High-Performance Parallel Database Processing and Grid Databases- P13

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High-Performance Parallel Database Processing and Grid Databases- P13

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High-Performance Parallel Database Processing and Grid Databases- P13: Parallel databases are database systems that are implemented on parallel computing platforms. Therefore, high-performance query processing focuses on query processing, including database queries and transactions, that makes use of parallelism techniques applied to an underlying parallel computing platform in order to achieve high performance.

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  10. Index Acid properties of transactions, 301–303 Asynchronous protocols, GRAP, 381 atomicity, 302 Atomic commit protocols, 310–314 consistency, 302–303 heterogeneous DBMSs, 313–314 durability, 302–303 Homogeneous DBMSs, 310–313 isolation, 302–303 Atomicity property, 302, See also Grid Adaptive Plan Correction (APC), 279–280 transaction atomicity and durability Amdahl law, 10 for centralized and homogeneous DBMSs, Analytical models, 33–46 304 cost models, 33–34 for heterogeneous distributed DBMSs, 306 cost notations, 34–39 Autonomy, 294 communication costs, 38–39 data parameters, 34–35 Basic data partitioning, 55–60 query parameters, 37 hash, 57–58 systems parameters, 36 range, 58–59 time unit costs, 37–38 round-robin, 56 parallel database, operations in, See BERD (Bubba’s Extended Range Declustering), Databases, parallel 67–69 skew model, 39–43 Binary merge sort, parallel, 85–86 Architectures, grid database, 26–28 cost model, 100–101 data-intensive applications working in, 26 Binary search, 71–72 grid middleware, 27 Bus interconnection network, 24 Architectures, parallel database, 19–26 Bushy-tree parallelization, 258 interconnection networks, 24–26 shared-disk architectures, 20–21 Centralized DBMSs shared-memory architectures, 20–21 transactions management in, 303–305 shared-nothing architecture, 22 Atomicity, 304 Association rules/Association rule data mining, Consistency, 304 432, 440–450 solation, 304–305 association rules, 444–448 Classification, parallel, 477–495 association rules generation, 445–448 data parallelism for a decision tree, 489–492 frequent itemset generation, 444–445 data set structure, 479–480 concepts, 441–444 decision tree algorithm, 480–481 count distribution-based parallelism for, decision tree classification, 477–480 448–449 processes, 480–488 data distribution-based parallelism for, 450 structure, 478–479 generation, 445–448 result parallelism for the decision tree, itemset, 441 492–495 literals, 441 High-Performance Parallel Database Processing and Grid Databases, by David Taniar, Clement Leung, Wenny Rahayu, and Sushant Goel Copyright  2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 541
  11. 542 INDEX Classification, parallel (Continued) Comparative analysis, 207–215 splitting attributes or feature selection, parallel index join, 213–215 481–484 parallel search index, 207–213 Cluster/Clustering, parallel, 464–499 continuous-range search queries, 212 architectures, 23 discrete-range search queries, 212 cluster customers, 465 exact-match search queries, 212 cluster students, 465 intersection method, 209–210 concepts, 467–468 multi-index search query processing, hierarchical clustering, 468 209–212 in parallel data mining, 433 one-index access method, 210–213 parallel k-means clustering, 471–477 one-index search query processing, partitional clustering, 468 207–209 query processing model, 270–275 Comparison cost, 70, 72 architecture, 272–273 Compensate approach, 314 dynamic query processing, 271–272 Complex data partitioning, 60–69 load information exchange, 273–275 BERD, 67–69 result parallelism parallel k-means, 475–477 hybrid-range partitioning strategy, 60–65 similarity measures, 467–468 MAGIC, 65–67 Collection join queries, 219–255 Compute destination cost, 101 algorithms for, 225 Concurrency control protocols, 309–310 disjoint data partitioning, 226–227 locking-based algorithms, 309 optimistic algorithms, 309 parallel collection-equi join, 225–233 pessimistic algorithms, 309 parallel double sort-merge collection-equi timestamp ordering algorithms, 310 join algorithm, 227–228 Conjunctive predicates, 54 parallel hash collection-equi join algorithm, Conjunctive prenex normal form (CPNF), 54 232–233 Consistency property, 302–303 parallel sort-hash collection-equi join for centralized and homogeneous DBMSs, algorithm, 228–231 304 collection-intersect join algorithms, 233–246 for heterogeneous distributed DBMSs, non-disjoint data partitioning, 234–244 306–307 hash collection-intersect join algorithm, 246 Consolidation costs, 10–12 relational division, 220 Contingency GRAP, 378–381 repeated relational division, 220 correctness of, 383–384 sort-hash collection-intersect join algorithm, read transaction operation for, 379 245–246 write transaction operation for, 379–381 sort-merge nested-loop collection-intersect Continuous range search query, 53 join algorithm, 244–245 Correcting, 276 subcollection join algorithms, 246–252 Correction, dynamic cluster query optimization, types, 222–225 276–280 array, 222 Adaptive Plan Correction (APC), 279–280 bag, 222 correcting, 276 collection-equi join queries, 222–223 deferring, 276 collection–intersect join queries, 223–224 discarding, 276 list, 222 Optimistic Plan Correction (OPC), 278 set, 222 Pessimistic Plan Correction (PPC), 279 subcollection join queries, 224–225 triggering, 276 universal quantification and collection join, Correctness of GCC protocol, 336–338 220–221 Cost models, 33–34 Communication, 11–12 disjoint partitioning, 129–130 cost, 38–39 divide and broadcast, 128–129 parallel merge-all sort, 98–99 for the early GroupBy with partitioning parallel partitioned sort, 104 scheme, 156–158 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 103 for phase one (grouping phase), 156
  12. INDEX 543 for phase three (GroupBy-JoinPhase), Count distribution-based parallelism 157–158 for association rule mining, 448–449 for phase two (distribution phase), 157 Cube queries, parallelization of, 412–417 scan cost, 156 basic CUBE queries, analysis, 413–416 for the early GroupBy with replication partial CUBE queries, analysis of, 416–417 scheme, 158–159 without using CUBE, 417 for phase one (grouping phase), 158 Cumulative distribution function (CUME DIST) for phase three (grouping/joining phase), queries, parallelization, 419–420 159 for phase two (replication phase), 158–159 Data computation cost, 46 for GroupBy-After-Join query processing, Data distribution-based parallelism 159–163 for association rule mining, 450 for join partitioning scheme, 159–161 Data mining, parallel data mining GroupBy partitioning scheme, 161–163 association rules, 427–463 phase four (global aggregation phase), 161 class description, 432 phase one (data partitioning and components, 430 broadcasting phase), 162 data mining tasks, 431–433 phase one (data partitioning phase), descriptive data mining, 431 159–160 predictive data mining, 431 phase three (redistribution phase), 161 data parallelism, 437–438 phase two (join and aggregation phase), data warehouse, 429 162–163 data-intensive applications, 428 phase two (join and local aggregation definition, 430 phase), 160 from databases to data warehousing to data for GroupBy-Before-Join query processing, mining, 428–431 153–159 parallel association rules, 440–450 for the early distribution scheme, 153–156 parallel sequential patterns, 450–461 parallelism, 436–440 local join, 130 querying vs. mining, 433–436 for phase one (distribution phase), 153–154 read-only queries, 429 data transfer cost, 154 result parallelism, 438–440 destination cost, 154 sequential patterns, 427–463 scan cost, 153 write queries, 429 select cost, 153 Data parallelism, 437–438 for phase two (GroupBy-Join Phase), for a decision tree, 489–492 154–156 parallel k-means, 472–475 aggregation and join costs, 154 Data parameters, 34–35 disk cost of storing final result, 155 Data partitioning method, 226 generating result records cost, 155 Data scale up, 8, 9–10 reading/writing of overflow buckets cost, Data skew, 39 155 Data transfer cost receiving records cost, 154 disjoint partitioning, 129 notations, parallel GroupBy-Join, 151–153 divide and broadcast, 128 join selectivity, 153 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 projectivity, 152 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 selectivity, 152 Data virtualization approach parallel binary-merge sort, 100–101 in grid environment, 28 parallel groupby, 104–108 Databases, parallel, 4–5, 43–46 parallel merge-all sort, 98–100 data computation, 45–46 parallel partitioned sort, 103–104 data distribution, 45–46 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, disk operations, 44 101–102 main memory operations, 45 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 102–103 Decision tree, 466 serial external merge-sort, 96–97 classification, 477–480
  13. 544 INDEX Deferring, 276 distribution phase, 143 Descriptive data mining, 431 GroupBy-Join phase, 143–144 Destination cost, 46 Early GroupBy with partitioning scheme, Direct Attached Storage (DAS), 27 145–147 Discarding, 276 distribution phase, 145 Discrete range search query, 53 final grouping and join phase, 145 Disjoint data partitioning, 226–227 local grouping phase, 145, 147 Disjoint partitioning join, 124–127 Early-abort Grid-ACP, 346–348 cost model, 129–130 Equi-join query, 112 Disk cost Euclidean distance, 468 disjoint partitioning, 130 Euler’s constant, 40 divide and broadcast, 129 Exact match search, 52 local join, 131 Execution Among Subqueries, 261–263 Disk writing cost, 71–72 Exhaustive search, 69 Distributed databases, 293–297 External sorting architectural model, 294 cost models for, 96–104 autonomy, 294 parallel, 83–91 distribution, 294 binary-merge sort, 85–86 merge-all sort, 83–84 eterogeneity, 294 partitioned sort, 90–91 distributed DBMS in grids, 296–297 redistribution binary-merge sort, 86–88 partitioning, 296 redistribution merge-all sort, 88–89 replication, 296 serial, 80–83 transactions, 291–320, See also Transactions working model, 294–296 Divide and broadcast join, 121–124 Failure recovery algorithm for Grid-ACP, cost model, 128–129 353–359 originator recovery procedure, 357–359 Divide and broadcast, and, 234–236 participant recovery procedure, 354–357 Divide and partial broadcast, 236–244 File sorting, 77 one-way, 242–243 Final merging costs, 98 two-way, 238–244 Find node algorithm, 186–187 Double sort-merge collection-equi join Finding destination cost algorithm, 227–228 disjoint partitioning, 129 Duplicate removal, 78 Flat-tree parallelization, 258 Durability property, 302–303, See also Grid Frequent itemset generation, 444–445 transaction atomicity and durability Fully replicated indexing (FRI) structure, 168, for centralized and homogeneous DBMSs, 178–180 304–305 FRI-1, 178–179 for heterogeneous distributed DBMSs, FRI-3, 180–181 306–307 maintaining, 188 Dynamic cluster query optimization, 275–284 correction, 276–280, See also Correction Gain criterion, 482 load information exchange, 275 Generating result cost migration, 280–281 local join, 131 partition, 281–284 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 query plan correction, 275 parallel merge-all sort, 98–99 semijoin-based query optimization, 284 parallel partitioned sort, 104 static query plan formulation, 275 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 subquery migration, 275 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 103 subquery partition, 275 serial external merge-sort, 97 Dynamic Query Processing, 271–272 Global subtransaction ready log, 352 Global transaction active log, 352 Early distribution scheme, GroupBy-Before-Join Global transaction monitor (GTM), 294 query processing, 143–144 Global transaction termination log, 353
  14. INDEX 545 Grace hash join, 117 GroupBy-Join queries, 141–166 Grid atomic commit protocol (Grid-ACP), cost model notations, 151–153, See also Cost 343–351, 387–398, See also Modified model Grid-ACP cost models for parallel, 104–108 algorithm, 344–346 early GroupBy with partitioning scheme, originator’s, 345, 347 145–146 participant’s, 345–346 early GroupBy with partitioning scheme, correctness of recovery algorithm, 361–365 146–147 transaction submission procedure, 362–363 GroupBy After Join query, 142–143 correctness of, 350–351 GroupBy Before Join query, 142 early-abort grid-ACP, 346–348 GroupBy partitioning scheme, 150–151 failure recovery algorithm for, 353–359 aggregate operations, 151 handling failure of sites with, 351–365 consolidation, 151 logs required at originator sites, 352–353 data partitioning, 150–151 logs required at participant site, 353 join operations, 151 storing log files at originator and GroupBy-After-Join query processing participating sites, 351–352 parallel algorithms for, 148–151 in replicated data, 387–398 GroupBy-Before-Join query processing, 143 message complexity analysis, 349–350 early distribution scheme, 143 recovery protocols, comparison, 359–361 parallel algorithms for, 143–147 state diagram of, 343–344 parallel algorithms for, 92–96 compensate states, 343 redistribution method, 94–96 pre-abort state, 343 traditional methods, 92–93 sleep state, 343 two-phase method, 93–94 time complexity analysis, 349 Grid concurrency control (GCC) protocol, Hashing collections/multivalues, 232–233 321–340 hash collection-equi join algorithm, 232–233 basic functions required, 324–325 hash collection-intersect join algorithm, 246 active trans(DB), 324 hash subcollection join algorithm, 251–252 append TS(STi j ), 325 hash table, 36 cardinality(Any set), 325 hash-based join, 117–120 DB accessed(Ti ), 324 partitioning, 57–58, 126–127 split trans(Ti ), 324 Heterogeneity, 294 correctness of, 336–338 Heterogeneous distributed DBMSs features of, 338–339 atomic commit protocols, 313–314 serializability theory, 325–329 compensate, 314 submission phase, 329–330 redo, 314 termination phase, 331–333 retry, 314 traditional versus, 334–336 transactions management in, 305–307 Grid Data Distribution (GDD), 27 atomicity, 306 Grid databases, 4–5 consistency, 306–307 challenges, 292–293 durability, 307 definition, 3 isolation, 307 transactions, 291–320, See also Transactions Hierarchical clustering, 468 Grid replica access protocol (GRAP), 371–378 Hierarchical merging method, 93 correctness of, 377–378 High-level replica management architecture, read transaction operation for, 371–372 368–369 write transaction operation for, 372–375 Histogram queries, parallelization, 420–422 if the participant decides to commit, 373 Homogeneous DBMSs if the participant decides to abort, 373 atomic commit protocols, 310–313 Grid transaction atomicity and durability, Three-phase commit (3PC), 312–313 341–366 Two-Phase Commit (2PC), 311–312 motivation, 342–343 transactions management in, 303–305 Grid-ACP, See Grid atomic commit protocol atomicity, 304
  15. 546 INDEX Homogeneous DBMSs (Continued) Itemset, 441 consistency, 304 anti-monotonicity, 442 isolation, 304–305 association rules, 441–442 Horizontal data partitioning, 55 candidate itemset, 441 Hybrid-range partitioning strategy (HRPS), frequent itemset, 441 60–65 itemset mining, 441 advantages, 63–65 Hypercube interconnection network, 25–26 Join algorithms for the collection-intersect join, 244–245 I/O bottleneck, 4 Join costs Independent parallelism, 15, 18 local join, 131 Indexing, parallel, 167–218 Join partitioning scheme comparative analysis, 207–215, See also for GroupBy-After-Join query processing, Comparative analysis 148–150 index join algorithms, 200–207 consolidation, 150 one-index join query, 200–203 data partitioning, 148 two-index join query, 200, 203–207 global aggregation, 149 maintenance, 180–188 join operation, 149 algorithms, 185–188 local aggregation, 149 complexity degree of, 188 redistribution, 149 fully replicated index, 188 Join selectivity notation, parallel GroupBy-Join, nonreplicated index, 182 153 partially replicated index, 182–188 Join, parallel, 112–134 restructuring algorithms, 187 cost models, 128–131 restructuring step, 183 join algorithms, 120–127 steps for, 180–188 divide and broadcast-based, 121–124 one-index method, 199–200 disjoint partitioning join, 124–127 initialization module, 200 join operations, 103 one-index access module, 200 optimization, 132–134 search queries parallel processing using, load balancing, 133–134 192–200 main memory, 132–133 storage analysis, 188–192 k-Means clustering, parallel, 81–82, 471–477 structures, 168–180 algorithm, 468–471 fully replicated index (FRI), 168, 178–180 data parallelism parallel k-means, 472–475 nonreplicated index (NRI), 168, 169–171 partially replicated index (PRI), 168, Leaf nodes, 189–190 171–178 Left-deep tree parallelization, 258 Interconnection networks, 24–26 Linear scale up, 8 bus, 24 Linear search, 69 hypercube, 25–26 Linear speed up objective, parallel query mesh, 24–25 processing, 7 Interference, 11–12 Literals, 441 Interoperation parallelism, 12, 15–18 Load cost independent parallelism, 15, 18 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 pipeline parallelism, 15–18 parallel merge-all sort, 99 Interquery parallelism, 12, 13–14 parallel partitioned sort, 104 Intertree node parallelism, 492 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 Intraoperation parallelism, 12, 15, 16 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 103 Intraquery parallelism, 12, 14–15 serial external merge-sort, 97 Isolation property, 302–303 Load imbalance, 133–134 for centralized and homogeneous DBMSs, Load information exchange, 273–275 304–305 high load processing node, 273 for heterogeneous distributed DBMSs, low load processing node, 273 306–307 medium load processing node, 273
  16. INDEX 547 Load skew in single-table queries, 260 initialization module, 198 Local database management system (LDBMS), intersection module, 198 294 record loading module, 198 Local join, 131 Multiple ROLLUP queries, 409–411 Local merge-sort costs, 98 Local searching method, 73 Nested-loop join, 114–115 Locking-based algorithms, 309 Network partitioning, 315–316 Node architectures, 23 MAGIC (Multiattribute Grid Declustering), Non-disjoint data partitioning, 234–244 65–67 divide and broadcast, and, 234–236 Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) machines, divide and partial broadcast, 236–244 22 simple replication, 234 Merge-all sort, 83–84 Nonleaf nodes, 189–190 cost model, 98–100 Nonreplicated Indexing (NRI) Structures, 168, Merging cost 169–171 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 maintaining, 182 parallel merge-all sort, 98–99 NRI-1, 170 parallel partitioned sort, 104 NRI-2, 171–172 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 NRI-3, 171, 173 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 103 Nonskewed Subqueries, 264–265 serial external merge-sort, 97 NTILE queries, parallelization, 420–422 Mesh interconnection network, 24–25 Message complexity analysis, Grid-ACP, Obstacles objective, parallel query processing, 349–350 10–12 Migration, dynamic cluster query optimization, consolidation costs, 10–12 280–281 start up costs, 10–12 subquery migration, 280 One-index join query, 192–195, 200–203 Mixed parallelism, 18–19 Case 1 (NRI-1 and NRI-3), 201 Modeling skew, 40 Case 2 (NRI-2), 201 Modified Grid-ACP, 390–395 Case 3 (PRI), 201 algorithm, 390–393 Case 4 (FRI), 201–203 correctness of, 393–395 Online analytic processing (OLAP) and business ACP properties, 393–394 intelligence, 9, 401–426 for originator site, 392 cube queries, parallelization of, 412–417 using replication at multiple levels, 391 cume dist queries, parallelization, 419–420 Moving average queries, parallelization, histogram queries, parallelization, 420–422 422–424 moving average queries, parallelization, Multiattribute search query, 54 422–424 Multidatabase systems, 297–299 NTILE queries, parallelization, 420–422 architecture, 297 parallel multidimensional analysis, 402–405 communication autonomy, 297 parallelization without using ROLLUP, 412 design autonomy, 297 ranking queries, parallelization of, 418–419 execution autonomy, 297 rollup queries, parallelization, 405–412 in grids, 297–299 top-N queries, parallelization of, 418–419 Multi-index search query processing, 195–200 windowing queries, parallelization of, intersection method, 195 422–424 algorithm, 198 Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA), 27 Case 1 (one index is based on NRI-1, Optimistic algorithms, 309 PRI-1, or FRI-1), 196 Optimistic Plan Correction (OPC), 278 Case 2 (one index is based on NRI-3, Originator’s algorithm for Grid-ACP, 345 PRI-3, or FRI-3), 197 Case 3 (one index is based on NRI-2 or Page, 34 PRI-2), 197 Parallel association rules, 440–450, See also individual index access module, 198 Association rule mining
  17. 548 INDEX Parallel universal qualification, See Collection cluster query processing model, 270–275 join queries degree of parallelization, 258 Parallelism bushy-tree parallelization, 258 forms of, 12–19 flat-tree parallelization, 258 independent parallelism, 15 left-deep tree parallelization, 258 interoperation parallelism, 12, 15–18 right-deep tree parallelization, 258 interquery parallelism, 12, 13–14 dynamic cluster query optimization, 275–284, intraoperation parallelism, 12, 15, 16 See also individual entry intraquery parallelism, 12, 14–15 query execution plan, 257–259 mixed parallelism, 18–19 scheduling rules, 269–270 pipeline parallelism, 15–18 serial vs. parallel execution scheduling, Partial CUBE queries, analysis of, 416–417 264–269 Partial ROLLUP queries, 411–412 subqueries execution scheduling strategies, Partially Replicated Indexing (PRI) Structures, 259–263 168, 171–178 Querying vs. Mining, 433–436 index entry deletion, 185 supervised learning, 436 index entry insertion in, 184 unsupervised learning, 433–435 multiple node pointers model for, 174 Quorum-based protocols, 317–318 PRI-1, 172, 174 PRI-2, 176–177 Random-unequal data partitioning, 59 maintaining, 182–188 Range partitioning, 58–59, 124–126 PRI-3, 177–178 Range search query, 53 replication in, 177 Participant’s algorithm for Grid-ACP, 346 Ranking queries, parallelization of, 418–419 Partition/Partitioning, 296 Read transaction operation for GRAP, 371–372 dynamic cluster query optimization, 281–284 Read-one-write-all (ROWA) approach, 316 hash join, 283 Real Application Cluster (RAC), 28 simple join, 283 Receiving cost partitional clustering, 468 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 partitioned tree construction, 493 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 tuning, 263 Receiving records cost, 107 Pessimistic algorithms, 309 disjoint partitioning, 130 Pessimistic Plan Correction (PPC), 279 divide and broadcast, 129 Pipeline merging costs, 102 Record, 34 Pipeline parallelism, 15–18 Recovery algorithm for Grid-ACP, correctness drawbacks, 17–18 of, 361–365 Predictive data mining, 431–432 Recovery protocols of Grid-ACP, comparison, Probing, 119 359–361 Processing skew, 40 Redistribution binary-merge sort, 86–88 Projectivity notation, parallel GroupBy-Join, 152 cost model, 101–102 Projectivity ratio, 37 Redistribution merge-all sort, 88–90 cost model, 102–103 Query processing, parallel, 5–6 Redistribution method, 94–96 motivations, 5–6 cost model, 107–108 objectives, 7–12 Redo approach, 314 communication, 11–12 Replica management in grids, 367–386, See also interference, 11–12 Grid replica access protocol (GRAP) parallel obstacles, 10–12 comparison among protocols, 381–383 scale up, 8–10 asynchronous, 381 skew, 12 synchronous, 381 speed up, 7–8 handling multiple partitioning, 378–384 parameters, 37 contingency GRAP, 378–381 results generation cost, 45 motivation, 367–368 Query scheduling and optimization, 256–287 replica architecture, 368–370
  18. INDEX 549 high-level replica management architecture, search queries, 51–54 368–369 exact match search, 52 Replica synchronization protocols, 314–318 multiattribute search query, 54 network partitioning, 315–316 range search query, 53 primary copy, 317 Search queries parallel processing using index, quorum-based protocols, 317–318 192–200, See also One-index join query; read-one-write-all (ROWA) approach, 316 Two-index join query ROWA-Available (ROWA-A), 316–317 multi-index, 195–200 Replicated data, grid atomic commitment in, intersection method, 195 387–398 one-index, 192–195 transaction properties, 395–397 algorithm for, 195 Replication, 296 index tree traversal, 192–194 Result generation cost, 70, 72 parallel exact-match search queries, Result parallelism, 438–440 192–194 for the decision tree, 492–495 parallel range selection query, 194–195 parallel k-means, 475–477 processor involvement, 192–193 Retry approach, 314 record loading, 192, 194 Right-deep tree parallelization, 258 Select cost, 45, 70, 72 Rollup queries, parallelization, 405–412 disjoint partitioning, 129 multiple ROLLUP queries, 409–411 divide and broadcast, 128 parallelization without using ROLLUP, 412 local join, 130 partial ROLLUP queries, 411–412 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 single ROLLUP queries, 405–409 parallel merge-all sort, 98–99 Round-robin data partitioning, 56 parallel partitioned sort, 104 ROWA-Available (ROWA-A), 316–317 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 103 Save cost serial external merge-sort, 97 parallel binary-merge sort, 100 Selection, 51 parallel merge-all sort, 98–99 Selectivity notation, parallel GroupBy-Join, 152 parallel partitioned sort, 104 Selectivity ratio, 37 parallel redistribution binary-merge sort, 102 Semantic atomicity, 343 parallel redistribution merge-all sort, 103 Sequential patterns serial external merge-sort, 97 data mining, 427–463 Scalar aggregate, 79 concepts, 452–456 Scale up objective, parallel query processing, count distribution, 459 8–10 calculation, 8 data distribution, 459–461 data scale up, 8, 9–10 joining phase, 457 linear scale up, 8 pruning phase, 458–459 transaction scale up, 8, 9 Serial execution among subqueries, 259–261 Scanning cost, 44, 70, 72 Serial external sorting, 80–83 disjoint partitioning, 129 Serial join algorithms, 114–120 divide and broadcast, 128 algorithm comparison, 120 local join, 130 hash-based, 117–120 Scheduling rules, 269–270 nested-loop, 114–115 Search, parallel, 51–74 sort-merge, 116–117 algorithm, 69–74 Serial search algorithms, 69–72 comparison, 74 binary search, 71–72 local searching method, 73–74 linear search, 69–71 processor activation or involvement, 73 Serial subqueries execution scheduling, 490 serial search algorithms, 69–72 Serial vs. parallel execution scheduling, data partitioning, 54–69 264–269 basic, 55–60 nonskewed subqueries, 264–265, 267–269 complex, 60–69 skewed subqueries, 265–269
  19. 550 INDEX Serializability theory, grid, 325–329 data partitioning, 247–248 global-global conflict, 329 hash subcollection join algorithm, 251–252 global-local conflict, 329 sort-hash sub-collection join algorithm, local-local conflict, 329 249–251 Set/bag hashing, 229 sort-merge nested-loop subcollection join Shared-disk architectures, 20–21 algorithm, 248–249 Shared-everything architecture, 54 Sublinear speed up objective, parallel query Shared-memory architectures, 20–21 processing, 7 Shared-nothing architecture, 22, 54 Submission phase of GCC protocol, 329–330 Similarity measures, 467–468 Subqueries execution scheduling strategies, Simple replication, 234 259–263 Single ROLLUP queries, 405–409 parallel execution among subqueries, Skew/Skewness, 12, 39–40, 260 261–263 skewed subqueries, 265–267 dynamic resource division, 262 Sort, parallel, 77–91 static resource division, 262–263 binary-merge sort, 85–86 serial execution among subqueries, 259–261 merge-all sort, 83–84 Superlinear speed up objective, parallel query partitioned sort, 90–91 processing, 7 redistribution binary-merge sort, 86–88 Symmetric multi processor (SMP) machines, 21 redistribution merge-all sort, 88–89 cluster of, 23 sort-hash collection-equi join algorithm, Synchronous protocols, GRAP, 381 228–231 Synchronous tree construction approach, 491 sort-hash collection-intersect join algorithm, Systems parameters, 36 245–246 sort-hash sub-collection join algorithm, Table, 34–35 249–251 Task stealing, 263 Sorting cost Termination phase of GCC protocol, 331–333 parallel merge-all sort, 98 Testing data set, 466 parallel partitioned sort, 104 Three-phase commit (3PC), 312–313 serial external merge-sort, 97 Time complexity analysis, Grid-ACP, 349 Sort-merge nested-loop subcollection join Time equalization method, 263 algorithm, 116–117, 248–249 Time unit costs, 37–38 Speed up objective, parallel query processing, Time-series analysis, parallel data mining, 433 7–8 Timestamp ordering algorithms, 310 linear speed up, 7 Top-N queries, parallelization of, 418–419 sublinear speed up, 7 Training data set, 466 superlinear speed up, 7 Transactions in distributed and grid databases, Start up costs, 10–12 291–320 State diagram of Grid-ACP, 343–344 acid properties of, 301–303 compensate states, 343 atomic commit protocols, 310–314 pre-abort state, 343 basic definitions on transaction management, sleep state, 343 299–301 Storage analysis, index, 188–192 concurrency control protocols, 309–310 parallel processors, storage cost models for, management, 303–307 191–192 centralized DBMSs, 303–305 FRI Storage, 192 heterogeneous distributed DBMSs, NRI Storage, 191 305–307 PRI Storage, 191 homogeneous DBMSs, 303–305 uniprocessors, storage cost models for, replica synchronization protocols, 314–318 189–191 Transactions/Transaction properties index storage, 189–191 in replicated environment, 395–397 record storage, 189 atomicity, 395 Subcollection join algorithms, 224–225, consistency and isolation, 396 246–252 durability, 396

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