HTML & CSS: The Complete Reference- P16

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HTML & CSS: The Complete Reference- P16

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  2. APPENDIX A Character Entities K eyboard characters such as < and > have special meanings to (X)HTML because they are part of HTML tags and must be encoded. Other characters, such as certain foreign language accent characters and special symbols, can be difficult to specify, depending on the keyboard being used. To address escaping of special-purpose characters and inserting a wide range of characters and symbols, character entities should be employed. The format of character entities is in general &code; where code may be a • A decimal form like &#203; • A hex form like &#x00CB; or stripped of leading zeros, simply &xCB; • A named value if available, such as &Euml; NOTE When using a hex form, either a lowercase or uppercase x may be used as well as upper- and lowercase values for digits A–F, so &#XCB; and &#xCB; and &#xCb; and so on are all equivalent. Case sensitivity is not, however, guaranteed for named entities and may result in errors or wrong characters. Good style would suggest lowercase for the hex symbol and uppercase for the digits. As an example, Numeric entity decimal: &#163; Numeric entity hex: &#x00A3; Named entity: &pound; 727
  3. 728 Part III: Appendixes would look like this: Encoding Quirks and Considerations Encoding characters is quite important if you want to validate your markup. For example, consider when you have nontrivial query strings in (X)HTML links like so: Does this link validate? The markup will not validate. For this line to validate, you must encode the special characters in the link like so: Does this link validate? Do not, however, take this as advice to change ampersands in typed URLs everywhere you encounter them, such as within e-mails or the browser’s location bar. Typically, a browser will exchange an entity for its correct value, but this change may not take place in other environments. Commonly, you will also have trouble when using characters that are part of (X)HTML itself, particularly the less than () symbols and, of course, the ampersand that starts entities. As an example, consider this contrived example with a mathematical expression: A silly math statement ahead xz is dangerous to validation.
  4. Appendix A: Character Entities 729 For the greatest safety, the markup should have had the special characters encoded like so: A silly math statement ahead x&lt;y&gt;z is not dangerous to validation. We note that this example is fairly contrived and often just an extra space will allow the validator (and browser) to tokenize the text correctly. For example, A silly math statement ahead x < y > z is dangerous to validation? will likely validate. The loose enforcement of special character handling is both a blessing and a curse. It leads to sloppy usage and surprising bugs. Sloppy syntax is troubling because interpretation may vary browser to browser. Consider the point of case sensitivity of named entities in browsers. Named entities are supposed to be case sensitive. For example, &agrave; and &Agrave; are two different characters. PART III Now given this fact, what should a browser do when faced with &POUND; and &pound; Apparently it treats the first as text and the second as an entity. But does that hold for all characters? Apparently not—some entities like &copy; are generally case insensitive, while others like &trade; may vary by browser, and others like &yen; will always be case sensitive. Initial drafts of HTML5 attempted to formalize what named entities should be case insensitive; these drafts focused on the commonly used and supported entities. The current list of what should be case-insensitive named entities is shown in Table A-1. Best practice, however, would be not to rely on case insensitivity of named entities, it is still inconsistent. In general, lax syntax enforcement and permissive interpretation of entities in browsers just leads to all sorts of small quirks. Consider &QUOTE; and &quote;
  5. 730 Part III: Appendixes Named Numbered Intended Entity HTML5 Alias Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &amp; &AMP; &#38; &#x0026; & Ampersand &copy; &COPY; &#169; &#x00A9; © Copyright &gt; &GT; &#62; &#x003E; > Greater than &lt; &LT; &#60; &#x003C; < Less than &quot; &QUOT; &#34; &#x0022; “ Double quotes &reg; &REG; &#174; &#x00AE; ® Registration mark &trade; &TRADE; &#8482; &#x2122; ™ Trademark symbol TABLE A-1 Entities Considered Case Insensitive in HTML5 Under Internet Explorer, the rendering engine even in a strict mode will “fix” this problem and effectively convert this into &QUOT;E; and &quot;e; while other browsers will correctly leave this mistake alone. While it turns out that SGML (and thus traditional HTML) does allow the final semicolon to be left off in an entity in some cases, the preceding example clearly indicates it does not allow for that latitude in the middle of words. Just as when dealing with markup and CSS, it is best to get syntax right rather than rely on some variable fix-up applied by a browser’s rendering engine. There will be instances when you may get the syntax correct but the browser may not be able to render the characters meaningfully. The reasons for nonsupport can vary and may be because a particular font is missing or the operating environment or browser is unable to render the character. Generally, browsers will present these failures as boxes or diamonds, like so:
  6. Appendix A: Character Entities 731 Traditional HTML Entities Table A-2 lists the standard entities found in even the oldest versions of HTML and their intended renderings. This is the base set of characters supported by ASCII character sets, and future extensions for full ISO-8859-1 follow. In traditional HTML pages, authors may use this encoding, which may be specified in the HTTP header: Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1 Or more commonly, it will appear in a tag like so: However, Web page authors are always encouraged to use the UTF-8 encoding set either by header, Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 or by tag, PART III unless they have some overriding reason not to. Recognizing the move toward Unicode, we provide those values as well in all tables. However, given the vast range of the possible characters we only present those Unicode entities that are explicitly named in the (X)HTML specifications circa late 2009. For more information on Unicode, see the section entitled “Embracing Unicode” later in the appendix. C AUTION Entity values from 127 to 159 are not assigned. Web page authors are advised not to use them. Interestingly, some of these renderings are common, though they may work for only certain operating system font combinations. Table A-2 puts these values in italics to emphasize they should be avoided. NOTE The trademark character (™) may have concerns across browsers and operating system combinations, particularly archaic ones. Web page authors concerned with perfect backward compatibility might want to consider using a workaround such as TM for this symbol.
  7. 732 Part III: Appendixes Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &#32; &#x0020; Space &#33; &#x0021; ! Exclamation point &quot; &#34; &#x0022; “ Double quotes &#35; &#x0023; # Number symbol &#36; &#x0024; $ Dollar symbol &#37; &#x0025; % Percent symbol &amp; &#38; &#x0026; & Ampersand &#39; &#x0027; ‘ Single quote &#40; &#x0028; ( Opening parenthesis &#41; &#x0029; ) Closing parenthesis &#42; &#x002A; * Asterisk &#43; &#x002B; + Plus sign &#44; &#x002C; , Comma &#45; &#x002D; - Minus sign (hyphen) &#46; &#x002E; . Period &#47; &#x002F; / Slash/virgule/bar &#48; &#x0030; 0 Zero &#49; &#x0031; 1 One &#50; &#x0032; 2 Two &#51; &#x0033; 3 Three &#52; &#x0034; 4 Four &#53; &#x0035; 5 Five &#54; &#x0036; 6 Six &#55; &#x0037; 7 Seven &#56; &#x0038; 8 Eight &#57; &#x0039; 9 Nine &#58; &#x003A; : Colon &#59; &#x003B; ; Semicolon &lt; &#60; &#x003C; < Less-than symbol &#61; &#x003D; = Equal sign TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities
  8. Appendix A: Character Entities 733 Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &gt; &#62; &#x003E; > Greater-than symbol &#63; &#x003F; ? Question mark &#64; &#x0040; @ At symbol &#65; &#x0041; A Capital letter a &#66; &#x0042; B Capital letter b &#67; &#x0043; C Capital letter c &#68; &#x0044; D Capital letter d &#69; &#x0045; E Capital letter e &#70; &#x0046; F Capital letter f &#71; &#x0047; G Capital letter g &#72; &#x0048; H Capital letter h &#73; &#x0049; I Capital letter i PART III &#74; &#x004A; J Capital letter j &#75; &#x004B; K Capital letter k &#76; &#x004C; L Capital letter l &#77; &#x004D; M Capital letter m &#78; &#x004E; N Capital letter n &#79; &#x004F; O Capital letter o &#80; &#x0050; P Capital letter p &#81; &#x0051; Q Capital letter q &#82; &#x0052; R Capital letter r &#83; &#x0053; S Capital letter s &#84; &#x0054; T Capital letter t &#85; &#x0055; U Capital letter u &#86; &#x0056; V Capital letter v &#87; &#x0057; W Capital letter w &#88; &#x0058; X Capital letter x &#89; &#x0059; Y Capital letter y &#90; &#x005A; Z Capital letter z &#91; &#x005B; [ Opening bracket &#92; &#x005C; \ Backslash TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  9. 734 Part III: Appendixes Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &#93; &#x005D; ] Closing bracket &#94; &#x005E; ^ Caret &#95; &#x005F; _ Underscore &#96; &#x0060; ` Grave accent, no letter &#97; &#x0061; a Lowercase letter a &#98; &#x0062; b Lowercase letter b &#99; &#x0063; c Lowercase letter c &#100; &#x0064; d Lowercase letter d &#101; &#x0065; e Lowercase letter e &#102; &#x0066; f Lowercase letter f &#103; &#x0067; g Lowercase letter g &#104; &#x0068; h Lowercase letter h &#105; &#x0069; i Lowercase letter i &#106; &#x006A; j Lowercase letter j &#107; &#x006B; k Lowercase letter k &#108; &#x006C; l Lowercase letter l &#109; &#x006D; m Lowercase letter m &#110; &#x006E; n Lowercase letter n &#111; &#x006F; o Lowercase letter o &#112; &#x0070; p Lowercase letter p &#113; &#x0071; q Lowercase letter q &#114; &#x0072; r Lowercase letter r &#115; &#x0073; s Lowercase letter s &#116; &#x0074; t Lowercase letter t &#117; &#x0075; u Lowercase letter u &#118; &#x0076; v Lowercase letter v &#119; &#x0077; w Lowercase letter w &#120; &#x0078; x Lowercase letter x &#121; &#x0079; y Lowercase letter y &#122; &#x007A; z Lowercase letter z &#123; &#x007B; { Opening brace TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  10. Appendix A: Character Entities 735 Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &#124; &#x007C; | Vertical bar &#125; &#x007D; } Closing brace &#126; &#x007E; ~ Equivalency symbol (tilde) &#127; &#x007F; No character &#128; &#x0080; € No character defined, typically Euro. However &euro; or &#8364; or &#x20AC; should be used instead. &#129; &#x0081; No character defined. Trademark symbol on some systems (nonstandard). Use &trade; or &#8482; instead. &#130; &#x0082; , Low-9 quote (nonstandard) &#131; &#x0083; ƒ Small “f” with hook PART III (nonstandard) &#132; &#x0084; „ Low-9 double quotes (nonstandard) &#133; &#x0085; … Ellipsis (nonstandard) &#134; &#x0086; † Dagger (nonstandard) &#135; &#x0087; ‡ Double dagger (nonstandard) &#136; &#x0088; ^ Circumflex accent, no letter (nonstandard) &#137; &#x0089; ‰ Per mille (nonstandard) &#138; &#x008A; Š Uppercase S with caron (nonstandard) &#139; &#x008B; ‹ Opening single-angle quote (nonstandard) &#140; &#x008C; Œ Uppercase “OE” ligature (nonstandard) &#141; &#x008D; Ÿ No character, though for some uppercase “Y” with umlaut (nonstandard) &#142; &#x008E; Ž Uppercase “Z” with caron &#143; &#x008F; No character &#144; &#x0090; No character TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  11. 736 Part III: Appendixes Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &#145; &#x0091; ` Opening “smart” single quote (nonstandard) &#146; &#x0092; ‘ Closing “smart” single quote (nonstandard) &#147; &#x0093; “ Opening “smart” double quote (nonstandard) &#148; &#x0094; ” Closing “smart” double quote (nonstandard) &#149; &#x0095; • Bullet (nonstandard) &#150; &#x0096; – En dash (nonstandard) &#151; &#x0097; — Em dash (nonstandard) &#152; &#x0098; ~ Tilde (nonstandard) &trade; &#153;‡ &#x0099; ™ Trademark symbol (nonstandard) Use &trade; or &#8482; instead &#154; &#x009A; Š Lowercase S with caron (nonstandard) &#155; &#x009B; › Closing single-angle quote (nonstandard) &#156; &#x009C; œ Lowercase “oe” ligature (nonstandard) &#157; &#x009D; No character &#158; &#x009E; Ž Lowercase “z” with caron. (nonstandard) &#159; &#x009F; Ÿ Uppercase “Y” with umlaut (nonstandard) &nbsp; &#160; &#x00A0; Nonbreaking space &iexcl; &#161; &#x00A1; ¡ Inverted exclamation point &cent; &#162; &#x00A2; ¢ Cent symbol &pound; &#163; &#x00A3; £ Pound sterling symbol &curren; &#164; &#x00A4; ¤ Currency symbol &yen; &#165; &#x00A5; ¥ Japanese Yen &brvbar; &#166; &#x00A6; ¦ Broken vertical bar &sect; &#167; &#x00A7; § Section symbol TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  12. Appendix A: Character Entities 737 Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &uml; &#168; &#x00A8; ¨ Umlaut, no letter &copy; &#169; &#x00A9; © Copyright symbol &ordf; &#170; &#x00AA; a Feminine ordinal indicator &laquo; &#171; &#x00AB; « Opening double-angle quote &not; &#172; &#x00AC; ¬ Logical “not” symbol &shy; &#173; &#x00AD; - Soft hyphen &reg; &#174; &#x00AE; ® Registration mark &macr; &#175; &#x00AF; – Macron &deg; &#176; &#x00B0; ° Degree symbol &plusmn; &#177; &#x00B1; ± Plus/minus symbol &sup2; &#178; &#x00B2; 2 Superscript 2 &sup3; &#179; &#x00B3; 3 Superscript 3 PART III &acute; &#180; &#x00B4; ´ Acute accent, no letter &micro; &#181; &#x00B5; µ Micron &para; &#182; &#x00B6; ¶ Paragraph symbol &middot; &#183; &#x00B7; · Middle dot &cedil; &#184; &#x00B8; ¸ Cedilla &sup1; &#185; &#x00B9; 1 Superscript 1 &ordm; &#186; &#x00BA; ° Masculine ordinal indicator &raquo; &#187; &#x00BB; » Closing double-angle quotes &frac14; &#188; &#x00BC; ¼ One-quarter fraction &frac12; &#189; &#x00BD; ½ One-half fraction &frac34; &#190; &#x00BE; ¾ Three-fourths fraction &iquest; &#191; &#x00BF; ¿ Inverted question mark &Agrave; &#192; &#x00C0; À Uppercase “A” with grave accent &Aacute; &#193; &#x00C1; Á Uppercase “A” with acute accent &Acirc; &#194; &#x00C2; Â Uppercase “A” with circumflex &Atilde; &#195; &#x00C3; Ã Uppercase “A” with tilde &Auml; &#196; &#x00C4; Ä Uppercase “A” with umlaut TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  13. 738 Part III: Appendixes Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &Aring; &#197; &#x00C5; Å Uppercase “A” with ring &AElig; &#198; &#x00C6; Æ Uppercase “AE” ligature &Ccedil; &#199; &#x00C7; Ç Uppercase “C” with cedilla &Egrave; &#200; &#x00C8; È Uppercase “E” with grave accent &Eacute; &#201; &#x00C9; É Uppercase “E” with acute accent &Ecirc; &#202; &#x00CA; Ê Uppercase “E” with circumflex &Euml; &#203; &#x00CB; Ë Uppercase “E” with umlaut &Igrave; &#204; &#x00CC; Ì Uppercase “I” with grave accent &Iacute; &#205; &#x00CD; Í Uppercase “I” with acute accent &Icirc; &#206; &#x00CE; Î Uppercase “I” with circumflex &Iuml; &#207; &#x00CF; Ï Uppercase “I” with umlaut &ETH; &#208; &#x00D0; Ð Capital “ETH” &Ntilde; &#209; &#x00D1; Ñ Uppercase “N” with tilde &Ograve; &#210; &#x00D2; Ò Uppercase “O” with grave accent &Oacute; &#211; &#x00D3; Ó Uppercase “O” with acute accent &Ocirc; &#212; &#x00D4; Ô Uppercase “O” with circumflex &Otilde; &#213; &#x00D5; Õ Uppercase “O” with tilde &Ouml; &#214; &#x00D6; Ö Uppercase “O” with umlaut &times; &#215; &#x00D7; × Multiplication symbol &Oslash; &#216; &#x00D8; Ø Uppercase “O” with slash &Ugrave; &#217; &#x00D9; Ù Uppercase “U” with grave accent &Uacute; &#218; &#x00DA; Ú Uppercase “U” with acute accent &Ucirc; &#219; &#x00DB; Û Uppercase “U” with circumflex accent TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  14. Appendix A: Character Entities 739 Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &Uuml; &#220; &#x00DC; Ü Uppercase “U” with umlaut &Yacute; &#221; &#x00DD; Ý Uppercase “Y” with acute accent &THORN; &#222; &#x00DE; þ Capital “thorn” &szlig; &#223; &#x00DF; ß “SZ” ligature &agrave; &#224; &#x00E0; à Lowercase “a” with grave accent &aacute; &#225; &#x00E1; á Lowercase “a” with acute accent &acirc; &#226; &#x00E2; â Lowercase “a” with circumflex &atilde; &#227; &#x00E3; ã Lowercase “a” with tilde &auml; &#228; &#x00E4; ä Lowercase “a” with umlaut &aring; &#229; &#x00E5; å Lowercase “a” with ring PART III &aelig; &#230; &#x00E6; æ Lowercase “ae” ligature &ccedil; &#231; &#x00E7; ç Lowercase “c” with cedilla &egrave; &#232; &#x00E8; è Lowercase “e” with grave accent &eacute; &#233; &#x00E9; é Lowercase “e” with acute accent &ecirc; &#234; &#x00EA; ê Lowercase “e” with circumflex &euml; &#235; &#x00EB; ë Lowercase “e” with umlaut &igrave; &#236; &#x00EC; ì Lowercase “i” with grave accent &iacute; &#237; &#x00ED; í Lowercase “i” with acute accent &icirc; &#238; &#x00EE; î Lowercase “i” with circumflex &iuml; &#239; &#x00EF; ï Lowercase “i” with umlaut &eth; &#240; &#x00F0; ð Lowercase “eth” &ntilde; &#241; &#x00F1; ñ Lowercase “n” with tilde &ograve; &#242; &#x00F2; ò Lowercase “o” with grave accent &oacute; &#243; &#x00F3; ó Lowercase “o” with acute accent TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued)
  15. 740 Part III: Appendixes Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Rendering Description &ocirc; &#244; &#x00F4; ô Lowercase “o” with circumflex accent &otilde; &#245; &#x00F5; õ Lowercase “o” with tilde &ouml; &#246; &#x00F6; ö Lowercase “o” with umlaut &divide; &#247; &#x00F7; ÷ Division symbol &oslash; &#248; &#x00F8; ø Lowercase “o” with slash &ugrave; &#249; &#x00F9; ù Lowercase “u” with grave accent &uacute; &#250; &#x00FA; ú Lowercase “u” with acute accent &ucirc; &#251; &#x00FB; û Lowercase “u” with circumflex &uuml; &#252; &#x00FC; ü Lowercase “u” with umlaut &yacute; &#253; &#x00FD; ý Lowercase “y” with acute accent &thorn; &#254; &#x00FE; þ Lowercase “thorn” &yuml; &#255; &#x00FF; ÿ Lowercase “y” with umlaut TABLE A-2 Traditional HTML Character Entities (continued) HTML 4.x and XHTML 1.x Character Entities The HTML 4.0 specification introduced a wide array of new character entities, including Latin characters, the Greek alphabet, special spacing characters, arrows, technical symbols, and various shapes. XHTML supports the same entities. Some of these entities are not supported by older browsers such as Netscape 4.x. Most modern browsers should support all these characters. However, up until Internet Explorer 8 some of these extended entities were not supported in the browser under the default font. As an example, see this capture of the difference between Internet Explorer 7 and Internet Explorer 8 when rendering a few arrow entities. Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer 8
  16. Appendix A: Character Entities 741 To address this issue, some of the tables that follow include special notes indicating the lack of support before the introduction of IE8. For ease of consumption, the entities are grouped much in the way they are found in the HTML 4 specification. Latin Extended-A Numbered Unicode Intended Named Entity Entity Entity Rendering Description &Oelig; &#338; &#x0152; Œ Uppercase ligature “OE” &oelig; &#339; &#x0153; œ Lowercase ligature “oe” &Scaron; &#352; &#x0160; Š Uppercase “S” with caron &scaron; &#353; &#x0161; š Lowercase “s” with caron &Yuml; &#376; &#x0178; Ÿ Uppercase “Y” with umlaut PART III Latin Extended-B Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Intended Rendering Description &fnof; &#402; &#x0192; ƒ Latin small “f” with hook Spacing Modifier Letters Named Entity Numbered Entity Unicode Entity Intended Rendering Description &circ; &#710; &#x02C6; ˆ Circumflex accent &tilde; &#732; &#x02DC; ˜ Small tilde General Punctuation Numbered Unicode Intended Named Entity Entity Entity Rendering Description Notes &ensp; &#8194; &#x2002; En space &emsp; &#8195; &#x2003; Em space &thinsp; &#8201; &#x2009; Thin space &zwnj; &#8204; &#x200C; | Zero-width Visual support is nonjoiner spotty &zwj; &#8205; &#x200D; ×| Zero-width joiner Visual support is spotty
  17. 742 Part III: Appendixes General Punctuation (continued) Numbered Unicode Intended Named Entity Entity Entity Rendering Description Notes &lrm; &#8206; &#x200E; Left-to-right mark Non-visible &rlm; &#8207; &#x200F; Right-to-left mark Non-visible &ndash; &#8211; &#x2013; – En dash &mdash; &#8212; &#x2014; — Em dash &lsquo; &#8216; &#x2018; ‘ Left single quotation mark &rsquo; &#8217; &#x2019; ’ Right single quotation mark &sbquo; &#8218; &#x201A; , Single low-9 quotation mark &ldquo; &#8220; &#x201C; “ Left double quotation mark &rdquo; &#8221; &#x201D; ” Right double quotation mark &bdquo; &#8222; &#x201E; “ Double low-9 quotation mark &dagger; &#8224; &#x2020; † Dagger &Dagger; &#8225; &#x2021; ‡ Double dagger &bull; &#8226; &#x2022; • Bullet &hellip; &#8230; &#x2026; … Horizontal ellipsis &permil; &#8240; &#x2030; ‰ Per mille sign &prime; &#8242; &#x2032; ' Prime, minutes, or feet &Prime; &#8243; &#x2033; " Double prime, seconds, or inches &lsaquo; &#8249; &#x2039; < Single left- pointing angle quotation mark &rsaquo; &#8250; &#x203A; > Single right- pointing angle quotation mark &oline; &#8254; &#x203E; ¯ Overline &frasl; &#8260; &#x2044; / Fraction slash &euro; &#8364; &#x20AC; € Euro symbol
  18. Appendix A: Character Entities 743 Greek Unicode Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Entity Rendering Description &Alpha; &#913; &#x0391; Α Greek capital letter alpha &Beta; &#914; &#x0392; Β Greek capital letter beta &Gamma; &#915; &#x0393; Γ Greek capital letter gamma &Delta; &#916; &#x0394; ∆ Greek capital letter delta &Epsilon; &#917; &#x0395; Ε Greek capital letter epsilon &Zeta; &#918; &#x0396; Ζ Greek capital letter zeta &Eta; &#919; &#x0397; Η Greek capital letter eta &Theta; &#920; &#x0398; Θ Greek capital letter theta &Iota; &#921; &#x0399; Ι Greek capital letter iota &Kappa; &#922; &#x039A; Κ Greek capital letter kappa &Lambda; &#923; &#x039B; Λ Greek capital letter lambda PART III &Mu; &#924; &#x039C; Μ Greek capital letter mu &Nu; &#925; &#x039D; Ν Greek capital letter nu &Xi; &#926; &#x039E; Ξ Greek capital letter xi &Omicron; &#927; &#x039F; Ο Greek capital letter omicron &Pi; &#928; &#x03A0; Π Greek capital letter pi &Rho; &#929; &#x03A1; Ρ Greek capital letter rho &Sigma; &#931; &#x03A3; Σ Greek capital letter sigma &Tau; &#932; &#x03A4; Τ Greek capital letter tau &Upsilon; &#933; &#x03A5; Υ Greek capital letter upsilon &Phi; &#934; &#x03A6; Φ Greek capital letter phi &Chi; &#935; &#x03A7; Χ Greek capital letter chi &Psi; &#936; &#x03A8; Ψ Greek capital letter psi &Omega; &#937; &#x03A9; Ω Greek capital letter omega &alpha; &#945; &#x03B1; α Greek small letter alpha &beta; &#946; &#x03B2; β Greek small letter beta &gamma; &#947; &#x03B3; γ Greek small letter gamma &delta; &#948; &#x03B4; δ Greek small letter delta &epsilon; &#949; &#x03B5; ε Greek small letter epsilon &zeta; &#950; &#x03B6; ζ Greek small letter zeta
  19. 744 Part III: Appendixes Greek (continued) Unicode Intended Named Entity Numbered Entity Entity Rendering Description &eta; &#951; &#x03B7; η Greek small letter eta &theta; &#952; &#x03B8; θ Greek small letter theta &iota; &#953; &#x03B9; ι Greek small letter iota &kappa; &#954; &#x03BA; κ Greek small letter kappa &lambda; &#955; &#x03BB; λ Greek small letter lambda &mu; &#956; &#x03BC; µ Greek small letter mu &nu; &#957; &#x03BD; ν Greek small letter nu &xi; &#958; &#x03BE; ξ Greek small letter xi &omicron; &#959; &#x03BF; ο Greek small letter omicron &pi; &#960; &#x03C0; π Greek small letter pi &rho; &#961; &#x03C1; ρ Greek small letter rho &sigmaf; &#962; &#x03C2; ς Greek small letter final sigma &sigma; &#963; &#x03C3; σ Greek small letter sigma &tau; &#964; &#x03C4; τ Greek small letter tau &upsilon; &#965; &#x03C5; υ Greek small letter upsilon &phi; &#966; &#x03C6; φ Greek small letter phi &chi; &#967; &#x03C7; χ Greek small letter chi &psi; &#968; &#x03C8; ψ Greek small letter psi &omega; &#969; &#x03C9; ω Greek small letter omega &thetasym; &#977; &#x03D1; ϑ Greek small letter theta symbol &upsih; &#978; &#x03D2; ϒ Greek upsilon with hook symbol &piv; &#982; &#x03D6; ϖ Greek pi symbol Letter-like Symbols Numbered Unicode Intended Named Entity Entity Entity Rendering Description Notes &weierp; &#8472; &#x2118; ℘ Script capital P, No support pre-IE8 power set &image; &#8465; &#x2111; ℑ Blackletter No support pre-IE8 capital I, or imaginary part symbol
  20. Appendix A: Character Entities 745 Letter-like Symbols (continued) Numbered Unicode Intended Named Entity Entity Entity Rendering Description Notes &real; &#8476; &#x211C; ℜ Blackletter No support pre-IE8 capital R, or real part symbol &trade; &#8482; &#x2122; ™ Trademark symbol &alefsym; &#8501; &#x2135; ℵ Alef symbol, or No support pre-IE8 first transfinite cardinal Arrows PART III Numbered Unicode Intended Named Entity Entity Entity Rendering Description Notes &larr; &#8592; &#x2190; ← Leftward arrow &uarr; &#8593; &#x2191; ↑ Upward arrow &rarr; &#8594; &#x2192; → Rightward arrow &darr; &#8595; &#x2193; ↓ Downward arrow &harr; &#8596; &#x2194; ↔ Left-right arrow &crarr; &#8629; &#x21B5; ↵ Downward arrow No support with corner leftward pre-IE8 &lArr; &#8656; &#x21D0; ⇐ Leftward double No support arrow pre-IE8 &uArr; &#8657; &#x21D1; ⇑ Upward double No support arrow pre-IE8 &rArr; &#8658; &#x21D2; ⇒ Rightward double No support arrow pre-IE8 &dArr; &#8659; &#x21D3; ⇓ Downward double No support arrow pre-IE8 &hArr; &#8660; &#x21D4; ⇔ Left-right double No support arrow pre-IE8
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