Giáo trình Toefl

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Tài liệu tham khảo Giáo trình Toefl . Danh từ đếm được có thể được dùng với số đếm do đó có hình thái số ít, số nhiều. Nó có thể dùng được dùng với a (an) và the. TOEIC, viết tắt của Test of English for International Communication, là một chứng chỉ tiếng Anh quốc tế về giao tiếp dành cho người đi làm không phải là nguoi sử dụng tiếng Anh làm tiếng mẹ đẻ. Danh...

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  1. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team M cl c Grammar Review .................................................................................................... 1 .................................................................................................... ................................................................ 1. Danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc (Count noun/ Non - count noun) ............................... 1 Qu¸n tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh "a" vµ "an" ......................................................................... 2 ................................................................ ......................................... Qu¸n tõ x¸c ®Þnh "The"............................................................................................ 3 "The"............................................................................................ ................................................................ C¸ch sö dông another vµ other................................................................................ 7 other. ............................................................................... ................................................................ C¸ch sö dông little, a little, few, a few ...................................................................... 8 ................................................................ ...................................... Së h÷u c¸ch ............................................................................................................ 9 ............................................................................................................ ................................................................ Verb...................................................................................................................... 11 Verb ................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................... 1) .............................................................................................................................. ................................................................ Present .............................................................................................................................. 11 1) Simple Present .........................................................................................................................11 2) Present Progressive (be + V-ing) .............................................................................................11 3) Present Perfect : Have + PII .....................................................................................................12 4) Present Perfect Progressive : Have been V-ing ......................................................................12 2. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................... Past ................................................................................................................................... 13 1) Simple Past: V-ed .....................................................................................................................13 2) Past Progresseive: Was/Were + V-ing .....................................................................................13 3) Past Perfect: Had + PII ..............................................................................................................14 4) Past Perfect Progressive: Had + Been + V-ing .......................................................................14 3. Future ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................ Future ................................................................................................................................ 14 1) Simple Future: Will/Shall/Can/May + Verb in simple form.......................................................14 2) Near Future...............................................................................................................................15 3) Future Progressive: will/shall+verbing ......................................................................................15 4) Future Perfect: Whill/ Shall + Have + PII ..................................................................................16 Sù hßa hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ...................................................................... 17 hîp tõ...................................................................... ................................................................ 1. ................................................................ C¸c tr−êng hîp Chñ ng÷ ®øng t¸ch khái ®éng tõ ................................................................ 17 2. Ýt.................... C¸c danh tõ lu«n ®ßi hái c¸c ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i theo chóng ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.................... 17 3. No................................................................................................ .................................................................................................. C¸ch sö dông None vµ No .................................................................................................. 18 4. C¸ch sö dông cÊu tróc either...or (hoÆc...hoÆc) vµ neither...nor (kh«ng...mµ còng kh«ng) ... 18 neither...nor 5. V-ing lµm chñ ng÷ .............................................................................................................. 19 .............................................................................................................. ................................................................ 6. ............................................................................................................ ................................................................ C¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ ............................................................................................................ 19 7. ................................................................ ......................................... C¸ch sö dông a number of, the number of: ......................................................................... 21 8. ................................................................ ...................................................... C¸c danh tõ lu«n dïng ë sè nhiÒu ...................................................................................... 21 9. is, are.............................................................................................. ................................................................ Thµnh ng÷ there is, there are.............................................................................................. 21 §¹i tõ .................................................................................................................... 24 .................................................................................................................... ................................................................ 1. ng÷)................................................................................................ ................................................................ §¹i tõ nh©n x−ng (Chñ ng÷) ................................................................................................ 24 2. §¹i tõ nh©n x−ng t©n ng÷.................................................................................................... 25 §¹i ng÷.................................................................................................... ................................................................................................ i
  2. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team 3. .................................................................................................................... ................................................................ TÝnh tõ së h÷u .................................................................................................................... 25 4. ...................................................................................................................... ................................................................ §¹i tõ së h÷u ...................................................................................................................... 25 5. ................................................................................................................. ................................................................ §¹i tõ ph¶n th©n ................................................................................................................. 26 T©n ng÷ ................................................................................................................ 27 ................................................................................................................ ................................................................ 1. ................................................................ ............................................................ §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ lµ t©n ng÷ ............................................................................................ 27 2. ng÷................................................................................................ ................................................................................................. Verb -ing dïng lµm t©n ng÷................................................................................................. 27 3. biÖt................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................... Bèn ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt........................................................................................................... 28 4. ................................................................ .............................................................. C¸c ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ .............................................................................................. 28 5. V- VÊn ®Ò c¸c ®¹i tõ ®øng tr−íc ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ hoÆc V-ing dïng lµm t©n ng÷. ................. 29 C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ b¸n khiÕm khuyÕt ......................................................... 31 ......................................................... 1. ................................................................................................................................ .................................................................................................. Need .................................................................................................................................. 31 1) Dïng nh− mét ®éng tõ th−êng: ®−îc sö dông ra sao cßn tïy vµo chñ ng÷ cña nã ..................31 2) Need ®−îc sö dông nh− mét ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt .................................................................31 2. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................... Dare ................................................................................................................................... 32 1) Khi dïng víi nghÜa lµ "d¸m"......................................................................................................32 2) Dare dïng nh− mét ngo¹i ®éng tõ ............................................................................................32 C¸ch sö dông to be trong mét sè tr−êng hîp.......................................................... 33 hîp................................ .......................................................... C¸ch sö dông to get trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt............................................ 35 biÖt................................ ............................................ 1. ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................ To get + P2 ......................................................................................................................... 35 2. V- V- ................................................................ ......................................... Get + V-ing = Start + V-ing: B¾t ®Çu lµm g× ......................................................................... 35 3. +V- ®Çu............................................................................ ................................................................ Get sb/smt +V-ing: Lµm ai/ c¸i g× b¾t ®Çu............................................................................ 35 4. ................................................................................................................... ................................................................ Get + to + verb ................................................................................................................... 35 5. Get + to + Verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò hµnh ®éng) = Come + to + Verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò nhËn thøc) = .................................................................................................................... ................................................................ Gradually = dÇn dÇn .................................................................................................................... 35 C©u hái ................................................................................................................. 36 ................................................................................................................. ................................................................ 1. ................................................................................................................. ................................................................ C©u hái Yes/ No ................................................................................................................. 36 2. .............................................................................................................. ................................................................ C©u hái th«ng b¸o .............................................................................................................. 36 a) Who/ what lµm chñ ng÷ ............................................................................................................36 b) Whom/ what lµm t©n ng÷ ..........................................................................................................36 c) C©u hái nh¾m vµo c¸c bæ ng÷: When, Where, How vµ Why....................................................37 3. ................................................................................................................ ................................................................ C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp ................................................................................................................ 37 4. .................................................................................................................. ................................................................ C©u hái cã ®u«i .................................................................................................................. 37 Lèi nãi phô häa kh¼ng ®Þnh vµ phñ ®Þnh ................................................................. 39 ®Þnh................................................................. ................................................................ 1. Kh¼ng ®Þnh ......................................................................................................................... 39 ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................ 2. ®Þnh................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................. Phñ ®Þnh ............................................................................................................................. 39 C©u phñ ®Þnh......................................................................................................... 41 ®Þnh................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................... MÖnh lÖnh thøc ..................................................................................................... 43 ..................................................................................................... ................................................................ §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ............................................................................................ 44 khuyÕt............................................................................................ ................................................................ C©u ®iÒu kiÖn ........................................................................................................ 45 ........................................................................................................ ................................................................ ii
  3. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team 1. ................................................................ ........................................... §iÒu kiÖn cã thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ........................................................................... 45 2. ................................................................ ..................................... §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ..................................................................... 45 3. ................................................................ .................................... §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø .................................................................... 45 C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ will, would, could, should sau if ..................................... 46 if................................ ..................................... Mét sè c¸ch dïng thªm cña if ................................................................................ 47 ................................................................ ................................................ 1. ............................................................................................................. ................................................................ If... then: NÕu... th× ............................................................................................................. 47 2. If dïng trong d¹ng c©u kh«ng ph¶i c©u ®iÒu kiÖn: §éng tõ ë c¸c mÖnh ®Ò diÔn biÕn b×nh ................................................................ ............................................................. th−êng theo thêi gian cña chÝnh nã. ............................................................................................. 47 3. If... should = If... happen to... = If... should happen to... diÔn ®¹t sù kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n (Xem ......................................................... thªm phÇn sö dông should trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ) ......................................................... 47 4. ................................................................................................................ ................................................................ If.. was/were to... ................................................................................................................ 47 5. If it + to be + not + for: NÕu kh«ng v×, nÕu kh«ng nhê vµo. .................................................. 47 vµo................................. .................................................. 6. Not ®«i khi ®−îc thªm vµo nh÷ng ®éng tõ sau if ®Ó bµy tá sù nghi ngê, kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n. .. 48 thªm 7. viÕt)................. It would... if + subject + would... (sÏ lµ... nÕu – kh«ng ®−îc dïng trong v¨n viÕt) ................. 48 8. If... –d have... –have: Dïng trong v¨n nãi, kh«ng dïng trong v¨n viÕt, diÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë qu¸ khø.......................................................................................................... 48 khø................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................... 9. ....................................................... If + preposition + noun/verb... (subject + be bÞ l−îc bá) ....................................................... 48 10. ®Þnh.................. If dïng kh¸ phæ biÕn víi mét sè tõ nh− any/anything/ever/not diÔn ®¹t phñ ®Þnh .................. 48 11. Adjective lµ).................................................................................... ................................................................ If + Adjective = although (cho dï lµ) .................................................................................... 49 C¸ch sö dông to Hope, to Wish. ............................................................................ 50 ................................................................ ............................................ 1. ................................................................ ..................................................... §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë t−¬ng lai ..................................................................................... 50 2. ................................................................ ..................................... §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ..................................................................... 50 3. ................................................................ .................................... §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø .................................................................... 50 C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ as if, as though (gÇn nh− lµ, nh− thÓ lµ)........................... 52 lµ)........................... Used to, to be/get used to...................................................................................... 53 to...................................................................................... ................................................................ C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ would rather ................................................................... 54 dông ................................................................ ................................... 1. ng÷................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................... Lo¹i c©u cã mét chñ ng÷..................................................................................................... 54 2. ng÷................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................... Lo¹i c©u cã hai chñ ng÷ ...................................................................................................... 54 a) Lo¹i c©u gi¶ ®Þnh ë hiÖn t¹i .......................................................................................................54 b) Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë hiÖn t¹i ...........................................................................55 c) Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®−îc ë qu¸ khø ..........................................................................55 C¸ch sö dông thµnh ng÷ Would like....................................................................... 56 like....................................................................... ................................................................ C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë hiÖn t¹i ......... 57 tr¹ng 1. .................................................... Could, May, Might + Verb in simple form = Cã lÏ, cã thÓ. .................................................... 57 2. form.............................................................................................. ................................................................ Should + Verb in simple form .............................................................................................. 57 3. Must + Verb in simple form ................................................................................................. 57 ................................................................................................. ................................................................ C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt ®Ó diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i ë qu¸ khø........ 59 khø ........ 1. ................................................................ ........................................... Could, may, might + have + P2 = cã lÏ ®· ........................................................................... 59 2. ................................................... Could have + P2 = LÏ ra ®· cã thÓ (trªn thùc tÕ lµ kh«ng) ................................................... 59 iii
  4. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team 3. V- ................................................................ ...................................... Might have been + V-ing = Cã lÏ lóc Êy ®ang ...................................................................... 59 4. ................................................................ ............................................. Should have + P2 = LÏ ra ph¶i, lÏ ra nªn ............................................................................. 59 5. have ®·................................................................................................ ................................................................................................. Must have + P2 = h¼n lµ ®· ................................................................................................. 59 6. V- ................................................................ ............................................ Must have been V-ing = h¼n lóc Êy ®ang ............................................................................ 59 C¸c vÊn ®Ò sö dông should trong mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ ................................... 60 ................................... TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ................................................................................................... 62 ................................................................................................... ................................................................ §éng tõ nèi ........................................................................................................... 64 ........................................................................................................... ................................................................ C¸c d¹ng so s¸nh cña tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ................................................................. 66 ................................................................ ................................. 1. ..................................................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh b»ng ..................................................................................................................... 66 2. ............................................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh h¬n kÐm ............................................................................................................... 66 3. s¸nh ................................................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh hîp lý ................................................................................................................... 68 4. biÖt................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................. So s¸nh ®Æc biÖt................................................................................................................. 68 5. ................................................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh ®a béi ................................................................................................................... 69 6. s¸nh ....................................................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh kÐp ....................................................................................................................... 69 7. ®·.................................................................... ................................................................ CÊu tróc No sooner... than = Võa míi ... th× ®·... ................................................................. 70 8. vËt......................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh gi÷a 2 ng−êi hoÆc 2 vËt ......................................................................................... 71 9. ............................................................................................................... ................................................................ So s¸nh bËc nhÊt ............................................................................................................... 71 Danh tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ ....................................................................................... 72 ................................................................ ....................................................... Enough ................................................................................................................. 73 ................................................................................................................. ................................................................ Mét sè tr−êng hîp cô thÓ dïng Much & Many ........................................................ 74 ........................................................ Ph©n biÖt thªm vÒ c¸ch dïng alot/ lots of/ plenty/ a great deal/ so víi many/ much. 76 Mét sè c¸ch dïng cô thÓ cña more & most ............................................................ 77 ............................................................ C¸ch dïng long & (for) a long time ........................................................................ 79 ................................................................ ........................................ Tõ nèi ................................................................................................................... 80 nèi ................................................................................................................... ................................................................ 1. of................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................... Because, Because of.......................................................................................................... 80 Because of = on account of = due to ............................................................................................80 2. ................................................................ ........................................................... Tõ nèi chØ môc ®Ých vµ kÕt qu¶ ........................................................................................... 80 3. ................................................................ .................................................... Tõ nèi chØ nguyªn nh©n vµ kÕt qu¶. .................................................................................... 80 4. kh¸c. ................................................................ c......................................................................... Mét sè c¸c tõ nèi mang tÝnh ®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c. ........................................................................ 81 C©u bÞ ®éng .......................................................................................................... 84 .......................................................................................................... ................................................................ §éng tõ g©y nguyªn nh©n...................................................................................... 87 nh©n...................................................................................... ................................................................ 1. To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = Sai ai, khiÕn ai, b¶o ai lµm g× ............................... 87 2. ................................................................ ........................................ To have/to get sth done = §−a c¸i g× ®i lµm ........................................................................ 87 3. ................................................................ ........................................... To make sb do sth = to force sb to do sth ........................................................................... 87 4. To make sb + P2 = lµm cho ai bÞ lµm sao............................................................................. 87 sao............................................................................. ................................................................ 5. ................................................................ ..................................... To cause sth + P2 = lµm cho c¸i g× bÞ lµm sao ..................................................................... 87 iv
  5. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team 6. To let sb do sth = to permit/allow sb to do sth = ®Ó ai, cho phÐp ai lµm g×............................ 88 g× ............................ 7. lµm ................................................................ ........................................ To help sb to do sth/do sth = Gióp ai lµm g× ........................................................................ 88 8. ............................................................................................................... ................................................................ 3 ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt ............................................................................................................... 88 C©u phøc hîp vµ ®¹i tõ quan hÖ thay thÕ ............................................................... 89 ............................................................... 1. ................................................................ ............................................. That vµ which lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô ............................................................................. 89 2. ................................................................ .............................................. That vµ which lµm t©n ng÷ cña c©u phô .............................................................................. 89 3. ................................................................ ........................................................... Who lµm chñ ng÷ cña c©u phô ........................................................................................... 89 4. ................................................................ ......................................................... Whom lµm t©n ng÷ cña c©u phô ......................................................................................... 89 5. buéc........................................................................... ................................................................ MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc vµ kh«ng b¾t buéc........................................................................... 90 1) MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc. ............................................................................................................90 2) MÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc ...................................................................................................90 6. phÈy ....................................... TÇm quan träng cña viÖc sö dông dÊu phÈy ®èi víi mÖnh ®Ò phô ....................................... 90 7. C¸ch sö dông All, Both, Some, Several, Most, Few + Of + Whom/ Which ........................... 91 8. ................................................................ .................................................. Whose = cña ng−êi mµ, cña con mµ. .................................................................................. 91 9. .................................................................................................. ................................................................ C¸ch lo¹i bá mÖnh ®Ò phô .................................................................................................. 91 C¸ch sö dông P1 trong mét sè tr−êng hîp .............................................................. 93 .............................................................. 10. ................................................................ ................................................ Dïng víi mét sè c¸c cÊu tróc ®éng tõ. ................................................................................ 93 11. dµi........................................................................ ................................................................ P1 ®−îc sö dông ®Ó rót ng¾n nh÷ng c©u dµi ........................................................................ 94 C¸ch sö dông nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh (To have + P2) ................................. 95 ................................. Nh÷ng c¸ch sö dông kh¸c cña that ........................................................................ 96 ................................................................ ........................................ 1. (r»ng) ................................................................ .......................................... That dïng víi t− c¸ch lµ mét liªn tõ (r»ng) .......................................................................... 96 2. ...................................................................................................................... ................................................................ MÖnh ®Ò that ...................................................................................................................... 96 C©u gi¶ ®Þnh .......................................................................................................... 98 ®Þnh................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................... 1. rather .................................................................................................. ................................................................ Dïng víi would rather that .................................................................................................. 98 2. ............................................................................................................... ................................................................ Dïng víi ®éng tõ. ............................................................................................................... 98 3. ................................................................................................................. ................................................................ Dïng víi tÝnh tõ. ................................................................................................................. 98 4. C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi mét sè tr−êng hîp kh¸c ................................................................... 99 ................................................................ ................................... 5. ...............................................................................100 ............................................... C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi it + to be + time ...............................................................................100 Lèi nãi bao hµm................................................................................................... 102 hµm................................................................................................ ................................................................................................... 1. also..........................................................................................................102 .......................................................................................................... Not only ..... but also ..........................................................................................................102 2. nh−.........................................................................................................102 ......................................................................................................... As well as: Còng nh− .........................................................................................................102 3. and......................................................................................................................103 ...................................................................................................................... Both ..... and ......................................................................................................................103 C¸ch sö dông to know, to know how. ................................................................... 104 ................................................................ ................................... MÖnh ®Ò nh−îng bé ............................................................................................ 105 ................................................................ ............................................................ 1. Despite/Inspite Despite/Inspite of = bÊt chÊp .............................................................................................105 .............................................................................................105 ............................................................. 2. Although/Even though/Though = MÆc dÇu .........................................................................105 .........................................................................105 ......................................... 3. However + adj + S + linkverb = dï cã .... ®i ch¨ng n÷a th× .... .............................................105 n÷a ............................................. .............105 v
  6. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team 4. Although/ Albeit (more formal) + Adjective/ Adverb/ Averbial Modifier ................................105 ................................105 ................................................................ .......................................... Nh÷ng ®éng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn .......................................................................... 106 kh¸c......................................................................... ................................................................ Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt kh¸c......................................................................... 108 tõ.................................................................................. ................................................................ Sù phï hîp vÒ thêi ®éng tõ .................................................................................. 109 ................................................................ ................................................. C¸ch sö dông to say, to tell ................................................................................. 111 ................................................................ ............................................... §¹i tõ nh©n x−ng one vµ you ............................................................................... 112 ................................................................ ....................................................... Tõ ®i tr−íc ®Ó giíi thiÖu ....................................................................................... 113 .................................................... C¸ch sö dông c¸c ph©n tõ ë ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô .................................................... 114 tõ...................................................................................... ................................................................ Ph©n tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ ...................................................................................... 117 1. Ph©n tõ 1(V-ing) ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng ®Çy ®ñ c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau: ..............117 1(V- ..............117 2. (V- sau:.............. ..............117 Ph©n tõ 2 (V-ed) ®−îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng ®Çy ®ñ c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau: ..............117 ............................................................................................................. ................................................................ C©u thõa ............................................................................................................. 118 song....................................................................................... ................................................................ CÊu tróc c©u song song....................................................................................... 119 tiÕp............................................................................. ................................................................ Th«ng tin trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp ............................................................................. 120 1. ............................................................................................120 ............................................................ C©u trùc tiÕp vµ c©u gi¸n tiÕp ............................................................................................120 tiÕp................................ ........................................................ §éng tõ víi hai t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp ........................................................ 122 ................................................................ ........................................................... Sù ®¶o ng−îc phã tõ ........................................................................................... 123 1. ............................................................... ...............................123 Mét sè c¸c d¹ng phã tõ ®Æc biÖt ®øng ë ®Çu c©u ...............................................................123 bµi ph¸p............................. C¸ch lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi kh«ng ®óng trong bµi ng÷ ph¸p ............................. 126 1. ........................................................................126 ........................................ KiÓm tra c¸c lçi ng÷ ph¸p c¬ b¶n bao gåm ........................................................................126 2. .....................................................................126 ..................................... Lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi mang tÝnh r−êm rµ: .....................................................................126 3. Ph¶i ch¾c ch¾n r»ng tÊt c¶ c¸c tõ trong c©u ®−îc chän ®Òu ph¶i phóc vô cho nghÜa cña bµi, ........................................................................................................ ........................................................................127 ®Æc biÖt lµ c¸c ng÷ ®éng tõ. ........................................................................................................127 4. Ph¶i lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi bao hµm tiÕng lãng, kh«ng ®−îc phÐp dïng trong v¨n viÕt qui chuÈn .........................................................................................................................................127 .........................................................................................................................................127 ......................................................................................................... lÉn................................................................................... ................................................................ Nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn................................................................................... 128 mét ................................................. Phô lôc: mét sè nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn kh¸c: ................................................. 130 ................................................................................................................. ................................................................ Giíi tõ ................................................................................................................. 133 ........................................................................................................ ................................................................ Ng÷ ®éng tõ ........................................................................................................ 136 Mét sè nguyªn t¾c thùc hiÖn bµi ®äc .................................................................... 138 ®äc.................................................................... ................................................................ vi
  7. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Grammar Review Mét c©u trong tiÕng Anh bao gåm c¸c thµnh phÇn sau ®©y SUBJECT - VERB AS PREDICATE - COMPLEMENT - MODIFIER (OBJECT) DIRECT INDIRECT SUBJECT cã thÓ lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ, mét VERB_ING, mét ®¹i tõ, song nhiÒu nhÊt vÉn lµ mét danh tõ. Chóng bao giê còng ®øng ë ®Çu c©u, lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ. V× lµ ®éng tõ nªn chóng liªn quan ®Õn nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò sau: ®−îc 1. Danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc (Count noun/ Non - count noun) Danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc: Dïng ®−îc víi sè ®Õm, do ®ã nã cã h×nh th¸i sè Ýt, sè nhiÒu. Nã cã thÓ dïng ®−îc víi "a" vµ "the" "the". Danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc: Kh«ng dïng ®−îc víi sè ®Õm, do ®ã nã kh«ng cã h×nh th¸i sè Ýt, sè nhiÒu. Nã kh«ng thÓ dïng ®−îc víi "a", cßn "the" chØ trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt. Mét sè danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc cã h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu ®Æc biÖt. Mét sè danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc cã d¹ng sè Ýt/ sè nhiÒu nh− nhau chØ ph©n biÖt b»ng cã "a" vµ kh«ng cã "a" Ex: an aircraft/ aircraft; a sheep/ sheep; a fish/ fish. Mét sè c¸c danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc nh− food, meat, money, sand, water ... ®èi khi ®−îc dïng nh− c¸c danh tõ sè nhiÒu ®Ó chØ c¸c d¹ng, lo¹i kh¸c nhau cña danh tõ ®ã. Ex: water -> waters (N−íc -> nh÷ng vòng n−íc) Danh tõ "time" nÕu dïng víi nghÜa lµ "thêi gian" lµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc nh−ng khi dïng víi nghÜa lµ "thêi ®¹i" hay "sè lÇn" lµ danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc. Ex: Ancient times (Nh÷ng thêi cæ ®¹i) - Modern times (nh÷ng thêi hiÖn ®¹i) B¶ng sè 1 trang 45 lµ c¸c ®Þnh ng÷ dïng ®−îc víi c¸c danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc. ViÖc x¸c ®Þnh danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc lµ hÕt søc quan träng vµ th−êng lµ b−íc c¬ b¶n më ®Çu cho c¸c bµi nghe/ ng÷ ph¸p cña TOEFL. 1
  8. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Qu¸n tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh "a" vµ "an" Dïng "an" tr−íc mét danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng: o 4 nguyªn ©m A, E, I, O. o 2 b¸n nguyªn ©m U, Y. o Nh÷ng danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng "h" c©m (an heir/ an hour) an o Nh÷ng tõ më ®Çu b»ng mét ch÷ viÕt t¾t (an S.O.S/ an M.P) an o L−u ý: §øng tr−íc mét danh tõ më ®Çu b»ng "uni..." ph¶i dïng "a" (a a university/ university/ a uniform) Dïng "a" tr−íc danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng mét phô ©m. §−îc dïng tr−íc mét danh tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh vÒ mÆt vÞ trÝ/ tÝnh chÊt/ ®Æc ®iÓm hoÆc ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn lÇn ®Çu tiªn trong c©u. Dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ sè l−îng nhÊt ®Þnh nh−: a lot of/ a great deal deal of/ a couple/ a dozen. Dïng tr−íc nh÷ng sè ®Õm nhÊt ®Þnh th−êng lµ hµng ngµn, hµng tr¨m nh− a/ one hundred - a/one thousand. Dïng tr−íc "half" (mét nöa) khi nã theo sau mét ®¬n vÞ nguyªn vÑn: a kilo and a half, hay khi nã ®i ghÐp víi mét danh tõ kh¸c ®Ó chØ nöa phÇn (khi viÕt cã dÊu g¹ch nèi): a half - share, a half - holiday (ngµy lÔ chØ nghØ nöa ngµy). Dïng víi c¸c ®¬n vÞ ph©n sè nh− 1/3 a/one third - 1/5 a /one fifth. Dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ gi¸ c¶, tèc ®é, tØ lÖ: $5 a kilo, 60 kilometers hour, an hour, 4 times a day. Dïng tr−íc c¸c danh tõ sè Ýt ®Õm ®−îc. trong c¸c th¸n tõ what a nice day/ such a long life. A + Mr/ Mrs/ Ms + family name = mét «ng/ bµ/ c« nµo ®ã (kh«ng quen biÕt) 2
  9. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Qu¸n tõ x¸c ®Þnh "The" Dïng tr−íc mét danh tõ ®· ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt tÝnh chÊt, ®Æc ®iÓm, vÞ trÝ hoÆc ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn lÇn thø hai trong c©u. The + danh tõ + giíi tõ + danh tõ Ex: The girl in blue, the Gulf of Mexico. Dïng tr−íc nh÷ng tÝnh tõ so s¸nh bËc nhÊt hoÆc only only. Ex: The only way, the best day. Dïng cho nh÷ng kho¶ng thêi gian x¸c ®Þnh (thËp niªn): In the 1990s The + danh tõ + ®¹i tõ quan hÖ + mÖnh ®Ò phô Ex: The man /to whom you have just spoken /is the chairman Tr−íc mét danh tõ ngô ý chØ mét vËt riªng biÖt Ex: She is in the (= her) garden The + danh tõ sè Ýt t−îng tr−ng cho mét nhãm thó vËt hoÆc ®å vËt Ex: The whale = whales (loµi c¸ voi), the deep-freeze (thøc ¨n ®«ng l¹nh) L−u ý: Nh−ng ®èi víi man khi mang nghÜa "loµi ng−êi" tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®−îc dïng "the" the". the" Ex: Since man lived on the earth (kÓ tõ khi loµi ng−êi sinh sèng trªn tr¸i ®Êt nµy) Dïng tr−íc mét danh tõ sè Ýt ®Ó chØ mét nhãm, mét h¹ng ng−êi nhÊt ®Þnh trong x· héi. Ex: The small shopkeeper: Giíi chñ tiÖm nhá/ The top offcial: Giíi quan chøc cao cÊp The + adj: T−îng tr−ng cho mét nhãm ng−êi, chóng kh«ng bao giê ®−îc phÐp ë sè nhiÒu nh−ng ®−îc xem lµ c¸c danh tõ sè nhiÒu. Do vËy ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i cïng víi chóng ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu. Ex: The old = The old people/ The unemployed/ The disabled are often very hard in their moving The + tªn c¸c vïng/ khu vùc ®· næi tiÕng vÒ mÆt ®Þa lý hoÆc lÞch sö Ex: The Sahara (desert)/ The Siberia (tundra)/ The Normandic The + East/ West/ South/ North + Danh tõ 3
  10. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team used as adjective Ex: Ex: The North/ South Pole (B¾c/ Nam Cùc) Ex: Ex: The East End of London (Khu ®«ng L«n §«n) *Nh−ng kh«ng ®−îc dïng THE tr−íc c¸c tõ nµy nÕu nã ®i liÒn víi tªn ch©u lôc hoÆc quèc gia: West Germany, North America... The + tªn gäi c¸c ®éi hîp x−íng/ dµn nh¹c cæ ®iÓn/ ban nh¹c phæ th«ng Ex: The Back Choir/ The Philharmonique Philadelphia Orchestra/ The Beatles. The + tªn gäi c¸c tê b¸o (kh«ng t¹p chÝ)/ tµu biÓn/ c¸c khinh khÝ cÇu. Ex: The Times/ The Titanic/ The Hindenberg The + hä mét gia ®×nh ë sè nhiÒu = gia ®×nh nhµ Ex: The Smiths = Mr/ Mrs Smith and children Dïng tr−íc tªn hä cña mét ng−êi ®Ó x¸c ®Þnh ng−êi ®ã trong sè nh÷ng ng−êi trïng tªn. Kh«ng ®−îc dïng "the" tr−íc c¸c danh tõ chØ b÷a ¨n trong ngµy trõ c¸c tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt. Ex: We ate breakfast at 8 am this morning Ex: The dinner that you invited me last week were delecious. Kh«ng ®−îc dïng "the" tr−íc mét sè danh tõ nh− home, bed, church, court, jail, prison, hospital, school, class, college, university v.v... khi nã ®i víi c¸c ®éng tõ vµ giíi tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng chØ ®i ®Õn ®ã v× môc ®Ých chÝnh hoÆc ra khái ®ã còng v× môc ®Ých chÝnh. Ex: Students go to school everyday. Ex: The patient was released from hospital. Nh−ng nÕu ®Õn ®ã hoÆc ra khái ®ã kh«ng v× môc ®Ých chÝnh b¾t buéc ph¶i dïng "the". Ex: Students go to the school for a class party. Ex: The doctor left the hospital afterwork *L−u ý: trong American English hospital vµ university ph¶i dïng víi THE: Ex: He was in the hospital (in hospital as a patient). Ex: She was unhappy at the university (at the university as a student). Mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt • Go to work = Go to the office. • To be at work • To be hard at work (lµm viÖc ch¨m chØ) • To be in office (®−¬ng nhiÖm) <> To be out of office (§· m·n nhiÖm) • Go to sea = ®i biÓn (nh− nh÷ng thñy thñ) • Go to the sea = ra biÓn, th−êng ®Ó nghØ 4
  11. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team • To be at the sea: ë gÇn biÓn • To be at sea (ë trªn biÓn) trong mét chuyÕn h¶i hµnh. • go to town: §i vµo trung t©m/ §i phè - To be in town (ë trung t©m) khi town lµ cña ng−êi nãi. B¶ng sö dông "the" vµ kh«ng sö dông "the" trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®iÓn h×nh Cã "The" Kh«ng "The" Dïng tr−íc tªn c¸c ®¹i d−¬ng, Tr−íc tªn mét hå s«ng ngßi, biÓn, vÞnh vµ c¸c hå (ë Ex: Lake Geneva sè nhiÒu) Ex: The Red Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Persian Gufl, the Great Lakes Tr−íc tªn mét ngän nói Tr−íc tªn c¸c d·y nói Ex: Mount Vesuvius Ex: The Rocky Mountains Tr−íc tªn c¸c hµnh tinh hoÆc c¸c Tr−íc tªn nh÷ng vËt thÓ duy nhÊt chßm sao trong vò trô hoÆc trªn thÕ giíi Ex: Venus, Mars Ex: Ex: The earth, the moon Tr−íc tªn c¸c tr−êng nµy nÕu tr−íc The schools, colleges, universities nã lµ mét tªn riªng + of + danh tõ riªng Ex: Stetson University Ex: The University of Florida Tr−íc c¸c danh tõ ®i cïng víi mét the + sè thø tù + danh tõ sè ®Õm Ex: The third chapter. Ex: Chapter three Tr−íc tªn c¸c cuéc chiÕn tranh khu vùc víi ®iÒu kiÖn tªn khu vùc ®ã ph¶i ®−îc tÝnh tõ ho¸ Ex: The Korean War (=> The Vietnamese Vietnamese economy) Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc më ®Çu b»ng Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc cã hai tõ trë lªn New, mét tÝnh tõ chØ h−íng hoÆc (ngo¹i trõ Great Britain) chØ cã mét tõ Ex: The United States Ex: New Zealand, North Korean, France Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc ®−îc coi lµ mét Tr−íc tªn c¸c lôc ®Þa, tØnh, tiÓu quÇn ®¶o hoÆc mét quÇn ®¶o bang, thµnh phè, quËn, huyÖn Ex: The Philipines Ex: Europe, Florida Tr−íc tªn c¸c tµi liÖu hoÆc sù kiÖn lÞch sö 5
  12. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Ex: The Constitution, The Magna Carta Tr−íc tªn c¸c nhãm d©n téc thiÓu sè Ex: the Indians Tr−íc tªn bÊt k× m«n thÓ thao nµo Ex: baseball, basketball Tr−íc c¸c danh tõ trõu t−îng (trõ mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt) Ex: freedom, happiness Tr−íc tªn c¸c m«n häc nãi chung Ex: mathematics Tr−íc tªn c¸c m«n häc cô thÓ Ex: The Solid matter Physics Tr−íc tªn c¸c ngµy lÔ, tÕt Ex: Christmas, Thanksgiving 6
  13. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team C¸ch sö dông another vµ other. Hai tõ nµy tuy gièng nhau vÒ mÆt nghÜa nh−ng kh¸c nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p. Dïng víi danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc Dïng víi danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc another + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Ýt = mét c¸i n÷a, mét c¸i kh¸c, mét ng−êi n÷a, mét ng−êi kh¸c. the other + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Ýt = c¸i cßn l¹i (cña mét bé), ng−êi cßn l¹i (cña mét nhãm). Other + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè Other + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc = nhiÒu = mÊy c¸i n÷a, mÊy c¸i mét chót n÷a. kh¸c, mÊy ng−êi n÷a, mÊy ng−êi kh¸c. The other + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm The other + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè ®−îc = chç cßn sãt l¹i. nhiÒu = nh÷ng c¸i cßn l¹i (cña mét bé), nh÷ng ng−êi cßn l¹i (cña mét nhãm). Ex: I don't want this book. Please give me another. (another = any other book - not specific) I don't want this book. Please give me the other. (the other = the other book, specific) Another vµ other lµ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh trong khi The other lµ x¸c ®Þnh, nÕu chñ ng÷ hoÆc danh tõ ®· ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn ë trªn th× ë d−íi chØ cÇn dïng Another hoÆc other nh− mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ. NÕu danh tõ ®−îc thay thÕ lµ sè nhiÒu: Other -> Others Kh«ng bao giê Others. ®−îc dïng Others + danh tõ sè nhiÒu. ChØ ®−îc dïng mét trong hai. Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ng−êi ta dïng ®¹i tõ thay thÕ one hoÆc ones ®»ng sau another hoÆc other other. L−u ý: This hoÆc That cã thÓ dïng víi one nh−ng These vµ Those kh«ng ®−îc dïng víi ones. 7
  14. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team C¸ch sö dông little, a little, few, a few kh«ng Little + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc = rÊt Ýt, kh«ng ®ñ ®Ó (cã khuynh h−íng phñ ®Þnh) Ex: I have little money, not enough to buy groceries. A little + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc = cã mét chót, ®ñ ®Ó Ex: I have a little money, enough to buy groceries Few + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè nhiÒu = cã rÊt Ýt, kh«ng ®ñ ®Ó (cã khuynh h−íng phñ ®Þnh) Ex: I have few books, not enough for reference reading A few + danh tõ ®Õm ®−îc sè nhiÒu: cã mét chót, ®ñ ®Ó Ex: I have a few records, enough for listening. Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp khi danh tõ ë trªn ®· ®−îc nh¾c ®Õn th× ë phÝa d−íi chØ cÇn dïng little hoÆc few nh− mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ. Ex: Are you ready in money. Yes, a little. Quite a few (®Õm ®−îc) = Quite a bit (kh«ng ®Õm ®−îc) = Quite a lot (c¶ hai) = rÊt nhiÒu. 8
  15. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Së h÷u c¸ch The noun's + noun: ChØ ®−îc dïng cho nh÷ng danh tõ chØ ng−êi hoÆc ®éng vËt, kh«ng dïng cho c¸c ®å vËt. Ex: The student's book The cat's legs. §èi víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu ®· cã s½n "s" ë ®u«i chØ cÇn dïng dÊu phÈy Ex: The students' book. Nh−ng ®èi víi nh÷ng danh tõ ®æi sè nhiÒu ®Æc biÖt kh«ng "s" ë ®u«i vÉn ph¶i dïng ®Çy ®ñ dÊu së h÷u c¸ch. Ex: The children's toys. The people's willing NÕu cã hai danh tõ cïng ®øng ë së h÷u c¸ch th× danh tõ nµo ®øng gÇn danh tõ bÞ së h÷u nhÊt sÏ mang dÊu së h÷u. Ex: Paul and Peter's room. §èi víi nh÷ng tªn riªng hoÆc danh tõ ®· cã s½n "s" ë ®u«i cã thÓ chØ cÇn dïng dÊu phÈy vµ nhÊn m¹nh ®u«i khi ®äc hoÆc dïng së h÷u c¸ch vµ ph¶i thay ®æi c¸ch ®äc. Tªn riªng kh«ng dïng "the" ®»ng tr−íc. Ex: The boss' car = The boss's car [bosiz] Agnes' house = Agnes's [siz] house. Nã ®−îc dïng cho thêi gian (n¨m, th¸ng, thËp niªn, thÕ kØ) Ex: The 1990s' events: nh÷ng sù kiÖn cña thËp niªn 90 The 21st century's prospects. Cã thÓ dïng cho c¸c mïa trong n¨m trõ mïa xu©n vµ mïa thu. NÕu dïng së h÷u c¸ch cho hai mïa nµy th× ng−êi viÕt ®· nh©n c¸ch ho¸ chóng. Ngµy nay ng−êi ta dïng c¸c mïa trong n¨m nh− mét tÝnh tõ cho c¸c danh tõ ®»ng sau, Ýt dïng së h÷u c¸ch. Ex: The Autumn's leaf: chiÕc l¸ cña nµng thu. Dïng cho tªn c¸c c«ng ty lín, c¸c quèc gia Ex: The Rockerfeller's oil products. China's food. §èi víi c¸c cöa hiÖu cã nghÒ nghiÖp ®Æc tr−ng chØ cÇn dïng danh tõ víi dÊu së h÷u. Ex: In a florist's At a hairdresser's §Æc biÖt lµ c¸c tiÖm ¨n: Antonio's 9
  16. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Dïng tr−íc mét sè danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt chØ trong mét sè thµnh ng÷ Ex: a stone's throw from ...(C¸ch n¬i ®©u mét tÇm ®¸ nÐm). 10
  17. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Verb §éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh Chia lµm 3 thêi chÝnh: Qu¸ khø (Past) HiÖn t¹i (Present) T−¬ng lai (Future) Mçi thêi chÝnh l¹i chia thµnh nhiÒu thêi nhá ®Ó diÔn ®¹t tÝnh chÝnh x¸c cña hµnh ®éng. 1) Present 1) Simple Present Khi chia ®éng tõ thêi nµy ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt, ph¶i cã "s" ë tËn cïng vµ ©m dã s" ph¶i ®−îc ®äc lªn Ex: He walks. Ex: She watches TV Nã dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng th−êng xuyªn x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i, kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ thêi gian, hµnh ®éng lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i cã tÝnh qui luËt. Th−êng dïng víi mét sè c¸c phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh− today present day today, day, nowadays. nowadays §Æc biÖt nã dïng víi mét sè phã tõ chØ tÇn suÊt nh−: always sometimes always, sometimes, often, every + thêi gian... often gian Present V- 2) Present Progressive (be + V-ing) Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë vµo mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh cña hiÖn t¹i. Thêi ®iÓm nµy ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ b»ng mét sè phã tõ nh− : now, rightnow, moment. now rightnow at this moment Dïng thay thÕ cho thêi t−¬ng lai gÇn, ®Æc biÖt lµ trong v¨n nãi. §Æc biÖt l−u ý nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng sau kh«ng ®−îc chia ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn dï bÊt cø thêi nµo khi chóng lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ tÜnh diÔn ®¹t tr¹ng th¸i c¶m gi¸c cña ho¹t ®éng tinh thÇn hoÆc tÝnh chÊt cña sù vËt , sù viÖc. Nh−ng khi chóng quay sang h−íng déng tõ hµnh ®éng th× chóng l¹i ®−îc phÐp dïng ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn. know believe hear see smell wish understand hate love like want sound have need appear seem taste 11
  18. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team own Ex: He has a lot of books. He is having dinner now. (§éng tõ hµnh ®éng: ¨n tèi) I think they will come in time I'm thinking of my test tomorrow. (§éng tõ hµnh ®éng: §ang nghÜ vÒ) 3) Present Perfect : Have + PII Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra tõ trong qu¸ khø kÐo dµi ®Õn hiÖn t¹i vµ chÊm døt ë hiÖn t¹i, thêi diÓm hµnh ®éng hoµn toµn kh«ng ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh trong c©u. ChØ mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra nhiÒu lÇn trong qu¸ khø kÐo dµi ®Õn hiÖn t¹i Ex: George has seen this movie three time. Dïng víi 2 giíi tõ SINCE/FOR+time Dïng víi already trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh, l−u ý r»ng already cã thÓ ®øng ngay sau have vµ còng cã thÓ ®øng ë cuèi c©u. Dïng víi yet trong c©u phñ ®Þnh, yet th−êng xuyªn ®øng ë cuèi c©u. Dïng víi yet trong c©u nghi vÊn Ex: Have you written your reports yet? Trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ë phñ ®Þnh, yet cã thÓ ®øng ngay sau have nh−ng ph¶i thay ®æi vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p: not mÊt ®i vµ PII trë vÒ d¹ng nguyªn thÓ cã to. to Ex: John has yet to learn the material = John hasn't learnt the material yet. Dïng víi now that (giê ®©y khi mµ...) that... Ex: Now that you have passed the TOEFL test successfully, you can apply... Dïng víi mét sè phã tõ nh− till now untill now so far (cho ®Õn giê). Nh÷ng now, now, thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu c©u hoÆc cuèi c©u. Ex: So far the problem has not been resolved. Dïng víi recently lately (gÇn ®©y) nh÷ng thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu recently, hoÆc cuèi c©u. Ex: I have not seen him recently. Dïng víi before ®øng ë cuèi c©u. Ex: I have seen him before. V- 4) Present Perfect Progressive : Have been V-ing Dïng gièng hÖt nh− Present Perfect nh−ng hµnh ®éng kh«ng chÊn døt ë hiÖn t¹i mµ vÉn tiÕp tôc tiÕp diÔn, th−êng xuyªn dïng víi since for + time since, Ph©n biÖt c¸ch dïng gi÷a hai thêi: 12
  19. Updatesofts.com Ebook Team Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive Hµnh ®éng ®· chÊm døt ë hiÖn t¹i do Hµnh ®éng vÉn tiÕp diÔn ë hiÖn t¹i, ®ã ®· cã kÕt qu¶ râ rÖt. cã kh¶ n¨ng lan tíi t−¬ng lai do ®ã Ex I've waited you for half an hour (and Ex: kh«ng cã kÕt qu¶ râ rÖt. now I stop working because you didn't Ex: I've been waiting for you for half an come). hour (and now I'm still waiting, hoping that you'll come) 2. Past V- 1) Simple Past: V-ed Mét sè ®éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh cã c¶ d¹ng Simple Past vµ Past Perfect b×nh th−êng còng nh− ®Æc biÖt. Ng−êi Anh −a dïng Simple past chia b×nh th−êng vµ P2 ®Æc biÖt lµm adj hoÆc trong d¹ng bÞ ®éng Ex: To light lighted/lighted: He lighted the candles in his birthday cake. lighted/lighted lit/ lit: From a distance we can see the lit restaurant. lit Nã diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng ®· x¶y ra ®øt ®iÓm trong qu¸ khø, kh«ng liªn quan g× tíi hiÖn t¹i, thêi diÓm trong c©u ®−îc x¸c ®Þnh râ rÖt b»ng mét sè c¸c phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh− yesterday at that moment last + time yesterday, moment, V- 2) Past Progresseive: Was/Were + V-ing Nã dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra ë vµo mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh cña qu¸ khø. Thêi diÓm ®ã ®−îc diÔn ®¹t cô thÓ = ngµy, giê. Nã dông kÕt hîp víi mét simple past th«ng qua 2 phã tõ chØ thêi gian lµ when vµ while ®Ó chØ mét hµnh ®éng ®ang tiÕp diÔn trong qu¸ khø th× mét while, hµnh ®éng kh¸c chen ngang vµo (khi ®ang... th× bçng...). Subject + Simple Past – while - Subject + Past Progressive Ex: Smb hit him on the head while he was walking to his car Subject + Past Progressive - when - Subject + Simple Past1 Ex: He was walking to his car when Smb hit him on the head MÖnh ®Ò cã when & while cã thÓ ®øng bÊt k× n¬i nµo trong c©u nh−ng sau when ph¶i lµ simple past vµ sau while ph¶i lµ Past Progressive Progressive. Nã diÔn ®¹t 2 hµnh ®éng ®ang cïng lóc x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø. 13
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