ lots of/ plenty/ a great deal/ so víi many/ much. 76
Mét sè c¸ch dïng cô thÓ cña more & most ............................................................ 77
............................................................
C¸ch dïng long & (for) a long time ........................................................................ 79
................................................................
........................................
Tõ nèi ................................................................................................................... 80
nèi ...................................................................................................................
................................................................
1. of................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
Because, Because of.......................................................................................................... 80
Because of = on account of = due to ............................................................................................80
2. ................................................................
...........................................................
Tõ nèi chØ môc ®Ých vµ kÕt qu¶ ........................................................................................... 80
3. ................................................................
....................................................
Tõ nèi chØ nguyªn nh©n vµ kÕt qu¶. .................................................................................... 80
4. kh¸c. ................................................................
c.........................................................................
Mét sè c¸c tõ nèi mang tÝnh ®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c. ........................................................................ 81
C©u bÞ ®éng .......................................................................................................... 84
..........................................................................................................
................................................................
§éng tõ g©y nguyªn nh©n...................................................................................... 87
nh©n......................................................................................
................................................................
1. To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = Sai ai, khiÕn ai, b¶o ai lµm g× ............................... 87
2. ................................................................
........................................
To have/to get sth done = §−a c¸i g× ®i lµm ........................................................................ 87
3. ................................................................
...........................................
To make sb do sth = to force sb to do sth ........................................................................... 87
4. To make sb + P2 = lµm cho ai bÞ lµm sao............................................................................. 87
sao.............................................................................
................................................................
5. ................................................................
.....................................
To cause sth + P2 = lµm cho c¸i g× bÞ lµm sao ..................................................................... 87




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6. To let sb do sth = to permit/allow sb to do sth = ®Ó ai, cho phÐp ai lµm g×............................ 88
g× ............................
7. lµm ................................................................
........................................
To help sb to do sth/do sth = Gióp ai lµm g× ........................................................................ 88
8. ...............................................................................................................
................................................................
3 ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt ............................................................................................................... 88
C©u phøc hîp vµ ®¹i tõ quan hÖ thay thÕ ............................................................... 89
...............................................................
1. ................................................................
.............................................
That vµ which lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô ............................................................................. 89
2. ................................................................
..............................................
That vµ which lµm t©n ng÷ cña c©u phô .............................................................................. 89
3. ................................................................
...........................................................
Who lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô ........................................................................................... 89
4. ................................................................
.........................................................
Whom lµm t©n ng÷ cña c©u phô ......................................................................................... 89
5. buéc...........................................................................
................................................................
MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc vµ kh«ng b¾t buéc........................................................................... 90
1) MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc. ............................................................................................................90
2) MÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc ...................................................................................................90
6. phÈy .......................................
TÇm quan träng cña viÖc sö dông dÊu phÈy ®èi víi mÖnh ®Ò phô ....................................... 90
7. C¸ch sö dông All, Both, Some, Several, Most, Few + Of + Whom/ Which ........................... 91
8. ................................................................
..................................................
Whose = cña ng−êi mµ, cña con mµ. .................................................................................. 91
9. ..................................................................................................
................................................................
C¸ch lo¹i bá mÖnh ®Ò phô .................................................................................................. 91
C¸ch sö dông P1 trong mét sè tr−êng hîp .............................................................. 93
..............................................................
10. ................................................................
................................................
Dïng víi mét sè c¸c cÊu tróc ®éng tõ. ................................................................................ 93
11. dµi........................................................................
................................................................
P1 ®−îc sö dông ®Ó rót ng¾n nh÷ng c©u dµi ........................................................................ 94
C¸ch sö dông nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh (To have + P2) ................................. 95
.................................
Nh÷ng c¸ch sö dông kh¸c cña that ........................................................................ 96
................................................................
........................................
1. (r»ng) ................................................................
..........................................
That dïng víi t− c¸ch lµ mét liªn tõ (r»ng) .......................................................................... 96
2. ......................................................................................................................
................................................................
MÖnh ®Ò that ...................................................................................................................... 96
C©u gi¶ ®Þnh .......................................................................................................... 98
®Þnh................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
1. rather ..................................................................................................
................................................................
Dïng víi would rather that .................................................................................................. 98
2. ...............................................................................................................
................................................................
Dïng víi ®éng tõ. ............................................................................................................... 98
3. .................................................................................................................
................................................................
Dïng víi tÝnh tõ. ................................................................................................................. 98
4. C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi mét sè tr−êng hîp kh¸c ................................................................... 99
................................................................
...................................
5. ...............................................................................100
...............................................
C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi it + to be + time ...............................................................................100
Lèi nãi bao hµm................................................................................................... 102
hµm................................................................................................
...................................................................................................
1. also..........................................................................................................102
..........................................................................................................
Not only ..... but also ..........................................................................................................102
2. nh−.........................................................................................................102
.........................................................................................................
As well as: Còng nh− .........................................................................................................102
3. and......................................................................................................................103
......................................................................................................................
Both ..... and ......................................................................................................................103
C¸ch sö dông to know, to know how. ................................................................... 104
................................................................
...................................
MÖnh ®Ò nh−îng bé ............................................................................................ 105
................................................................
............................................................
1. Despite/Inspite
Despite/Inspite of = bÊt chÊp .............................................................................................105
.............................................................................................105
.............................................................
2. Although/Even though/Though = MÆc dÇu .........................................................................105
.........................................................................105
.........................................
3. However + adj + S + linkverb = dï cã .... ®i ch¨ng n÷a th× .... .............................................105
n÷a .............................................
.............105




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4. Although/ Albeit (more formal) + Adjective/ Adverb/ Averbial Modifier ................................105
................................105
................................................................
..........................................
Nh÷ng ®éng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn .......................................................................... 106
kh¸c.........................................................................
................................................................
Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt kh¸c......................................................................... 108
tõ..................................................................................
................................................................
Sù phï hîp vÒ thêi ®éng tõ .................................................................................. 109
................................................................
.................................................
C¸ch sö dông to say, to tell ................................................................................. 111
................................................................
...............................................
§¹i tõ nh©n x−ng one vµ you ............................................................................... 112
................................................................
.......................................................
Tõ ®i tr−íc ®Ó giíi thiÖu ....................................................................................... 113
....................................................
C¸ch sö dông c¸c ph©n tõ ë ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô .................................................... 114
tõ......................................................................................
................................................................
Ph©n tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ ...................................................................................... 117
1. Ph©n tõ 1(V-ing) ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng ®Çy ®ñ c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau: ..............117
1(V- ..............117
2. (V- sau:..............
..............117
Ph©n tõ 2 (V-ed) ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng ®Çy ®ñ c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau: ..............117
.............................................................................................................
................................................................
C©u thõa ............................................................................................................. 118
song.......................................................................................
................................................................
CÊu tróc c©u song song....................................................................................... 119
tiÕp.............................................................................
................................................................
Th«ng tin trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp ............................................................................. 120
1. ............................................................................................120
............................................................
C©u trùc tiÕp vµ c©u gi¸n tiÕp ............................................................................................120
tiÕp................................
........................................................
§éng tõ víi hai t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp ........................................................ 122
................................................................
...........................................................
Sù ®¶o ng−îc phã tõ ........................................................................................... 123
1. ...............................................................
...............................123
Mét sè c¸c d¹ng phã tõ ®Æc biÖt ®øng ë ®Çu c©u ...............................................................123
bµi ph¸p.............................
C¸ch lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi kh«ng ®óng trong bµi ng÷ ph¸p ............................. 126
1. ........................................................................126
........................................
KiÓm tra c¸c lçi ng÷ ph¸p c¬ b¶n bao gåm ........................................................................126
2. .....................................................................126
.....................................
Lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi mang tÝnh r−êm rµ: .....................................................................126
3. Ph¶i ch¾c ch¾n r»ng tÊt c¶ c¸c tõ trong c©u ®−îc chän ®Òu ph¶i phóc vô cho nghÜa cña bµi,
........................................................................................................
........................................................................127
®Æc biÖt lµ c¸c ng÷ ®éng tõ. ........................................................................................................127
4. Ph¶i lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi bao hµm tiÕng lãng, kh«ng ®−îc phÐp dïng trong v¨n viÕt qui
chuÈn .........................................................................................................................................127
.........................................................................................................................................127
.........................................................................................................
lÉn...................................................................................
................................................................
Nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn................................................................................... 128
mét .................................................
Phô lôc: mét sè nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn kh¸c: ................................................. 130
.................................................................................................................
................................................................
Giíi tõ ................................................................................................................. 133
........................................................................................................
................................................................
Ng÷ ®éng tõ ........................................................................................................ 136
Mét sè nguyªn t¾c thùc hiÖn bµi ®äc .................................................................... 138
®äc....................................................................
................................................................




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Grammar Review
Mét c©u trong tiÕng Anh bao gåm c¸c thµnh phÇn sau ®©y

SUBJECT - VERB AS PREDICATE - COMPLEMENT - MODIFIER
(OBJECT)

DIRECT INDIRECT

SUBJECT cã thÓ lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ, mét VERB_ING, mét ®¹i tõ,
song nhiÒu nhÊt vÉn lµ mét danh tõ. Chóng bao giê còng ®øng ë ®Çu c©u, lµm
chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ. V× lµ ®éng tõ nªn chóng liªn quan
®Õn nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò sau:

®−îc
1. Danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc (Count noun/ Non -
count noun)
Danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc: Dïng ®−îc víi sè ®Õm, do ®ã nã cã h×nh th¸i sè Ýt, sè
nhiÒu. Nã cã thÓ dïng ®−îc víi "a" vµ "the"
"the".
Danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc: Kh«ng dïng ®−îc víi sè ®Õm, do ®ã nã kh«ng cã
h×nh th¸i sè Ýt, sè nhiÒu. Nã kh«ng thÓ dïng ®−îc víi "a", cßn "the" chØ trong
mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt.
Mét sè danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc cã h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu ®Æc biÖt.
Mét sè danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc cã d¹ng sè Ýt/ sè nhiÒu nh− nhau chØ ph©n biÖt
b»ng cã "a" vµ kh«ng cã "a"
Ex: an aircraft/ aircraft; a sheep/ sheep; a fish/ fish.

Mét sè c¸c danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc nh− food, meat, money, sand, water ...
®èi khi ®−îc dïng nh− c¸c danh tõ sè nhiÒu ®Ó chØ c¸c d¹ng, lo¹i kh¸c
nhau cña danh tõ ®ã.
Ex: water -> waters (N−íc -> nh÷ng vòng n−íc)

Danh tõ "time" nÕu dïng víi nghÜa lµ "thêi gian" lµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc nh−ng
khi dïng víi nghÜa lµ "thêi ®¹i" hay "sè lÇn" lµ danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc.
Ex: Ancient times (Nh÷ng thêi cæ ®¹i) - Modern times (nh÷ng thêi hiÖn ®¹i)

B¶ng sè 1 trang 45 lµ c¸c ®Þnh ng÷ dïng ®−îc víi c¸c danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ
kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc.
ViÖc x¸c ®Þnh danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc lµ hÕt søc quan träng
vµ th−êng lµ b−íc c¬ b¶n më ®Çu cho c¸c bµi nghe/ ng÷ ph¸p cña TOEFL.




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Qu¸n tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh "a" vµ "an"

Dïng "an" tr−íc mét danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng:
o 4 nguyªn ©m A, E, I, O.
o 2 b¸n nguyªn ©m U, Y.
o Nh÷ng danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng "h" c©m (an heir/ an hour)
an
o Nh÷ng tõ më ®Çu b»ng mét ch÷ viÕt t¾t (an S.O.S/ an M.P)
an
o L−u ý: §øng tr−íc mét danh tõ më ®Çu b»ng "uni..." ph¶i dïng "a" (a a
university/
university/ a uniform)
Dïng "a" tr−íc danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng mét phô ©m.
§−îc dïng tr−íc mét danh tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh vÒ mÆt vÞ trÝ/ tÝnh chÊt/ ®Æc
®iÓm hoÆc ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn lÇn ®Çu tiªn trong c©u.
Dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ sè l−îng nhÊt ®Þnh nh−: a lot of/ a great deal
deal
of/ a couple/ a dozen.
Dïng tr−íc nh÷ng sè ®Õm nhÊt ®Þnh th−êng lµ hµng ngµn, hµng tr¨m nh−
a/ one hundred - a/one thousand.
Dïng tr−íc "half" (mét nöa) khi nã theo sau mét ®¬n vÞ nguyªn vÑn: a kilo
and a half, hay khi nã ®i ghÐp víi mét danh tõ kh¸c ®Ó chØ nöa phÇn (khi
viÕt cã dÊu g¹ch nèi): a half - share, a half - holiday (ngµy lÔ chØ nghØ nöa
ngµy).
Dïng víi c¸c ®¬n vÞ ph©n sè nh− 1/3 a/one third - 1/5 a /one fifth.
Dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ gi¸ c¶, tèc ®é, tØ lÖ: $5 a kilo, 60 kilometers
hour,
an hour, 4 times a day.
Dïng tr−íc c¸c danh tõ sè Ýt ®Õm ®−îc. trong c¸c th¸n tõ what a nice day/
such a long life.
A + Mr/ Mrs/ Ms + family name = mét «ng/ bµ/ c« nµo ®ã (kh«ng quen biÕt)




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Qu¸n tõ x¸c ®Þnh "The"

Dïng tr−íc mét danh tõ ®· ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt tÝnh chÊt, ®Æc
®iÓm, vÞ trÝ hoÆc ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn lÇn thø hai trong c©u.
The + danh tõ + giíi tõ + danh tõ
Ex: The girl in blue, the Gulf of Mexico.

Dïng tr−íc nh÷ng tÝnh tõ so s¸nh bËc nhÊt hoÆc only
only.
Ex: The only way, the best day.

Dïng cho nh÷ng kho¶ng thêi gian x¸c ®Þnh (thËp niªn): In the 1990s
The + danh tõ + ®¹i tõ quan hÖ + mÖnh ®Ò phô
Ex: The man /to whom you have just spoken /is the chairman

Tr−íc mét danh tõ ngô ý chØ mét vËt riªng biÖt
Ex: She is in the (= her) garden

The + danh tõ sè Ýt t−îng tr−ng cho mét nhãm thó vËt hoÆc ®å vËt
Ex: The whale = whales (loµi c¸ voi), the deep-freeze (thøc ¨n ®«ng l¹nh)

L−u ý: Nh−ng ®èi víi man khi mang nghÜa "loµi ng−êi" tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc
dïng "the"
the".
the"
Ex: Since man lived on the earth (kÓ tõ khi loµi ng−êi sinh sèng trªn tr¸i ®Êt
nµy)

Dïng tr−íc mét danh tõ sè Ýt ®Ó chØ mét nhãm, mét h¹ng ng−êi nhÊt ®Þnh
trong x· héi.
Ex: The small shopkeeper: Giíi chñ tiÖm nhá/ The top offcial: Giíi quan chøc
cao cÊp

The + adj: T−îng tr−ng cho mét nhãm ng−êi, chóng kh«ng bao giê ®−îc
phÐp ë sè nhiÒu nh−ng ®−îc xem lµ c¸c danh tõ sè nhiÒu. Do vËy ®éng tõ
vµ ®¹i tõ ®i cïng víi chóng ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu.
Ex: The old = The old people/ The unemployed/ The disabled are often very
hard in their moving

The + tªn c¸c vïng/ khu vùc ®· næi tiÕng vÒ mÆt ®Þa lý hoÆc lÞch sö
Ex: The Sahara (desert)/ The Siberia (tundra)/ The Normandic
The + East/ West/ South/ North + Danh tõ




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used as adjective
Ex: Ex: The North/ South Pole
(B¾c/ Nam Cùc)
Ex: Ex: The East End of London
(Khu ®«ng L«n §«n)
*Nh−ng kh«ng ®−îc dïng THE tr−íc c¸c tõ nµy nÕu nã ®i liÒn víi tªn
ch©u lôc hoÆc quèc gia: West Germany, North America...
The + tªn gäi c¸c ®éi hîp x−íng/ dµn nh¹c cæ ®iÓn/ ban nh¹c phæ th«ng
Ex: The Back Choir/ The Philharmonique Philadelphia Orchestra/ The Beatles.
The + tªn gäi c¸c tê b¸o (kh«ng t¹p chÝ)/ tµu biÓn/ c¸c khinh khÝ cÇu.
Ex: The Times/ The Titanic/ The Hindenberg

The + hä mét gia ®×nh ë sè nhiÒu = gia ®×nh nhµ
Ex: The Smiths = Mr/ Mrs Smith and children

Dïng tr−íc tªn hä cña mét ng−êi ®Ó x¸c ®Þnh ng−êi ®ã trong sè nh÷ng
ng−êi trïng tªn.
Kh«ng ®−îc dïng "the" tr−íc c¸c danh tõ chØ b÷a ¨n trong ngµy trõ c¸c
tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt.
Ex: We ate breakfast at 8 am this morning
Ex: The dinner that you invited me last week were delecious.

Kh«ng ®−îc dïng "the" tr−íc mét sè danh tõ nh− home, bed, church, court,
jail, prison, hospital, school, class, college, university v.v... khi nã ®i víi c¸c
®éng tõ vµ giíi tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng chØ ®i ®Õn ®ã v× môc ®Ých chÝnh hoÆc ra
khái ®ã còng v× môc ®Ých chÝnh.
Ex: Students go to school everyday.
Ex: The patient was released from hospital.

Nh−ng nÕu ®Õn ®ã hoÆc ra khái ®ã kh«ng v× môc ®Ých chÝnh b¾t buéc ph¶i
dïng "the".
Ex: Students go to the school for a class party.
Ex: The doctor left the hospital afterwork
*L−u ý: trong American English hospital vµ university ph¶i dïng víi THE:
Ex: He was in the hospital (in hospital as a patient).
Ex: She was unhappy at the university (at the university as a student).
Mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt
• Go to work = Go to the office.
• To be at work
• To be hard at work (lµm viÖc ch¨m chØ)
• To be in office (®−¬ng nhiÖm) To be out of office (§· m·n nhiÖm)
• Go to sea = ®i biÓn (nh− nh÷ng thñy thñ)
• Go to the sea = ra biÓn, th−êng ®Ó nghØ



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• To be at the sea: ë gÇn biÓn
• To be at sea (ë trªn biÓn) trong mét chuyÕn h¶i hµnh.
• go to town: §i vµo trung t©m/ §i phè - To be in town (ë trung t©m) khi
town lµ cña ng−êi nãi.
B¶ng sö dông "the" vµ kh«ng sö dông "the" trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®iÓn
h×nh
Cã "The" Kh«ng "The"
Dïng tr−íc tªn c¸c ®¹i d−¬ng, Tr−íc tªn mét hå
s«ng ngßi, biÓn, vÞnh vµ c¸c hå (ë Ex: Lake Geneva
sè nhiÒu)
Ex: The Red Sea, the Atlantic Ocean,
the Persian Gufl, the Great Lakes
Tr−íc tªn mét ngän nói
Tr−íc tªn c¸c d·y nói Ex: Mount Vesuvius
Ex: The Rocky Mountains Tr−íc tªn c¸c hµnh tinh hoÆc c¸c
Tr−íc tªn nh÷ng vËt thÓ duy nhÊt chßm sao
trong vò trô hoÆc trªn thÕ giíi Ex: Venus, Mars
Ex:
Ex: The earth, the moon
Tr−íc tªn c¸c tr−êng nµy nÕu tr−íc
The schools, colleges, universities nã lµ mét tªn riªng
+ of + danh tõ riªng Ex: Stetson University
Ex: The University of Florida
Tr−íc c¸c danh tõ ®i cïng víi mét
the + sè thø tù + danh tõ sè ®Õm
Ex: The third chapter. Ex: Chapter three


Tr−íc tªn c¸c cuéc chiÕn tranh khu
vùc víi ®iÒu kiÖn tªn khu vùc ®ã
ph¶i ®−îc tÝnh tõ ho¸
Ex: The Korean War (=> The Vietnamese
Vietnamese
economy)
Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc më ®Çu b»ng
Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc cã hai tõ trë lªn New, mét tÝnh tõ chØ h−íng hoÆc
(ngo¹i trõ Great Britain) chØ cã mét tõ
Ex: The United States Ex: New Zealand, North Korean,
France

Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc ®−îc coi lµ mét Tr−íc tªn c¸c lôc ®Þa, tØnh, tiÓu
quÇn ®¶o hoÆc mét quÇn ®¶o bang, thµnh phè, quËn, huyÖn
Ex: The Philipines Ex: Europe, Florida

Tr−íc tªn c¸c tµi liÖu hoÆc sù kiÖn
lÞch sö



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Ex: The Constitution, The Magna
Carta

Tr−íc tªn c¸c nhãm d©n téc thiÓu

Ex: the Indians Tr−íc tªn bÊt k× m«n thÓ thao nµo
Ex: baseball, basketball

Tr−íc c¸c danh tõ trõu t−îng (trõ
mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt)
Ex: freedom, happiness

Tr−íc tªn c¸c m«n häc nãi chung
Ex: mathematics
Tr−íc tªn c¸c m«n häc cô thÓ
Ex: The Solid matter Physics Tr−íc tªn c¸c ngµy lÔ, tÕt
Ex: Christmas, Thanksgiving




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C¸ch sö dông another vµ other.
Hai tõ nµy tuy gièng nhau vÒ mÆt nghÜa nh−ng kh¸c nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p.

Dïng víi danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc Dïng víi danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc
another + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Ýt =
mét c¸i n÷a, mét c¸i kh¸c, mét
ng−êi n÷a, mét ng−êi kh¸c.
the other + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Ýt
= c¸i cßn l¹i (cña mét bé), ng−êi
cßn l¹i (cña mét nhãm).
Other + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Other + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc =
nhiÒu = mÊy c¸i n÷a, mÊy c¸i mét chót n÷a.
kh¸c, mÊy ng−êi n÷a, mÊy ng−êi
kh¸c. The other + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm
The other + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè ®−îc = chç cßn sãt l¹i.
nhiÒu = nh÷ng c¸i cßn l¹i (cña mét
bé), nh÷ng ng−êi cßn l¹i (cña mét
nhãm).

Ex: I don't want this book. Please give me another.
(another = any other book - not specific)
I don't want this book. Please give me the other.
(the other = the other book, specific)

Another vµ other lµ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh trong khi The other lµ x¸c ®Þnh, nÕu chñ
ng÷ hoÆc danh tõ ®· ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn ë trªn th× ë d−íi chØ cÇn dïng Another
hoÆc other nh− mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ.
NÕu danh tõ ®−îc thay thÕ lµ sè nhiÒu: Other -> Others Kh«ng bao giê
Others.
®−îc dïng Others + danh tõ sè nhiÒu. ChØ ®−îc dïng mét trong hai.
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ng−êi ta dïng ®¹i tõ thay thÕ one hoÆc ones ®»ng
sau another hoÆc other
other.
L−u ý: This hoÆc That cã thÓ dïng víi one nh−ng These vµ Those kh«ng ®−îc
dïng víi ones.




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C¸ch sö dông little, a little, few, a few

kh«ng
Little + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc = rÊt Ýt, kh«ng ®ñ ®Ó (cã khuynh h−íng
phñ ®Þnh)
Ex: I have little money, not enough to buy groceries.

A little + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc = cã mét chót, ®ñ ®Ó
Ex: I have a little money, enough to buy groceries

Few + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè nhiÒu = cã rÊt Ýt, kh«ng ®ñ ®Ó (cã khuynh
h−íng phñ ®Þnh)
Ex: I have few books, not enough for reference reading

A few + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè nhiÒu: cã mét chót, ®ñ ®Ó
Ex: I have a few records, enough for listening.

Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp khi danh tõ ë trªn ®· ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn th× ë phÝa
d−íi chØ cÇn dïng little hoÆc few nh− mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ.
Ex: Are you ready in money. Yes, a little.

Quite a few (®Õm ®−îc) = Quite a bit (kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc) = Quite a lot (c¶
hai) = rÊt nhiÒu.




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Së h÷u c¸ch
The noun's + noun: ChØ ®−îc dïng cho nh÷ng danh tõ chØ ng−êi hoÆc ®éng
vËt, kh«ng dïng cho c¸c ®å vËt.
Ex: The student's book The cat's legs.

§èi víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu ®· cã s½n "s" ë ®u«i chØ cÇn dïng dÊu phÈy
Ex: The students' book.

Nh−ng ®èi víi nh÷ng danh tõ ®æi sè nhiÒu ®Æc biÖt kh«ng "s" ë ®u«i vÉn
ph¶i dïng ®Çy ®ñ dÊu së h÷u c¸ch.
Ex: The children's toys. The people's willing

NÕu cã hai danh tõ cïng ®øng ë së h÷u c¸ch th× danh tõ nµo ®øng gÇn
danh tõ bÞ së h÷u nhÊt sÏ mang dÊu së h÷u.
Ex: Paul and Peter's room.

§èi víi nh÷ng tªn riªng hoÆc danh tõ ®· cã s½n "s" ë ®u«i cã thÓ chØ cÇn
dïng dÊu phÈy vµ nhÊn m¹nh ®u«i khi ®äc hoÆc dïng së h÷u c¸ch vµ ph¶i
thay ®æi c¸ch ®äc. Tªn riªng kh«ng dïng "the" ®»ng tr−íc.
Ex: The boss' car = The boss's car [bosiz]
Agnes' house = Agnes's [siz] house.

Nã ®−îc dïng cho thêi gian (n¨m, th¸ng, thËp niªn, thÕ kØ)
Ex: The 1990s' events: nh÷ng sù kiÖn cña thËp niªn 90
The 21st century's prospects.

Cã thÓ dïng cho c¸c mïa trong n¨m trõ mïa xu©n vµ mïa thu. NÕu dïng
së h÷u c¸ch cho hai mïa nµy th× ng−êi viÕt ®· nh©n c¸ch ho¸ chóng. Ngµy
nay ng−êi ta dïng c¸c mïa trong n¨m nh− mét tÝnh tõ cho c¸c danh tõ
®»ng sau, Ýt dïng së h÷u c¸ch.
Ex: The Autumn's leaf: chiÕc l¸ cña nµng thu.

Dïng cho tªn c¸c c«ng ty lín, c¸c quèc gia
Ex: The Rockerfeller's oil products. China's food.

§èi víi c¸c cöa hiÖu cã nghÒ nghiÖp ®Æc tr−ng chØ cÇn dïng danh tõ víi
dÊu së h÷u.
Ex: In a florist's At a hairdresser's
§Æc biÖt lµ c¸c tiÖm ¨n: Antonio's




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Dïng tr−íc mét sè danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt chØ trong mét sè thµnh ng÷
Ex: a stone's throw from ...(C¸ch n¬i ®©u mét tÇm ®¸ nÐm).




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Verb
§éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh Chia lµm 3 thêi chÝnh:
Qu¸ khø (Past)
HiÖn t¹i (Present)
T−¬ng lai (Future)

Mçi thêi chÝnh l¹i chia thµnh nhiÒu thêi nhá ®Ó diÔn ®¹t tÝnh chÝnh x¸c cña
hµnh ®éng.

1) Present
1) Simple Present
Khi chia ®éng tõ thêi nµy ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt, ph¶i cã "s" ë tËn cïng vµ ©m dã
s"
ph¶i ®−îc ®äc lªn
Ex: He walks.
Ex: She watches TV

Nã dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng th−êng xuyªn x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i, kh«ng
x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ thêi gian, hµnh ®éng lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i cã tÝnh qui luËt.
Th−êng dïng víi mét sè c¸c phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh− today present day
today, day,
nowadays.
nowadays
§Æc biÖt nã dïng víi mét sè phã tõ chØ tÇn suÊt nh−: always sometimes
always, sometimes,
often, every + thêi gian...
often gian

Present V-
2) Present Progressive (be + V-ing)
Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë vµo mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh cña
hiÖn t¹i. Thêi ®iÓm nµy ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ b»ng mét sè phã tõ nh− :
now, rightnow, moment.
now rightnow at this moment
Dïng thay thÕ cho thêi t−¬ng lai gÇn, ®Æc biÖt lµ trong v¨n nãi.
§Æc biÖt l−u ý nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng sau kh«ng ®−îc chia ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn dï
bÊt cø thêi nµo khi chóng lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ tÜnh diÔn ®¹t tr¹ng th¸i c¶m gi¸c
cña ho¹t ®éng tinh thÇn hoÆc tÝnh chÊt cña sù vËt , sù viÖc. Nh−ng khi
chóng quay sang h−íng déng tõ hµnh ®éng th× chóng l¹i ®−îc phÐp dïng ë
thÓ tiÕp diÔn.

know believe hear see smell wish
understand hate love like want
sound
have need appear seem taste



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own

Ex: He has a lot of books.
He is having dinner now. (§éng tõ hµnh ®éng: ¨n tèi)
I think they will come in time
I'm thinking of my test tomorrow. (§éng tõ hµnh ®éng: §ang nghÜ vÒ)

3) Present Perfect : Have + PII
Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra tõ trong qu¸ khø kÐo dµi ®Õn hiÖn
t¹i vµ chÊm døt ë hiÖn t¹i, thêi diÓm hµnh ®éng hoµn toµn kh«ng ®−îc x¸c
®Þnh trong c©u.
ChØ mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra nhiÒu lÇn trong qu¸ khø kÐo dµi ®Õn hiÖn t¹i
Ex: George has seen this movie three time.
Dïng víi 2 giíi tõ SINCE/FOR+time
Dïng víi already trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh, l−u ý r»ng already cã thÓ ®øng
ngay sau have vµ còng cã thÓ ®øng ë cuèi c©u.
Dïng víi yet trong c©u phñ ®Þnh, yet th−êng xuyªn ®øng ë cuèi c©u.
Dïng víi yet trong c©u nghi vÊn
Ex: Have you written your reports yet?

Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ë phñ ®Þnh, yet cã thÓ ®øng ngay sau have nh−ng
ph¶i thay ®æi vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p: not mÊt ®i vµ PII trë vÒ d¹ng nguyªn thÓ cã
to.
to
Ex: John has yet to learn the material = John hasn't learnt the material yet.

Dïng víi now that (giê ®©y khi mµ...)
that...
Ex: Now that you have passed the TOEFL test successfully, you can apply...

Dïng víi mét sè phã tõ nh− till now untill now so far (cho ®Õn giê). Nh÷ng
now, now,
thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu c©u hoÆc cuèi c©u.
Ex: So far the problem has not been resolved.

Dïng víi recently lately (gÇn ®©y) nh÷ng thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu
recently,
hoÆc cuèi c©u.
Ex: I have not seen him recently.

Dïng víi before ®øng ë cuèi c©u.
Ex: I have seen him before.

V-
4) Present Perfect Progressive : Have been V-ing
Dïng gièng hÖt nh− Present Perfect nh−ng hµnh ®éng kh«ng chÊn døt ë
hiÖn t¹i mµ vÉn tiÕp tôc tiÕp diÔn, th−êng xuyªn dïng víi since for + time
since,
Ph©n biÖt c¸ch dïng gi÷a hai thêi:



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Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive
Hµnh ®éng ®· chÊm døt ë hiÖn t¹i do Hµnh ®éng vÉn tiÕp diÔn ë hiÖn t¹i,
®ã ®· cã kÕt qu¶ râ rÖt. cã kh¶ n¨ng lan tíi t−¬ng lai do ®ã
Ex I've waited you for half an hour (and
Ex: kh«ng cã kÕt qu¶ râ rÖt.
now I stop working because you didn't Ex: I've been waiting for you for half an
come). hour (and now I'm still waiting, hoping
that you'll come)


2. Past
V-
1) Simple Past: V-ed
Mét sè ®éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh cã c¶ d¹ng Simple Past vµ Past Perfect
b×nh th−êng còng nh− ®Æc biÖt. Ng−êi Anh −a dïng Simple past chia b×nh
th−êng vµ P2 ®Æc biÖt lµm adj hoÆc trong d¹ng bÞ ®éng
Ex: To light
lighted/lighted: He lighted the candles in his birthday cake.
lighted/lighted
lit/ lit: From a distance we can see the lit restaurant.
lit

Nã diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng ®· x¶y ra ®øt ®iÓm trong qu¸ khø, kh«ng liªn
quan g× tíi hiÖn t¹i, thêi diÓm trong c©u ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh râ rÖt b»ng mét sè
c¸c phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh− yesterday at that moment last + time
yesterday, moment,

V-
2) Past Progresseive: Was/Were + V-ing
Nã dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra ë vµo mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt
®Þnh cña qu¸ khø. Thêi diÓm ®ã ®−îc diÔn ®¹t cô thÓ = ngµy, giê.
Nã dông kÕt hîp víi mét simple past th«ng qua 2 phã tõ chØ thêi gian lµ
when vµ while ®Ó chØ mét hµnh ®éng ®ang tiÕp diÔn trong qu¸ khø th× mét
while,
hµnh ®éng kh¸c chen ngang vµo (khi ®ang... th× bçng...).

Subject + Simple Past – while - Subject + Past
Progressive
Ex: Smb hit him on the head while he was walking to his car

Subject + Past Progressive - when - Subject + Simple
Past1
Ex: He was walking to his car when Smb hit him on the head

MÖnh ®Ò cã when & while cã thÓ ®øng bÊt k× n¬i nµo trong c©u nh−ng sau
when ph¶i lµ simple past vµ sau while ph¶i lµ Past Progressive
Progressive.
Nã diÔn ®¹t 2 hµnh ®éng ®ang cïng lóc x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø.



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Subject + Past Progressive - while - Subject + Past
Progressive
Ex Her husband was reading newspaper while she was preparing dinner.
Ex:

MÖnh ®Ò hµnh ®éng kh«ng cã while cã thÓ ë simple past nh−ng Ýt khi v× dÔ
bÞ nhÇm lÉn.

3) Past Perfect: Had + PII
Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra tr−íc mét hµnh ®éng kh¸c trong
qu¸ khø, trong c©u bao giê còng cã 2 hµnh ®éng
Dïng kÕt hîp víi mét simple past th«ng qua 2 phã tõ chØ thêi gian after vµ
before.
before

Subject + Simple Past after Subject + Past Per fect
Subject + Past Per fect befor e Subject + Simple Past

L−u ý
• MÖnh ®Ò cã after & before cã thÓ ®øng ë ®Çu hoÆc cuèi c©u nh−ng sau
after ph¶i lµ past perfect cßn sau before ph¶i lµ simple past
past.
• Before & After cã thÓ ®−îc thay b»ng when mµ kh«ng sî bÞ nhÇm lÉn v×
trong c©u bao giê còng cã 2 hµnh ®éng, 1 tr−íc, 1 sau.
Ex The police came when the robber had gone away.
Ex:

V-
4) Past Perfect Progressive: Had + Been + V-ing
Dïng gièng hÖt nh− Past Perfect duy cã ®iÒu ho¹t ®éng diÔn ra liªn tôc cho
®Õn tËn Simple Past Nã th−êng kÕt hîp víi Simple Past th«ng qua phã tõ
Past.
Before.
Before Trong c©u th−êng xuyªn cã since for + time
since,
L−u ý: Thêi nµy ngµy nay Ýt dïng, ng−êi ta thay thÕ nã b»ng Past Perfect vµ
ý:
chØ dïng khi nµo cÇn ®iÔn ®¹t tÝnh chÝnh x¸c cña hµnh ®éng.


3. Future
1) Simple Future: Will/Shall/Can/May + Verb in simple form
Ngµy nay ng÷ ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i, ®Æc biÖt lµ ng÷ ph¸p MÜ chÊp nhËn viÖc dïng will
cho tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i, cßn shall chØ dïng víi c¸c ng«i I, we trong mét sè tr−êng
hîp nh− sau:
§−a ra ®Ò nghÞ mét c¸ch lÞch sù
Ex Shall I take you coat?
Ex:




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Dïng ®Ó mêi ng−êi kh¸c mét c¸ch lÞch sù:
Ex Shall we go out for lunch?
Ex:

Dïng ®Ó ng· gi¸ trong khi mÆc c¶, mua b¸n:
Ex Shall we say : $ 50
Ex:

Th−êng ®−îc dïng víi 1 v¨n b¶n mang tÝnh ph¸p qui buéc c¸c bªn ph¶i thi
hµnh ®iÒu kho¶n trong v¨n b¶n:
Ex All the students shall be responsible for proper execution of the dorm rule
Ex:

Trong tiÕng Anh b×nh d©n , ng−êi ta thay shall = must ë d¹ng c©u nµy.
Nã dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra ë mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh
trong t−¬ng lai nh−ng kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ. Th−êng dïng víi mét sè phã
tõ chØ thêi gian nh− tomorrow next + time in the future in future = from
tomorrow, time, future,
on.
now on

2) Near Future
DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra trong t−¬ng lai gÇn, th−êng dïng víi c¸c
phã tõ d−íi d¹ng: In a moment (l¸t n÷a), At 2 o'clock this afternoon....
Ex We are going to have a reception in a moment
Ex:

Nã chØ 1 viÖc ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ph¶i x¶y ra theo nh− dù tÝnh cho dï thêi gian lµ
t−¬ng lai xa.
Ex We are going to take a TOEFL test next year.
Ex:

Ngµy nay ng−êi ta th−êng dïng present progressive
progressive.

3) Future Progressive: will/shall + be + verbing
DiÔn ®¹t mét ®iÒu sÏ x¶y ra trong t−¬ng lai ë vµo mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh
Ex: At 8:00 am tomorrow morning we will be attending the lecture.
Ex: Good luck with the exam! We will be thinking of you.
Dïng kÕt hîp víi present progressive kh¸c ®Ó diÔn ®¹t hai hµnh ®éng ®ang
song song x¶y ra. Mét ë hiÖn t¹i, cßn mét ë t−¬ng lai.
Ex: Now we are learning English here, but by the time tomorrow we will be

attending the meeting at the office.

§−îc dïng ®Ó ®Ò cËp ®Õn c¸c sù kiÖn t−¬ng lai ®· ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh hoÆc
quyÕt ®Þnh (kh«ng mang ý nghÜa tiÕp diÔn).
Ex: Professor Baxter will be giving another lecture on Roman glass – making
at the same time next week.




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HoÆc nh÷ng sù kiÖn ®−îc mong ®îi lµ sÏ x¶y ra theo mét tiÕn tr×nh th−êng
lÖ (nh−ng kh«ng diÔn ®¹t ý ®Þnh cña c¸ nh©n ng−êi nãi).
Ex: You will be hearing from my solicitor.
Ex: I will be seeing you one of these days, I expect.
Dù ®o¸n cho t−¬ng lai:
Ex: Don–t phone now, they will be having dinner.
DiÔn ®¹t lêi ®Ò nghÞ nh· nhÆn muèn biÕt vÒ kÕ ho¹ch cña ng−êi kh¸c
Ex: You will be staying in this evening.
(«ng cã dù ®Þnh ë l¹i ®©y tèi nay chø ¹)

4) Future Perfect: Whill/ Shall + Have + PII
ChØ mét hµnh ®éng sÏ ph¶i ®−îc hoµn tÊt ë vµo mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh
trong t−¬ng lai. Nã th−êng ®−îc dïng víi phã tö chØ thêi gian d−íi d¹ng
By the end of....., By the time + sentence
Ex We will have accomplished the TOEFL test taking skills by the end of next
Ex:
year.
Ex By the time Halley's Comet comes racing across the night sky again, most
Ex:
of the people alive today will have passed away.




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Sù hßa hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ

Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh, th«ng th−êng th× chñ ng÷ ®øng liÒn ngay víi ®éng tõ
vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ nh−ng kh«ng ph¶i lu«n lu«n nh− vËy.

1. C¸c tr−êng hîp Chñ ng÷ ®øng t¸ch khái ®éng tõ
Xen vµo gi÷a lµ mét ng÷ giíi tõ (mét giíi tõ më ®Çu céng c¸c danh tõ theo
sau). C¸c ng÷ giíi tõ nµy kh«ng hÒ cã quyÕt ®Þnh g× tíi viÖc chia ®éng tõ,
®éng tõ ph¶i chia theo chñ ng÷ chÝnh.
C¸c thµnh ng÷ ë b¶ng sau cïng víi c¸c danh tõ ®i theo sau nã t¹o nªn
hiÖn t−êng ®ång chñ ng÷. Nã sÏ ®øng xen vµo gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ,
t¸ch ra khái gi÷a 2 thµnh phÇn ®ã = 2 dÊu ph¶y vµ kh«ng cã ¶nh h−ëng g×
®Õn viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
Ex: The actrees, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a
party tonight.

Together with along with accompanied by as well as

NÕu 2 danh tõ lµm chñ ng÷ nèi víi nhau b»ng and th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia
ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu (they
they)
they
Nh−ng nÕu 2 ®ång Chñ ng÷ nèi víi nhau b»ng or th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia theo
danh tõ ®øng sau or NÕu danh tõ ®ã lµ sè Ýt th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia ng«i thø
or.
3 sè Ýt vµ ng−îc l¹i.
Ex: The actress or her manager is going to answer the interview.

2. C¸c danh tõ lu«n ®ßi hái c¸c ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i theo chóng
ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt
§ã lµ c¸c danh tõ ë b¶ng sau (cßn gäi lµ c¸c ®¹i tõ phiÕm chØ).
any + no + some +
singular noun singular noun singular noun
anybody nobody somebody
anyone no one someone
anything nothing something

every + singular noun each + singular noun
everybody
everyone either *
everything neither*
*Either and neither are singular if thay are not used with or and nor



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Ex: either (1 trong 2) chØ dïng cho 2 ng−êi hoÆc 2 vËt. NÕu 3 ng−êi (vËt) trë
lªn ph¶i dïng any.
Ex: neither (kh«ng mét trong hai) chØ dïng cho 2 ng−êi, 2 vËt. NÕu 3 ng−êi trë
(
lªn dïng not any.

Ex: Neither of his chutes opens as he plummets to the ground
Ex: Not any of his pens is able to be used.


3. C¸ch sö dông None vµ No
NÕu sau None of the lµ mét danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc th× ®éng tõ ph¶i ë
ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt. Nh−ng nÕu sau nã lµ mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ ph¶i
chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu.

non-
none + of the + non -count noun + singular ver b

none + of the + plur al count noun + plur al ver b



Ex: None of the counterfeit money has been found.
Ex: None of the students have finished the exam yet.

NÕu sau No lµ mét danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Ýt hoÆc kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc th× ®éng
tõ ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt nh−ng nÕu sau nã lµ mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng
tõ ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu

noun/non-
no + {singular noun/non -count noun} + singular ver b

no + plur al noun + plur al ver b

Ex: No example is relevant to this case.

4. C¸ch sö dông cÊu tróc either...or (hoÆc...hoÆc) vµ
neither...nor (kh«ng...mµ còng kh«ng)
§iÒu cÇn l−u ý nhÊt khi sö dông cÊu tróc nµy lµ ®éng tõ ph¶i chia theo danh
tõ ®i sau or hoÆc nor NÕu danh tõ ®ã lµ sè Ýt th× déng tõ ®ã chia ë ng«i thø
nor.
3 sè Ýt vµ ng−îc l¹i.




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neither nor
+ noun + + plural noun + plural verb
either or

neither nor
either + noun + or
+ singular noun + singular verb



Ex: Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach today.
Ex: Either John or his friends are going to the beach today.
Ex: Neither the boys nor Carmen has seen this movie before.
Ex: Either John or Bill is going to the beach today.

5. V-ing lµm chñ ng÷
Khi V-ing dïng lµm chñ ng÷ th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt
Ng−êi ta sÏ dïng V-ing khi muèn diÔn ®¹t 1 hµnh ®éng cô thÓ x¶y ra nhÊt
thêi nh−ng khi muèn diÔn ®¹t b¶n chÊt cña sù vËt, sù viÖc th× ph¶i dïng
danh tõ
Ex: Dieting is very popular today.
Ex: Diet is for those who suffer from a cerain disease.

§éng tõ nguyªn thÓ còng cã thÓ dïng lµm chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ sau nã sÏ
chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt. Nh−ng ng−êi ta th−êng dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ it ®Ó më
®Çu c©u.
Ex: To find the book is necessary for him = It is necessary for him to find the
book.

6. C¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ
§ã lµ c¸c danh tõ ë b¶ng sau dïng ®Ó chØ 1 nhãm ng−êi hoÆc 1 tæ chøc
nh−ng trªn thùc tÕ chóng lµ nh÷ng danh tõ sè Ýt, do vËy c¸c d¹i tõ vµ ®éng
tõ theo sau chóng còng ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.

Congress family group committee
class
Organization team army club
crowd
Government jury majority* minority public

Ex: The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal.




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Tuy nhiªn nÕu ®éng tõ sau nh÷ng danh tõ nµy chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu th×
c©u ®ã ¸m chØ c¸c thµnh viªn trong nhãm ®ang ho¹t ®éng riªng rÏ:
Ex: Congress votes for the bill.
*(Congress are discussing about the bill. (some agree, some
disagree)).(TOEFL kh«ng b¾t lçi nµy).
Danh tõ the majority ®−îc dïng tuú theo thµnh phÇn sau nã ®Ó chia ®éng tõ
the major ity + singular ver b

the major ity of the + plur al noun + plur al ver b


Ex: The majority believes that we are in no danger.
Ex: The majority of the students believe him to be innocent.

the police/sheep/fish + plural verb
Ex: The sheep are breaking away
Ex: The police come only to see the dead bodies and a ruin in the bank

a couple + singular verb
Ex: A couple is walking on the path

The couple + plural verb
Ex: The couple are racing their horses through the meadow.

C¸c côm tõ ë b¶ng sau chØ mét nhãm ®éng vËt hoÆc gia sóc. cho dï sau
giíi tõ of lµ danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ vÉn chia theo ng«i chñ ng÷ chÝnh –
ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.

flock of birds, sheep school of
fish
herd of cattle pride of
lions
pack of dogs

Ex: The flock of birds is circling overhead.

TÊt c¶ c¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ chØ thêi gian, tiÒn b¹c, sè ®o ®Òu ®−îc xem lµ 1
danh tõ sè Ýt. Do ®ã c¸c ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ theo sau chóng ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3
sè Ýt.
Ex: 25 dollars is too much....




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*Note: He has contributed $50, and now he wants to contribute another 50.

7. C¸ch sö dông a number of, the number of:
A number of = mét sè lín nh÷ng... nÕu ®i víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ
chia ë ng«i thø ba sè nhiÒu.

a number of + plur al noun + plur al ver b

Ex: A number of students are going to the class picnic (a number of = many).

Nh−ng the number of = mét sè... ®−îc coi lµ mét tæng thÓ sè Ýt, do ®ã cho
dï sau nã lµ mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ vÉn ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè
Ýt.

the number of + plur al noun + singular ver b...

Ex: The number of days in a week is seven.

8. dïng
C¸c danh tõ lu«n dïng ë sè nhiÒu
B¶ng sau lµ nh÷ng danh tõ bao giê còng ë h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu v× chóng bao
g«m 2 thùc thÓ nªn c¸c ®¹i tõ vµ ®éng tõ ®i cïng víi chóng còng ph¶i ë sè
nhiÒu.
Scissors shorts Pants jeans tongs
Trousers eyeglasses Pliers tweezers

NÕu muèn chóng thµnh ng«i sè Ýt ph¶i dïng a pair of
of...
Ex: The pants are in the drawer.
Ex: A pair of pants is in the drawer.

9. Thµnh ng÷ there is, there are
Thµnh ng÷ nµy chØ sù tån t¹i cña ng−êi hoÆc vËt t¹i mét n¬i nµo ®ã. Chñ
ng÷ thËt cña thµnh ng÷ nµy lµ danh tõ ®i sau. NÕu nã lµ danh tõ sè Ýt th×
®éng tõ to be chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt vµ ng−îc l¹i.
Mäi biÕn ®æi vÒ thêi vµ thÓ ®Òu n»m ë to be cßn there gi÷ nguyªn.
Ex: There has been an increase in the importation of foreign cars.
Ex: There have been a number of telephone calls today.

L−u ý c¸c cÊu tróc: there is certain/ sure/ likely/ bound to be: Ch¾c ch¾n lµ
sÏ cã
Ex: There is sure to be trouble when she gets his letter



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(Ch¾c ch¾n lµ sÏ cã r¾c rèi khi c« Êy nhËn ®−îc th− anh ta)
Ex: Do you think there is likely to be snow
(Anh cho r»ng ch¾c ch¾n sÏ cã tuyÕt chø)

Trong d¹ng tiÕng Anh quy chuÈn hoÆc v¨n ch−¬ng mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ
kh¸c ngoµi to be còng ®−îc sö dông víi there.
• §éng tõ tr¹ng th¸i: Stand/ lie/ remain/ exist/ live
• §éng tõ chØ sù ®Õn: enter/ go/ come/ follow

of state
Ther e + ver b + noun as subject
of ar r ival


Ex: In a small town in Germany there once lived a poor shoemaker
(T¹i mét thÞ trÊn xÐp ë §øc ®· tõng cã mét «ng thî giµy nghÌo sèng ë
®ã)
Ex: There remains nothing more to be done
(Ch¶ cßn cã g× ë ®ã n÷a mµ lµm)
Ex: Suddenly there entered a strange figure dressed all in black
(Bçng cã mét h×nh bãng k× l¹ ®i vµo mÆc toµn ®å ®en)
Ex: There followed an uncomfortable silence
(Mét sù im lÆng ®Õn bÊt tiÖn tiÕp theo sau ®ã)

There + subject pronoun + go/ come/ be: k×a/ thÕ lµ/ råi th×
Ex: There he comes
(Anh ta ®· ®Õn råi kia k×a)
Ex: There you are, I have been waiting for you for over an hour
(Anh ®©y råi, t«i ®ang chê anh ®Õn h¬n mét tiÕng råi ®Êy)

There + be + name of people : Th× cã .. .. ®Êy th«i .. Nh»m ®Ó gîi ta sù chó
ý ®Õn
There + be + always + noun: Th× lóc nµo ch¶ cã .. mét gi¶i ph¸p kh¶ dÜ cho
1 vÊn ®Ò
Ex: Whom could we ask ? Well, there is James, or Miranda, or Ann, or Sue...
Ex: Where can he sleep/_ Well, there is always the attic

There was this + noun: ChÝnh lµ c¸i ... nµy ®Êy (®Ó më ®Çu cho mét c©u
chuyÖn)
Ex: There was this man, see, and he could not get up in the morning. So he
...



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(Nµy, chÝnh lµ c¸i anh chµng nµy ®Êy, anh ta kh«ng dËy ®−îc buæi s¸ng.
ThÕ lµ anh ta...

There (lµm tÝnh tõ) chÝnh c¸i/ con/ ng−êi Êy
Ex: Give that book there, please
Lµm ¬n ®−a cho t«i chÝnh cuèn s¸ch Êy
That there dog: ChÝnh con chã Êy ®Êy
That there girl, she broke two records of speed (ChÝnh c« g¸i Êy ®Êy, c«
ta ®· ph¸ hai kØ lôc vÒ tèc ®é)




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§¹i tõ
Chia lµm 5 lo¹i víi c¸c chøc n¨ng sö dông kh¸c nhau.


ng÷)
1. §¹i tõ nh©n x−ng (Chñ ng÷)

I we
you you
he
she they
it

§øng ®Çu c©u, lµm chñ ng÷, quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ
§øng sau ®éng tõ to be
Ex: The teachers who were invited to the party were George, Bill and I.
Ex: It was she who called you.

§øng ®»ng sau c¸c phã tõ so s¸nh nh− than, as (Lçi c¬ b¶n)
§»ng sau c¸c ng«i sè nhiÒu nh− we, you cã quyÒn dïng mét danh tõ sè
nhiÒu trùc tiÕp ®»ng sau.
Ex: We students are going to have a party (Sinh viªn chóng t«i .....)
You guys (Bän mµy)

We/ You/ They + all/ both
Ex: We all go to school now
They both bought the ensurance
You all come shopping.

Nh−ng nÕu all hoÆc both ®i víi c¸c ®¹i tõ nµy ë d¹ng c©u cã ®éng tõ kÐp th×
all hoÆc both sÏ ®øng sau trî ®éng tõ (Future, progressive, perfect)
Ex: We will all go to school next week.
They have both bought the insurance.

All vµ Both cïng ph¶i ®øng sau ®éng tõ to be trªn tÝnh tõ
Ex: We are all ready to go swimming.
Dïng he/she thay thÕ cho c¸c vËt nu«i nÕu chóng ®−îc xem lµ cã tÝnh
c¸ch, th«ng minh hoÆc t×nh c¶m (chã, mÌo, ngùa...)
Ex: Go and find a cat if where she stays in.
Ex: How–s your new car? Terrrific, she is running beutifully.



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Tªn n−íc ®−îc thay thÕ trang träng b»ng she (ngµy nay it dïng).
Ex: England is an island country and she is governed by a mornach.

2. §¹i tõ nh©n x−ng t©n ng÷
me us
you you
him
her them
it

§øng ®»ng sau c¸c ®¹i tõ vµ c¸c giíi tõ lµm t©n ng÷ : us/ you/ them + all/
both
Ex: They invited us all (all of us) to the party last night.
§»ng sau us cã thÓ dïng mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu trùc tiÕp
Ex: The teacher has made a lot of questions for us students.

3. TÝnh tõ së h÷u

my our
your your
his
her their
its

§øng tr−íc mét danh tõ vµ chØ sù së h÷u cña ng−êi hoÆc vËt ®èi víi danh tõ
®ã.

4. §¹i tõ së h÷u


mine our s
your s your s
his
her s their s
its


Ng−êi ta dïng ®¹i tõ së h÷u ®Ó tr¸nh khái ph¶i nh¾c l¹i tÝnh tõ së h÷u +
danh tõ ®· nãi ë trªn.
§øng ®Çu c©u lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
§øng sau c¸c phã tõ so s¸nh nh− than hoÆc as
Ex: Your teacher is the same as his teacher. Yours is the same as his.

§øng sau ®éng tõ to be


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§øng ®»ng sau mét ®éng tõ hµnh ®éng lµm t©n ng÷.
Ex: I forgot my homework. I forgot mine

5. §¹i tõ ph¶n th©n
myself our selves
your self your selves
himself
her self themselves
itself

Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t chñ ng÷ lµm mét viÖc g× cho chÝnh m×nh. Trong tr−êng
hîp nµy nã ®øng ngay ®»ng sau ®éng tõ hoÆc giíi tõ for ë cuèi c©u.
Ex: I washed myself
He sent the letter to himself.

Dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµo viÖc chñ ng÷ tù lµm lÊy viÖc g×, trong tr−êng hîp
nµy nã ®øng ngay sau chñ ng÷. Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp nã cã thÓ ®øng ë
cuèi c©u, khi nãi h¬i ng−ng l¹i mét chót.
Ex: I myself believe that the proposal is good.
She prepared the nine-course meal herself.

By + oneself = mét m×nh.
Ex John washed the dishes by himself (alone)
Ex:




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T©n ng÷
§éng tõ dïng lµm t©n ng÷
Kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø ®éng tõ nµo trong tiÕng Anh còng ®Òu ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ ®øng
sau nã lµ mét danh tõ. Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ l¹i ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ sau nã ph¶i lµ
mét ®éng tõ kh¸c. Chóng chia lµm hai lo¹i.

1. §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ lµ t©n ng÷
B¶ng d−íi ®©y lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ sau nã lµ mét ®éng tõ
nguyªn thÓ kh¸c.

agree attempt claim decide demand
desire expect fail forget hesitate
hope intend learn need offer
plan prepare pretend refuse seem
strive tend want wish

Ex: John expects to begin studying law next semester.


2. Verb -ing dïng lµm t©n ng÷
B¶ng d−íi ®©y lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ theo sau nã ph¶i lµ mét Verb -
ing
admit appreciate avoid can't help consider
delay deny enjoy finish mind
miss postpone practice quit recall
repeat resent resist resume risk
suggest

Ex: John admitted stealing the jewels.

L−u ý r»ng trong b¶ng nµy cã mÉu ®éng tõ can't help doing/ but do smt:
kh«ng thÓ ®õng ®−îc ph¶i lµm g×
Ex: With such good oranges, we can't help buying (but buy) two kilos at a time.

NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh cho c¸c ®éng tõ trªn ®©y dïng lµm t©n
ng÷ ph¶i ®Æt not tr−íc nguyªn thÓ hoÆc verb - ing
ing.
B¶ng d−íi ®©y lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ mµ t©n ng÷ sau nã cã thÓ lµ mét ®éng tõ
nguyªn thÓ hoÆc mét verb - ing mµ ng÷ nghÜa kh«ng thay ®æi.
begin can't stand continue dread
hate like love prefer



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start try

L−u ý r»ng trong b¶ng nµy cã mét ®éng tõ can't stand to do/doing smt:
kh«ng thÓ chÞu ®ùng ®−îc khi ph¶i lµm g×.
Ex: He can't stand to wait/ waiting such a long time.
/

3. Bèn ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt
§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ mµ ng÷ nghÜa cña chóng sÏ ®æi kh¸c hoµn toµn khi
t©n ng÷ sau nã lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ hoÆc verb - ing
ing.

1) Stop to do smt: dõng l¹i ®Ó lµm g×

2) Stop doing smt: dõng lµm viÖc g×

3) Remember to do smt: Nhí sÏ ph¶i lµm g×
Ex: I remember to send a letter at the post office tomorow morning.

Remember
4) Remember doing smt: Nhí lµ ®· lµm g×
Ex: I remember locking the door before leaving, but now I can't find the key.

§Æc biÖt nã th−êng ®−îc dïng víi mÉu c©u: S + still remember + V-ing :
V-
VÉn cßn nhí lµ ®·...
Ex: I still remember buying the first motorbike

Forget
5) Forget to do smt: quªn sÏ ph¶i lµm g×
Ex: I forgot to pickup my child after school

6) Forget doing smt: (ChØ ®−îc dïng trong c¸c mÉu c©u phñ ®Þnh.

§Æc biÖt nã th−êng ®−îc dïng víi mÉu c©u S + will never forget + V-ing: sÏ
V-
...
kh«ng bao giê quªn ®−îc lµ ®· ...
Ex: She will never forget meeting the Queen.

7) Regret to do smt: LÊy lµm tiÕc v× ph¶i (th−êng b¸o tin xÊu)
Ex: We regret to inform the passengers that the flight for Washington DC was
canceled because of the bad weather.

tiÕc
8) Regret doing smt: LÊy lµm tiÕc v× ®·
Ex: He regrets leaving school early. It's a big mistake.


4. C¸c ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ
TÊt c¶ c¸c ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ ®Òu ph¶i ë d¹ng V-ing



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Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ th−êng ®i kÌm víi giíi tõ to. Kh«ng ®−îc nhÇm lÉn giíi
tõ nµy víi to cña ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ.


Verb + prepositions + V-ing
approve of be better of count on depend on
give up insist on keep on put off
rely on succeed in think abount think of
worry abount object to look forward to confess to
Ex: Fred confessed to stealing the jewels

Adjective + prepositions + V-ing
accustomed to afraid of capable of fond of
intent on interested in successful in tired of
Ex: Mitch is afraid of getting married now.


Noun + prepositions + V-ing
choice of excuse for intention of method for
possibility of reason for (method of)
Ex: There is no reason for leaving this early.

Kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø tÝnh tõ nµo còng ®Òu ®ßi hái sau nã lµ mét giíi tõ + V-
ing.
ing Nh÷ng tÝnh tõ ë b¶ng sau l¹i ®ßi hái sau nã lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ.

anxious boring dangerous hard
eager easy good strange
pleased prepared ready able
usual common difficult
Ex: It is dangerous to drive in this weather.

able/ unable to do smt = capable/ incapable of doing smt.

V-
5. VÊn ®Ò c¸c ®¹i tõ ®øng tr−íc ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ hoÆc V-ing
dïng
dïng lµm t©n ng÷.
§øng tr−íc mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ lµm t©n ng÷ th× d¹ng cña ®¹i tõ vµ danh
tõ sÏ lµ t©n ng÷.

allow ask beg convince expect instruct
invite order permit persuade prepare promise
remind urge want




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S + V + complement for m (pr onoun/ noun) + [to + ver b]

Ex: Joe asked Mary to call him when she woke up.
Ex: We ordered him to appear in court.

Tuy nhiªn ®øng tr−íc mét V- ing lµm t©n ng÷ th× d¹ng cña ®¹i tõ vµ danh tõ
sÏ lµ së h÷u.

Subject + ver b + possessive for m (pr onoun/ noun) + ver b-ing
b-

Ex: We understand your not being able to stay longer.
Ex: We object to their calling at this hour.




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C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ b¸n khiÕm
khuyÕt
1. Need

1) Dïng nh− mét ®éng tõ th−êng: ®−îc sö dông ra sao cßn tïy vµo chñ
ng÷ cña nã
a) Khi chñ ng÷ lµ mét ®éng vËt + need + to + verb
Ex: My friend needs to learn Spanish.

V-
b) Khi chñ ng÷ lµ mét bÊt ®éng vËt + need + to be + P2/ V-ing
Ex: The grass needs cutting OR The grass needs to be cut
Need = to be in need of + noun

Ex: Jill is in need of money (Jill needs money).

Want vµ Require còng ®−îc dïng theo mÉu c©u nµy

Want/ Requir e + ver b-ing
b-

Ex: Your hair wants cutting
Ex: All ears require servicing regularly
Ex

2) Need ®−îc sö dông nh− mét ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt
Lu«n ë d¹ng hiÖn t¹i.
Ng«i thø ba sè Ýt kh«ng cã "s" tËn cïng
ChØ dïng ë thÓ nghi vÊn vµ phñ ®Þnh
Kh«ng dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do.
Sau need ph¶i lµ mét ®éng tõ bá "to"
to"
Ex: We needn't reserve seats - there will be plenty of rooms.
Ex: Need I fill out the form ?

Dïng sau c¸c tõ nh− if/ whether/ only/ scarcely/ hardly/ no one
Ex: I wonder if I need fill out the form
This is the only form you need fill out.

Needn't + have + P2 : LÏ ra kh«ng cÇn ph¶i
Ex: You needn't have came so early - only waste your time.

L−u ý: Needn't = kh«ng cÇn ph¶i trong khi mustn't = kh«ng ®−îc phÐp.


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2. Dare
1) Khi dïng víi nghÜa lµ "d¸m"
Kh«ng dïng ë thÓ kh¼ng ®Þnh, chØ dïng ë thÓ nghi vÊn vµ phñ ®Þnh. Nã cã
thÓ dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do hoÆc víi chÝnh b¶n th©n nã. §éng tõ sau nã
vÒ mÆt lý thuyÕt lµ cã to nh−ng trªn thùc tÕ th−êng bá.
Ex: Did they dare (to) do such a thing = Dared they do such a thing
Ex: He didn't dare (to) say anything = He dared not say anything.

Dare kh«ng ®−îc dïng ë thÓ kh¼ng ®Þnh ngo¹i trõ thµnh ng÷ I dare say/ I
daresay víi 2 nghÜa sau:
T«i cho r»ng: I dare say there will be a restaurant car at the end of the
train
T«i thõa nhËn lµ: I daresay you are right.


How dare/ dared + S + Verb in simple form: Sao ... d¸m (tá sù giËn gi÷)
Ex: How dared you open my letter: Sao mµy d¸m më th− cña tao.


2) Dare dïng nh− mét ngo¹i ®éng tõ
Mang nghÜa –th¸ch thøc–:
Th¸ch
Dare sb to do smt: Th¸ch ai lµm g×
Ex: They dare the boy to swim across the river in such a cold weather.




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C¸ch sö dông to be trong mét sè
tr−êng hîp

To be of + noun = to have: cã (dïng ®Ó chØ tÝnh chÊt hoÆc t×nh c¶m)
Ex: Mary is of a gentle nature: Mary cã mét b¶n chÊt tö tÕ.

To be of + noun: NhÊn m¹nh cho danh tõ ®øng ®»ng sau
Ex: The newly-opened restaurant is of (ë ngay) the Leceister Square

To be + to + verb: lµ d¹ng cÊu t¹o ®Æc biÖt ®−îc sö dông trong nh÷ng
tr−êng hîp sau:
§Ó truyÒn ®¹t c¸c mÖnh lÖnh hoÆc c¸c chØ dÉn tõ ng«i thø nhÊt qua ng«i
thø hai ®Õn ng«i thø ba.
Ex: No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police.

Dïng víi mÖnh ®Ò if khi mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh diÔn ®¹t mét c©u tiÒn ®iÒu kiÖn:
Mét ®iÒu ph¶i x¶y ra tr−íc nhÊt nÕu mét ®iÒu kh¸c sÏ x¶y ra.
Ex1: If we are to get there by lunch time we had better hurry.
Ex2: Smt must be done quickly if the endangered birds are to be save.
Ex3: He knew he would have to work hard if he was to pass his exam

§−îc dïng ®Ó th«ng b¸o nh÷ng yªu cÇu xin chØ dÉn
Ex: He asked the air traffic control where he was to land.

§−îc dïng rÊt phæ biÕn ®Ó truyÒn ®¹t mét dù ®Þnh, mét sù s¾p ®Æt, ®Æc
biÖt khi nã lµ chÝnh thøc.
Ex1: She is to get married next month.
Ex2: The expedition is to start in a week.
Ex3: We are to get a ten percent wage rise in June.
CÊu tróc nµy rÊt th«ng dông trªn b¸o chÝ, khi lµ tùa ®Ò b¸o th× to be ®−îc
bá ®i ®Ó tiÕt kiÖm chç.
Ex: The Primer Minister (is) to make a statement tomorrow.

were + S + to + verb = if + S + were + to + verb = thÕ nÕu (diÔn ®¹t mét gi¶
thuyÕt)
Ex: Were I to tell you that he passed his exams, would you believe me.

was/ were + to + verb: §Ó diÔn ®¹t ý t−ëng vÒ mét sè mÖnh ®· ®Þnh s½n
Ex1: They said goodbye without knowing that they were never to meet again.


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Ex2: Since 1840, American Presidents elected in years ending zero were to be
died (have been destined to die)in office.

to be about to + verb = near future (s¾p söa)
Ex: They are about to leave.

Trong mét sè d¹ng c©u ®Æc biÖt
• Be + adj ... më ®Çu cho mét ng÷ = tá ra...
Ex: Be careless (Tá ra bÊt cÈn...) in a national park where there are bears
around and the result are likely to be tragical indeed
• Be + subject + noun/ noun phrase/ adjective = cho dï lµ
Ex Societies have found various methods to support and train their artists, be
Ex:
it (cho dï lµ...) the Renaissance system of royal support of the sculptors and
painters of the period or the Japanese tradition of passing artistic knowledge
from father to son.
Ex: To have technique is to possess the physical expertise to perform
whatever steps a given work may contain, be they simple or complex:
(Cã ®−îc kü thuËt lµ sÏ cã ®−îc sù ®iªu luyÖn vÒ mÆt c¬ thÓ ®Ó thùc hiÖn bÊt
kú nh÷ng b−íc vò nµo mµ mét ®iÖu vò ®· ®Þnh s½n cã thÓ bao gåm, cho dï lµ
chóng ®¬n gi¶n hay phøc t¹p)




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C¸ch sö dông to get trong mét sè
tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt
1. To get + P2
get washed/ dressed/ prepared/ lost/ drowned/ engaged/ married/ divorced.
ChØ viÖc chñ ng÷ tù lµm lÊy hoÆc tr¹ng th¸i mµ chñ ng÷ ®ang ë trong ®ã.
Ex: You will have 5 minutes to get dressed (... tù mÆc quÇn ¸o)
Ex: He got lost in old Market Street yesterday. (tr¹ng th¸i l¹c)

TuyÖt nhiªn kh«ng ®−îc lÉn tr−êng hîp nµy víi ®éng tõ bÞ ®éng.
§éng tõ to be cã thÓ dïng thay thÕ cho get trong lo¹i c©u nµy.

2. Get + V-ing = Start + V-ing: B¾t ®Çu lµm g×
V- V-
Ex: We'd better got moving, it's late.


3. Get sb/smt +V-ing: Lµm ai/ c¸i g× b¾t ®Çu.
+V-
Ex: Please get him talking about the main task. (Lµm ¬n b¶o anh ta b¾t ®Çu
nãi vÒ nhiÖm vô chÝnh ®i)
Ex: When we get the heater running, the whole car will start to warm up. (Khi
chóng ta cho m¸y s−ëi b¾t ®Çu ch¹y)

4. Get + to + verb
T×m ®−îc c¸ch.
Ex: We could get to enter the stadiums without tickets.(Chóng t«i ®· t×m ®−îc
c¸ch lät vµo...)

Cã c¬ may.
Ex: When do I get to have a promotion.(Khi nµo t«i cã c¬ may ®−îc t¨ng l−¬ng
®©y)

§−îc phÐp
Ex: At last we got to meet the general director. (Cuèi cïng th× råi chóng t«i
còng ®−îc phÐp gÆp)

5. Get + to + Verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò hµnh ®éng) = Come + to + Verb
(chØ vÊn ®Ò nhËn thøc) = Gradually = dÇn dÇn
Ex: We will get to speak English more easily as time goes by.
Ex He comes to understand that learning English is not much difficult
Ex:



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C©u hái
TiÕng Anh cã nhiÒu lo¹i c©u hái bao gåm nh÷ng chøc n¨ng vµ môc ®Ých kh¸c
nhau


1. C©u hái Yes/ No
auxiliar y
be + S + V ...
do, does, did


Së dÜ gäi lµ nh− vËy v× khi tr¶ lêi ®−îc dïng Yes/ No ë ®Çu c©u. Nªn nhí
r»ng :
Yes + Positive verb
No + Negative verb.
tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc tr¶ lêi theo kiÓu c©u tiÕng ViÖt.


2. C©u hái th«ng b¸o
Lµ lo¹i c©u dïng víi mét lo¹t c¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn

a) Who/ what lµm chñ ng÷

who
+ ver b + (complement) + (modifier )
what

§øng ®Çu c©u lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ. §éng tõ sau nã
nÕu ë thêi hiÖn t¹i ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.
Ex: What happened last night ?

b) Whom/ what lµm t©n ng÷

whom auxiliar y
+ + S + V + (modifier )
what do, does, did


Chóng vÉn ®øng ®Çu c©u nh−ng lµm t©n ng÷ cho c©u hái. Nªn nhí r»ng
trong tiÕng Anh qui chuÈn b¾t buéc ph¶i dïng whom mÆc dï trong v¨n nãi
cã thÓ dïng who thay cho whom (Lçi c¬ b¶n).
Lçi
Ex: What did George buy at the store.




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c) C©u hái nh¾m vµo c¸c bæ ng÷: When, Where, How vµ Why
when auxiliar y
wher e + S + V + complement + modifier
+ be
how
do, does, did
why


Ex: How did Maria get to school today ?

3. C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp
Lµ lo¹i c©u mang nh÷ng ®Æc tÝnh nh− sau:
C©u cã hai thµnh phÇn nèi víi nhau b»ng mét ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn.
§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò hai ph¶i ®Æt xu«i theo chñ ng÷, kh«ng ®−îc cÊu t¹o c©u
hái.
§¹i tõ nghi vÊn kh«ng chØ lµ 1 tõ mµ cßn bao gåm 2 hoÆc 3 tõ.

S + V (phr ase) + question wor d + S + V

Ex: The authorities can't figure out why the plane landed at the wrong airport.

auxiliar y + S + V + question wor d + S + V

Ex: Do you know where he went ?.
Question word cã thÓ lµ mét phrase: whose + noun, how many, how much,
how long, how often, what time, what kind.
Ex: I have no idea how long the interview will take.

4. C©u hái cã ®u«i
C©u chia lµm hai thµnh phÇn t¸ch biÖt nhau bëi dÊu phÈy.
NÕu ®éng tõ ë thµnh phÇn chÝnh chia ë thÓ kh¼ng ®Þnh th× ®éng tõ ë phÇn
®u«i chia ë thÓ phñ ®Þnh vµ ng−îc l¹i.
Thêi cña ®éng tõ ë ®u«i ph¶i theo thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
§éng tõ th−êng dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do. C¸c ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp dïng víi
chÝnh trî ®éng tõ cña nã. §éng tõ to be ®−îc phÐp dïng trùc tiÕp.
C¸c thµnh ng÷ there is there are vµ it is ®−îc dïng l¹i ë phÇn ®u«i.
is,
Trong tiÕng Anh cña ng−êi Mü, to have lµ ®éng tõ th−êng, do vËy nã ph¶i
dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do.
Ex1: You have two children, don't you ?
Ex2: He should stay in bed, shouldn't he ?
Ex3: She has been studying English for two years, hasn't she ?
*L−u ý: khi sö dông lo¹i c©u hái nµy nªn nhí r»ng ng−êi hái chØ nh»m ®Ó
kh¼ng ®Þnh ý kiÕn cña m×nh ®· biÕt chø kh«ng nh»m ®Ó hái. Do ®ã khi chÊm
c©u hiÓu trong TOEFL, ph¶i dùa vµo thÓ ®éng tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh chø
kh«ng dùa vµo thÓ ®éng tõ ë phÇn ®u«i.



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Ex: John can get Mary to play this, can–t he?
Correct answer: John believes that Mary will play this for us.




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Lèi nãi phô häa kh¼ng ®Þnh vµ phñ
®Þnh
1. Kh¼ng ®Þnh
Lµ lèi nãi phô häa l¹i ý kh¼ng ®Þnh cña ng−êi kh¸c t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi cÊu tróc
tiÕng ViÖt còng thÕ.
CÊu tróc ®−îc dïng sÏ lµ so, too.
§éng tõ to be ®−îc phÐp dïng trùc tiÕp, ®éng tõ th−êng dïng víi trî ®éng
tõ to do. C¸c ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp (Future, perfect, progressive) dïng víi
chÝnh trî ®éng tõ cña nã.


affir mative statement (be) + and + S + V (be) + too
so + V (be) + S


Ex: I am happy, and you are too
I am happy, and so are you.
affir mative statement + and + S + auxiliar y only + too
(compound ver b) so + auxiliar y only + S


Ex: They will work in the lab tomorrow, and you will too.
They will work in the lab tomorrow, and so will you.

affir mative statement + and + S + do, does, or did + too
(single ver b except be) so + do, does, or did + S


Ex: Jane goes to that school, and my sister does too.
Jane goes to that school, and so does my sister.


2. Phñ ®Þnh
§Ó phô häa l¹i ý phñ ®Þnh cña ng−êi kh¸c, t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi cÊu tróc tiÕng
ViÖt còng kh«ng.
Thµnh ng÷ ®−îc sö dông sÏ lµ either vµ neither. Nªn nhí r»ng:
Either + negative verb
Neither + positive verb
Sö dông gièng lèi nãi phô häa kh¼ng ®Þnh víi 3 lo¹i: to be, ®éng tõ th−êng
vµ c¸c ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp.


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S + negative auxiliar y or be + either
negative statement + and +
neither + positive auxiliar y or be + S

Ex: I didn't see Mary this morning, and John didn't either
I didn't see Mary this morning, and neither did John.
L−u ý: C¸c lèi nãi me too vµ me neither chØ ®−îc dïng trong v¨n nãi, tuyÖt ®èi
kh«ng ®−îc dïng trong v¨n viÕt.




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C©u phñ ®Þnh

§Ó cÊu t¹o c©u phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not sau:
§éng tõ to be - Trî ®éng tõ to do cña ®éng tõ th−êng - c¸c trî ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp.
§Æt any ®»ng tr−íc danh tõ ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh trong phñ ®Þnh. Nªn nhí r»ng trong
tiÕng Anh cña ng−êi Mü th× not any + noun = not .... a single noun.
Ex: He didn't sell a single magazine yesterday.

Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµo phñ ®Þnh cña danh tõ. Ng−êi ta ®Ó
®éng tõ ë d¹ng kh¼ng ®Þnh vµ ®Æt no tr−íc danh tõ. Lóc ®ã no = not ... at all.
Mét sè c¸c c©u hái ë d¹ng phñ ®Þnh sÏ mang hai nghÜa:
• NhÊn m¹nh cho sù kh¼ng ®Þnh cña ng−êi nãi.
Ex: Shouldn't you put on your hat, too! : ThÕ th× anh còng ®éi lu«n mò vµo ®i.
Ex: Didn't you say that you would come to the party tonight: ThÕ anh ®· ch¼ng nãi
lµ anh ®i dù tiÖc tèi nay hay sao.
• Dïng ®Ó t¸n d−¬ng
Ex: Wasn't the weather wonderful yesterday: Thêi tiÕt h«m qua ®Ñp tuyÖt vêi.
Ex: Wouldn't it be nice that we didn't have to work on Friday: ThËt lµ tuyÖt vêi khi
chóng ta kh«ng ph¶i lµm viÖc ngµy thø 6.

Negative + Negative = Positive.(emphasizing - NhÊn m¹nh)
Ex: It's unbelieveable he is not rich.

Negative + comparative (more/ less) = superlative
Ex: I couldn't agree with you less = absolutely disagree.
Ex: You couldn't have gone to the beach on a better day = the best day to go to the
beach.
Nh−ng ph¶i hÕt søc cÈn thËn v× :
Ex: He couldn't have been more unfriendly (the most unfriendly) when I met him first.
Ex: The surgery couldn't have been more unnecessary (absolutely unnecessary).

Negative... even/still less/much less + noun/ verb in simple form: kh«ng ...
mµ l¹i cµng kh«ng.
Ex: These students don't like reading novel, much less textbook.
Ex: It's unbelieveable how he could have survived such a freefall, much less live to
tell about it on television

Mét sè c¸c phã tõ trong tiÕng Anh mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh, khi ®· dïng nã trong c©u
kh«ng ®−îc cÊu t¹o thÓ phñ ®Þnh cña ®éng tõ n÷a.
hardly, barely, scarcely = almost no = hÇu nh− kh«ng.
hardlyever, seldom, rarely = almost never = hÇu nh− kh«ng bao giê.




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subj ect + negative adverb + positive verb

subj ect + to be + negative adverb

*L−u ý r»ng c¸c phã tõ nµy kh«ng mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh hoµn toµn mµ mang
nghÜa gÇn nh− phñ ®Þnh. §Æc biÖt lµ nh÷ng tõ nh− barely vµ scarcely khi ®i víi
nh÷ng tõ nh− enough vµ only hoÆc nh÷ng thµnh ng÷ chØ sù chÝnh x¸c.
Ex: She barely make it to class on time: C« ta ®Õn líp võa vÆn ®óng giê.
Ex: Do you have enough money for the tution fee? Only barely (Scarcely
enough):Võa ®ñ.
§èi víi nh÷ng ®éng tõ nh− to think, to believe, to suppose, to imagine + that
+ sentense Ph¶i cÊu t¹o phñ ®Þnh ë c¸c ®éng tõ ®ã, kh«ng ®−îc cÊu t¹o
sentense.
phñ ®Þnh ë mÖnh ®Ò thø hai.
Ex: I don't think you came to class yesterday.
Ex: I don't believe she stays at home now.
Trong d¹ng informal standard English (tiÕng Anh qui chuÈn dïng th−êng
ngµy) mét cÊu tróc phñ ®Þnh ng−ng kh«ng mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh ®«i khi
®−îc sö dông sau nh÷ng ý chØ sù nghi ngê hoÆc kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n, ®Æc biÖt
lµ phñ ®Þnh kÐp.
Ex: I shouldn–t be suprised if they didn–t get married soon (if they got
married soon).
T«i sÏ kh«ng lÊy lµm ng¹c nhiªn nÕu hä lÊy nhau sím.
Ex: I wonder whether I oughtn–t to go and see a doctor. I–m feeling a bit
funny.
T«i tù hái xem lµ liÖu t«i cã nªn ®i kh¸m b¸c sü kh«ng. T«i...
No matter + who/what/which/where/when/how + Subject + verb in present:
Dï cã... ®i ch¨ng n÷a... th×
Ex: No matter who telephones, say I–m out.
Cho dï lµ ai gäi ®Õn th× h·y b¶o lµ t«i ®i v¾ng.
Ex: No matter where you go, you will find Coca-Cola
Cho dï anh cã ®i ®Õn ®©u, anh còng sÏ t×m thÊy n−íc Coca-Cola
*L−u ý 1: No matter who = whoever/ No matter what = whatever
Ex: No matter what (whatever) you say, I won–t believe you.
Cho dï lµ mµy cã nãi g× ®i ch¨ng n÷a, tao còng kh«ng tin.
*L−u ý 2: C¸c cÊu tróc nµy cã thÓ ®øng cuèi c©u mµ kh«ng cÇn cã mÖnh ®Ò
theo sau:
Ex: I will always love you, no matter what.




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MÖnh lÖnh thøc
Chia lµm 2 lo¹i: Trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp.
MÖnh lÖnh thøc trùc tiÕp
Ex: Close the door
Ex: Please don't turn off the light.

MÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp dïng víi mét sè ®éng tõ to order/ ask/ say/ tell sb/
do/ not to do smt.
Ex: John asked Jill to turn off the light.
Ex: Please tell Jaime not to leave the room.

Chó ý: let's kh¸c let us
Ex: let's go: m×nh ®i nµo
Ex: let us go: ®Ó chóng t«i ®i ®i
C©u hái cã ®u«i cña let's lµ shall we
Ex: Let's go out for dinner, shall we




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§éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt
§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng sau vµ mang nh÷ng ®Æc ®iÓm

present tense past tense
Will would (used to)
Can could
May might
Shall should (ought to) (had better)
must (have to) (had to)

Kh«ng cã tiÓu tõ "to" ®»ng tr−íc.
§éng tõ nµo ®i sau nã ph¶i bá "to".
Kh«ng cÇn dïng víi trî ®éng tõ mµ dïng víi chÝnh b¶n th©n nã trong c¸c
d¹ng c©u nghi vÊn vµ c©u phñ ®Þnh.
Kh«ng bao giê hai ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®i cïng nhau, nÕu cã th× ®éng tõ
thø hai ph¶i biÕn sang mét d¹ng kh¸c.
will have to (must), will be able to (can), will be allowed to (may)




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C©u ®iÒu kiÖn
1. §iÒu kiÖn cã thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i
present
If + S + simple present - S + will (can, shall, may) + Verb in simple form.
Ex: If he tries much more, he will improve his English.


2. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i
If + S + simple past - S + would (could, should, might) + Verb in simple form
Ex: If I had enough money now, I would buy this house .

§éng tõ to be ph¶i chia lµ were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i.
Ex If I were you, I wouldn't do such a thing.
Ex:
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp, ng−êi ta bá if ®i vµ ®¶o were lªn trªn chñ ng÷ (were I
were
you ... lçi c¬ b¶n).

3. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø
If + S + had + P2 - S + would(could, shoult,might) + have + P2
Ex: If he had studied harder for that test, he would have passed it.

Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ng−êi ta bá if ®i vµ ®¶o had lªn phÝa tr−íc.
L−u ý: C©u ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng ph¶i lóc nµo còng tu©n theo qui luËt trªn. Trong
mét sè tr−êng hîp mét vÕ cña ®iÒu kiÖn sÏ lµ qu¸ khø nh−ng vÕ cßn l¹i ë hiÖn
t¹i do thêi gian qui ®Þnh.
Ex: If she had caught the train, she would be here by now.




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C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ will, would,
could, should sau if

Th«ng th−êng c¸c ®éng tõ nµy kh«ng ®−îc sö dông víi if trong c©u ®iÒu kiÖn,
tuy nhiªn vÉn cã ngo¹i lÖ.

If you will/would : NÕu ..... vui lßng Th−êng ®−îc dïng trong c¸c yªu cÇu
lßng.
lÞch sù. Would lÞch sù h¬n will.
Ex: If you will/would wait for a moment, I will go and see if Mr Conner is here.

If + Subject + Will/Would : NÕu ..... chÞu. §Ó diÔn ®¹t ý tù nguyÖn.
Ex: If he will listent to me, I can help him.

Will cßn ®−îc dïng theo mÉu c©u nµy ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù ngoan cè: NÕu ..... nhÊt
®Þnh, NÕu ..... cø.
Ex: If you will turn on the music loudly late the night, no wonder why your
neighbour complain.

If you could: Xin vui lßng. DiÔn ®¹t lÞch sù 1 yªu cÇu mµ ng−êi nãi cho r»ng
ng−êi kia sÏ ®ång ý nh− lµ mét lÏ ®−¬ng nhiªn.
Ex: If you could open your book, please.

If + Subject + should + ..... + imperative (mÖnh lÖnh thøc): VÝ pháng nh−.
DiÔn ®¹t mét t×nh huèng dï cã thÓ x¶y ra ®−îc song rÊt khã.
Ex: If you should find any dificulty in using that TV, please call me this number.

Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ng−êi ta bá if ®i vµ ®¶o should lªn trªn chñ ng÷
(Should you find
Should find)




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Mét sè c¸ch dïng thªm cña if


1. If... then: NÕu... th×
Ex: If she can–t come to us, then we will have to go and see her.

2. If dïng trong d¹ng c©u kh«ng ph¶i c©u ®iÒu kiÖn: §éng tõ ë

c¸c mÖnh ®Ò diÔn biÕn b×nh th−êng theo thêi gian cña chÝnh
nã.
Ex: If you want to learn a musical instrument, you have to practice.
Ex: If you did not do much maths at school, you will find economics difficult to
understand.
Ex: If that was Marry, why didn–t she stop and say hello.

3. If... should = If... happen to... = If... should happen to... diÔn
®¹t sù kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n (Xem thªm phÇn sö dông should
trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ)
Ex: If you should happen to pass a supermarket, perhaps you could get some
eggs. (Ngé nhì mµ anh cã t×nh cê ghÐ qua chî cã lÏ mua cho em Ýt trøng)

4. If.. was/were to...
DiÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt hoÆc t−ëng t−îng ë t−¬ng lai.
Ex: If the boss was/were to come in now (= if the boss came in now), we
would be in real trouble.
Ex: What would we do if I was/were to lose my job.

HoÆc cã thÓ diÔn ®¹t mét ý lÞch sù khi ®−a ra ®Ò nghÞ
Ex: If you were to to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down.
(NÕu anh vui lßng dÞch ghÕ cña anh ra mét chót th× chóng ta cã thÓ cïng ngåi
®−îc)

tuyÖt
Note: CÊu tróc nµy tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc dïng víi c¸c ®éng tõ tÜnh hoÆc
chØ tr¹ng th¸i t− duy
Ex: Correct: If I knew her name, I would tell you.
Incorrect: If I was/were to know...

5. If it + to be + not + for: NÕu kh«ng v×, nÕu kh«ng nhê vµo.
Thêi hiÖn t¹i:



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Ex: Ex: If it wasn–t/weren–t for the children, that couple wouldn–t have any
thing to talk about.
(NÕu kh«ng v× nh÷ng ®øa con th× vî chång nhµ Êy ch¶ cã chuyÖn g× mµ nãi)

Thêi qu¸ khø:
Ex: Ex: If it hadn–t been for your help, I don–t know what we would have
done.
(NÕu kh«ng nhê vµo sù gióp ®ì cña anh th× t«i còng kh«ng biÕt lµ chóng
t«i sÏ lµm g× ®©y)

6. Not ®«i khi ®−îc thªm vµo nh÷ng ®éng tõ sau if ®Ó bµy tá sù
nghi ngê, kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n.
Ex: Ex: I wonder if we shouldn–t ask the doctor to look at Mary.


lµ...
7. It would... if + subject + would... (sÏ lµ... nÕu – kh«ng ®−îc
dïng trong v¨n viÕt)
Ex: Ex: It would be better if they would tell every body in advance.
(SÏ lµ tèt h¬n nÕu hä kÓ cho mäi ng−êi tõ tr−íc)
Ex: Ex: How would we feel if this would happen to our family.
(Ta sÏ c¶m thÊy thÕ nµo nÕu ®iÒu nµy x¶y ra ®èi víi gia ®×nh chóng ta.)

8. If... –d have... –have: Dïng trong v¨n nãi, kh«ng dïng trong
v¨n viÕt, diÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë qu¸ khø
Ex: Ex: If I–d have known, I–d have told you.
Ex: Ex: If she–d have recognized him it would have been funny.

preposition
9. If + preposition + noun/verb... (subject + be bÞ l−îc bá)
Ex: Ex: If in doubt, ask for help (=If you are in doubt)
Ex: Ex: If about to go on a long journey, try to have a good nights sleep
(= If you are about to go on... )

10. If dïng kh¸ phæ biÕn víi mét sè tõ nh−
any/anything/ever/not
any/anything/ever/not diÔn ®¹t phñ ®Þnh
Ex: There is little if any good evidence for flying saucers.
(=There is little evidence if ther is any at all, for flying saucers)
(Cã rÊt Ýt b»ng chøng vÒ ®Üa bay, nÕu qu¶ lµ cã mét chót)
Ex: I–m not angry. If anything, I feel a little surprised.
(T«i kh«ng giËn d÷ g× ®©u. Mµ tr¸i l¹i t«i c¶m thÊy h¬i ng¹c nhiªn)

Thµnh ng÷ nµy cßn diÔn ®¹t ý kiÕn −ím thö: NÕu cã...
Ex: I–d say he was more like a father, if anything



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(T«i xin nãi r»ng «ng Êy cßn h¬n c¶ mét ng−êi cha, nÕu cã thÓ nãi thÕ.)
Ex: He seldom if ever travel abroad.
(Anh ta ch¶ mÊy khi ®i ra n−íc ngoµi)
Ex: Usually, if not always, we write –cannot– as one word
(Th«ng th−êng, nh−ng kh«ng ph¶i lµ lu«n lu«n... )

11. If + Adjective = although (cho dï lµ)
NghÜa kh«ng m¹nh b»ng although - Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t quan ®iÓm riªng hoÆc
vÊn ®Ò g× ®ã kh«ng quan träng.
Ex: His style, if simple, is pleasant to read.
(V¨n phong cña «ng ta, cho dï lµ ®¬n gi¶n, th× ®äc còng thó)
Ex: The profits, if little lower than last year–s, are still extremely wealthy
(Lîi nhuËn, cho dï lµ cã thÊp h¬n n¨m qua mét chót, th× vÉn lµ rÊt lín.)

CÊu tróc nµy cã thÓ thay b»ng may..., but
Ex: His style may be simple, but it is pleasant to read.




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C¸ch sö dông to Hope, to Wish.

Hai ®éng tõ nµy tuy cïng nghÜa nh−ng kh¸c nhau vÒ c¸ch sö dông vµ b¶n chÊt
ng÷ ph¸p.
§éng tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò sau hope (hi väng r»ng) sÏ diÔn biÕn b×nh th−êng
theo thêi gian cña chÝnh mÖnh ®Ò ®ã.
§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish b¾t buéc ph¶i ë d¹ng ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc
hiÖn ®−îc. §iÒu kiÖn ®ã chia lµm 3 thêi:

1. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë t−¬ng lai
§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish sÏ cã d¹ng would/could + Verb hoÆc were +
ing].
[verb + ing]
Ex We wish that you could come to the party tonight. (You can't come)
Ex:


2. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i
§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish sÏ chia ë Simple past to be ph¶i chia lµ were ë
past,
tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i.
Ex: I wish that I had enough time to finish my homework.


3. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø
§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish sÏ chia ë Past perfect hoÆc could have + P2.
Ex: I wish that I had washed the clothes yesterday.
She wishes that she could have been there.

*L−u ý 1: §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish chØ cã thÓ bÞ ¶nh h−ëng cña wish lµ b¾t
buéc ph¶i ë d¹ng ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc nh−ng ®iÒu kiÖn Êy ë thêi
nµo l¹i phô thuéc vµo chÝnh thêi gian cña b¶n th©n mÖnh ®Ò chø kh«ng vµo
wish.
wish
Ex: She wishes that she could have gone earlier yesterday.(Past)
Ex: He wished that he would come to visit me next week.(Future)
Ex: The photographer wished we stood clother than we are standing now.
(Present).

*L−u ý 2: CÇn ph©n biÖt wish (−íc g×/ mong g×) víi wish mang nghÜa
"chóc"trong mÉu c©u: to wish sb smt
Ex I wish you a happy birthday.
Ex:
*L−u ý 3: vµ wish mang nghÜa "muèn": To wish to do smt (Muèn lµm g×)



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To wish smb to do smt (Muèn ai lµm g×)

Ex: Why do you wish to see the manager
Ex: I wish to make a complaint.
Ex: The government does not wish Dr.Jekyll Hyde to accept a professorship
at a foreign university.
Wish (lÞch sù/ trang träng nhÊt) = would like (lÞch sù) = want (th©n mËt)




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C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ as if, as
though (gÇn nh− lµ, nh− thÓ lµ)

MÖnh ®Ò ®»ng sau hai thµnh ng÷ nµy th−êng xuyªn ë d¹ng ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng
thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc. §iÒu kiÖn nµy chia lµm 2 thêi:
Thêi hiÖn t¹i: nÕu ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tr−íc chia ë thêi hiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n th×
®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau chia ë qu¸ khø ®¬n gi¶n. To be ph¶i chia lµ were ë
tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i.
Ex: The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer. (It is not
winter)

Thêi qu¸ khø: NÕu ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tr−íc chia ë qu¸ khø ®¬n gi¶n th×
®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau chia ë qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh.
Ex: Jeff looked as though he had seen a ghost. (He didn't see a ghost)

L−u ý: MÖnh ®Ò sau as if, as though kh«ng ph¶i lóc nµo còng tu©n theo qui
luËt trªn. NÕu ®iÒu kiÖn trong c©u lµ cã thËt hoÆc theo quan niÖm cña ng−êi
nãi, ng−êi viÕt lµ cã thËt th× hai c«ng thøc trªn kh«ng ®−îc sö dông. §éng tõ ë
mÖnh ®Ò sau diÔn biÕn b×nh th−êng theo mèi quan hÖ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Ex: He looks as if he has finished the test.




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Used to, to be/get used to

Used to + Verb: Th−êng hay ®· tõng. ChØ mét thãi quen, mét hµnh ®éng
th−êng xuyªn x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø.
Ex: When David was young, he used to swim once a day. (past time habit)
Nghi vÊn: Did + S + used to + Verb = Used + S + to + V.
V.
Phñ ®Þnh: S + didn't + used to + Verb = S + used not to + V

To be/ to get used to + V-ing/ Noun Trë nªn quen víi.
V- Noun:
Ex: He is used to swimming every day.
Ex He got used to American food
Ex:
*L−u ý: Used to + V cã thÓ thay b»ng would nh−ng Ýt khi v× dÔ nhÇm lÉn.




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C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ would rather

would rather .... than = prefer .... to = thÝch h¬n lµ.
§»ng sau would rather b¾t buéc ph¶i lµ mét ®éng tõ bá to nh−ng sau prefer
lµ mét V-ing vµ cã thÓ bá ®i ®−îc.
Khi would rather .... than mang nghÜa thµ .... cßn h¬n lµ th× prefer .... to
kh«ng thÓ thay thÕ ®−îc.
Ex: They would rather die in freedom than live in slavery.
Ex He prefers dogs to cat (Anh ta thÝch chã h¬n mÌo)
Ex:
Ex He would rather have dogs than cats (Anh ta thµ nu«i chã h¬n mÌo)
Ex:
ViÖc sö dông would rather cßn tïy thuéc vµo sè CN vµ nghÜa cña c©u.

1. Lo¹i c©u cã mét chñ ng÷
CÊu tróc sö dông cho lo¹i c©u nµy lµ would rather ... than lµ lo¹i c©u ®iÒu kiÖn
kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®−îc vµ chia lµm 2 thêi:
Thêi hiÖn t¹i: Sau would rather lµ nguyªn thÓ bá to. NÕu muèn thµnh lËp
thÓ phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not tr−íc nguyªn thÓ bá to.
Ex: Jim would rather go to class tomorrow than today.

Thêi qu¸ khø: §éng tõ sau would rather ph¶i lµ have + P2, nÕu muèn thµnh
lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not tr−íc have.
Ex: Jim would rather have gone to class yesterday than today.


hai
2. Lo¹i c©u cã hai chñ ng÷
Lo¹i c©u nµy dïng thµnh ng÷ would rather that (−íc g×, mong g×) vµ dïng trong
mét sè tr−êng hîp sau:

a) Lo¹i c©u gi¶ ®Þnh ë hiÖn t¹i
Lµ lo¹i c©u ng−êi thø nhÊt muèn ng−êi thø hai lµm viÖc g× nh−ng lµm hay
kh«ng cßn phô thuéc vµo ng−êi thø hai. Trong tr−êng hîp nµy ®éng tõ ë
mÖng ®Ò hai ®Ó ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ bá to. NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh
®Æt not tr−íc nguyªn thÓ bá to.
Ex: I would rather that you call me tomorrow.

Ng÷ ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i ngµy nay ®Æc biÖt lµ ng÷ ph¸p MÜ cho phÐp bá that trong
cÊu tróc nµy mµ vÉn gi÷ nguyªn h×nh thøc gi¶ ®Þnh.
Ex: He would rather (that) he not take this train.




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b) Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i
§éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ hai sÏ chia ë simple past to be ph¶i chia lµ were ë tÊt
past,
c¶ c¸c ng«i.
Ex: Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same department as he
does.
Ex: Jane would rather that it were winter now.

NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh dïng didn't + Verb hoÆc were not sau
chñ ng÷ hai.

c) Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø
§éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ hai sÏ chia ë d¹ng past perfect.
NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh dïng hadn't + P2.
Ex: Jim would rather that Jill had gone to class yesterday.

L−u ý: Trong lèi nãi b×nh th−êng hµng ngµy ng−êi ta dïng wish thay cho would
rather that.




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dông
C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ Would like
DiÔn ®¹t mét c¸ch lÞch sù lêi mêi mäc hoÆc ý m×nh muèn g×.
Ex: Would you like to dance with me.

Kh«ng dïng do you want khi mêi mäc ng−êi kh¸c.
Trong tiÕng Anh cña ng−êi Anh, nÕu ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù −a thÝch cña chñ ng÷ th×
sau like lµ mét V-ing.
Ex: He does like reading novel. (enjoyment)

Nh−ng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù lùa chän hoÆc thãi quen th× sau like ph¶i lµ mét ®éng
tõ nguyªn thÓ.
Ex: Between the soccer and tenis, I like to see the former. (choice)
Ex: When making tea, he usually likes to put some sugar and a slice of lemon
in first. (habit)

Nh−ng trong tiÕng Anh ng−êi MÜ kh«ng cã sù ph©n biÖt nµy: TÊt c¶ sau like
®Òu lµ ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ.
Wouldn't like = kh«ng −a trong khi don't want = kh«ng muèn.
Ex Would you like somemore coffee ?
Ex:
Polite: No, thanks/ No, I don't want any more.
Impolite: I wouldn't like (thÌm vµo)

L−u ý r»ng khi like ®−îc dïng víi nghÜa "cho lµ ®óng" hoÆc "cho lµ hay/
cho cho
kh«n ngoan" th× bao giê theo sau còng lµ mét nguyªn thÓ cã to (infinitive)
infinitive)
Ex She likes the children to play in the garden (She think they are safe playing
Ex:
there)
(C« Êy muèn bän trÎ con ch¬i trong v−ên cho ch¾c/ cho an toµn)
Ex I like to go to the dentist twice a year
Ex:
(T«i muèn ®Õn b¸c sÜ nha khoa 2 lÇn n¨m cho ch¾c).

Would like = would care /love/ hate/ prefer + to + verb khi diÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn
cho mét hµnh ®éng cô thÓ ë t−¬ng lai.
Ex Would you like/ care to come with me? I'd love to
Ex:

Would like/ would care for/ would enjoy + Verb-ing khi diÔn ®¹t khÈu vÞ, ý
Verb-
thÝch nãi chung cña chñ ng÷.
Ex She would like/ would enjoy riding if she could ride better.
Ex:
Ex I wonder if Tom would care for/ would enjoy hang-gliding.
Ex:




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C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm
khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë
hiÖn t¹i
1. Could, May, Might + Verb in simple form = Cã lÏ, cã thÓ.
ChØ kh¶ n¨ng cã thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i nh−ng ng−êi nãi kh«ng d¸m ch¾c. (C¶
3 ®éng tõ ®Òu cã gi¸ trÞ nh− nhau).
Ex: It might rain tomorrow.

2. Should + Verb in simple form
Nªn : diÔn ®¹t mét lêi khuyªn, sù gîi ý, sù b¾t buéc nh−ng kh«ng m¹nh
l¾m.
Cã khi, cã lÏ : DiÔn ®¹t ng−êi nãi mong muèn ®iÒu ®ã sÏ x¶y ra. (Expect)
Expect)
C¸c thµnh ng÷ had better, ought to, be supposed to ®Òu mang nghÜa t−¬ng
®−¬ng víi should víi ®iÒu kiÖn ®éng tõ to be trong thµnh ng÷ be supposed
to ph¶i chia ë thêi hiÖn t¹i.
Ex: John ought to study tonight.
Ex: John is supposed to study tonight.

L−u ý: Thµnh ng÷ be supposed to ngoµi ra cßn mang nghÜa: qui ®Þnh ph¶i, b¾t
buéc ph¶i.
Ex: We are supposed to have a science test this afternoon, but it was
postponed because the teacher had to attend a conference.

3. Must + Verb in simple form
Ph¶i: mang nghÜa b¾t buéc rÊt m¹nh.
Ex: George must call his insurance agent today.

H¼n lµ: chØ sù suy luËn logic dùa trªn nh÷ng hiÖn t−îng cã thËt ë hiÖn t¹i.
Ex: John's lights are out. He must be asleep.

Ng−êi ta dïng have to thay cho must trong c¸c tr−êng hîp sau
Qu¸ khø = had to.
Ex: Mrs.Kinsey had to pass an examination before she could practice law.

T−¬ng lai = will have to.
Ex: We will have to take an exam next week.




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HiÖn t¹i: Have to ®−îc dïng thay cho must ®Ó hái xem b¶n th©n m×nh
b¾t buéc ph¶i lµm g× hoÆc ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù b¾t buéc do kh¸ch quan ®em
l¹i. Gi¶m nhÑ tÝnh b¾t buéc cña must.
Ex: Guest: Do I have to leave a deposit.
Receptionist: No, you needn't. But you have to leave your I.D card number
written down in this register. I'm sorry but that's the way it is.

L−u ý: Have got to + Verb = must
Ex: He has got to go to the office tonight. (Th−êng dïng nhiÒu trong v¨n nãi).
vµ th−êng xuyªn dïng cho nh÷ng hµnh ®éng ®¬n lÎ, t¸ch biÖt.
Ex I have to work everyday except Sunday. But I don't have got to work a full
Ex:
day on Saturday.




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C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm
khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë qu¸
khø
1. Could, may, might + have + P2 = cã lÏ ®·
DiÔn ®¹t mét kh¶ n¨ng cã thÓ ë qu¸ khø song ng−êi nãi kh«ng d¸m ch¾c.
Ex: It may have rained last night, but I'm not sure.

2. Could have + P2 = LÏ ra ®· cã thÓ (trªn thùc tÕ lµ kh«ng)
Ex: He could have gotten the ticket for the concert last night.

V-
3. Might have been + V-ing = Cã lÏ lóc Êy ®ang
Ex: I didn't hear the telephone ring, I might have been sleeping at that time.

4. Should have + P2 = LÏ ra ph¶i, lÏ ra nªn
ChØ mét viÖc lÏ ra ®· ph¶i x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø nh−ng trªn thùc tÕ lµ kh«ng.
Should have + P2 = was/ were supposed to
Ex: Maria shouldn't have called John last night. (She did call him)

5. Must have + P2 = h¼n lµ ®·
ChØ sù suy ®o¸n logic dùa trªn nh÷ng hiÖn t−îng cã thËt ë qu¸ khø.
Ex: The grass is wet. It must have rained last night.

V-
6. Must have been V-ing = h¼n lóc Êy ®ang
Ex: I didn't hear you knock, I must have been sleeping at that time.




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C¸c vÊn ®Ò sö dông should trong mét
sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ
DiÔn ®¹t kÕt qu¶ cña mét yÕu tè t−ëng t−îng: SÏ
Ex If I was asked to work on Sunday I should resign.
Ex:

Dïng trong mÖnh ®Ò cã that sau nh÷ng tÝnh tõ chØ tr¹ng th¸i nh− anxious/
sorry/ concerned/ happy/ delighted... : LÊy lµm/ r»ng/ v×...
Ex: I'm anxious that she should be well cared for
(T«i lo l¾ng r»ng liÖu c« Êy cã ®−îc s¨n sãc tèt kh«ng)
Ex We are sorry that you should feel uncomfortable
Ex:
(Chóng t«i lÊy lµm tiÕc v× anh kh«ng thÊy ®−îc tho¶i m¸i)
Ex: That you should speak to him like that is quite astonishing
(C¸i ®iÒu mµ anh Êy nãi víi anh nh− vËy qu¶ lµ ®¸ng ng¹c nhiªn).

Dïng víi if/ in case ®Ó chØ mét ®iÒu khã cã thÓ x¶y ra/ ng−êi ta ®−a ra ý
kiÕn chØ ®Ò phßng ngõa.
Ex: If you should change your mind = Should you change your mind, please let
Ex
me know.
Ex In case he should have forgotten to go to the airport, nobody will be there
Ex:
to meet her.(Ngé nhì/ nÕu ch¼ng may «ng Êy quªn mÊt ra s©n bay, th× sÏ
kh«ng cã ai ë ®ã ®ãn c« ta mÊt)

Dïng sao so that/ in order that ®Ó chØ môc ®Ých (Thay cho would/ could)
Ex He put the cases in the car so that he should be able to make an early
Ex:
start.
Ex She repeated the instructions slowly in order that he should understand.
Ex:

Dïng trong lêi yªu cÇu lÞch sù
Ex I should like to make a phone call, if possible (t«i xin phÐp gäi ®iÖn tho¹i
Ex:
nÕu t«i cã thÓ)

Dïng víi imagine/ say/ think ®Ó ®−a ra lêi ®Ò nghÞ: ThiÕt t−ëng, cho lµ
think...
Ex I should imagine it will take about 3 hours (T«i thiÕt t−ëng c«ng viÖc sÏ tèn
Ex:
mÊt 3 giê ®ång hå ®Êy).
Ex I should say she's over 40 (T«i cho lµ bµ ta ®· ngoµi 40)
Ex:

Dïng trong c©u hái ®Ó diÔn t¶ sù nghi ngê, thiÕu quan t©m
Ex How should I know (Lµm sao t«i biÕt ®−îc kia chø)
Ex:
Ex Why should he thinks that (sao nã l¹i nghÜ nh− vËy chø)
Ex:


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Dïng víi c¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn nh− what/ where/ who ®Ó diÔn t¶ sù ng¹c
nhiªn, th−êng dïng víi "But".
"But"
Ex I was thinking of going to see John when who should appear but John
Ex:
himself (T«i ®ang tÝnh lµ ®Õn th¨m John th× ng−êi xuÊt hiÖn l¹i chÝnh lµ anh Êy)
Ex What should I find but an enormous spider (C¸i mµ t«i nh×n thÊy l¹i chÝnh
Ex:
lµ mét con nhÖn khæng lå)




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TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ

Mét tÝnh tõ lu«n bæ nghÜa cho mét danh tõ vµ chØ mét danh tõ, nã lu«n ®øng
tr−íc danh tõ ®−îc bæ nghÜa.
Trong tiÕng Anh, cã duy nhÊt mét tÝnh tõ ®øng sau danh tõ:
galore = nhiÒu, phong phó, dåi dµo
Ex: There were errors galore in the final test.

TÝnh tõ còng ®øng sau c¸c ®¹i tõ phiÕm chØ (something, anything,
something,
anybody...)
anybody
Ex: It–s something strange.
Ex: He is sb quite unknown.

Mét phã tõ lu«n bæ nghÜa cho mét ®éng tõ, mét tÝnh tõ hoÆc mét phã tõ
kh¸c.
Ex: Rita drank too much.
Ex: I don't play tenis very well.

Adj + ly = Adv Nh−ng ph¶i cÈn thËn, v× mét sè tÝnh tõ còng cã tËn cïng lµ
Adv.
®u«i ly (lovely, friendly). Phã tõ cña c¸c tÝnh tõ nµy ®−îc cÊu t¹o b»ng c¸ch
lovely, friendly).
nh− sau:
in a + Adj + way/ manner

Ex: He behaved me in a friendly way.

Mét sè c¸c phã tõ cã cÊu t¹o ®Æc biÖt: so, very, almost, soon, often, fast,
rather, well, there, too. C¸c phã tõ nµy tr¶ lêi cho c©u hái how.
Ngoµi ra cßn mét sè c¸c côm tõ còng ®−îc coi lµ phã tõ, nã bao gåm mét
giíi tõ më ®Çu víi c¸c danh tõ ®i sau ®Ó chØ: ®Þa ®iÓm (at home thêi gian
at home),
(at 5 pm ph−¬ng tiÖn (by train t×nh huèng, hµnh ®éng (in a very difficult
at pm), by train), in
situation).
situation TÊt c¶ c¸c côm nµy ®Òu ®−îc xem lµ phã tõ.
VÞ trÝ cña phã tõ trong c©u t−¬ng ®èi tho¶i m¸i vµ phøc t¹p, qui luËt:
• NÕu ch−a biÕt ®Æt phã tõ ë ®©u th× vÞ trÝ th−êng xuyªn cña nã ë cuèi c©u,
®Æc biÖt c¸c phã tõ ®u«i ly.
• C¸c phã tõ vµ côm phã tõ lµm bæ ng÷ ®øng cuèi c©u theo thø tù nh−
sau: chØ ph−¬ng thøc hµnh ®éng-chØ ®Þa ®iÓm-chØ thêi gian-chØ ph−¬ng
tiÖn hµnh ®éng-chØ t×nh huèng hµnh ®éng.
• Kh«ng bao giê mét phã tõ hoÆc mét côm phã tõ ®−îc xen vµo gi÷a ®éng
tõ vµ t©n ng÷.



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• NÕu trong c©u kh«ng cã phã tõ nµo kh¸c ngoµi phã tõ chØ thêi gian th× cã
thÓ ®−a nã lªn ®Çu c©u.
Ex: In 1980, He graduated and found a job.

C¸c phã tõ chØ tÇn sè nh−: always, sometimes, often lu«n ®øng tr−íc
often...
®éng tõ hµnh ®éng nh−ng ®øng sau ®éng tõ to be.
Ex: The president always comes in time.
Ex: The president is always in time.




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§éng tõ nèi
§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng sau, mang nh÷ng tÝnh chÊt sau

be appear feel
become seem look
remain sound smell
stay

Kh«ng diÔn ®¹t hµnh ®éng mµ diÔn ®¹t tr¹ng th¸i hoÆc b¶n chÊt sù viÖc.
§»ng sau chóng ph¶i lµ tÝnh tõ kh«ng thÓ lµ phã tõ.
Kh«ng ®−îc chia ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn dï d−íi bÊt cø thêi nµo.
L−u ý: Trong b¶ng cã c¸c cÆp ®éng tõ:
to seem to happen

= = d−êng nh−

to appear to chance
Chóng cã thÓ thay thÕ lÉn cho nhau, nh−ng kh«ng thÓ thay thÕ ngang hay thay
thÕ chÐo.
C¸c ®éng tõ nµy ®−îc dïng theo mÉu c©u sau:
• Dïng víi chñ ng÷ gi¶ it
Ex: It seems that they have passed the exam./ It happens (chances that
they have passed the test)
• Dïng víi chñ ng÷ thËt
Ex: They seem to have passed the exam./ They happened/ chanced to have
passed the exam.

NghÜa "T×nh cê", "NgÉu nhiªn", "May mµ".
Ex She happened to be out/ It happened that she was out when he called
Ex:
(NgÉu nhiªn c« ta kh«ng cã nhµ khi anh ta gäi ®iÖn)
Ex She chanced to be in/ It happened that she was in when he called. (May
Ex:
mµ c« ta cã nhµ khi anh ta gäi ®iÖn ®Õn).

Ba ®éng tõ: to be, to become, to remain trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cã mét
danh tõ hoÆc ng÷ danh tõ theo sau, khi ®ã chóng mÊt ®i chøc n¨ng cña mét
®éng tõ nèi.
Ex: Children often become bored (adj at meeting
adj)
adj




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Christine became class president (noun phrase) after a long, hard
noun
campaign.

Bèn ®éng tõ: to feel, to look, to smell, to taste trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cã
thÓ lµ ngo¹i ®éng tõ, ®ßi hái mét t©n ng÷ ®i sau nã, lóc nµy nã mÊt ®i chøc
n¨ng cña mét ®éng tõ nèi, cã thÓ cã phã tõ ®i kÌm. Chóng thay ®æi vÒ mÆt
ng÷ nghÜa:
Ex: to feel: sê n¾n ®Ó kh¸m.
Ex: to look at: nh×n
Ex: to smell: ngöi
Ex: to taste: nÕm
Chóng ®−îc phÐp chia ë th× tiÕp diÔn.
Ex: The lady is smelling the flowers gingerly.




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C¸c d¹ng so s¸nh cña tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ
1. So s¸nh b»ng
CÊu tróc sö dông lµ as .... as

S + V + as + adj/ adv + as + noun/ pr onoun

NÕu lµ phñ ®Þnh, as thø nhÊt cã thÓ thay b»ng so (chØ ®Ó dÔ ®äc – informal
English)
Sau as ph¶i lµ mét ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng chñ ng÷, kh«ng ®−îc lµ mét t©n ng÷
(Lçi c¬ b¶n)
Ex: He is not as tall as his father.
Ex: He is not so tall as his father.

Danh tõ còng cã thÓ ®−îc dïng ®Ó so s¸nh trong tr−êng hîp nµy, nh−ng
nªn nhí tr−íc khi so sanh ph¶i ®¶m b¶o r»ng danh tõ ®ã ph¶i cã c¸c tÝnh tõ
t−¬ng ®−¬ng.

adjectives nouns
heavy, light weight
wide, narrow width
deep, shallow depth
long, short length
big, small size

S + V + the same + (noun) + as + noun/ pr onoun

Ex: My house is as high as his.
My house is the same height as his.

The same...as >< different from...

Chó ý, trong tiÕng Anh (A-E), different than... còng cã thÓ ®−îc dïng nÕu
sau chóng lµ mét mÖnh ®Ò hoµn chØnh. Tuy nhiªn tr−êng hîp nµy kh«ng
phæ biÕn vµ kh«ng ®−a vµo c¸c bµi thi ng÷ ph¸p:
Ex: His appearance is different from what I have expected.
...than I have expected.(A-E)

2. So s¸nh h¬n kÐm
Trong lo¹i so s¸nh nµy ng−êi ta chia lµm hai d¹ng: tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ng¾n
(®äc lªn chØ cã mét vÇn). TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ dµi (2 vÇn trë lªn).



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§èi víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ng¾n chØ cÇn céng ®u«i er.
§èi víi tÝnh tõ ng¾n chØ cã mét nguyªn ©m kÑp gi÷a hai phô ©m tËn cïng,
ph¶i gÊp ®«i phô ©m cuèi ®Ó tr¸nh thay ®æi c¸ch ®äc.
§èi víi tÝnh tõ tËn cïng lµ y, dï cã 2 vÇn vÉn bÞ coi lµ tÝnh tõ ng¾n vµ ph¶i
®æi thµnh Y-IER (happy→happier; dry→drier; pretty→prettier)
(happy→ dry→ pretty→prettier).
Tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt: strong→stronger; friendly→friendlier than/ more
strong→ friendly→
than.
friendly than
§èi víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ph¶i dïng more/less
more/less.
Sau THAN ph¶i lµ ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng chñ ng÷, kh«ng ®−îc lµ t©n ng÷. C«ng
thøc:


adjective_er
S +V+ adver b_er + T HAN + noun/ pr onoun
mor e + adj/adv
less + adj /adv


Khi so s¸nh mét ng−êi/ mét vËt víi tÊt c¶ nh÷ng ng−êi hoÆc vËt kh¸c ph¶i
thªm else sau anything/anybody...
Ex: He is smarter than anybody else in the class.
§Ó nhÊn m¹nh so s¸nh, cã thÓ thªm much/far tr−íc so s¸nh, c«ng thøc:

S + V + far/much + Adj/Adv_er + than + noun/pronoun
Adj/Adv
S + V + far/much + more + Adj/Adv + than + noun/pronoun

Ex: Harry–s watch is far more expensive than mine
Ex: He speaks English much more rapidly than he does Spanish.
Danh tõ còng cã thÓ dïng ®Ó so s¸nh b»ng hoÆc h¬n kÐm, nh−ng tr−íc khi
so s¸nh ph¶i x¸c ®Þnh xem ®ã lµ danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc hay kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc, v×
®»ng tr−íc chóng cã mét sè ®Þnh ng÷ dïng víi 2 lo¹i danh tõ ®ã. C«ng
thøc:

S + V + as + many/much/little/few + noun + as + noun/pronoun
S + V + more/fewer/less + noun + than + noun/pronoun

Ex: He earns as much money as his father.
Ex: February has fewer day than March.
Ex: Their jobs allow them less freedom than ours does.
*L−u ý (quan träng): §»ng sau as vµ than cña c¸c mÖnh ®Ò so s¸nh cã thÓ
lo¹i bá chñ ng÷ nÕu nã trïng hîp víi chñ ng÷ thø nhÊt, ®Æc biÖt lµ khi ®éng




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tõ sau than vµ as ë d¹ng bÞ ®éng. Lóc nµy than vµ as cßn cã thªm chøc
n¨ng cña mét ®¹i tõ quan hÖ thay thÕ.
Ex: Their marriage was as stormy as had been expected (Incorrect: as it had
been expected).
Ex: Anne is going to join us , as was agreed last week (Incorrect: as it was
agree last week).
He worries more than was good for him (Incorrect: than it/what is good for
him).
*HoÆc c¸c t©n ng÷ còng cã thÓ bÞ lo¹i bá sau c¸c ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau
THAN vµ AS:
Ex: Don–t lose your passport, as I did last year (Incorrect: as I did it last
year).
Ex: They sent more than I had ordered (Incorrect: than I had ordered it).
Ex: She gets her meet from the same butcher as I go to (Incorrect: as I go to
him).

3. So s¸nh hîp lý
Khi so s¸nh nªn nhí: c¸c môc dïng ®Ó so s¸nh ph¶i t−¬ng ®−¬ng nhau:
ng−êi-ng−êi, vËt-vËt.
Bëi vËy môc so s¸nh hîp lý sÏ lµ:
• Së h÷u c¸ch
Ex: Incorrect: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor.
Incorrect
(C©u nµy so s¸nh c¸c bøc tranh víi ng−êi chØ dÉn)
→ Correct: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor–s.
Correct
(instructor's = instructor's drawings)
• Dïng thªm that of cho danh tõ sè Ýt:
Ex: Incorrect: The salary of a professor is higher than a secretary.
Incorrect
(C©u nµy so s¸nh salary víi secretary)
→ Correct: The salary of a professor is higher than that of a secretary.
Correct
(that of = the salary of)
• Dïng thªm those of cho c¸c danh tõ sè nhiÒu:
Ex: Incorrect: Theduties of a policeman are more dangerous than a teacher .
Incorrect
(C©u nµy so s¸nh duties víi teacher)
→ Correct: Theduties of a policeman are more dangerous than those of
Correct
a teacher
(those of = the duties of)

4. So s¸nh ®Æc biÖt
Adjective or adverb Comparative Superlative
far farther farthest
further furthest



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little less least
much more most
many
good better best
well
bad worse worst
badly

L−u ý: farther : dïng cho kho¶ng c¸ch
farther
further : dïng cho th«ng tin hoÆc mét sè tr−êng hîp trõu t−îng kh¸c
Ex: The distance from your house to school is farther than that of mine.
Ex: If you want more/further information, please call to the agent.
/
Ex Next year he will come to the U.S for his further (= more) education
Ex:

5. So s¸nh ®a béi
T−¬ng ®−¬ng cÊu tróc tiÕng ViÖt: gÊp r−ìi, gÊp hai...
Kh«ng ®−îc sö dông so s¸nh h¬n kÐm mµ sö dông so s¸nh b»ng, khi so
s¸nh ph¶i x¸c ®Þnh danh tõ lµ ®Õm ®−îc hay kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc, v× ®»ng
tr−íc chóng cã many/much
Ex: This encyclopedy costs twice as much as the other one.
Ex:Jerome has half as many records now as I had last year.
Ex:

Ng÷ ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i ngµy nay, ®Æc biÖt lµ ng÷ ph¸p Mü cho phÐp dïng so
s¸nh h¬n kÐm ®Õn gÊp 3 lÇn trë lªn, nh−ng ®èi víi gÊp 2 hoÆc 1/2 th× tuyÖt
®èi kh«ng.
C¸c lèi nãi: twice that many/twice that much = gÊp ®«i ngÇn Êy... chØ ®−îc
dïng trong khÈu ng÷, kh«ng ®−îc dïng ®Ó viÕt.
Ex: We have expected 80 people at that rally, but twice that many showned
up. (twice as many as that number).

6. So s¸nh kÐp
Lµ lo¹i so s¸nh víi cÊu tróc: Cµng... cµng...
C¸c Adj/Adv so s¸nh ph¶i ®øng ë ®Çu c©u, tr−íc chóng ph¶i cã The

The + comparative + S + V + the + comparative + S + V

Ex: The hotter it is, the more miserable I feel.

NÕu chØ mét vÕ cã Adj/Adv so s¸nh th× vÕ cßn l¹i cã thÓ dïng The more

The mor e + S + V + the + coparative + S + V

Ex: The more you study, the smarter you will become.



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Sau The more ë vÕ thø nhÊt cã thÓ cã that nh−ng kh«ng nhÊt thiÕt.
Ex: The more (that) you study, the smarter you will become.

Trong tr−êng hîp nÕu c¶ hai vÕ ®Òu cã thµnh ng÷ it is th× bá chóng ®i
Ex: The shorter (it is), the better (it is).

HoÆc nÕu c¶ hai vÕ ®Òu lµ to be th× bá ®i
Ex: The closer to one of the Earth–s pole (is), the greater the gravitational
force (is).
C¸c thµnh ng÷: all the better (cµng tèt h¬n), all the more (cµng... h¬n), not...
any the more... (ch¼ng... h¬n... tÝ nµo), none the more... (ch¼ng chót nµo)
dïng ®Ó nhÊn rÊt m¹nh cho c¸c tÝnh tõ hoÆc phã tõ ®−îc ®em ra so s¸nh
®»ng sau. Nã chØ ®−îc dïng víi c¸c tÝnh tõ trõu t−îng
trõu t−îng:
Ex: Sunday mornings were nice. I enjoyed them all the more because Sue
used to come round to breakfast.
(c¸c s¸ng chñ nhËt trêi thËt ®Ñp. T«i l¹i cµng thÝch nh÷ng s¸ng chñ nhËt
®ã h¬n n÷u v× Sue th−êng ghÐ qua ¨n s¸ng.)
Ex: He didn–t seem to be any the worse for his experience.
(Anh ta cµng kh¸ h¬n lªn v× nh÷ng kinh nghiÖm cña m×nh.)
Ex: He explained it all carefully, but I was still none the wiser.
(Anh ta gi¶i thÝch toµn bé ®iÒu ®ã cÈn thËn nh−ng t«i vÉn kh«ng s¸ng ra
chót nµo c¶.)
CÊu tróc nµy tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng dïng cho c¸c tÝnh tõ cô thÓ:
Ex: Incorrect: Those pills have made him all the slimmer.

7. CÊu tróc No sooner... than = Võa míi ... th× ®·...
ChØ dïng cho thêi Qu¸ khø vµ thêi HiÖn t¹i, kh«ng dïng cho thêi T−¬ng lai.
No sooner ®øng ë ®Çu mét mÖnh ®Ò, theo sau nã lµ mét trî ®éng tõ ®¶o lªn
tr−íc chñ ng÷ ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh, than ®øng ë ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò cßn l¹i:

No sooner + auxiliary + S + V + than + S + V

Ex: No sooner had we started out for California than it started to rain. (Past)
Past)

Mét vÝ dô ë thêi hiÖn t¹i (will ®−îc lÊy sang dïng cho hiÖn t¹i)
will
Ex: No sooner will he arrive than he want to leave.(Present)
Present)

Mét cÊu tróc t−¬ng ®−¬ng cÊu tróc nµy:
No sooner ... than ... = Hardly/Scarely ... when
Ex: Scarely had they felt in love each other when they got maried.

L−u ý: No longer ... = not ... anymore = kh«ng ... n÷a dïng theo cÊu tróc:
... n÷a,



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S + no longer + Positive Verb


8. So s¸nh gi÷a 2 ng−êi hoÆc 2 vËt
Khi so s¸nh gi÷a 2 ng−êi hoÆc 2 vËt, chØ ®−îc dïng so s¸nh h¬n kÐm,
kh«ng ®−îc dïng so s¸nh bËc nhÊt, mÆc dï trong mét sè d¹ng v¨n nãi vµ
c¶ v¨n viÕt vÉn chÊp nhËn so s¸nh bËc nhÊt. (Lçi c¬ b¶n).
Tr−íc adj vµ adv so s¸nh ph¶i cã the trong c©u cã thµnh ng÷ of the two +
the,
noun thµnh ng÷ cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu hoÆc cuèi c©u.
Ex: Harvey is the smarter of the two boys.
Ex: Of the two shirts, this one is the prettier.

9. So s¸nh bËc nhÊt
Dïng khi so s¸nh 3 ng−êi hoÆc 3 vËt trë lªn:
§èi víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ng¾n dïng ®u«i est
est.
§èi víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ dµi dïng most hoÆc least
least.
§»ng tr−íc so s¸nh ph¶i cã the.
Dïng giíi tõ in víi danh tõ sè Ýt.
Ex: John is the tallest boy in the family

Dïng giíi tõ of víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu
Ex: Deana is the shortest of the three sister

Do ®ã sau thµnh ng÷ One of the + so s¸nh bËc nhÊt + noun ph¶i ®¶m b¶o
ch¾c ch¾n r»ng noun ph¶i lµ sè nhiÒu, vµ ®éng tõ ph¶i chia ë sè Ýt.
Ex: One of the greatest tennis players in the world is Johnson.

Mét sè c¸c tÝnh tõ hoÆc phã tõ mang tÝnh tuyÖt ®èi th× cÊm dïng so s¸nh
bËc nhÊt, h¹n chÕ dïng so s¸nh h¬n kÐm, nÕu buéc ph¶i dïng th× bá more
more:
Primary
unique/ extreme/ perfect/ supreme/ top/ absolute/Prime/ Primary
Ex: His drawings are perfect than mine.
preferable to Sb/Sth... = ®−îc −a thÝch h¬n...
superior to Sb/Sth... = siªu viÖt h¬n...
inferior to Sb/Sth... = h¹ ®¼ng h¬n...




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Danh tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ

Trong tiÕng Anh cã hiÖn t−îng mét danh tõ ®øng tr−íc mét danh tõ kh¸c lµm
nhiÖm vô cña mét tÝnh tõ. §Ó lµm ®−îc chøc n¨ng nh− vËy, chïng ph¶i b¶o
®¶m nh÷ng tÝnh chÊt
§øng ngay tr−íc danh tõ mµ nã bæ nghÜa.
Kh«ng ®−îc phÐp cã h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu trõ mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt.
Ex: No frills store = cöa hµng kh«ng trang trÝ mµu mÌ.
a sports/sport car
small-claims court = phiªn toµ xö nh÷ng vô nî vÆt.

NÕu cã hai danh tõ cïng lµm tÝnh tõ th× gi÷a chóng ph¶i cã dÊu g¹ch nèi –-
–.
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp nÕu dïng danh tõ lµm tÝnh tõ th× mang nghÜa ®en:
Ex: A gold watch → a watch made of gold.

Nh−ng nÕu dïng tÝnh tõ gèc mang nghÜa bãng:
Ex: A golden opportunity = a chance that it is very rare and precious (quÝ gi¸).

Kh«ng ®−îc dïng tÝnh tõ bæ trî cho danh tõ khi cho nã chØ tÝnh chÊt nghÒ
nghiÖp hoÆc néi dung:
Ex: mathematics teacher/ a biology book




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Enough
Enough lu«n ®øng ®»ng sau Adj/Adv nh−ng l¹i ph¶i ®øng tr−íc danh tõ:
Ex: well enough...
Ex:enough food, enough water...
Ex:
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp nÕu danh tõ ®· ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn ë trªn, th× ë d−íi cã
quyÒn dïng enough nh− mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ
Ex: I forgot money. Do you have enough?




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Mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ dïng Much &
Many
Many/ Much + noun/ noun phrase nh− mét ®Þnh ng÷.
Ex: Ex: She didn–t eat much breakfast
(C« ta kh«ng ¨n s¸ng nhiÒu)
Ex: Ex: There aren–t many large glasses left
(Kh«ng cßn l¹i nhiÒu cèc lín)
Tuy nhiªn much of + personal and geographic names cã thÓ ®−îc dïng mµ
kh«ng cÇn dÞnh ng÷ ®i kÌm theo danh tõ ®»ng sau:
Ex: Ex: I have seen too much of Howard recently.
(GÇn ®©y t«i kh«ng hay gÆp Howard)
Ex: Ex: Not much of Denmark is hilly.
(§an m¹ch kh«ng cã mÊy ®åi nói)
Many/Much of + determiner (a, the, this, my... ) + noun.
Ex: Ex: You can–t see much of a country in a week.
(Anh kh«ng thÓ biÕt nhiÒu vÒ mét n−íc trong vßng mét tuÇn ®©u.)
Ex: Ex: I won–t pass the exam. I have missed many of my lessons.
(T«i sÏ kh«ng tho¸t ®−îc kú thi nµy mÊt, t«i bá qu¸ nhiÒu bµi.)
Many vµ much dïng nhiÒu trong c©u phñ ®Þnh vµ c©u nghi vÊn, nh−ng trong
c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh nªn dïng c¸c lo¹i tõ kh¸c nh− plenty of, a lot, lots of... ®Ó
thay thÕ.
Ex: Ex: How much money have you got? I–ve got plenty.
Ex: Ex: He got lots of men friends, but he doesn–t know many women.
Tuy nhiªn trong tiÕng Anh chuÈn (formal) much vµ many vÉn ®−îc dïng b×nh
th−êng trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh.
Ex: Ex: Much has been written about the causes of unemployment in the
opinion of many economists.
Much dïng nh− mét phã tõ:
Ex: Ex: I don–t travel much these days.
Much cã thÓ dïng tr−íc mét sè ®éng tõ diÔn ®¹t sù −a thÝch vµ mét sè ý t−¬ng
tù ®Æc biÖt trong d¹ng tiÕng Anh qui chuÈn.
Ex: Ex: I much appreciate you help.
Ex: Ex: We much prefer the country to the town.
Ex: Ex: Janet much enjoyed her stay with your family.
®èi víi mét sè ®éng tõ (nh− like/ dislike... ) chØ nªn dïng much sau very vµ
trong cÊu tróc phñ ®Þnh.
Ex: Ex: I very much like you brother.
Ex: Ex: I don–t much like your dog. It–s very cruel.




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Mét sè c¸ch dïng ®Æc biÖt cña much vµ many:
§Æc ng÷: Much too much/ many so many dïng ®éc lËp sau mÖnh ®Ò tr−íc
danh tõ mµ nã bæ ng÷.
Ex: Ex: The cost of a thirty-second commercial on a network television station
is $300,000, much too much for most business.
Many a + singular noun + singular verb: BiÕt bao nhiªu.
Ex: Many a strong man has disheartened before such a challenge.
Ex: Ex: I have been to the top of the Effeil tower many a time.
Smb + who
Many–s the (biÕt bao nhiªu) + singular verb
Smt + that
Ex: Ex: Many–s the student who couldn–t follow the post-graduate courses
at Universities and colleges under the pressure of money.
(BiÕt bao nhiªu sinh viªn ®· kh«ng thÓ... )
Ex: Many–s the promise that has been broken.
(BiÕt bao nhiªu lêi høa... )




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Ph©n biÖt thªm vÒ c¸ch dïng alot/ lots
of/ plenty/ a great deal/ so víi many/
much.

C¸c thµnh ng÷ trªn t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi much/ many (nhiÒu) vµ most (®a phÇn).
A lot of/ lots of (informal) = a great deal/ alarge number of/ much/ many
(formal)
Kh«ng cã kh¸c nhau g× mÊy gi÷a a lot of vµ lots of. Chñ ng÷ chÝnh sau hai
thµnh ng÷ nµy sÏ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ.

A lot of/ lots of + uncountable noun + singular verb
plural noun + plural verb
Ex: Ex: A lot of time is needed to learn a language.
Ex: Ex: Lots of us think it–s time for an election.
Plenty of ®−îc dïng phæ biÕn trong informal English.
Ex: Ex: Don–t rush, there–s plenty of time.
Ex: Ex: Plenty of shops take checks.
A large a mount of = a great deal of + non-count noun (formal English)
Ex: Ex: I have thrown a large amount of ald clothing.
Ex: Ex: Mr Lucas has spent a great deal of time in the Far East.
A lot vµ a great deal cã thÓ ®−îc dïng lµm phã tõ vµ vÞ trÝ cña nã lµ ë cuèi c©u.
Ex: Ex: On holiday we walk and swim a lot.
Ex: Ex: The gorvernment seems to change its mind a great deal.




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dïng
Mét sè c¸ch dïng cô thÓ cña more &
most

More + noun/noun phrase: dïng nh− mét ®Þnh ng÷
Ex: Ex: We need more time.
Ex: Ex: More university students are having to borrow money these day.
More + of + personal/geographic names
Ex: Ex: It would bi nice to see more of Ray and Barbara.
RÊt hay khi ®−îc gÆp Ray vµ Barbara th−êng xuyªn h¬n.
Ex: Ex: Five hundred years ago, much more of Britain was covered with
trees.
500 n¨m tr−íc ®©y, ®a phÇn n−íc Anh phñ nhiÒu rõng h¬n b©y giê
nhiÒu.
More of + determiner/pronoun (a/ the/ my/ this/ him/ them...)
Ex: Ex: He is more of a fool than I thought.
Nã lµ mét th»ng ngu h¬n t«i t−ëng nhiÒu.
Ex: Ex: Three more of the missing climbers have been found.
Ex: Ex: Could I have some more of that smoked fish.
Ex: Ex: I don–t think any more of them want to come.
One more/ two more... + noun/ noun phrase
Ex: Ex: There is just one more river to cross.
Nh−ng ph¶i dïng cardinal number (sè ®Õm) + noun + more (Five dollars more)
nÕu more mang nghÜa thªm n÷a.
Ex: Ex: He has contributed $50, and now he wants to contribute $50 more.
Most + noun = §a phÇn, ®a sè
Ex: Ex: Most cheese is made from cow–s milk.
Ex: Ex: Most Swiss people understand French.
Most + determiner/ pronoun (a, the, this, my, him...) = HÇu hÕt...
Ex: Ex: He has eaten 2 pizzas and most of a cold chicken.
Ex: Ex: Most of my friend live abroad.
Ex: Ex: She has eaten most of that cake.
Ex: Ex: Most of us though he was wrong.
Most ®−îc dïng nh− mét danh tõ, nÕu ë trªn, danh tõ hoÆc chñ ng÷ ®ã ®·
®−îc nh¾c ®Õn.
Ex: Ex: Some people had difficulty with the lecture, but most understood.
Ex: Ex: Ann and Robby found a lot of blackberries, but Susan found the most.
Most + adjective khi mang nghÜa very
Ex: Ex: That is most kind of you.



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Ex: Ex: Thank you for a most interesting afternoon.




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C¸ch dïng long & (for) a long time

Long ®−îc dïng trong c©u hái vµ c©u phñ ®Þnh.
Ex: Ex: Have you been waiting long?
Ex: Ex: It does not take long to get her house.
Ex: Ex: She seldom stays long.
(for) a long time dïng trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh
Ex: Ex: I waited for a long time, but she didn–t arrive.
Ex: Ex: It takes a long time to get to her house.
Long còng ®−îc dïng trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh khi ®i víi: too, enough, as, so
Ex: Ex: The meeting went on much too long.
Ex: Ex: I have been working here long enough. Time to get a new job.
Ex: Ex: You can stay as long as you want.
Ex: Ex: Sorry! I took so long.
Long before (l©u tr−íc khi)/ long after (m·i sau khi)/ long ago (c¸ch ®©y ®· l©u)
Ex: Ex: We used to live in Paris, but that was long before you were born.
Ex: Ex: Long after the accident he used to dream that he was dying.
Ex: Ex: Long ago, in a distant country, there lived a beutiful princess.
Long ph¶i ®Æt sau trî ®éng tõ: This is a problem that has long been
recognized.
All day/ night/ week/ year long = suèt c¶...
Ex: Ex: She sits dreaming all day long
(C« ta ngåi m¬ méng suèt c¶ ngµy).
Before + long = Ngay b©y giê, ch¼ng bao l©u n÷a
Ex: Ex: I will be back before long
(T«i sÏ quay l¹i ngay b©y giê).
Trong c©u phñ ®Þnh for a long time (®· l©u, trong mét thêi gian dµi) ≠ for long
(ng¾n, kh«ng dµi, chèc l¸t)
Ex: Ex: She didn–t speak for long. (= she only spoke for a short time)
Ex: Ex: She didn–t speak for a long time. (= she was silent for a long time)
How long have you here for? = Anh sÏ ë ®©y l©u chø? (bao gåm hoÆc ®Ò cËp
®Õn c¶ t−¬ng lai).
Ex: Ex:
− How long have you been here for?
− Until the end of next week.
Ex: Ex:
− How long have you been here for? (Anh ®· ë ®©y cho ®Õn giê lµ bao
l©u råi?)



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− Since last Monday.


Tõ nèi
1. Because, Because of
§»ng sau Because ph¶i dïng 1 c©u hoµn chØnh nh−ng ®»ng sau Because of
ph¶i dïng 1 ng÷ danh tõ.

Because of = on account of = due to
Nh−ng nªn dïng due to sau ®éng tõ to be cho chuÈn.
Ex: The accident was due to the heavy rain.

Dïng as result of ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh hËu qu¶ cña hµnh ®éng hoÆc sù vËt, sù
viÖc.
Ex: He was blinded as a result of a terrible accident.


qu¶
2. Tõ nèi chØ môc ®Ých vµ kÕt qu¶
Trong cÊu tróc nµy ng−êi ta dïng thµnh ng÷ –so that (sao cho, ®Ó cho).
so that–
§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau so that ph¶i ®Ó ë thêi t−¬ng lai so víi thêi cña ®éng
tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Ex: He studied very hard so that he could pass the test.

Ph¶i ph©n biÖt –so that trong cÊu tróc nµy víi so that mang nghÜa do ®ã
so that–
(therefore C¸ch ph©n biÖt duy nhÊt lµ ®éng tõ ®»ng sau so that mang
therefore).
therefore
nghÜa do ®ã diÔn biÕn b×nh th−êng so víi thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò ®»ng
tr−íc.
Ex: We heard nothing from him so that ( = therefore) we wondered if he moved
away.


3. Tõ nèi chØ nguyªn nh©n vµ kÕt qu¶.
Trong lo¹i tõ nèi nµy ng−êi ta dïng cÊu tróc so/such .... that = qu¸, ®Õn nçi
mµ vµ chia lµm nhiÒu lo¹i sö dông.
Dïng víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ : CÊu tróc lµ so ..... that.
Ex: Terry ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record.
Ex: Judy worked so diligently that she received an increase in salary.

Dïng víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu: CÊu tróc vÉn lµ so ... that nh−ng ph¶i dïng
many hoÆc few tr−íc danh tõ ®ã.
Ex: I had so few job offers that it wasn't difficult to select one.




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Dïng víi danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc : CÊu tróc vÉn lµ so ... that nh−ng ph¶i
dïng much hoÆc little tr−íc danh tõ ®ã.
Ex: He has invested so much money in the project that he can't abandon it
now.

Dïng víi tÝnh tõ + danh tõ sè Ýt: such a ... that. Cã thÓ dïng so theo cÊu
such
tróc : so + adj + a + noun ... that. (Ýt phæ biÕn h¬n)
Ex: It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors.
Ex: It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors.

Dïng víi tÝnh tõ + danh tõ sè nhiÒu/kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc: such ... that. TuyÖt
®èi kh«ng ®−îc dïng so.
Ex: They are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one.
Ex: This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.

4. Mét sè c¸c tõ nèi mang tÝnh ®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c.
Even if + negative verb: cho dï.
Ex: You must go tomorrow even if you aren't ready.

Whether or not + positive verb: dï cã hay kh«ng.
Ex: You must go tomorrow where or not you are ready.

C¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn ®øng ®Çu c©u còng dïng lµm tõ nèi vµ ®éng tõ theo
sau chóng ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.
Ex: Whether he goes out tonight depends on his girldfriend.
Why these pupils can not solve this problems makes the teachers
confused.

Mét sè c¸c tõ nèi cã quy luËt riªng cña chóng nÕu kÕt hîp víi nhau
And moreover And in addtion And thus or otherwise
And furthermore And therefore But nevertheless But ... anyway
NÕu nèi gi÷a hai mÖnh ®Ò, ®»ng tr−íc chóng ph¶i cã dÊu phÈy
Ex He was exhausted, and therefore his judgement was not very good.
Ex:

Nh−ng nÕu nèi gi÷a hai tõ ®¬n th× kh«ng
Ex The missing piece is small but significant.
Ex:

Unless + positive = if ... not: Trõ phi, nÕu kh«ng.
Ex: You will be late unless you start at once.

But for that + unreal condition: NÕu kh«ng th×
• HiÖn t¹i




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Ex: My father pays my fee, but for that I couldn't be here(But he is here
learning)
• Qu¸ khø
Ex: My car broken down, but for that we would have been here in time (But
they were late)

Otherwise + real condition: KÎo, nÕu kh«ng th×.
Ex: We must be back before midnight otherwise I will be locked out.

Otherwise + unreal condition: KÎo, nÕu kh«ng th× nh−ng sau nã ph¶i lµ ®iÒu
unreal
kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc
• HiÖn t¹i
Ex: Her father supports her finance otherwise she couldn't conduct these
experiments (But she can with her father's).
• Qu¸ khø:
Ex: I used a computer, otherwise I would have taken longer with these
calculations (But he didn't take any longer).
*L−u ý: Trong tiÕng Anh th«ng tôc (colloquial English) ng−êi ta dïng or else ®Ó
thay thÕ cho otherwise
otherwise.

Provided/Providing that: Víi ®iÒu kiÖn lµ, miÔn lµ = as long as
Ex: You can camp here providing that you leave no mess.

Suppose/Supposing = What ... if : Gi¶ sö .... th× sau, NÕu ..... th× sao.
Ex: Suppose the plane is late = What (will happen) if the plane is late.

L−u ý:
* Suppose cßn cã thÓ ®−îc dïng ®Ó ®−a ra lêi gîi ý.
Ex: Suppose you ask him = Why don't you ask him.

* L−u ý thµnh ng÷: What if I am: Tao thÕ th× ®· sao nµo (mang tÝnh th¸ch thøc)

If only + S + simple present/will + verb = hope that: hi väng r»ng
Ex : If only he comes in time
Ex : If only he will learn harder for the test next month.

that(C©u ®/k kh«ng thùc hiÖn
If only + S + simple past/past perfect = wish that(
®−îc)
Ex: If only he came in time now.
Ex If only she had studied harder for that test
Ex:
If only + S + would + V
• DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i



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Ex: If only he would drive more slowly = we wish he drived more slowly.
• DiÔn ®¹t mét −íc muèn v« väng vÒ t−¬ng lai:
Ex: If only it would stop raining
Immediately = as soon as = the moment (that) = the instant that = directly:
ngay lËp tøc
Ex: Tell me immediatly (=as soon as ) you have any news.
Ex: Phone me the moment that you get the results.
Ex: I love you the instant (that) I saw you.
Ex: Directly I walked in the door I smelt smoke.




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C©u bÞ ®éng

Ng−êi ta dïng c©u bÞ ®éng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµo t©n ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng.
Thêi cña ®éng tõ ë c©u bÞ ®éng ph¶i tu©n theo thêi cña ®éng tõ ë c©u chñ
®éng.
NÕu lµ lo¹i ®éng tõ cã 2 t©n ng÷, muèn nhÊn m¹nh vµo t©n ng÷ nµo ng−êi
ta ®−a t©n ng÷ ®ã lªn lµm chñ ng÷ nh−ng th«ng th−êng chñ ng÷ hîp lý cña
c©u bÞ ®éng lµ t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp.

Ex: I gave you a book = I gave a book to him = He was given a book by me.

§Æt " by + t©n ng÷ míi" ®»ng sau tÊt c¶ c¸c t©n ng÷ kh¸c.
NÕu sau by lµ mét ®¹i tõ v« nh©n x−ng mang nghÜa ng−êi ta: by people by
people,
sb th× bá h¼n nã ®i.


SIMPLE PRESENT OR SIMPLE PAST
Am
is
are +[verb in past participle]
was
were

Ex: Active: Hurricanes destroy a great deal of property each year.
Ex: Passive: A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each year.


PRESENT PROGRESSIVE OR PAST
PROGRESSIVE
Am
is
are + being + [verb in past participle]
was
were

Ex: Active: The committee is considering several new proposals.
Ex: Passive: Several new proposals are being considered by the committee.


PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST



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PERFECT
Has
have + been +[verb in past
participle]
had

Ex: Active: The company has ordered some new equipment.
Ex: Passive: Some new equipment has been ordered by the company.

MODALS
modal + been +[verb in past participle]


Ex: Active: The manager should sign these contracts today.
Ex: Passive: These contracts should be signed by the manager today.


C¸c néi ®éng tõ (§éng tõ kh«ng yªu cÇu 1 t©n ng÷ nµo) kh«ng ®−îc dïng ë
bÞ ®éng.
Ex: My leg hurts.

§Æc biÖt khi chñ ng÷ chÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm chÝnh cña hµnh ®éng còng kh«ng
®−îc chuyÓn thµnh c©u bÞ ®éng.
Ex: The America takes charge: N−íc Mü nhËn l·nh tr¸ch nhiÖm

NÕu lµ ng−êi hoÆc vËt trùc tiÕp g©y ra hµnh ®éng th× dïng by nh−ng nÕu lµ
vËt gi¸n tiÕp g©y ra hµnh ®éng th× dïng with
with.
Ex: The bird was shot with the gun - The bird was shot by the hunter.

Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp to be/to get + P2 hoµn toµn kh«ng mang nghÜa bÞ
®éng mµ mang 2 nghÜa:
ChØ tr¹ng th¸i mµ chñ ng÷ ®ang ë trong ®ã
Ex: Could you please check my mailbox while I am gone.
Ex: He got lost in the maze of the town yesterday.

ChØ viÖc chñ ng÷ tù lµm lÊy
Ex: The little boy gets dressed very quickly.
Ex: Could I give you a hand with these tires.
Ex: No thanks, I will be done when I finish tightening these bolts.
Mäi sù biÕn ®æi vÒ thêi vµ thÓ ®Òu nh»m vµo ®éng tõ to be cßn ph©n tõ 2 gi÷
be,
nguyªn.
• to be made of: §−îc lµm b»ng ( (§Ò cËp ®Õn chÊt liÖu lµm nªn vËt)
Ex This table is made of wood
Ex:



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• to be made from: §−îc lµm ra tõ ( cËp ®Õn viÖc nguyªn vËt liÖu bÞ biÕn
(®Ò
®æi hoµn toµn vÒ tr¹ng th¸i ban ®Çu ®Ó lµm nªn vËt)
Ex Paper is made from wood
Ex:

• to be made out of: §−îc lµm b»ng ( cËp ®Õn qu¸ tr×nh lµm ra vËt)
(®Ò
Ex This cake was made out of flour, butter, sugar, eggs and milk
Ex:

• to be made with: §−îc lµm víi ( cËp ®Õn chØ mét trong sè nhiÒu chÊt liÖu
(®Ò
lµm nªn vËt)
Ex: This soup tastes good because it was made a lot of spices.
Ex

Ph©n biÖt thªm vÒ c¸ch dïng marry vµ divorce trong 2 thÓ: Chñ ®éng vµ bÞ
®éng
• Khi kh«ng cã t©n ng÷ th× ng−êi Anh −a dïng get maried vµ get divorced
trong d¹ng informal English.
informal
Ex: Lulu and Joe got maried last week. (informal)
Ex: Lulu and Joe married last week. (formal)

Ex: After 3 very unhappy years they got divorced. (informal)
Ex: After 3 very unhappy years they dovorced. (formal)

• Sau marry vµ divorce lµ mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp kh«ng cã giíi tõ: To mary /
divorce smb
Ex: She married a builder.
Ex: Andrew is going to divorce Carola

• To be/ get married/ to smb (giíi tõ –to– lµ b¾t buéc)
Ex: She got married to her childhood sweetheart.
Ex: He has been married to Louisa for 16 years and he still doesn–t
understand her.




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§éng tõ g©y nguyªn nh©n

§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ diÔn ®¹t ®èi t−îng thø nhÊt g©y cho ®èi t−îng thø hai mét
®iÒu g× víi mét sè mÉu c©u nh− sau:

b¶o
1. To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = Sai ai, khiÕn ai, b¶o
ai lµm g×


2. To have/to get sth done = §−a c¸i g× ®i lµm
Theo khuynh h−íng nµy ®éng tõ to want vµ would like còng cã thÓ dïng
víi mÉu c©u nh− vËy: To want/ would like sth done.
C©u hái dïng cho lo¹i mÉu c©u nµy lµ: What do you want done to ?
Ex: What do you want done to your car ?
I want/ would like it washed.
/


3. To make sb do sth = to force sb to do sth
§»ng sau t©n ng÷ cña make cßn cã thÓ dïng 1 tÝnh tõ: To make sb/sth +
adj
Ex: Wearing flowers made her more beautiful.


lµm
4. To make sb + P2 = lµm cho ai bÞ lµm sao
Ex: Working all night on Friday made me tired on Saturday.


5. To cause sth + P2 = lµm cho c¸i g× bÞ lµm sao
Ex: The big thunder storm caused many waterfront houses damaged.

NÕu t©n ng÷ cña make lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ th× ph¶i ®Æt it gi÷a make
vµ tÝnh tõ, ®Æt ®éng tõ ra phÝa ®»ng sau: make it + adj + V as object.
Ex: The wire service made it possible to collect and distribute news faster and
cheaper.

Tuy nhiªn nÕu t©n ng÷ cña make lµ 1 danh tõ hay 1 ng÷ danh tõ th× kh«ng
®−îc ®Æt it gi÷a make vµ tÝnh tõ: Make + adj + noun/ noun phrase.




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Ex: The wire service made possible much speedier collection and distribution
of news.


6. To let sb do sth = to permit/allow sb to do sth = ®Ó ai, cho
phÐp ai lµm g×


7. To help sb to do sth/do sth = Gióp ai lµm g×
NÕu t©n ng÷ cña help lµ mét ®¹i tõ v« nh©n x−ng mang nghÜa ng−êi ta th×
kh«ng cÇn ph¶i nh¾c ®Õn t©n ng÷ ®ã vµ bá lu«n c¶ to cña ®éng tõ ®»ng
saul
Ex: This wonder drug will help (people to) recover more quickly.

NÕu t©n ng÷ cña help vµ t©n ng÷ cña ®éng tõ sau nã trïng hîp víi nhau,
ng−êi ta sÏ bá t©n ng÷ sau help vµ bá lu«n c¶ to cña ®éng tõ ®»ng sau.
Ex:The body fat of the bear will help (him to) keep him alive during hibernation.
Ex:


8. 3 ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt
§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ mµ ng÷ nghÜa cña chóng sÏ thay ®æi ®«i chót khi ®éng tõ
sau t©n ng÷ cña chóng ë c¸c d¹ng kh¸c nhau.
(hµnh ®éng chøng kiÕn tõ ®Çu ®Õn
To see/to watch/ to hear sb/sth do sth (
cuèi)
Ex: I hear the telephone ring.
(hµnh ®éng kh«ng chøng kiÕn trän
To see/to watch/ to hear sb/sth doing sth (
vÑn mµ chØ nhÊt thêi)




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C©u phøc hîp vµ ®¹i tõ quan hÖ thay
thÕ

TiÕng Anh cã 2 lo¹i c©u
C©u ®¬n gi¶n: lµ c©u cã 1 thµnh phÇn vµ chØ cÇn vËy c©u còng ®· ®ñ nghÜa.
C©u phøc hîp: lµ lo¹i c©u cã 2 thµnh phÇn chÝnh/phô nèi víi nhau b»ng 1 tõ
gäi lµ ®¹i tõ quan hÖ.

1. That vµ which lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô
Nã ®øng ®Çu c©u phô, thay thÕ cho danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt ®øng tr−íc nã
vµ lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô. Do ®ã nã kh«ng thÓ nµo bá ®i ®−îc.
Ex: We bought the stereo that had been advertised at a reduced price.

t©n
2. That vµ which lµm t©n ng÷ cña c©u phô
• Nã thay thÕ cho danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt ®øng tr−íc nã, më ®Çu c©u phô
nh−ng lµm t©n ng÷. Do ®ã nã cã thÓ bá ®i ®−îc.
Ex: George is going to buy the house (that) we have been thinking of
buying

• Ng−êi ta dïng that chø kh«ng dïng which khi:
• §øng tr−íc nã lµ mét tÝnh tõ so s¸nh bËc nhÊt + danh tõ
Ex: That is the best novel that has been written by this author.

• Khi ®»ng tr−íc nã lµ mét sè c¸c ®¹i tõ phiÕm chØ nh− all some any
all, some, any,
anything, everything, much, little,
anything everything much little nothing v.v..
Ex1: I want to see all that he possesses.
Ex2: All the apples that fall are eaten by pig.

3. Who lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô
• Nã thay thÕ cho danh tõ chØ ng−êi hoÆc ®éng vËt ë tr−íc nã, lµm chñ
ng÷ cña c©u phô. Do ®ã nã kh«ng thÓ bá ®i ®−îc.
Ex: The man (who) is in this room is angry.

4. Whom lµm t©n ng÷ cña c©u phô
• Nã thay thÕ cho danh tõ chØ ng−êi hoÆc ®éng vËt ë tr−íc nã vµ lµm t©n
ng÷ cña c©u phô, nã cã thÓ bá ®i ®−îc.
Ex: The men (whom) I don't like are angry.



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• NÕu whom lµm t©n ng÷ cña mét ng÷ ®éng tõ bao gåm 1 Verb + 1 giíi tõ
th× lèi viÕt chuÈn nhÊt lµ ®−a giíi tõ ®ã lªn tr−íc whom
whom.
Ex: The man to whom you have just talked is the chairman of the
company.

• Tuy nhiªn nÕu whom lµ t©n ng÷ cña mét ng÷ ®éng tõ bao gåm 1 ®éng tõ
+ 2 giíi tõ th× 2 giíi tõ ®ã vÉn ph¶i ®øng ®»ng sau ®éng tõ.
Ex: The man whom you are looking forward to is the chairman of the
company.

• Kh«ng ®−îc dïng who thay cho whom trong v¨n viÕt dï nã ®−îc chÊp
nhËn trong v¨n nãi.


5. MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc vµ kh«ng b¾t buéc.

1) MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc.
• Lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò b¾t buéc ph¶i cã mÆt ë trong c©u, nÕu bá ®i c©u sÏ mÊt
ý nghÜa ban ®Çu.
• Nªn dïng that lµm chñ ng÷ cho lo¹i c©u nµy mÆc dï which vÉn ®−îc
chÊp nhËn
• C©u phô th−êng ®øng xen vµo gi÷a c©u chÝnh hoÆc nèi liÒn víi c©u chÝnh
vµ kh«ng t¸ch rêi khái nã bëi bÊt cø dÊu ph¶y nµo.
Ex: Weeds that float to the surface should be removed before they
decay.

2) MÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc
• Lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò mang th«ng tin phô trong c©u, nÕu bá nã ®i c©u kh«ng
mÊt nghÜa ban ®Çu.
• Kh«ng ®−îc dïng that lµm chñ ng÷ mµ ph¶i dïng wich, cho dï wich cã
wich
lµ t©n ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò phô còng kh«ng ®−îc phÐp bá nã ®i.
• C©u phô th−êng ®øng chen vµo gi÷a c©u chÝnh vµ b¾t buéc ph¶i t¸ch
khái c©u chÝnh b»ng 2 dÊu phÈy.
Ex1: My car, which is very large, uses too much gasoline.
Ex2: This rum, which I bought in the Virgin Islands, is very smooth.

6. TÇm quan träng cña viÖc sö dông dÊu phÈy ®èi víi mÖnh ®Ò
phô
ë nh÷ng mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc, khi kh«ng dïng dÊu phÈy tøc lµ cã sù giíi
h¹n cña mÖnh ®Ò phô ®èi víi danh tõ ®»ng tr−íc (trong tiÕng ViÖt: chØ cã)

Ex: The travelers who knew about the flood took another road.
(ChØ cã c¸c l÷ kh¸ch nµo mµ...)
Ex: The wine that was stored in the cellar was ruined.


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(ChØ cã r−îu vang ®Ó d−íi hÇm míi bÞ...)
§èi víi nh÷ng mÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc, khi cã dÊu phÈy ng¨n c¸ch th×
nã kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh hoÆc giíi h¹n danh tõ ®øng tr−íc nã. (trong tiÕng ViÖt:
c¶).
tÊt c¶)
Ex: The travelers, who knew about the flood, took another road.
(TÊt c¶ l÷ kh¸ch...)
Ex The wine, which was stored in the cellar, was ruined.
Ex:
(TÊt c¶ r−îu vang...)
C¸c nguyªn t¾c trªn ®©y chØ dïng trong v¨n viÕt, kh«ng dïng trong v¨n nãi.

7. C¸ch sö dông All, Both, Some, Several, Most, Few + Of +
Whom/ Which
TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc dïng ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng t©n ng÷: them us trong tr−êng
them,
hîp nµy.
Ex1: Their sons, both of whom (kh«ng ®−îc nãi both of them) are working
abroad, ring her up every week.
Ex2: The buses, most of which were full of passengers, began to pull out.

What = the thing/ the things that cã thÓ lµm t©n ng÷ cho mÖnh ®Ò phô cïng
lóc lµm chñ ng÷ cho mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh/ hoÆc lµm chñ ng÷ cña c¶ 2 mÖnh ®Ò
chÝnh, phô.
Ex1: What we have expected is the result of the test.
Ex2: What happened to him yesterday might happen to us tomorrow.

8. Whose = cña ng−êi mµ, cña con mµ.
Nã thay thÕ cho danh tõ chØ ng−êi hoÆc ®éngvËt ë tr−íc nã vµ chØ sù së
h÷u cña ng−êi hoÆc ®éng vËt ®ã ®èi víi danh tõ ®i sau.
Ex: James, whose father is the president of the company, has received a
promotion.

Trong lèi v¨n viÕt quan träng nªn dïng of which ®Ó thay thÕ cho danh tõ bÊt
®éng vËt mÆc dï whose vÉn ®−îc chÊp nhËn.
Ex: Saving account, of which (= whose) interest rate is quite hight, is very
common now.

HoÆc dïng with + noun/ noun phrase thay cho whose
Ex: The house whose walls were made of glass = The house with the glass
walls.

9. C¸ch lo¹i bá mÖnh ®Ò phô
§èi víi nh÷ng mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc ng−êi ta cã thÓ lo¹i bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ vµ
®éng tõ to be (cïng víi c¸c trî ®éng tõ cña nã) trong mét sè tr−êng hîp sau:
Tr−íc mét mÖnh ®Ò phô mµ cÊu tróc ®éng tõ ë thêi bÞ ®éng.



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Ex: This is the Z value (which was) obtained from the table areas under the
normal curve.

Tr−íc mét mÖnh ®Ò phô mµ sau nã lµ mét ng÷ giíi tõ.
Ex: The beaker (that is) on the counter contains a solution.

Tr−íc mét cÊu tróc ®éng tõ ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn.
Ex: The girl (who is) running down the street might be in trouble.

Ngoµi ra trong mét sè tr−êng hîp khi ®¹i tõ quan hÖ trong mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t
buéc g¾n liÒn víi chñ ng÷ ®øng tr−íc nã vµ mÖnh ®Ò phô Êy diÔn ®¹t qui
luËt hoÆc sù kiÖn diÔn ®¹t theo tÇn sè, ng−êi ta cã thÓ bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ vµ
®éng tõ chÝnh thay vµo ®ã b»ng mét Verb-ing
Verb-ing.
Ex: The travelers taking (= who take) this bus on a daily basis buy their ticket
in booking.

Trong nh÷ng mÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc ng−êi ta còng cã thÓ lo¹i bá ®¹i
tõ quan hÖ vµ ®éng tõ to be khi nã ®øng tr−íc mét ng÷ danh tõ. Tuy nhiªn
phÇn ng÷ danh tõ cßn l¹i vÉn ph¶i ®øng gi÷a 2 dÊu phÈy.
Ex: Mr Jackson, (who is) a professor, is traveling in the Mideast this year.

Lo¹i bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ vµ ®éng tõ chÝnh, thay vµo ®ã b»ng 1 Verb-ing khi
Verb-
mÖnh ®Ò phô nµy ®i bæ nghÜa cho mét t©n ng÷ (lèi viÕt nµy rÊt phæ biÕn).
Ex: The president made a speech for the famous man visiting (who visited)
him.




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C¸ch sö dông P1 trong mét sè tr−êng
hîp

10. Dïng víi mét sè c¸c cÊu tróc ®éng tõ.
• Have sb/sth + doing = cause: lµm cho.
.
Ex: He had us laughing all through the meal.

• S + won't have sb + doing = S + won't allow sb to do sth: kh«ng cho phÐp ai
lµm g×
Ex: I won't have him telling me what to do.

• C¸c côm hiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ: adding, pointing out, reminding, warning,
reasoning that ®Òu cã thÓ më ®Çu cho mét mÖnh ®Ò phô gi¸n tiÕp.
Ex1: He told me to start early, reminding me that the road would be
crowded.
Ex2: Reasoning that he could only get to the lake, we followed that way.

• To catch sb doing sth: b¾t gÆp ai ®ang (
(hµnh ®éng cña t©n ng÷ lµm phËt
lßng chñ ng÷).
Ex: If she catches you reading her diary,she will be furious.

• To find sb/sth doing sth: ThÊy ai/ c¸i g× ®ang
Ex: I found him standing at the doorway
Ex He found a tree lying across the road.
Ex:

• To leave sb doing sth: §Ó ai lµm g×
Ex: I left Bob talking to the director after the introduction.

• Go/come doing sth (
(dïng cho thÓ thao vµ mua s¾m)
Ex: Go skiing/ go swimming/ go shopping/ come dancing

• To spend time doing sth: Bá thêi gian lµm g×
Ex: He usually spends much time preparing his lessons.

• To waste time doing: hao phÝ thêi gian lµm g×
Ex: She wasted all the afternoon having small talks with her friends.

• To have a hard time/trouble doing sth: GÆp khã kh¨n khi lµm g×



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Ex: He has trouble listening English.

• To be worth doing sth: ®¸ng ®Ó lµm g×
Ex: This project is worth spending time and money on.
• To be busy doing something: bËn lµm g×
Ex: She is busy packing now.
• Be no/ not much/ any/ some good doing smt: Kh«ng cã Ých, Ýt khi cã Ých
(lµm g×)
Ex It's no good my talking to him: Nãi chuyÖn víi anh ta t«i ch¶ thÊy cã Ých
Ex:
g×.
Ex What good is it asking her: Hái c« ta th× cã Ých g× c¬ chø
Ex:

11. P1 ®−îc sö dông ®Ó rót ng¾n nh÷ng c©u dµi
Hai hµnh ®éng x¶y ra song song cïng mét lóc: hµnh ®éng thø hai ë d¹ng
V-ing hai hµnh ®éng kh«ng t¸ch rêi khái nhau bëi bÊt k× dÊu ph¶y nµo.
ing,
Ex: He drives away and whistles = He drives away whistling.
Khi hµnh ®éng thø hai hoÆc c¸c hµnh ®éng tiÕp sau theo nã lµ mét phÇn
trong qu¸ tr×nh diÔn biÕn cña hµnh ®éng thø nhÊt th× hµnh ®éng thø hai
hoÆc c¸c hµnh ®éng tiÕp theo sau nã ë d¹ng V-ing Gi÷a hai hµnh ®éng cã
ing.
ng¨n c¸ch nhau bëi dÊu phÈy.
Ex: She went out and slammed the door -> she went out, slamming the door.

Khi hµnh ®éng thø 2 hoÆc c¸c hµnh ®éng sau nã lµ kÕt qu¶ cña hµnh ®éng
thø nhÊt th× hµnh ®éng thø 2 vµ c¸c hµnh ®éng tiÕp theo sÏ ë d¹ng V-ing.
Nã sÏ ng¨n c¸ch víi hµnh ®éng chÝnh b»ng mét dÊu phÈy.
Ex: He fired two shots, killling a robber and wounding the other.


Hµnh ®éng thø 2 kh«ng cÇn chung chñ ng÷ víi hµnh ®éng thø nhÊt mµ chØ
cÇn lµ kÕt qu¶ còng ®· cã thÓ ë d¹ng V-ing.
Ex: The plane crashed, its bombs exploding when it hit the ground.




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C¸ch sö dông nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh
(To have + P2)

Whould (should) like + to have + P2 : DiÔn ®¹t mét −íc muèn kh«ng thµnh.
Ex: He would like to have seen the photos = He would have liked to see the
photos (But he couldn't).

Dïng víi mét sè ®éng tõ: to appear
to seem
+ to have + P2
to happen
to pretend

Nªn nhí r»ng hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh x¶y ra tr−íc hµnh
®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Ex: He seems to have passed the exam -> It seems that he has passed the
exam.
Ex: She pretended to have read the material -> She pretended that she had
read the material.

Dïng víi sorry, to be sorry + to have + P2: Hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu
hoµn thµnh x¶y ra tr−íc tr¹ng th¸i sorry.
Ex: The girls were sorry to have missed the Rock Concert -> the girls were
sorry that they had missed the Rock Concert.

Dïng víi mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ sau ®©y ë thÓ bÞ ®éng: to ackowledge. believe,
consider, find, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand. Hµnh ®éng
understand.
cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh x¶y ra tr−íc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Ex: He was believed to have gone out of the country -> It was believed that he
had gone out of the country.

Dïng víi mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ kh¸c nh− to claim, expect, hope, promise. §Æc
promise.
biÖt l−u ý r»ng hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh sÏ ë future perfect
so víi thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Ex: He expects to have graduated by June -> He expects that he will have
graduated by June.
Ex: He promised to have told me the secret by the end of this week -> He
promised that he would have told me the secret by the end of this week.




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Nh÷ng c¸ch sö dông kh¸c cña that
1. That dïng víi t− c¸ch lµ mét liªn tõ (r»ng)
§»ng sau 4 ®éng tõ say, tell, think, believe th× that cã thÓ bá ®i ®−îc.
Ex: John said (that) he was leaving next week.
Ex:

§»ng sau 4 ®éng tõ mention, declare, report, state th× that b¾t buéc ph¶i cã
mÆt.
Ex: George mentioned that he was going to France next year.

That vÉn b¾t buéc ph¶i dïng ë mÖnh ®Ò thø 2 trong c©u sau dÊu phÈy nÕu
vÉn cïng chung mét mÖnh ®Ò ®»ng sau 4 ®éng tõ trªn.
Ex: The Major declared that or June the first he would announce the result of
the search and that he would never over look the crime punishment.


2. MÖnh ®Ò that
Lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò cã hai thµnh phÇn vµ b¾t buéc ph¶i cã that trong c©u.
Dïng víi chñ ng÷ gi¶ it vµ tÝnh tõ.
It + to be + adj + That + S + V = That + S + V ... to be + adj
Ex: It is well known that many residents of third world countries are dying.
or
That many residents of third world countries are dying is well known.

Dïng víi ®éng tõ t¹o thµnh mét mÖnh ®Ò ®éc lËp.
It + verb + complement + That + S + V = That + S + V + ... +V + complement
Ex: It surprises me that John would do such a thing
or
That John would do such a thing surprises me.

Ng−êi ta dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ it trong v¨n nãi ®Ó dÔ nhËn biÕt vµ that lµm chñ
ng÷ thËt trong v¨n viÕt.
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ng−êi ta ®¶o ng÷ giíi tõ lªn ®Çu c©u, ®éng tõ nèi
hoÆc ®éng tõ tÜnh ®¶o lªn trªn THAT vµ sau ®ã míi lµ chñ ng÷ thËt. C«ng
thøc sö dông nh− sau:

Prepositional phrase + link verb/stative verb-THAT-sentence as real
verb-THAT-
subject, and THAT-sentence as real subject.
THAT-

Ex: Among the surprising discoveries were THAT T.rex was a far sleeker but
more powerful carnivore than previous thought, perhaps weighing less



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than 6.5 tons more than a bull elephant, and THAT T.rex habitat was
forest, not swamp or plain as previously believed.
(Mét trong sè nh÷ng ph¸t hiÖn ng¹c nhiªn lµ ë chç loµi khñng long b¹o
chóa lµ mét lo¹i ¨n thÞt cã th©n h×nh m−ît mµ h¬n nhiÒu, song còng lµ
loµi dòng m·nh h¬n ng−êi ta ®· tõng nghÜ tr−íc ®©y, cã lÏ c©n nÆng
ch−a ®Õn 6 tÊn r−ìi-tøc lµ kh«ng lín h¬n mét con voi ®ùc, vµ t»ng m«i
tr−êng sèng cña loµi khñng long nµy lµ rõng chø kh«ng ph¶i lµ ®Çm lÇy
hay ®ång b»ng nh− ng−êi ta vÉn th−êng tin.)
The fact that + sentence/ the fact remains that + sentence/ the fact of the
matter is that = Thùc tÕ lµ.../Sù thùc lµ...
Ex: The fact that Simon had not been home for 3 days didn–t seem to worry
anybody.




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C©u gi¶ ®Þnh
Lµ lo¹i c©u ®èi t−îng thø nhÊt muèn ®èi t−îng thø hai lµm mét viÖc g×
nh−ng lµm hay kh«ng cßn phô thuéc vµo ng−êi thø hai.
Trong c©u b¾t buéc ph¶i cã that trõ mét sè tr−êng hîp.

1. Dïng víi would rather that
Ng÷ ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i ngµy nay ®Æc biÖt lµ ng÷ ph¸p Mü cho phÐp dïng would
rather mµ kh«ng cÇn dïng that trong lo¹i c©u nµy.
Ex: We would rather (that) he not take this train.


2. Dïng víi ®éng tõ.
B¶ng 1/183. Lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®ßi hái mÖnh ®Ò ®»ng sau nã ph¶i ë d¹ng
gi¶ ®Þnh vµ trong c©u b¾t buéc ph¶i cã that nÕu nã diÔn ®¹t ý trªn.

advise demand prefer require
ask insist propose stipulate
command move recommend suggest
decree order request urge


§éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ 2 ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ kh«ng chia bá to
to.
NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not sau chñ ng÷ 2 tr−íc nguyªn thÓ
bá to
to.
Ex: The doctor suggested that his patient stop smoking.

NÕu bá that ®i th× chñ ng÷ 2 sÏ trë vÒ d¹ng t©n ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ sau nã trë vÒ
d¹ng nguyªn thÓ cã to c©u mÊt tÝnh chÊt gi¶ ®Þnh. Trë thµnh mét d¹ng
to,
mÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp.
Trong ng÷ ph¸p Anh-Anh ®»ng tr−íc ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 th−êng cã
should,
should ng−êi Anh chØ bá should khi nã lµ ®éng tõ to be nh−ng ng÷ ph¸p
Anh-Mü kh«ng dïng should cho toµn bé ®éng tõ ®»ng sau.


3. Dïng víi tÝnh tõ.
B¶ng 1/184 lµ mét sè c¸c tÝnh tõ ®ßi hái mÖnh ®Ò sau nã ph¶i ë d¹ng gi¶
®Þnh, trong c©u b¾t buéc ph¶i cã that vµ ®éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ 2 ë d¹ng
nguyªn thÓ bá to.
to




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advised necessary recommended urgent
important obligatory required imperative
mandatory proposed suggested

L−u ý r»ng trong b¶ng nµy cã mét sè tÝnh tõ lµ ph©n tõ 2 cÊu t¹o tõ c¸c
®éng tõ ë b¶ng 1/183
1/183.
NÕu muèn cÊu t¹o phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not sau chñ ng÷ 2 tr−íc nguyªn thÓ bá to
to.


It + be + adj + that + S + [verb in simple form]


Ex1: It is necessary that he find the books.
Ex2: It has been proprosed that we change the topic.

NÕu bá that ®i th× chñ ng÷ 2 sÏ biÕn thµnh t©n ng÷ sau giíi tõ for ®éng tõ
for,
trë vÒ d¹ng nguyªn thÓ cã to vµ c©u mÊt tÝnh chÊt gi¶ ®Þnh trë thµnh d¹ng
mÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp.
L−u ý:
C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi 2 lo¹i trªn th−êng ®−îc dïng trong c¸c v¨n b¶n hoÆc
th− giao dÞch diÔn ®¹t lêi ®Ò nghÞ tõ phÝa A -> B mµ kh«ng cã tÝnh b¾t buéc.
Kh«ng chØ cã ®éng tõ vµ tÝnh tõ míi ®−îc dïng theo d¹ng nµy, tÊt c¶ c¸c
danh tõ xuÊt ph¸t tõ nh÷ng ®éng tõ vµ tÝnh tõ trªn ®Òu buéc mÖnh ®Ò sau
nã ph¶i ë d¹ng gi¶ ®Þnh, nÕu nh− nã diÔn ®¹t c¸c yÕu tè trªn.
Ex: There is suggestion from the doctor that the patient stop smoking.
Ex: It is recommendation that the vehicle owner be present at the court

4. C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi mét sè tr−êng hîp kh¸c
Nã dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét −íc muèn hoÆc mét lêi nguyÒn rña th−êng bao
hµm c¸c thÕ lùc siªu nhiªn.
God be with you = Good bye.
Curse this toad: ChÕt tiÖt c¸i con cãc nµy.
Dïng víi ®éng tõ May trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt sau:
• Come what may = Dï thÕ nµo ch¨ng n÷a, dï bÊt cø truyÖn g×.
Ex: Come what may we will stand by you.
• May as well not do sth .... if .... = Cã thÓ ®õng..... nÕu kh«ng.
Ex: You may as well not come if you can't be on time: C¸c anh cã thÓ ®õng
®Õn nÕu kh«ng ®Õn ®−îc ®óng giê.
• May/Might (just) as well do smt = Ch¼ng mÊt g× mµ l¹i kh«ng, mÊt g× cña
bä.
Ex: Since nobody wants that job, we might (just) as well let him have it: V×
kh«ng ai thÝch viÖc nµy, m×nh ch¼ng mÊt g× mµ l¹i kh«ng cho h¾n ta lµm nã



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• May diÔn ®¹t mét gi¶ ®Þnh trong lêi ®Ò nghÞ mµ ng−êi nãi cho r»ng ch−a
ch¾c nã ®· ®−îc thùc hiÖn:
Ex: The sign on the lawn says clearly that people may not walk on the grass.
(kh«ng dïng should trong tr−êng hîp nµy).
linkverb + adj
• May + S + = CÇu chóc cho.
verb + complement
Ex: May you both very happy: Chóc c¸c b¹n b¸ch niªn giai l·o.
Ex: May the conference be successful: Chóc héi nghÞ thµnh c«ng rùc rì.
Ex: Long may she live to enjoy her good fortune: CÇu chóc cho nµng sèng
l©u h−ëng trän vÑn vËn may cña nµng.
• If need be = If necessary = NÕu cÇn
Ex: If need be, we can take another road.
• Dïng víi ®éng tõ to be bá to sau if ®Ó chØ mét sù gi¶ ®Þnh ch−a ®−îc
be,
ph©n ®Þnh râ rµng lµ ®óng hay sai.
Ex: If that be all right, then it would be no defence for this man to say he's
innocent.
Ex: If that be error and upon me proved: NÕu ®ã qu¶ lµ lçi vµ cø nhÊt ®Þnh g¸n
cho t«i.
• Let it be me: Gi¶ sö ®ã lµ t«i, gi¸ ph¶i tay t«i.
Ex: Husband: Let it be me.
Wife (suddenly appearing) : If that be you, what would you do.
• Be that as it may... = whether that is true or not... = Cho dï lµ ph¶i thÕ
hay kh«ng.
Ex: Be that as it may, you have to accept it.
• Then so be it: Cø ph¶i vËy th«i.
Ex: If we have to pay $2,000, then so be it (th× cø ph¶i tr¶ th«i)

5. C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi it + to be + time
It's time (for sb) to do smt: ®· ®Õn lóc ai ph¶i lµm g× (Thêi gian võa vÆn
kh«ng mang tÝnh gi¶ ®Þnh).

Ex: It's time for me to get to the airport: §· ®Õn lóc t«i ph¶i ra s©n bay.

It's time
hightime + S + simple past = ®· ®Õn lóc mµ (thêi gian ®· trÔ mang
tÝnh
about time gi¶ ®Þnh)


Ex: It's time I got to the airport



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Ex: It's hightime the city government did smt to stop the traffic jam.




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Lèi nãi bao hµm
§ã lµ lèi nãi gép hai ý trong c©u lµ mét th«ng qua mét sè c¸c thµnh ng÷.

1. Not only ..... but also
C¸c thùc thÓ ë ®»ng sau hai thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi nhau vÒ
mÆt ng÷ ph¸p (N - N, adj - adj
N adj).


noun noun
S + Ver b + not only + adjective + but also + adjective
adver b adver b
pr epositional phr ase pr epositional phr ase

OR

Subject + not only + ver b + but also + ver b



Ex: Robert is not only talented but also handsome.
Ex: He writes not only correctly but also neatly.

Thµnh phÇn sau but also th−êng quyÕt ®Þnh thµnh phÇn sau not only.
Ex: Incorrect: He is not only famous in Italy but also in Switzerland.
Correct: He is famous not only in Italy but also in Switzerland.


2. As well as: Còng nh−
C¸c thµnh phÇn ®»ng tr−íc vµ ®»ng sau thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i t−¬ng ®−¬ng
víi nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p.

noun noun
adjective adjective
S + Ver b + adver b + as well as + adver b
pr epositional phr ase pr epositional phr ase



OR
Subject + ver b + as well as + ver b




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Ex: Robert is talented as well as handsome.
Ex: He writes correctly as well as neatly.
Ex: Paul plays the piano as well as composes music.

Kh«ng ®−îc nhÇm thµnh ng÷ nµy víi as well as cña hiÖn t−îng ®ång chñ
ng÷ mang nghÜa cïng víi.
Ex: The teacher, as well as her students, is going to the concert.
Ex: My cousins, as well as Tim, have a test tomorrow.

3. Both ..... and
C«ng thøc dïng gièng hÖt nh− Not only .... but also.
Both chØ ®−îc dïng víi and, kh«ng ®−îc dïng víi as well as.
Ex: Robert is both talented and handsome.
Ex: Paul both plays the piano and composes music.




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know,
C¸ch sö dông to know, to know how.

S + know how + [verb in infinitive]
or

Noun
S + know + Prepositional phrase
Sentence



Ex: Bill know how to play tennis well.
Ex: Jason knew the answer to the teacher's question.
Ex: I didn't know that you were going to France.

§»ng sau to know how còng cã thÓ dïng mét c©u ®Ó diÔn ®¹t kh¶ n¨ng
hoÆc sù b¾t buéc.
Ex: At a glance, she knew how she could solve this math problem.




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MÖnh ®Ò nh−îng bé
§ã lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò diÔn ®¹t hai ý tr¸i ng−îc trong cïng mét c©u.

1. Despite/Inspite of = bÊt chÊp
§»ng sau hai thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i dïng mét ng÷ danh tõ, kh«ng ®−îc dïng
mét c©u hoµn chØnh.

Ex: Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
Ex: Jane will be admitted to the university in spite of her bad grades.


MÆc
2. Although/Even though/Though = MÆc dÇu
§»ng sau 3 thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i dïng mét c©u hoµn chØnh, kh«ng ®−îc
dïng mét ng÷ danh tõ.
Ex: Although he has a physical handicap, he has become a successful
businessman.

Tuy nhiªn nÕu though ®øng cuèi c©u t¸ch biÖt khái c©u chÝnh bëi dÊu phÈy.
Khi nãi h¬i dõng l¹i mét chót, lóc ®ã nã mang nghÜa tuy nhiªn (= However)
However).
Ex: He promised to call me, till now I haven't received any call from him,
though.


3. However + adj + S + linkverb = dï cã .... ®i ch¨ng n÷a th× ....
Ex: However strong you are, you can't move this rock.


4. Although/ Albeit (more formal) + Adjective/ Adverb/ Averbial
Modifier
Ex Her appointment was a significant, althought/ albeit temporary success.
Ex:
(ViÖc bµ Êy ®−îc bæ nhiÖm lµ mét thµnh c«ng quan träng ®Êy, nh−ng dÉu sao
còng chØ lµ nhÊt thêi)
Ex Her performed the task well, althought/ albeit slowly (Anh ta thùc hiÖn
Ex:
nhiÖm vô ®ã tèt ®Êy, tuy r»ng chËm).




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Nh÷ng ®éng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn
Nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng sau rÊt dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn vÒ mÆt ng÷ nghÜa, chÝnh t¶
hoÆc ph¸t ©m.

Néi ®éng tõ
rise rose risen rising
lie lay lain lying
sit sat sat sitting


Ngo¹i ®éng tõ
raise raised raised raising
lay laid laid laying
set set set setting

To rise : D©ng lªn.
Ex: The sun rises early in the summer.

To raise smt/sb: N©ng ai, c¸i g× lªn.
Ex: The students raise their hands in class.

To lie: N»m, ë, t¹i.
To lie in: ë t¹i
To lie down: n»m xuèng.
To lie on: n»m trªn.
Ex: The university lies in the western section of town.
Ex: Don't disturb Mary, she has laid down for a rest.

*L−u ý: CÇn ph©n biÖt ®éng tõ nµy víi ®éng tõ to lie (nãi dèi) trong mÉu c©u to
(nãi dèi ai vÒ c¸i g×):
lie to sb about smt (
Ex: He is lying to you about the test.

To lay: ®Æt, ®Ó
To lay on: ®Æt trªn
To lay in: ®Æt vµo
To lay down: ®Æt xuèng.
Ex: Don't lay your clothes on the bed.
*L−u ý 1: Thêi hiÖn t¹i cña ®éng tõ nµy rÊt dÔ ng©y nhÇm lÉn víi qu¸ khø ®¬n
gi¶n cña ®éng tõ to lie CÇn ph¶i ph©n biÖt b»ng ng÷ c¶nh cô thÓ.
lie.




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To sit
To sit in: ngåi t¹i, ngåi trong.
To sit on: ngåi trªn (®· ngåi s½n).

To set = to put, to lay: ®Æt, ®Ó.
L−u ý: Ph¸t ©m hiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n cña ®éng tõ nµy rÊt dÔ lÉn víi Simple past
cña to sit
o sit.

Mét sè c¸c thµnh ng÷ dïng víi ®éng tõ trªn:
to set the table for: bÇy bµn ®Ó.
Ex: My mother has set the table for the family dinner.

th«i
to lay off (workers. employees): cho th«i viÖc, gi·n thî.
Ex: The company had to lay off twenty-five employees because of a
production slowdown.

to set (broken bone) in: bã nh÷ng c¸i x−¬ng gÉy vµo.
Ex: Dr.Jacobs has set many broken bones in plaster casts.

to set one's alarm for: §Æt ®ång hå b¸o thøc vµo lóc.
Ex: John set his alarm for six o'clock.

to set fire to: lµm ch¸y
Ex: While playing with matches, the children set fire to the sofa.

to raise (animals, plants) for a living: trång c¸i g×, nu«i con g× b¸n ®Ó lÊy
tiÒn.
Ex: That farmer raises chickens for a living.




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Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt kh¸c
§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ gièng hÖt nhau vÒ mÆt h×nh thøc nh−ng kh¸c nhau vÒ mÆt
ng÷ nghÜa nÕu ë trong c¸c mÉu c©u kh¸c nhau.
agree to do smt: ®ång ý lµm g×
Ex: He agreed to leave early tomorrow morning.

agree to one's doing smt: ®ång ý víi viÖc ai lµm g×.
Ex: He agreed to my leaving early tomorrow morning.

Mean to do smt: ®Þnh lµm g×.
Ex: I mean to get to the top of the hill before sunrise.

If it + mean + verb-ing: cho dï c¶ viÖc, bao hµm c¶ viÖc.
verb-
Ex: My neighbour was determined to get a ticket for Saturday's game if it
meant standing in line all night.

Propose to do smt: cã ý ®Þnh lµm g×.
Ex: I propose to start tomorrow.

Propose doing smt: §Ò nghÞ lµm g×
Ex: I propose waiting till the police came.

Go on doing smt/smt: tiÕp tôc lµm g×, c¸i g× (mét viÖc ®ang bÞ bá dë)
Ex: He went on writing after a break

Go on to do smt: Quay sang tiÕp tôc lµm g× (vÉn vÒ cïng mét vÊn ®Ò nh−ng
chuyÓn sang khÝa c¹nh kh¸c)
Ex: He showed the island on the map then went on to tell about its climate.

Try to do smt: cè g¾ng lµm g×
Ex: He try to solve this math problem.

Try doing smt: Thö lµm g×
Ex: I try sending her flowers, writing her letter, giving her presents, but she
still wouldn–t speak to me.




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®éng
Sù phï hîp vÒ thêi ®éng tõ

Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh cã 2 thµnh phÇn cã liªn quan ®Õn nhau vÒ mÆt thêi
th× thêi cña ®éng tõ ë hai thµnh phÇn ®ã ph¶i t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi nhau. Thêi cña
®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh sÏ quyÕt ®Þnh thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò phô.

Main clause Dependent clause
Simple present Present progressive

Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra cïng lóc víi hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò
chÝnh
Simple present Will/ Can/ May + Verb (hoÆc Near
future)
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra sau hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong
mét t−¬ng lai kh«ng ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh hoÆc t−¬ng lai gÇn.
Simple present Simple past

Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra tr−íc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong
mét qu¸ khø ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt thêi gian.
Simple present Present perfect (progressive)

Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra tr−íc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong
mét qu¸ khø kh«ng ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt thêi gian.
Simple past Past progressive/ Simple past

Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra cïng lóc víi hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò
chÝnh trong qu¸ khø.
Simple
Simple past Would/ Could/ Might + Verb

Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra sau hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong
mét t−¬ng lai trong qu¸ khø.
Simple past Past perfect

Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra tr−íc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh, lïi
s©u vÒ trong qu¸ khø.

L−u ý: Nh÷ng nguyªn t¾c trªn ®©y chØ ®−îc ¸p dông khi c¸c mÖnh ®Ò trong
c©u cã liªn hÖ víi nhau vÒ mÆt thêi gian nh−ng nÕu c¸c mÖnh ®Ò trong c©u cã
thêi gian riªng biÖt th× ®éng tõ ph¶i tu©n theo thêi gian cña chÝnh mÖnh ®Ò ®ã.



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Ex: He promised to tell me, till now I haven't received any call from him,
though.




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C¸ch sö dông to say, to tell
NÕu sau chñ ng÷ kh«ng cã mét t©n ng÷ nµo mµ ®Õn liªn tõ that ngay th×
ph¶i dïng to say
say.

S + say + (that) + S + V


Nh−ng nÕu sau chñ ng÷ cã mét t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp råi míi ®Õn liªn tõ that th×
ph¶i dïng to tell.
S + tell + indirect object + (that) + S +V

Ex: He says that he will be busy tomorrow/ he tell me that....


Sau to tell vÉn cã thÓ cã mét sè t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp dï bÊt k× hoµn c¶nh nµo.

a story
ajoke
asecret
Tell
a lie
the truth
(the) time


Ex: The little boy was punished because he told his mother a lie.




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§¹i tõ nh©n x−ng one vµ you
C¶ hai ®¹i tõ nµy ®Òu mang nghÜa ng−êi ta, tuy nhiªn ng÷ ph¸p sö dông cã
kh¸c nhau.
NÕu ë trªn ®· sö dông ®¹i tõ one th× c¸c ®¹i tõ t−¬ng øng tiÕp theo ë mÖnh
®Ò d−íi ph¶i lµ one, one's, he, his
his.
Ex: If one takes this exam without studying, one is likely to fail.
If one takes this exam without studying, he is likely to fail.
One should always do one's homework.
One should always do his homework.

L−u ý mét sè ng−êi do cÈn thËn muèn tr¸nh ph©n biÖt nam/ n÷ ®· dïng he
or she, his or her nh−ng ®iÒu ®ã lµ kh«ng cÇn thiÕt. C¸c ®¹i tõ ®ã chØ ®−îc
sö dông khi nµo ë phÝa trªn cã nh÷ng danh tõ chØ chung chung nh− the
side, the party.
Ex: The judge will ask the defendant party (chØ chung chung) if he or she
admits the allegations.

NÕu ®¹i tõ ë trªn lµ you th× c¸c ®¹i tõ t−¬ng øng tiÕp theo ë d−íi sÏ lµ you
hoÆc your.
your
Ex: If you take this exam without studying, you are likely to fail.
You should always do your homework.

TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng dïng lÉn one vµ you trong cïng mét c©u hoÆc dïng they
thay thÕ cho hai ®¹i tõ nµy.




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Tõ ®i tr−íc ®Ó giíi thiÖu

Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh cã 2 thµnh phÇn, nÕu mét trong hai thµnh phÇn
®ã cã dïng ®Õn ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng th× ë thµnh phÇn cßn l¹i ph¶i cã mét danh
tõ ®Ó giíi thiÖu cho ®¹i tõ ®ã .
Danh tõ ®i giíi thiÖu ph¶i t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng ®ã vÒ mÆt gièng
vµ sè.

Incorrect: Henry was denied admission to graduate school because they did
not believe that he could handle the work load.
Correct: The members of the admissions committee denied Henry admission
to graduate school because they did not believe that he could handle the work
load.
or
Henry was denied admission to graduate school because the
members of the admissions committee did not believe that he could handle the
work load.

ChØ cã mét danh tõ ®−îc phÐp giíi thiÖu cho ®¹i tõ, nÕu cã hai sÏ g©y nªn
sù lÇm lÉn do trïng lÆp.
Incorrect: Mr. Brown told Mr. Adams that he would have to work all night in
order to finish the report.
Correct : According to Mr. Brown, Mr. Adams will have to work all night in
order to finish the report.
or
Mr. Brown said that, in order to finish the report, Mr. Adams would
have to work all night.




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C¸ch sö dông c¸c ph©n tõ ë ®Çu mÖnh
®Ò phô
Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh cã chung mét chñ ng÷ bao gåm 2 thµnh phÇn:
MÖnh ®Ò phô cã thÓ më ®Çu b»ng mét V-ing ( (chiÕm ®a sè) - mét ph©n tõ
hai (nÕu mang nghÜa bÞ ®éng) - mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ (nÕu chØ môc ®Ých)
vµ mét ng÷ danh tõ hoÆc mét ng÷ giíi tõ nÕu chØ sù t−¬ng øng.
Khi sö dông lo¹i c©u nµy cÇn hÕt søc l−u ý r»ng chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò
chÝnh b¾t buéc ph¶i lµ chñ ng÷ hîp lý cña mÖnh ®Ò phô.
Th«ng th−êng cã 6 giíi tõ ®øng tr−íc mét V-ing më ®Çu cho mÖnh ®Ò phô,
®ã lµ: By (b»ng c¸ch, bëi), upon, after (sau khi), before (tr−íc khi), while
(trong khi), when (khi).
Ex: By working a ten-hour day for four days, we can have a long weekend.
L−u ý r»ng: on + ®éng tõ tr¹ng th¸i hoÆc in + ®éng tõ hµnh ®éng th× cã thÓ
t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi when hoÆc while
while.:
Ex: On finding (= when finding) the door ajar, I aroused suspicion.
(Khi thÊy cöa hÐ më, t«i n¶y sinh mèi nghi ngê)
Ex: In searching (=while searching) for underground deposits of oil, geologist
often rely on magnometers.
(Trong khi t×m c¸c má dÇu trong lßng ®Êt, c¸c nhµ ®Þa chÊt th−êng dùa
vµo tõ kÕ.)
Thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò phô ph¶i do thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh
quyÕt ®Þnh, 2 hµnh ®éng x¶y ra song song cung lóc:
• Present:
Ex: Practing her swing every day, Trica hopes to get a job as a golf instructor.
• Past:
Ex: While reviewing for the test, Maria realized that she has forgotten to study
the use of particle phrases.
• Future:
Ex: After preparing the dinner, Michelle will read a book.
NÕu being vµ having më ®Çu c©u phô th× ®»ng tr−íc chóng Èn giíi tõ
because.
Ex: Being a good student, he can always pass his exam easily. (= Because
he is...)
Ex: Having a terrible toothache, Phillip called the dentist far an appointment.
(= Because he had a...).
§éng tõ nguyªn thÓ chØ môc ®Ých ë ®Çu c©u phô



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Ex: Incorrect: To prevent cavities, dental floss should be used daily after
brushing one's teeth.
→Correct: To prevent cavities, one should use dental floss daily after
brushing teeth.

Ng÷ danh tõ hoÆc ng÷ giíi tõ më ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô chØ sù t−¬ng øng
Ex: Incorrect: A competitive sports, gymnasts must perform before a panel of
judges who use their knowledge of rules and skill to determine which
participant will win.
→Correct: In a gymnastic competitive sports game, gymnasts must ......
Ph©n tõ hai më ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô chØ bÞ ®éng:
Ex: Incorrect: Found in Tanzania by Mary Leaky, some archeologists
estimated that the three - million - year - old fossils were the oldest
human remains that were discovered.
→Correct: Found in Tanzania by Mary Leaky, the three - million - year -
old fossils were estimated by some archeologists to be the oldest
human remains that had ever been discovered.

L−u ý: CÊu tróc nµy cßn ¸p dông cho c¶ c¸c mÉu c©u cã mÖnh ®Ò phô më
®Çu b»ng: Although + Adj/ P2.
Ex: Although (he was) nervous, he gave a wonderful speech.
Ex: Although (it had been) damaged, the machine was still functioning.
HoÆc cã thÓ dïng when + P2 më ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô:
Ex: When (it is) shown through a prism, a beam of white light breaks into all
the colors of the rainbow.
NÕu hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh lÉn mÖnh ®Ò phô ®Òu x¶y ra trong qu¸
khø mµ hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô lïi s©u h¬n n÷a vµo trong qu¸ khø th×
c«ng thøc sÏ lµ:

(Not) + having + P2 ..., S + simple past.


§»ng tr−íc having cßn Èn chøa 2 giíi tõ lµ because vµ after viÖc hiÓu 2
after,
giíi tõ nµy phô thuéc vµo ng÷ c¶nh cña c©u.
§Æc biÖt l−u ý r»ng: cÊu tróc nµy cßn cã thÓ ¸p dông cho c¶ mÉu c©u mµ c¶
2 thêi cña ®éng tõ sÏ diÔn biÕn ë present perfect-simple present (tuy r»ng
perfect- present.
rÊt hiÕm)
Ex: Having seen the children–s work, Miss Adams approves their request to
go home.
(= After she has seen..., Miss Adams approves...)
NÕu hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra ë thêi bÞ ®éng th× c«ng thøc sÏ lµ:

After/because + (not) + having been + P2 ..., S + simple past.


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Ph¶i hÕt søc l−u ý r»ng: ®iÒu quan träng nhÊt trong viÖc sö dông 2 mÉu c©u
trªn vÉn ph¶i lµ: chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh ph¶i lµ chñ ng÷ hîp lý cña
mÖnh ®Ò phô.




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lµm
Ph©n tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ
1(V-
1. Ph©n tõ 1(V-ing) ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng ®Çy
®ñ c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau:
§øng ngay tr−íc danh tõ mµ nã bæ nghÜa.
Hµnh ®éng ph¶i ë thÓ chñ ®éng.
Hµnh ®éng ®ã ®ang ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn.
§éng tõ ®−îc sö dông lµm tÝnh tõ ph¶i kh«ng ®ßi hái mét t©n ng÷ nµo (néi
®éng tõ).
Ex: The crying baby woke Mr.Binion. ( The baby was crying)
Ex: The blooming flowers in the meadow created a rainbow of colors. (The
flowers were blooming)


(V-
2. Ph©n tõ 2 (V-ed) ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng ®Çy
sau:
®ñ c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau:
§øng ngay tr−íc danh tõ mµ nã bæ nghÜa.
Hµnh ®éng ph¶i ë thÓ bÞ ®éng.
Hµnh ®éng ®ã x¶y ra tr−íc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Ex: The sorted mail was delivered to the offices before noon. (The mail had
been sorted).

L−u ý: Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ nh− to interest, to bore, to excite, to frighten khi sö
interest,
dông ph¶i rÊt cÈn thËnvÒ viÖc nh÷ng ph©n tõ ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ xuÊt ph¸t
tõ nh÷ng ®éng tõ nµy mang nghÜa chñ ®éng hay bÞ ®éng.
Ex: The boring professor put the students to sleep.
The boring lecture put the students to sleep.
The bored students went to sleep during the boring lecture.




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C©u thõa

Khi th«ng tin trong c©u bÞ lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i d−íi d¹ng kh«ng cÇn thiÕt th× nã bÞ
gäi lµ c©u thõa, cÇn ph¶i lo¹i bá phÇn thõa ®ã.(Page 219)
(Page
Ng−êi Anh kh«ng dïng the reason .... because mµ dïng the reason ... that.
Ex: The reason I take this course that it's necessary for me.

Ng−êi Anh kh«ng dïng the time when mµ chØ dïng mét trong hai.
Ex: It is the time/ when I got home.

Ng−êi Anh kh«ng dïng place where mµ chØ dïng mét trong hai.
Ex: It is the place/ where I was born.




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CÊu tróc c©u song song

Khi th«ng tin trong mét c©u ®−îc ®−a ra d−íi d¹ng hµng lo¹t th× c¸c thµnh
phÇn ®−îc liÖt kª ph¶i song song víi nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p (Noun - noun,
adj).
adj - adj)
Th«ng th−êng th× thµnh phÇn ®Çu tiªn sau ®éng tõ sÏ quyÕt ®Þnh c¸c thµnh
phÇn cßn l¹i
Not parallel: Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and he teaches.
noun noun clause

Parallel: Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and a teacher.
noun noun noun

L−u ý: Tuy nhiªn nÕu thêi gian trong c©u lµ kh¸c nhau th× ®éng tõ còng ph¶i
tu©n theo qui luËt thêi gian. Lóc ®ã cÊu tróc c©u song song kh«ng tån t¹i




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Th«ng tin trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp
1. C©u trùc tiÕp vµ c©u gi¸n tiÕp
Trong c©u trùc tiÕp th«ng tin ®i tõ ng−êi thø nhÊt ®Õn th¼ng ng−êi thø hai.
Ex: He said "I bought a new motorbike for myself yesterday"

Trong c©u gi¸n tiÕp th«ng tin ®i tõ ng−êi thø nhÊt qua ng−êi thø hai ®Õn víi
ng−êi thø ba. Khi ®ã c©u cã biÕn ®æi vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p.
Ex: He said he had bought a new motorbike for himself the day before.

§Ó biÕn ®æi mét c©u trùc tiÕp sang c©u gi¸n tiÕp cÇn:

§æi chñ ng÷ vµ c¸c ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng kh¸c trong c©u trùc tiÕp theo chñ
ng÷ cña thµnh phÇn thø nhÊt.
Lïi ®éng tõ ë vÕ thø 2 xuèng mét cÊp so víi vÕ ban ®Çu.
BiÕn ®æi c¸c ®¹i tõ chØ thÞ, phã tõ chØ thêi gian vµ ®Þa ®iÓm theo b¶ng qui
®Þnh.

B¶ng ®æi ®éng tõ
Direct speech Indirect speech

Simple present Simple past
Present progressive Past progressive
Present perfect (Progressive) Past perfect (Progressive)
Simple past Past perfect
Will/Shall Would/ Should
Can/May Could/ Might

B¶ng ®æi c¸c ®¹i tõ chØ thÞ, phã tõ chØ ®Þa ®iÓm vµ thêi gian
Today That day
Yesterday The day before
The day before yesterday Two days before
Tomorrow The next/ the following day
The day after tomorrow In two days' time
Next + Time The following + Time
Last + Time The previous + Time
Time + ago Time + before
This, these That, those
Here, Overhere There, Overthere

NÕu lêi nãi vµ hµnh ®éng x¶y ra cïng ngµy th× kh«ng cÇn ph¶i ®æi thêi gian.



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Ex: At breakfast this morning he said "I will be busy today"
At breakfast this morning he said he would be busy today.

C¸c suy luËn logic vÒ mÆt thêi gian tÊt nhiªn lµ cÇn thiÕt khi lêi nãi ®−îc
thuËt l¹i sau ®ã mét hoÆc hai ngµy.
Ex: (On Monday) He said " I'll be leaving on Wednesday "
(On Tuesday) He said he would be leaving tomorrow.
(On Wednesday) He said he would be leaving today.




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§éng tõ víi hai t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ
gi¸n tiÕp
Mét sè ®éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh cã hai lo¹i t©n ng÷ : 1 trùc tiÕp vµ 1 gi¸n
tiÕp ®ång thêi còng cã hai c¸ch dïng:
Lèi dïng gi¸n tiÕp: §Æt t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp sau ®éng tõ råi ®Õn t©n ng÷ gi¸n
tiÕp ®i sau hai giíi tõ for vµ to
to.
Ex: The director's secretary sent the manuscript to them last night.

Lèi dïng trùc tiÕp: §Æt t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp sau ®éng tõ råi ®Õn t©n ng÷ trùc
tiÕp, hai giíi tõ to vµ for bÞ lo¹i bá.
Ex: The director's secretary sent them the manuscript last night.
Incorrect: The director's secretary sent to them the manuscript last night.

Hai ®éng tõ to introduce vµ to mention ph¶i dïng c«ng thøc gi¸n tiÕp,
kh«ng ®−îc dïng c«ng thøc trùc tiÕp.
to introduce smt/sb to sb
to mention smt to sb.
NÕu c¶ hai t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp ®Òu lµ ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng th× kh«ng
®−îc dïng c«ng thøc trùc tiÕp mµ ph¶i dïng c«ng thøc gi¸n tiÕp.
Ex: Correct: They gave it to us.
Incorrect: They gave us it.




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Sù ®¶o ng−îc phã tõ
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp c¸c phã tõ kh«ng ®øng ë vÞ trÝ b×nh th−êng cña nã
mµ ®¶o lªn ®øng ë ®Çu c©u nh»m nhÊn m¹nh vµo hµnh ®éng cña chñ ng÷.
Trong tr−êng hîp ®ã ng÷ ph¸p sÏ thay ®æi, ®»ng sau phã tõ ®øng ®Çu c©u
lµ trî ®éng tõ råi míi ®Õn chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ chÝnh.
har dly
r ar ely
seldom + auxiliar y + S + V
never
only...

Ex: Never have so many people been unemployed as today.
adveb auxiliary subject verb
(So many people have never been unemployed as today)


1. Mét sè c¸c d¹ng phã tõ ®Æc biÖt ®øng ë ®Çu c©u
In/ Under no circumstances: Dï trong bÊt cø hoµn c¶nh nµo còng kh«ng.
Ex: Under no circumstances should you lend him the money.

On no account: Dï bÊt cø lý do g× còng kh«ng
Ex: On no accout must this switch be touched.

Only in this way: ChØ b»ng c¸ch nµy
Ex: Only in this way could the problem be solved

In no way: Kh«ng sao cã thÓ
Ex: In no way could I agree with you.

By no means: Hoµn toµn kh«ng
Ex: By no means does he intend to criticize your idea.

Negative ..., nor + auxiliary + S + V
Ex: He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.

Khi mét mÖnh ®Ò më ®Çu b»ng c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ n¬i chèn hoÆc trËt tù th×
®éng tõ chÝnh cã thÓ ®¶o lªn chñ ng÷ nh−ng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc sö dông
trî ®éng tõ trong tr−êng hîp nµy.
Clause of place/ or der + main ver b + S (no auxiliar y)




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Ex: In front of the museum is a statue.
Ex: First came the ambulance, then came the police.
( Tho¹t ®Çu lµ xe cøu th−¬ng ch¹y ®Õn, tiÕp sau lµ c¶nh s¸t.)
Khi mét ng÷ giíi tõ lµm phã tõ chØ ®Þa ®iÓm hoÆc ph−¬ng h−íng ®øng ë ®Çu
c©u, c¸c néi ®éng tõ ®Æt lªn tr−íc chñ ng÷ nh−ng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc sö
dông trî ®éng tõ trong lo¹i c©u nµy. Nã rÊt phæ biÕn trong v¨n m« t¶ khi
muèn diÔn ®¹t mét chñ ng÷ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh:
Ex: Under the tree was lying one of the biggest man I had ever seen.
Ex: Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
Ex: On the grass sat an enormous frog.
Ex: Along the road came a strange procession.
TÝnh tõ còng cã thÓ ®¶o lªn trªn ®Çu c©u ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµ sau ®ã lµ ®éng
tõ nèi nh−ng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc sö dông trî ®éng tõ.
Ex: So determined was she to take the university course that she taught
school and gave music lesson for her tuition fees.
Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ng−êi ta còng cã thÓ ®¶o toµn bé ®éng tõ chÝnh
lªn trªn chñ ng÷ ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh, nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®−îc ®¶o lªn trªn trong
tr−êng hîp nµy phÇn lín ®Òu mang s¾c th¸i bÞ ®éng nh−ng hoµn toµn
kh«ng cã nghÜa bÞ ®éng.
Ex: Lost, however, are the secrets of the Mayan astronomers and the Inca
builders as well as many medicinal practices.
(Tuy nhiªn nh÷ng bÝ mËt .... ®· mÊt ®i vÜnh viÔn kh«ng bao giê trë l¹i.)
C¸c phã tõ away ( = off ), down, in, off, out, over, round, up... cã thÓ theo
sau lµ mét ®éng tõ chuyÓn ®éng vµ sau ®ã lµ mét danh tõ lµm chñ ng÷.
Ex: Away went the runners/ Down fell a dozen of apples...
Away/down/in/off/out/over/round/up...+ motion verb +
phrase
noun/noun phrase as a subject.

Nh−ng nÕu mét ®¹i tõ nh©n x−ng lµm chñ ng÷ th× ®éng tõ ph¶i ®Ó sau chñ ng÷:
Ex: Away they went/ Round and round it flew.
Trong tiÕng Anh viÕt (written English) c¸c ng÷ giíi tõ më ®Çu b»ng c¸c giíi
tõ down, from, in, on, over, out of, round, up... cã thÓ ®−îc theo sau ngay
bëi ®éng tõ chØ vÞ trÝ (crouch, hang, lie, sit, stand... hoÆc c¸c d¹ng ®éng tõ
crouch, stand...)
chØ chuyÓn ®éng, c¸c ®éng tõ nh− be born/ die/ live vµ mét sè d¹ng ®éng tõ
kh¸c.
Ex: From the rafters hung strings of onions.
Ex: In the doorway stood a man with a gun.
Ex: On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot.
Ex: Over the wall came a shower of stones.
*L−u ý: 3 vÝ dô ®Çu cña c¸c vÝ dô trªn cã thÓ diÔn ®¹t b»ng mét VERB-ING më
VERB-
®Çu cho c©u vµ ®éng tõ BE ®¶o lªn trªn chñ ng÷:



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Ex: Hanging from the rafters were strings of onions.
Ex: Standing in the doorway was a man with a gun.
Ex: Sitting on a perch beside him was a blue parrot.
HiÖn t−îng nµy cßn x¶y ra khi chñ ng÷ sau c¸c phã tõ so s¸nh as/than qu¸
dµi:
Ex: She was very religious, as were most of her friends.
Ex: City dwellers have a higher death rate than do country people.
T©n ng÷ mang tÝnh nhÊn m¹nh còng cã thÓ ®¶o lªn ®Çu c©u:
Ex: Not a single word did he say.
Here/There hoÆc mét sè c¸c phã tõ ®i kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ ®øng ®Çu c©u
còng ph¶i ®¶o ®éng tõ lªn trªn chñ ng÷ lµ mét danh tõ, nh−ng nÕu chñ ng÷
lµ mét ®¹i tõ th× kh«ng ®−îc ®¶o ®éng tõ:
Ex: Here comes Freddy.
Incorrect: Here comes he
Ex: Off we go
Incorrect: Off go we
Ex: There goes your brother
Ex: I stopped the car , and up walked a policeman .




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C¸ch lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi kh«ng
®óng trong bµi ng÷ ph¸p

Mét trong sè hai bµi thi ng÷ ph¸p cña TOEFL ®−îc cho d−íi d¹ng mét c©u cho
s½n, cßn ®Ó trèng mét phÇn vµ d−íi ®ã lµ 4 c©u ®Ó ®iÒn vµo. Trong 4 c©u chØ
cã mét c©u ®óng. §Ó gi¶i quyÕt ®−îc c©u ®óng ph¶i theo lÇn l−ît c¸c b−íc
sau:


1. KiÓm tra c¸c lçi ng÷ ph¸p c¬ b¶n bao gåm
a) Sù hoµ hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ vÞ ng÷
b) C¸ch sö dông Adj vµ Adv
c) VÞ trÝ cña c¸c Adv theo thø tù lÇn l−ît: chØ ph−¬ng thøc hµnh ®éng - ®Þa
®iÓm - thêi gian - ph−¬ng tiÖn hµnh ®éng - t×nh huèng hµnh ®éng.
d) Sù phèi hîp gi÷a c¸c thêi ®éng tõ.
e) Xem xÐt viÖc sö dông hîp lý c¸c ®¹i tõ trong c©u.
f) CÊu tróc c©u song song.

2. Lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi mang tÝnh r−êm rµ:
a) Lo¹i bá c©u tr¶ lêi bao gåm mét thµnh ng÷ dµi, tuy kh«ng sai nh−ng cã
mét tõ ng¾n h¬n ®Ó thay thÕ.
*L−u ý: Nh−ng ph¶i hÕt søc cÈn thËn v× mét sè c¸c Adj tËn cïng b¨ng ®u«i ly
kh«ng thÓ cÊu t¹o phã tõ b»ng ®u«i ly Phã tõ cña nh÷ng Adj nµy lµ in a Adj-ly
ly. Adj-
manner/way.
+ manner/way
Ex: He behaves me in a friendly way/ manner
Ph¶i cÈn thËn khi dïng fresh
in a fresh manner = mét c¸ch t−¬i.
t−¬i
Ex: This food is only delicious when eaten in a fresh manner
freshly + PII = võa míi
Ex: freshly-picked fruit
= qu¶ võa míi h¸i
Ex: freshly-laid eggs
= trøng gµ võa míi ®Î

b) Ph¶i lo¹i bá nh÷ng tõ thõa trong c©u thõa
Ex:
Ex Cause a result => thõa a result




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3. Ph¶i ch¾c ch¾n r»ng tÊt c¶ c¸c tõ trong c©u ®−îc chän ®Òu
ph¶i phóc vô cho nghÜa cña bµi, ®Æc biÖt lµ c¸c ng÷ ®éng tõ.

4. Ph¶i lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi bao hµm tiÕng lãng, kh«ng
viÕt
®−îc phÐp dïng trong v¨n viÕt qui chuÈn
Ex: A bunch of flowers.(Kh«ng ®−îc).




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Nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn
§ã lµ nh÷ng tõ rÊt dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn vÒ mÆt ng÷ nghÜa, chÝnh t¶ hoÆc ph¸t ©m,
cÇn ph¶i ph©n biÖt râ chóng b»ng ng÷ c¶nh.
• site (V) trÝch dÉn
• site (N) khu ®Êt ®Ó x©y dùng.
• sight ( khe ng¾m, tÇm ng¾m.
(N)
(V) quang c¶nh, c¶nh t−îng.
(V) quan s¸t, nh×n thÊy
• dessert ( mãn tr¸ng miÖng
(N)
• desert (N) sa m¹c
• desert (V) bá, bá mÆc, ®µo ngò
• later sau ®ã, råi th× (th−êng dïng víi ®éng tõ thêi t−¬ng lai)
• the latter c¸i thø 2, ng−êi thø 2, c¸i sau, ng−êi sau. >< the former = c¸i
tr−íc, ng−êi tr−íc.
• principal (N) hiÖu tr−ëng (tr−êng phæ th«ng)
(Adj) chÝnh, chñ yÕu.
• principle (N) nguyªn t¾c, luËt lÖ
• affect (V) t¸c ®éng ®Õn
• effect (N) ¶nh h−ëng, hiÖu qu¶
(V) thùc hiÖn, ®em l¹i
• already (Adv) ®·
• all ready tÊt c¶ ®· s½n sµng.
• among (Prep) trong sè (dïng cho 3 ng−êi, 3 vËt trë lªn)
• between...and gi÷a...vµ (chØ dïng cho 2 ng−êi/vËt)
*L−u ý between...and còng cßn ®−îc dïng ®Ó chØ vÞ trÝ chÝnh x¸c cña mét
ý:
quèc gia n»m gi÷a nh÷ng quèc gia kh¸c cho dï lµ > 2
Ex: Vietnam lies between China, Laos and Cambodia.
Among = one of/some of/included in (mét trong sè/ mét sè trong/ kÓ c¶, bao
gåm).
Ex: Among the first to arrive was the ambassador.
(Trong sè nh÷ng ng−êi ®Õn ®Çu tiªn cã ngµi ®¹i sø).
Ex: He has a number of criminals among his friends.
(Trong sè nh÷ng b¹n bÌ cña m×nh, anh ta cã quen mét sè téi ph¹m).
Between cßn ®−îc dïng cho c¸c qu·ng c¸ch gi÷a c¸c vËt vµ c¸c giíi h¹n
vÒ mÆt thêi gian.
Ex: We need 2 meters between the windows.
Ex: I will be at the office between 9 and 11.
Dïng between khi muèn ®Ò cËp ®ªn 2 vËt hoÆc 2 nhãm vËt ë vÒ 2 phÝa.
Ex: A little valley between high mountains.



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Ex: I saw something between the wheels of the car.
among)
Different + between (not among)
Ex: What are the differences between crows, rooks, and jackdaws.
Between each + noun (-and the next) (more formal)
Ex: We need 2 meters between each window.
Ex: There seems to be less and less time between each birthday (and the
next).
(Thêi gian ngµy cµng ng¾n l¹i gi÷a 2 lÇn sinh nhËt.)
Devide + between (not among)
Ex: He devided his money between his wife, his daughter, and his sister.
Share + between/among
Ex: He shared the food between/among all my friend.
• consecutive (Adj) liªn tôc (kh«ng cã tÝnh ®øt qu·ng)
• successive (Adj) liªn tôc (cã tÝnh c¸ch qu·ng)
successive
• emigrant (N) ng−êi di c−,
(V) -> emigrate from
• immigrant (N) ng−êi nhËp c−
(V) immigrate into
• formerly (Adv) tr−íc kia
• formally (Adv) chØnh tÒ (¨n mÆc)
(Adv) chÝnh thøc
• historic (Adj) næi tiÕng, quan träng trong lÞch sö
(Adj) mang tÝnh lÞch sö.
Ex: historic times
• historical (Adj) thuéc vÒ lÞch sö
Ex: Historical reseach, historical magazine
(Adj) cã thËt trong lÞch sö
Ex: Historical people, historical events
• hepless (Adj) v« väng, tuyÖt väng
• useless (Adj) v« dông
• imaginary = (Adj) kh«ng cã thËt, t−ëng t−îng
• imaginative = (Adj) phong phó, bay bæng vÒ trÝ t−ëng t−îng




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g©y
Phô lôc: mét sè nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm
lÉn kh¸c:
Classic (adj)
• chÊt l−îng cao: a classic novel (mét cuèn tiÓu thuyÕt hay); a classic
football match (mét trËn bãng ®¸ hay).
• ®Æc thï/®Æc tr−ng/tiªu biÓu: a classic example (mét vÝ dô tiªu biÓu, ®iÓn
h×nh).
Classic (noun): v¨n nghÖ sÜ, t¸c phÈm l−u danh.
Ex: This novel may well become a classic
(T¸c phÈm nµy cã thÓ ®−îc l−u danh).
Classics: v¨n häc vµ ng«n ng÷ cæ Hy-La.
Classical: cæ ®iÓn, kinh ®iÓn.
Politic: nhËn thøc ®óng/ kh«n ngoan/ trang träng.
Ex: I don–t think it would be politic to ask for loan just now.
(T«i cho r»ng sÏ kh«ng lµ kh«n ngoan nÕu hái vay mét kho¶n ngay lóc
nµy.)
Political: thuéc vÒ chÝnh trÞ.
Ex: A political career
(mét sù nghiÖp chÝnh trÞ).
Continual: liªn tôc lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i (hµnh ®éng cã tÝnh c¸ch qu·ng)
Ex: Please stop your continual questions
(Xin h·y th«i hái lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i m·i nh− thÕ).
Continous: liªn miªn/suèt (hµnh ®éng kh«ng cã tÝnh c¸ch qu·ng)
Ex: A continous flow of traffic
(Dßng xe cé ch¹y liªn miªn bÊt tËn).
As (liªn tõ) = Nh− + Subject + verb.
Ex: When in Roma, do as Romans do
(NhËp gia tïy tôc).
Like (tÝnh tõ dïng nh− mét giíi tõ) + noun/noun phrase
Ex: He fought like a mad man
(Anh ta chiÕn ®Êu nh− ®iªn nh− d¹i).
Alike (adj.): gièng nhau, t−¬ng tù
Ex: Although they are brother, they don–t look alike.
Alike (adverb): nh− nhau



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Ex: The climate here is always hot, summer and winter alike.
As: nh−/ víi t− c¸ch lµ (dïng trong so s¸nh khi b¶n th©n chñ ng÷ cã chøc
n¨ng nh− vËt/ng−êi ®−îc so s¸nh)
Ex: Let me speak to you as a father
(H·y ®Ó t«i nãi víi cËu nh− mét ng−êi cha)
Like: nh− lµ (dïng trong so s¸nh khi b¶n th©n chñ ng÷ vµ c¸i/ng−êi so s¸nh
kh«ng ph¶i lµ mét hoÆc kh«ng cã chøc n¨ng ®ång nhÊt)
Ex: Let me speak to you like a man above
(H·y ®Ó t«i nãi víi anh nh− mét ng−êi bÒ trªn).
Before: tr−íc ®©y/tr−íc ®ã (dïng khi so s¸nh mét thø víi tÊt c¶ c¸c thø kh¸c
cïng lo¹i)
Ex: She has never seen such a beautiful picture before
(C« ta ch−a bao giê nh×n thÊy mét bøc tranh ®Ñp nh− thÕ tr−íc ®©y).
Before: Tr−íc (chØ mét sù viÖc x¶y ra tr−íc mét sù viÖc kh¸c trong qu¸ khø,
th−êng dïng víi Past Perfect)
Ex: He lived in France in 1912, he had lived in England 4 years before.
Ago: tr−íc (tÝnh tõ hiÖn t¹i trë ng−îc vÒ qu¸ khø, th−êng dïng víi Simple
Past)
Ex: I went to England 3 years ago.
Certain: ch¾c ch¾n (biÕt sù thùc)
Ex: Certainly/ I–m certain that he didn–t steal it
(T«i ch¾c ch¾n r»ng h¾n ta kh«ng lÊy c¸i ®ã).
Sure: tin r»ng (kh«ng biÕt ch¾c, nãi theo c¶m nhËn, nghÜa lµ yÕu h¬n
certain)
Ex: Surely/ I am sure that he did not steal it
(T«i tin r»ng h¾n kh«ng lÊy thø ®ã).
Indeed:
• Very+indeed (sau mét tÝnh tõ hoÆc mét phã tõ)
Ex: Thank you very much indeed.
Ex: I was very pleased indeed to hear from you.
• Indeed dïng sau to be hoÆc mét trî ®éng tõ nh»m x¸c nhËn hoÆc nhÊn
m¹nh cho sù ®ång ý (th−êng dïng trong c©u tr¶ lêi ng¾n).
Ex: It is cold / - It is indeed.
Ex: Henny made a fool of himself / - He did indeed.
Ill (British English) = Sick (American English) = èm
Ex: George didn–t come in last week because he was ill (=he was sick)
• Sick + Noun = èm yÕu/ bÖnh tËt
Ex: He spent 20 years looking after his sick father
(Ng−êi cha bÖnh tËt)



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• Be sick = Fell sick = N«n/ buån n«n/ say (tµu, xe...)
Ex: I was sick 3 times in the night
(t«i n«n 3 lÇn trong ®ªm)
Ex: I feel sick. Where–s the bath room?
(t«i thÊy buån n«n, phßng t¾m ë ®©u?)
Ex: She is never sea-sick
(C« Êy ch¼ng bao giê say sãng c¶)
Welcome (adjective) = ®−îc mong ®îi/ ®−îc chê ®îi tõ l©u/ thó vÞ
Ex: A welcome guest
(Kh¸ch quÝ/ kh¸ch bÊy l©u mong ®îi)
Ex: A welcome gift
(Mãn quµ thó vÞ ®−îc chê ®îi tõ l©u)
Welcome to + noun = Cã quyÒn, ®−îc phÐp sö dông.
Ex: You are welcome to any book in my library
(Anh cã quyÒn lÊy bÊt kú quyÓn s¸ch nµo trong th− viÖn cña t«i)
Welcoming (ph©n tõ 1 cÊu t¹o tõ ®éng tõ welcome dïng lµm tÝnh tõ)
• Chµo ®ãn/ ®ãn tiÕp ©n cÇn
Ex: This country have given me a welcoming feeling.
(Xø së nµy ®· dµnh cho t«i mét t×nh c¶m chµo ®ãn ©n cÇn)
• Hoan nghªnh/ T¸n ®ång (ý kiÕn)
Ex: To show a welcoming idea
(Béc lé mét ý kiÕn t¸n ®ång)
Be certain/ sure of + verb-ing: ch¾c ch¾n lµ (®Ò cËp ®Õn t×nh c¶m cña ng−êi
®ang ®−îc nãi ®Õn)
Ex: Before the game she feft certain of wining, but after a few minutes she
realized it wasn–t going to be easy.
Ex: You seem very sure of passing the exam, I hope you are right.
Be certain/ sure + to + verb: ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ph¶i (®Ò cËp ®Õn t×nh c¶m cña
chÝnh ng−êi nãi hoÆc viÕt c©u ®ã):
Ex: The repairs are certain to cost more than you think.
Ex: Elaine is sure to win-the other girl hasn–t got a chance.
Be interested + to + verb: ThÊy thÝch khi...:
Ex: I–m interested to read in the paper that scientists have found out how to
talk to whales.
(T«i thÊy thÝch/ thó vÞ khi...)
Be interested in + verb-ing/ Be interested + to + verb:Muèn biÕt/ muèn ph¸t
hiÖn ra/ muèn t×m ra...:
Ex: I–m interested in finding out/ to find out what she did with all that money.
(T«i muèn biÕt c« ta ®· lµm g× víi ngÇn Êy tiÒn).
Be interested in + verb-ing: ThÊy thÝch/ thÝch/ muèn...



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Ex: I–m interested in learning higher education in U.S.




Giíi tõ
1. During = trong suèt (ho¹t ®éng diÔn ra liªn tôc)
2. From = tõ >< to = ®Õn
− From ... to ...= tõ ... ®Õn... (dïng cho thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn)
− From time to time = ®«i khi, thØnh tho¶ng

3. Out of=ra khái>< up to date = míi, cËp nhËt
− Out of work = thÊt nghiÖp, mÊt viÖc
− Out of the question = kh«ng thÓ
− Out of order = háng, kh«ng ho¹t ®éng

4. By
− ®éng tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng + by = ®i ngang qua (walk by the library)
− ®éng tõ tÜnh + by = ë gÇn (your books are by the window)
− by + thêi gian cô thÓ = tr−íc lóc, cho ®Õn lóc (hµnh ®éng cho ®Õn lóc ®ã
ph¶i x¶y ra)
− by + ph−¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng = ®i b»ng
− by then = cho ®Õn lóc ®ã (dïng cho c¶ QK vµ TL)
− by the way = theo ®−êng... = via
− by the way = mét c¸ch t×nh cê, ngÉu nhiªn
− by the way = by the by = nh©n ®©y, nh©n tiÖn
− by far + so s¸nh (th−êng lµ so s¸nh bËc nhÊt)=>dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh
− by accident = by mistake = t×nh cê, ngÉu nhiªn >< on purose

5. In = bªn trong
− In + month/year
− In time for = In good time for = §óng giê (th−êng kÞp lµm g×, h¬i sím h¬n giê
®· ®Þnh mét chót)
− In the street = d−íi lßng ®−êng



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− In the morning/ afternoon/ evening
− In the past/future = tr−íc kia, trong qu¸ khø/ trong t−¬ng lai
− In future = from now on = tõ nay trë ®i
− In the begining/ end = at first/ last = tho¹t ®Çu/ rèt cuéc
− In the way = ®ç ngang lèi, ch¾n lèi
− Once in a while = ®«i khi, thØnh tho¶ng
− In no time at all = trong nh¸y m¾t, mét tho¸ng
− In the mean time = meanwhile = cïng lóc
− In the middle of (®Þa ®iÓm)= ë gi÷a
− In the army/ airforce/ navy
− In + the + STT + row = hµng thø...
− In the event that = trong tr−êng hîp mµ
− In case = ®Ó phßng khi, ngé nhì
− Get/ be in touch/ contact with Sb = liªn l¹c, tiÕp xóc víi ai

6. On = trªn bÒ mÆt:
− On + thø trong tuÇn/ ngµy trong th¸ng
− On + a/the + ph−¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng = trªn chuyÕn/ ®· lªn chuyÕn...
− On + phè = ®Þa chØ... (nh− B.E : in + phè)
− On the + STT + foor = ë tÇng thø...
− On time = võa ®óng giê (bÊt chÊp ®iÒu kiÖn bªn ngoµi, nghÜa m¹nh h¬n
in time)
− On the corner of = ë gãc phè (gi÷a hai phè)
− Chó ý:
− In the corner = ë gãc trong
− At the corner = ë gãc ngoµi/ t¹i gãc phè
− On the sidewalk = pavement = trªn vØa hÌ
− Chó ý:
− On the pavement (A.E.)= trªn mÆt ®−êng nhùa (Don–t brake
quickly on the pavement or you can slice into another car)
− On the way to: trªn ®−êng ®Õn >< on the way back to: trªn ®−êng trë vÒ
− On the right/left
− On T.V./ on the radio
− On the phone/ telephone = gäi ®iÖn tho¹i, nãi chuyÖn ®iÖn tho¹i
− On the phone = nhµ cã m¾c ®iÖn tho¹i (Are you on the phone?)
− On the whole= nãi chung, vÒ ®¹i thÓ
− On the other hand = tuy nhiªn= however
− Chó ý:
− On the one hand = mét mÆt th× => on the other hand =
mÆt kh¸c th× (On the one hand, we must learn the basic
grammar, and on the other hand, we must combine it
with listening comprehension)



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− on sale = for sale = cã b¸n, ®Ó b¸n
− on sale (A.E.)= b¸n h¹ gi¸ = at a discount (B.E)
− on foot = ®i bé

7. At = ë t¹i
− At + sè nhµ
− At + thêi gian cô thÓ
− At home/ school/ work
− At night/noon (A.E : at noon = at twelve = gi÷a tr−a (she was invited to
the party at noon, but she was 15 minutes late))
− At least = chÝ Ýt, tèi thiÓu >< at most = tèi ®a
− At once =ngay lËp tøc
− At present/ the moment = now
− Chó ý: 2 thµnh ng÷ trªn t−¬ng ®−¬ng víi presently nh−ng presently se
kh¸c nhau vÒ nghÜa nÕu nã ®øng ë c¸c vÞ trÝ kh¸c nhau trong c©u:
− Sentence + presently (= soon): ngay tøc th× ( She will be here
presently/soon)
− Presently + sentence (= Afterward/ and then) : ngay sau ®ã
(Presently, I heard her leave the room)
− S + to be + presently + Ving = at present/ at the moment ( He
is presently working toword his Ph.D. degree)
− At times = ®«i khi, thØnh tho¶ng
− At first = tho¹t ®Çu >< at last = cuèi cïng
− At the begining of / at the end of... = ë ®Çu/ ë cuèi (dïng cho thêi gian vµ
®Þa ®iÓm).
− At + tªn c¸c ngµy lÔ : at Christmas, at Thanks Giving...
Nh−ng on + tªn c¸c ngµy lÔ + day = on Christmas day ...
Trong d¹ng informal E., on tr−íc c¸c thø trong tuÇn ®«i khi bÞ l−îc bá:
She is going to see her boss (on) Sun. morning.
At/in/on th−êng ®−îc kh«ng dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ thêi gian khi
cã mÆt: next, last, this, that, one, any, each, every, some, all

− At + ®Þa ®iÓm : at the center of the building
− At + nh÷ng ®Þa ®iÓm lín (khi xem nã nh− mét n¬i trung chuyÓn hoÆc gÆp
gì): The plane stopped 1 hour at Washington D.C. before continuing
on to Atlanta.
− At + tªn c¸c toµ nhµ lín (khi xem nh− 1 hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra ë ®ã chø
kh«ng ®Ò cËp ®Õn toµ nhµ) : There is a good movie at the Center
Theater.
− At + tªn riªng c¸c tæ chøc: She works at Legal & General Insurence.
− At + tªn riªng n¬i c¸c tr−êng së hoÆc khu vùc ®¹i häc: She is studying at
the London school of Economics.
− At + tªn c¸c ho¹t ®éng qui tô thµnh nhãm: at a party/ lecture...



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8.Mét sè c¸c thµnh ng÷ dïng víi giíi tõ
♦ On the beach: trªn bê biÓn
♦ Along the beach: däc theo bê biÓn
♦ In place of = Instead of: thay cho, thay v×.
♦ For the most part: chÝnh lµ, chñ yÕu lµ = mainly.
♦ In hope of + V-ing = Hoping to + V = Hoping that + sentence = víi hi väng
lµ.
♦ off and on: dai d¼ng, t¸i håi
♦ all of a sudden= suddenly = bçng nhiªn
♦ for good = forever: vÜnh viÔn, m·i m·i.


Ng÷ ®éng tõ

§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ kÕt hîp víi 1, 2 hoÆc ®«i khi 3 giíi tõ, khi kÕt hîp ë d¹ng
nh− vËy ng÷ nghÜa cña chóng thay ®æi h¼n so víi nghÜa ban ®Çu.
♦ To break off: chÊm døt, c ®øt, ®o¹n tuyÖt.
c¾t
♦ To bring up: nªu ra, ®−a lªn mét vÊn ®Ò
♦ To call on: yªu cÇu
®Õn th¨m
♦ To care for: thÝch
tr«ng nom, s¨n sãc (look after)
♦ To check out (of/from) a library: m−în s¸ch ë th− viÖn vÒ
♦ To check out: ®iÒu tra, xem xÐt.
♦ To check out (of): lµm thñ tôc ®Ó ra (kh¸ch s¹n, s©n bay) check in.
♦ To check (up) on: ®iÒu tra, xem xÐt.
♦ To close in (on): tiÕn l¹i gÇn, ch¹y l¹i gÇn
♦ To come along with: ®i cïng víi
♦ To count on = depend on = rely on
♦ To come down with: m¾c ph¶i mét c¨n bÖnh
♦ Do away with = get rid of: tèng khø, lo¹i bá, trõ khö
♦ To daw up = to draft: so¹n th¶o (mét kÕ ho¹ch, mét hîp ®ång)
♦ To drop out of = to withdraw from: bá (®Æc biÖt lµ bá häc gi÷a chõng)
♦ To figure out: H×nh dung ra ®−îc, hiÓu ®−îc.
♦ To find out: kh¸m ph¸ ra, ph¸t hiÖn ra.
♦ To get by: LÇn håi qua ngµy, sèng sãt qua ®−îc
♦ To get through with: kÕt thóc
♦ To get through to: th«ng tin ®−îc cho ai, gäi ®−îc cho (®iÖn tho¹i), t×m c¸ch
lµm cho hiÓu
♦ To get up: dËy/ tæ chøc.


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♦ To give up: bá, tõ bá
♦ To go along with: ®ång ý víi
♦ To hold on to: vÉn gi÷ v÷ng, duy tr×
♦ To hold up: c−íp
vÉn gi÷ v÷ng, vÉn duy tr×, vÉn sèng b×nh th−êng, vÉn dïng ®−îc
(bÊt chÊp søc Ðp bªn ngoµi hoÆc sö dông l©u)
♦ To keep on doing smt: vÉn tiÕp tôc kh«ng ngõng lµm g×
♦ To look after: tr«ng nom, s¨n sãc
♦ To look into: ®iÒu tra, xem xÐt
♦ To pass out = to faint: ngÊt (néi ®éng tõ, kh«ng dïng bÞ ®éng)
♦ To pick out: chän ra, lùa ra, nhÆt ra
♦ To point out: chØ ra, v¹ch ra
♦ To put off: tr× ho·n, ®×nh ho·n
♦ To run across: kh¸m ph¸, ph¸t hiÖn ra (t×nh cê)
♦ To run into sb: gÆp ai bÊt ngê
♦ To see about to: lo l¾ng, s¨n sãc, ch¹y v¹y
♦ To take off: cÊt c¸nh to land
♦ To take over for: thay thÕ cho
♦ to talk over: bµn so¹n, th¶o luËn vÒ
♦ to try out: thö nghiÖm, dïng thö (s¶n phÈm)
♦ to try out for: thö vai, thö giäng (1 vë kÞch, buæi biÓu diÔn)
♦ To turn in: giao nép, ®Ö tr×nh
®i ngñ
♦ To watch out for: c¶nh gi¸c, ®Ó m¾t, tr«ng chõng (c¶ nghÜa ®en lÉn nghÜa
bãng)




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Mét sè nguyªn t¾c thùc hiÖn bµi ®äc

Kh«ng bao giê ®−îc ®äc vµo bµi ®äc ngay, cÇn ®äc vµ hiÓu c©u hái cÆn kÏ.
§äc vµ t×m chñ ®Ò (chñ ®Ò cña c¸c bµi ®äc trong TOEFL 90% n»m ë c©u
®Çu, 5% n»m ë c©u cuèi, 5% cßn l¹i rót ra tõ toµn bµi)
T×m c¸ch ph©n ®o¹n (nÕu cã) vµ t×m néi dung cña tõng ®o¹n
Tr¶ lêi c©u hái, c©u hái trong TOEFL ®−îc ph©n thµnh mét sè lo¹i nh− sau:
C©u hái x¸c ®Þnh l¹i (Restatement question) -> lo¹i c©u hái dÔ.
C©u hái phñ ®Þnh (Negative question) -> dïng biÖn ph¸p lo¹i trõ
C©u hái suy luËn (inference question) -> khã nhÊt
C©u hái ®Ò cËp (reference question)
C©u hái tõ vùng (Vocabulary question)
C©u hái suy ®o¸n chñ ®Ò kh¶ dÜ cña ®o¹n ®äc (tr−íc hoÆc sau ®o¹n ®äc
®· cho) -> dùa vµo c©u ®Çu hoÆc c©u cuèi cña bµi ®äc (Previous/
Following Topic question).




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