InDesign CS5 Bible- P6

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InDesign CS5 Bible- P6

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InDesign CS5 Bible- P6: InDesign is a powerful tool that serves as the standard program for professional layout and design. The latest version boasts a variety of updates and enhancements. Packed with real-world examples and written by industry expert Galen Gruman, this in-depth resource clearly explains how InDesign CS5 allows for better typography and transparency features, speedier performance, and more user control than any other layout program.

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  1. Chapter 7: Creating Layout Standards 3. Type the distance between grid lines in the Gridline Every field. If your basic mea- surement unit is an inch, you probably want to use the default value of 1 inch. 4. Type the number of divisions between grid lines in the Subdivisions field. If your basic measurement unit is an inch, you can specify a value of 6 to subdivide the grid into 1-pica squares. Or, if you prefer, you can type a value of 4, 8, 16, and so on to subdivide the grid into standard divisions of an inch. 5. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the document. Tip The Show/Hide Document Grid command (choose View ➪ Grids & Guides ➪ Show/Hide Document Grid or Ô+' [apostrophe] or Ctrl+' [apostrophe]) lets you display and hide the document grid. n Snapping to guides If the Snap to Guides command (choose View ➪ Grids & Guides ➪ Snap to Guides or press Shift+@cmd+; [semicolon] or Ctrl+Shift+; [semicolon]) is selected, object edges snap to guidelines and grids when you drag them in the snap zone. To specify the snap zone (the distance — in pixels — at which an object snaps to a guide), choose InDesign ➪ Preferences ➪ Guides & Pasteboard or press Ô+K on the Mac, or choose Edit ➪ Preferences ➪ Guides & Pasteboard or press Ctrl+K in Windows, and type a value in the Snap to Zone field in the Guide Options section of the dialog box. Setting the snap zone is just the first step. You must turn on the snap-to feature in InDesign as well for whichever elements you want to snap to: l For guidelines and baseline grids, be sure Snap to Guides is turned on. Choose View ➪ Guides & Grids ➪ Snap to Guides or press Shift+Ô+; (semicolon) or Ctrl+Shift+; (semicolon). Note that the guidelines must be visible for objects to snap to them; to make them visible, choose View ➪ Guides & Grids ➪ Show Guides or press Ô+; (semicolon) or Ctrl+; (semicolon), but the baseline grid need not be visible. l For document grids, be sure that Snap to Document Grid is turned on. Choose View ➪ Guides & Grids ➪ Snap to Document Grid or press Shift+Ô+' (apostrophe) or Ctrl+Shift+' (apostrophe). In both cases, if the menu option has a check mark to its left, it is turned on. Choosing it toggles between turning on and off the snap-to feature. Summary If you want to be a true InDesign expert, you must take advantage of four of its most powerful fea- tures: master pages, templates, libraries, and styles. All these features save time and ensure design 205
  2. Part II: Document Fundamentals consistency across documents. A master page is a preformatted page design that you can apply to document pages in a multipage publication; a template is a preconstructed document that serves as the starting point when you need to create multiple versions of the same publication; a library is a storage file in which you can save any object you’ve created with InDesign for use in other publica- tions; and a style is a saved set of formatting that you can apply to items to guarantee consistency, both when you apply the style and when you modify the style to ensure all items with the style applied are updated automatically. To help you place and align objects, InDesign lets you create three types of guidelines: ruler guides, the baseline grid, and the document grid. You can also move the column guides that InDesign creates automatically for you. You can show or hide guidelines, and you have the option to snap object edges to guidelines when you click and drag them in the specified snap zone. 206
  3. CHAPTER Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients W hether you want to produce limited-run documents on a color printer, create newsletters using spot colors, publish magazines IN THIS CHAPTER and catalogs using process colors and special inks, or produce Getting acquainted with color documents to be distributed electronically on computer screens, InDesign terminology offers the tools that you need to do the job well. Making sense of process and In printing, color is a complex issue, which involves both physics and chem- spot colors istry. The inks that produce color are designed chemically to retain those Working with color models colors and to produce them evenly so that your images don’t look mottled or in InDesign faded. How light reflects off of ink and paper to your eye determines the color you see, and many factors (particularly different textures of paper) can Defining colors and tints affect the physics of how the light carries the color. Mixing colors You also have implementation issues to consider: How many colors can your Importing colors from files printing press produce, and how much will it cost? When do you decide to go for the exact pure color, and when do you decide to go with a close Sampling colors from images enough version that costs less to print? Understanding color issues For on-screen use, color is easier to deal with, because what you see as you in imported graphics do your layouts matches what the readers will see on their screen — the Working with gradients exception being that Web browsers may not show the same color subtleties for HTML pages you create in InDesign as can be displayed on-screen in Editing, copying, and deleting Flash and PDF files. swatches After you have figured out what your color capabilities are, you can get into Applying colors, tints, and the nitty-gritty of actually using color in your graphics or applying colors to gradients text and layout elements (such as bars along the edge of a page), or you can use color both ways. To a great extent, where you define and apply color determines what you can do with it. 207
  4. Part II: Document Fundamentals Cross-Reference Chapter 29 covers color matching and other high-end color-output issues in depth. This chapter concentrates on how to create and apply colors within InDesign. n Defining Color Terms Color is an expansive (and sometimes confusing and esoteric) concept in the world of publishing. The following definitions, however, should start you on your way to a clear understanding of the subject: l Build: Attempts to simulate a color-model color by combining the appropriate percent- ages of the four process colors. l CMYK: A standard that specifies colors as combinations of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. These four colors are known as process colors. l Color gamut: The range of colors that a device, such as a monitor or a color printer, can produce. Each color model has a different color gamut. l Color model: An industry standard for specifying a color, such as CMYK or Pantone. l Color separation: A set of four photographic negatives, one filtered for each process color, shot from a color photograph or image. When combined, the four negatives repro- duce that original image. l Color space: A method of representing color in terms of measurable values, such as the amount of red, yellow, and blue in a color image. The color space RGB represents the red, green, and blue colors on video screens. l Four-color printing: The use of the four process colors in combination to produce most other colors. l Lab: A standard that specifies colors by one lightness coordinate (indicating luminance, the intensity of the light) and two color coordinates, green-red and blue-yellow. The name refers to the mathematical approach used to describe the colors in a cubic arrangement: luminance, a-axis (green-red), and b-axis (blue-yellow); thus the term Lab. Note that you may see the term CIE Lab in other programs and in some design books; it’s the same thing as Lab; CIE means Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (International Committee on Illumination), the international standards group that created the Lab specification. l Process color: Any of the four primary colors in publishing — cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (known collectively as CMYK). l RGB: The standard used by monitors, and the abbreviation from the three colors in it: red, green, and blue. One of the biggest hurdles to producing color documents that look as you’d expect is that computers use RGB whereas printers use CMYK, and the two don’t always produce colors at the same hue. 208
  5. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients l Spot color: A single color applied at one or more places on a page, such as for a screen or as part of an illustration. You can use more than one spot color per page. Spot colors can also be process colors. l Swatchbook: A table of colors collected together as a series of color samples. The printer uses premixed ink based on the color model identifier you specify; you look up the num- bers for various colors in the table of colors in a swatchbook. l Web-safe colors: A palette of 216 RGB colors that browsers display the same way on pretty much any color monitor, ensuring color fidelity. The Web-safe palette comes from an era when monitors displayed perhaps thousands of colors, not the millions of today, so there’s less of a reason to stick with Web-safe colors for HTML (Web) documents as there had been in the 1990s; but do note that if you use other RGB colors in Web pages, differ- ent browsers may display them slightly differently from each other, eliminating or distort- ing some of the subtleties you see on your screen when laying out the pages. Note Until 2008, Pantone offered a six-color, high-fidelity variant of CMYK called Hexachrome. InDesign never sup- ported this Pantone standard, but you may have files that use Hexachrome colors. Pantone used to sell soft- ware called HexWare that added Hexachrome output capability to Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator. If you import Hexachrome-containing color libraries from those programs into InDesign, those Hexachrome colors appear as InDesign color swatches. n Understanding Process and Spot Color This section briefly explores the differences between spot and process colors, the two primary ways of indicating color in print documents. Identifying methods of color printing Several forms of color are used in printing, but the two most prevalent ones are process color and spot color. Process color is the use of four basic colors — cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (known collectively as CMYK) — mixed to reproduce most color tones the human eye can see. A separate negative is produced for each of the four process colors. This method, often called four-color printing, is used for most color publishing. Note As with CMYK colors, RGB and Lab colors are created by mixing colors; however, InDesign refers to RGB and Lab colors as mixed colors, leaving the term process color for CMYK because that’s an industry-standard term for CMYK. n 209
  6. Part II: Document Fundamentals Spot color is any color ink — whether one of the process colors or some other hue — used for spe- cific elements in a document. For example, if you print a document in black ink but print the com- pany logo in red, the red is a spot color. A spot color is often called a second color even though you can use several spot colors in a document. Each spot color is output to its own negative (and not color-separated into CMYK). Using spot color gives you access to special inks that are truer to the desired color than any mix of process colors can be. These inks come in several standards and include metallics, neons, and milky pastels. You even can use varnishes as spot colors to give lay- out elements a different gleam from the rest of the page. Although experienced designers some- times mix spot colors to produce special shades not otherwise available, you probably won’t need to do so. There are several advantages to spot colors. You can use colors like metallic inks that are impossi- ble to create with CMYK. Also, your printed results will be more consistent than with CMYK sepa- rations, which can suffer from color shift (variation in the hue produced) over the length of a long printed piece. But spot colors work only in objects that have distinct, continuous hue, such as a solid brick red, that can be printed with just one ink. To produce any image with multiple colors, such as a photograph, you need to use multiple inks, and because printing presses can traditionally print only four to eight colors on a page, you have to mix colors to create the range of hues in such multicolor objects. Tip If you create spot colors, I suggest that you include the word Spot as part of the name so that you can quickly tell in a panel or menu whether a selected color will print on its own plate or be color-separated. InDesign does use an icon to tell you whether a color is process or spot, as well as what color model (CMYK, RGB, or Lab) in which it was defined (see Figure 8.1 later), but often it’s easier to see the word than a tiny icon. n Note Adobe programs, including InDesign, show that spot colors such as Pantone, Toyo, and DIC (Dainippon Ink & Chemical) are based on the CMYK color model, even though they’re not. It doesn’t really matter because if you print them as a spot color, they get their own plate and your printer uses the actual Pantone, Toyo, or DIC ink. And if you color-separate them into process colors, you get the CMYK values shown in the Swatch Options dia- log box; or you can hold the mouse over the color name in the Swatches panel (if the Tool Tips option is enabled in the Preferences dialog box, as described in Chapter 3). n Mixing spot and process colors Some designers use both process and spot colors in a document in a procedure known as using a fifth color. Typically, the normal color images are color-separated and printed using the four pro- cess colors, whereas a special element (such as a logo in metallic ink) is printed in a spot color. The process colors are output on the usual four negatives; the spot color is output on a separate, fifth negative and printed using a fifth plate, a fifth ink roller, and a fifth inkwell. You can use more than five colors, however; you’re limited only by your budget and the capabilities of your printing plant. (Most commercial printers can handle six colors for each run through the press, and larger ones often can handle as many as eight colors.) 210
  7. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients Converting spot color to process color InDesign can convert spot colors to process colors. This handy capability lets designers specify the colors they want through a system with which they’re familiar, such as Pantone, without the added expense of special spot-color inks and extra negatives. Conversions are never an exact match, but guidebooks are available that can show you in advance the color that will be created. And with sev- eral Pantone and HKS variations, designers can pick a Pantone or HKS color that color-separates predictably. You can set InDesign to convert some spot colors in a document to process colors while leaving others alone: Just use the Color Mode pop-up menu in the Swatch Options dialog box, covered later in this chapter. (For example, you can keep a metallic silver as a spot color so it prints with a metallic ink, rather than be converted to a grayish color that is the closest the CMYK colors can produce to simulate a silver. However, you would convert common colors such as deep blue, pur- ple, and green to process colors, because the CMYK inks can combine fairly accurately to repro- duce them.) You can also leave all spot colors as spot colors or convert all spot colors to process colors. Caution Colors defined in one model and converted to another may not reproduce exactly the same because the phys- ics underlying each color model differ slightly. Each model was designed for use in a different medium, such as with paper or on a video monitor. n Working with Color Models Once you understand color terminology and the difference between process and spot colors, you can start thinking about the type of colors you create in InDesign. (You define colors in the Swatches panel, as described later in this chapter.) The color models fall into two broad classes: l Those that let you define a color by selecting a color from a color wheel (which represents a spectrum of available colors) or by entering specific values for the color’s constituent colors (the colors that make up the color), which include CMYK, RGB, Lab, and Multi-Ink. l Those that have a predefined set of colors, which you select from a palette of swatches. These swatches include ANPA (American Newspaper Publishers Association, now called the Newspaper Association of America, or NAA), DIC (Dainippon Ink & Chemical), Focoltone, Trumatch, 13 variants of Pantone, eight variants of HKS, and two variants of Toyo. There are also two sets of colors meant for use on computer displays and a third for use on the Web. Plus, you can add additional palette sets. Note Most North American publishers use Pantone color models, also known as the Pantone Matching System (PMS). Focoltone, HKS, and Trumatch tend to be used in Europe. DIC, Focoltone, and Toyo tend to be used in Asia. The NAA’s ANPA color model is used by North American newspapers. Everyone uses CMYK. n 211
  8. Part II: Document Fundamentals Note Several of the swatch library names are in all uppercase in InDesign’s menus and dialog boxes. That’s because they’re trademarked names, which some people (such as those at Adobe) like to indicate by using all caps. That’s just a convention and means nothing per se. (Legally, the word need only be treated as a proper adjec- tive when used for marketing and sales purposes, although the owner needs to use the ® or ™ symbols in its own materials to assert ownership.) n Keep in mind that the colors shown are only on-screen representations; the actual colors may be different. The differences are particularly noticeable if your monitor is running in 8-bit (256 hues) color mode. Check the actual color in a color swatchbook for the model you are using. (Art and printing supply stores usually carry these swatchbooks. See the sidebar “Using Color Swatchbooks” for lists of other sources.) You can also calibrate your monitor display with tools from X-Rite (www.xrite.com) and X-Rite’s Pantone subsidiary (www.pantone.com); this keeps the colors as close as possible to actual output. Tip InDesign uses the same swatch format as Illustrator, so you can import color models into InDesign created in or for Illustrator. InDesign also supports the Adobe Swatch Exchange (.ase) format that all Adobe CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5 applications that have color libraries support for color exchange. n Using Color Swatchbooks Anyone who uses a lot of color should have a color swatchbook handy. You probably can get one at your local art supply store or from your commercial printer (prices typically range from $50 to $100, depending on the color model and the type of swatchbook). If you can’t find a swatchbook, here’s where to order the most popular ones: l Pantone: Several Pantone swatchbooks are available, including ones for coated and uncoated paper, and for spot-color output and process-color output. If you are converting (called build- ing in publishing parlance) Pantone colors to CMYK for four-color printing, I particularly rec- ommend the Pantone Formula Guide swatchbook series, which also indicates which colors reproduce well on RGB devices such as computer monitors. www.pantone.com. l Trumatch: Based on a CMYK color space, Trumatch suffers almost no matching problems when converted to CMYK. Variants of the swatchbooks for coated and uncoated paper are available. www.trumatch.com. l ANPA: Designed for reproduction on newsprint, these colors also are designed in the Lab color space. The NAA’s Web site (www.naa.org) unfortunately has no substantive informa- tion on these colors. l Focoltone: Like Trumatch, this color model is based on the CMYK color space. www.apmedia.com. l HKS: This color model is used mainly in Germany and other European countries, with vari- ants for industrial printing such as on plastics. It uses various combinations of cyan, magenta, and yellow with black overlays to achieve different shades. www.hks-farben.de. 212
  9. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients l Dainippon Ink & Chemical (DIC): Like Pantone, the DIC color set is a spot-color-based system. http://dicwww01.dic.co.jp/en/index.html. l Toyo: Similar to Pantone in that it is based on spot-color inks, this model is popular in Japan. www.toyoink.com. Understanding Paper Variation Models Both the Pantone and HKS color models recognize that the type of paper on which you print affects how a color appears, so their swatch libraries have variations based on popular paper types. Here’s how they work: l Pantone Process Coated: Use this variant when you color-separate Pantone colors and your printer uses the standard Pantone-brand process-color inks on coated paper. Colors in this variant have the code DS added before the numerals in their names and the code C after the numerals. l Pantone Process Uncoated: Use this variant when you color-separate Pantone colors and your printer uses the standard Pantone-brand process-color inks on coated paper. Colors in this variant have the code DS added before the numerals in their names and the code U after the numerals. Note The DS code stands for digital SWOP, or Specifications for Web Offset Publications, a prepress standard for the web-offset printing process used by magazines, catalog, and most high-run printing presses. n l Pantone Solid Coated: Use this variant when your printer uses actual Pantone-brand inks (as spot colors) when printing to coated paper stock. Colors in this variant have the code C appended to their names. l Pantone Solid Matte: This is the same as Pantone Coated but for paper with a matte finish. Colors in this variant have the code M appended to their names. l Pantone Solid Uncoated: This is the same as Pantone Solid Coated but for uncoated paper. Colors in this variant have the code U appended to their names. l Pantone Metallic Coated: This contains metallic colors designed for coated papers (which helps make them shine like metal). Colors in this variant have the code C appended to their names. l Pantone Pastel Coated: This contains pastel colors designed for coated papers (which helps make them more lustrous). Colors in this variant have the code C appended to their names. l Pantone Pastel Uncoated: This contains pastel colors designed for uncoated papers (which helps make them have the visual texture of eggshells). Colors in this variant have the code U appended to their names. l Pantone Color Bridge: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process col- ors, for use on coated paper. Colors in this variant have the code PC appended to their names. 213
  10. Part II: Document Fundamentals l Pantone Color Bridge Uncoated: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors, for use on uncoated paper. Colors in this variant have the code U appended to their names. l Pantone Color Bridge Euro: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors on European printing presses, for use on any paper. Colors in this variant have the code EC appended to their names. l Pantone Solid to Process: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors, for use on any paper. Colors in this variant have the code PC appended to their names. l Pantone Solid to Process Euro: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors on European printing presses, for use on any paper. Colors in this variant have the code EC appended to their names. l HKS E: Use this HKS variant for continuous-form stationery. Colors in this variant have the code E appended to their names. l HKS E Process: Use this HKS variant for continuous-form stationery printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code E appended to their names. l HKS K: Use this HKS variant for glossy art paper (highly coated). Colors in this variant have the code K appended to their names l HKS K Process: Use this HKS variant for glossy art paper (highly coated) printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code K appended to their names. l HKS N: Use this HKS variant for natural paper (uncoated). Colors in this variant have the code N appended to their names. l HKS N Process: Use this HKS variant for natural paper (uncoated) printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code N appended to their names. l HKS Z: Use this HKS variant for newsprint. Colors in this variant have the code Z appended to their names. l HKS Z Process: Use this HKS variant for newsprint printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code Z appended to their names. Note When printing on uncoated stock with any colors designed for use on coated stock, you usually get weaker, less-saturated color reproduction. n Defining Colors and Tints InDesign comes with a few predefined colors: [Black], [Registration] (black on each negative for the printing press), [Paper] (white), [None] (transparent), and six common colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, red, green, and blue. So you most likely want to add a few of your own. 214
  11. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients New Feature The six common colors’ names differ based on whether you created your document with a Print or Web intent, as explained in Chapter 4. If you created a document with a Print intent, the color swatches are based on their CMYK values (so cyan is C=100 M=0 Y=0 K=0, containing 100 percent cyan and 0 percent of the other three process colors, and green is C=75 M=5 Y=100 K=0, containing 75 percent cyan, 5 percent magenta, 100 percent yellow, and 0 percent black). If you created a document with a Web intent, their names are RGB Cyan, RGB Green, and so on. This contextual naming is new to InDesign CS5, replacing the old names of Cyan, Green, and so on. Also new to InDesign CS5, the swatches are now set to the CMYK model if you created a print document and all set to the RGB model if you created a Web document; previous versions of InDesign mixed CMYK and RGB colors in the default Swatches panel colors. n Before you can apply any colors — whether to bitmap images or to layout elements such as strokes, text, frames, and shapes — you must first define the colors. InDesign offers five ways to create colors: via the Swatches panel, via the new mini-Swatches panel in the Control panel, via the Kuler panel, via the Color panel, and by double-clicking the Fill or Stroke iconic button on the Tools panel. You can also import colors from other Adobe programs and from some color images. No matter how you define colors, you have a couple of decisions to make first: l Do you want to create your own color by mixing basic colors such as red, green, and blue (called RGB and typically used for screen display), or cyan, yellow, magenta, and black (called CMYK or process colors, and typically used for printing presses)? l Do you want to use a color from an ink maker such as Pantone or Toyo? These colors — called spot colors — are typically used as an extra ink on your document but can also be converted to the standard four-process colors; therefore, they’re handy when you know the color you want when you see it. All of InDesign’s color-creation tools support both process and spot colors, and all have access to the predefined colors such as Pantone and Toyo as well as to the free-form color pickers for mixing CMYK, Lab, or RGB colors. If you plan to print the color on its own printing plate, you need to use a predefined color so that you know the printer can reproduce it. If you plan to color-separate a color into the four CMYK plates (so the mix of these four process colors simulates the desired color), it doesn’t matter whether you use a predefined color or make one of your own. One advan- tage to using a predefined color is that it’s easy to tell other designers what the color is; another is that you get very close matches if you start with a predefined color and then end up having it color-separated in some documents and kept as a spot color in others. Note If no document is open when you create, edit, or delete colors, the new color palette becomes the default for all future documents. n Creating colors the ideal way: The Swatches panel The best way to create colors in InDesign is to use the Swatches panel. All colors in this panel get a unique name and are tracked by InDesign. That means each such color is available to be used on any object in your document, with no risk of having slightly different variants. Plus, you can 215
  12. Part II: Document Fundamentals modify a swatch and ensure that all objects using that swatch are updated, and you can delete a swatch and tell InDesign what color to use in its place. Furthermore, when you print, you have control over how each color is handled (whether it is printed to its own plate, whether it is printed at all, and whether there should be any adjustments to its ink density or screening angle). The top of Figure 8.1 shows the Swatches panel. FIGURE 8.1 Top left: The Swatches panel and its flyout menu. Top right: The various swatch type indicators in the Swatches panel. Bottom: The new mini-Swatches panel in the Control panel. RGB color Process color CMYK color Delete Selected Swatches Lab color Create New Swatch Mixed-ink color Show Gradient Swatches Mixed-ink group Show Color Swatches Spot color Show All Swatches 216
  13. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients Personalizing the Swatches Panel You can change the appearance of the entries in the Swatches panel (and mini-Swatches panel) by using the three options in the panel’s flyout menu: Name (the default), Small Name (a tighter list view), Small Swatch (no names, just small icons), and Large Swatch (no names, just larger icons). Also, use the Hide Options menu to suppress the display of the Stroke, Fill, Formatting Affects Container, and Formatting Affects Text iconic buttons and the Tint field and pop-up menu; choosing Show Options brings them back. Finally, you can use the Show All Swatches, Show Color Swatches, and Show Gradient Swatches iconic buttons at the bottom of the panel to control what swatches appear. New Feature InDesign CS5 adds Stroke and Fill iconic buttons to the Control panel. If you click the triangle button to the right of either button, a miniature version of the Swatches panel appears. It has the same capabilities of the regular Swatches panel, including the same flyout menu — it’s just shorter in depth. (Figure 8.1 shows this new mini-Swatches panel.) n Tip Because regular black can appear weak when it’s overprinted by other colors, many designers create what print- ers call superblack or rich black by combining 100 percent black and 100 percent magenta. (Some use cyan instead of magenta.) You can define superblack as a separate color or redefine the registration color as 100 percent of all four-process colors, and use that as a superblack. Note that superblack should be used only in large areas — using it on type or small objects increases the chances of registration problems for those items. n To create your own color, go to the Swatches panel (choose Window ➪ Color ➪ Swatches or press F5) and select New Color Swatch from the flyout menu. You get the New Color Swatch dialog box shown in Figure 8.2. Now follow these steps: 1. In the Swatch Name field, give your color a name that describes it, such as Lime Green or Bright Purple. You can also select the Name with Color Value option, which uses the color values to make up the color name as is done for the swatches in Figure 8.1. This option is available only for CMYK, RGB, and Lab colors, not for swatch-based colors such as Pantone. 2. In the Color Type pop-up menu, choose from Process or Spot. These are covered ear- lier in this chapter; leave the color type at Process if you’re not sure. 3. In the Color Mode pop-up menu, choose the mixing system or swatch library (both are considered to be color models) you want to use: CMYK, RGB, Lab, or a swatch- based model. (These are covered earlier in this chapter.) 217
  14. Part II: Document Fundamentals FIGURE 8.2 The New Color Swatch dialog box lets you define colors. (At left is the dialog box for CMYK color mixing; at right is the dialog box for the swatch-based spot colors such as Pantone colors.) An identical dialog box named Swatch Options lets you edit them. How to Decide on a Color-Naming System You can name a CMYK, RGB, or Lab color anything you want. (Colors defined in other models use their official names, such as Pantone 147U or ANPA 1732-4 AdPro.) To make it easier to remember what a defined color looks like, you should use either descriptive names (such as Grass Green or Official Logo Blue) or use names based on the color settings. Choose one naming convention to keep things consistent. The benefit of using descriptive names is that they have intrinsic meaning, which helps designers choose the right one. For example, there’s no confusion that Official Logo Blue is the color to be used for the company logo, but the proper usage of the same color using a name based on its color values won’t be so obvious. The benefit of using color-value names is that designers who do a lot of color work know what that color is. Grass Green could be any of several colors, but C=30 M=0 Y=50 K=5 can be only one color. A good strategy is to use the color-value names for all colors — with a twist: For colors that have spe- cific usage, add that to the color name. For example, you might use a grassy green for a particular fea- ture article, so you would just name it based on its color values (for example, C=30 M=0 Y=50 K=5). But your magazine logo color would be named something like Logo C=100 M=100 Y=20 K=25 so that you have a reminder of this swatch’s designated usage. InDesign names colors based on their values automatically if you select the Name with Color Value option and choose Process as the Color Type when you define the color. For example, if you create a color in the CMYK model, you might give it a name based on its mix, such as 55C 0M 91Y 0K for that grass-green color — composed of 55 percent cyan, 0 percent magenta, 91 percent yellow, and 0 per- cent black. (Believe it or not, this naming convention is how professionals have long specified colors, starting back in the days of paste-up boards.) InDesign’s Name with Color Value option would name this color C=55 M=0 Y=91 K=0. The same system applies to the RGB and Lab models. 218
  15. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients 4. For the CMYK, RGB, and Lab models, use the sliders to create your new color. A preview appears in the box at left. For the swatch-based models, scroll through the lists of colors and select one. 5. If you want to create multiple colors, click Add after each color definition and then click Done when done. To create just one color, click OK instead of Add. (The OK but- ton becomes Done once you click Add.) You can also click Cancel to abort the current color definition. Using Kuler to add to your color swatches There’s a Web site out there that lets users share palettes of colors they’ve created. The idea is to give people with little fashion sense sets of colors that work well together. InDesign lets you tap into these colors and add them to your Swatches panel, using the Kuler panel (choose Window ➪ Extensions ➪ Kuler). Note that you must have an active Internet connection to be able to use the Kuler panel. You go to the Browse pane in the Kuler panel and choose from the color swatch palettes — called themes — already there. You can use the unlabeled pop-up menus at top and the search field to narrow down your choices. Click one you want and then click the Add Selected Theme to Swatches iconic button at the bottom right of the panel. Repeat for each theme you want to copy. You can create your own themes in the Create pane (as well as edit an existing theme; click the Edit Theme in Create Pane iconic button in the Browse pane to do so). First, be sure a document is open — you cannot add Kuler colors to the Swatches panel if no document is open, even though you can create swatches in the Swatches panel when no document is open so that they become default colors for all new documents. You start the Kuler theme creation with the Base Color, the one that determines the starting point for the theme and any constraints applied to it. Use the color wheel and sliders to select a new value, or drag its current color (the circles) to a new location on the wheel. There are also two iconic buttons that let you take the color of a selected object and make that the base color: Add Current Fill Color as Base Color and Add Current Stroke Color as Base Color. To add colors, click the Add a New Color to the Theme iconic button. Kuler has a maximum of five colors per theme. You can delete a color by selecting it and then clicking the Remove This Color from the Theme iconic button. You can have Kuler constrain your color choices using the Select Rule pop-up menu, which has seven options: Analogous, Monochromatic, Triad, Complementary, Compound, Shades, and Custom. As you choose each one, you see its effect on your color choices. (Custom lets you choose any colors.) You can also constrain color options using the Affect the Other Colors in the Theme Based on a Harmony iconic button; this has Kuler change the colors to what it considers “harmonious.” 219
  16. Part II: Document Fundamentals You can apply a color at any time to a selected object in your layout by double-clicking the desired swatch in the Kuler panel. Note that this does not add the color to the Swatches panel automati- cally, creating the risk of an unnamed color in your document (more about this later in this chap- ter). To add the five colors in the Kuler panel, click the Add Selected Theme to Swatches iconic button at the bottom right of the panel. (Note that all Kuler colors are added as RGB colors; you can change these using the Swatch Options dialog box described earlier, as for any color swatch.) You can save the themes and upload them to the Kuler site for other users to enjoy using the Upload Theme to Kuler iconic button, if you have a Kuler account. You can also save a theme for later access by clicking the Save Theme button. This does not add the colors to the Swatches panel or upload them to Kuler; it does make the theme available in the Browse pane’s filter pop-up menu. Figure 8.3 shows both the Browse and Create panes of the Kuler panel. Not shown is the About pane, which just provides information about the Kuler site, nothing to actually use in InDesign. Creating tints A tint is a shade of a color. InDesign lets you create such tints as separate color swatches, so they’re easy to use for multiple items. The process is easy: 1. In the Swatches panel, just select a color from which you want to create a tint. 2. Using the flyout menu, select New Tint Swatch. You get the New Tint Swatch dialog box shown in Figure 8.4. 3. Click and drag the slider to adjust the tint or type a value in the field at right. 4. Click Add to create another tint from the same base color and then click Done when you’re finished. (If you’re adding a single tint, there’s no need to click Add; just click OK when done. Note that the OK button becomes Done once you click Add.) Click Cancel to abort the current tint. Any new tint has the same name as the original color with the per- centage of shading appended to the end of the name, such as Leaf Green 66%. Note You can create a tint from a tint, which can be confusing. Fortunately, InDesign goes back to the original color when letting you create the new tint. Thus, if you select a tint swatch named Leaf Green 66% and move the slider to 33 percent, you get a 33 percent tint of the original Leaf Green swatch, not a 33 percent tint of the Leaf Green 66% swatch (which would be equivalent to a 22 percent tint of the original Leaf Green). n 220
  17. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients FIGURE 8.3 The Kuler panel lets you copy predefined themes (left) — sets of colors — as well as create and even share your own (right). Affect the Other Colors in the Theme Based on a Harmony Add a New Color to this Theme Add Current Stroke as Base Color Remove This Color from the Theme Add Current Fill Color as Base Color Brightness slider Add Selected Theme Upload Theme to Kuler to Swatches Add This Theme to Swatches Edit Theme in Create Pane Refresh the Themes View Next Set of Themes View Previous Set of Themes 221
  18. Part II: Document Fundamentals FIGURE 8.4 The New Tint Swatch dialog box lets you define colors; a nearly identical dialog box named Swatch Options lets you edit them. The difference is that, when editing, you can change all the other color values, not just the degree of tint. Tip You can also apply tints to objects without creating a separate swatch for each tint. After applying the color (described later in this chapter), select the object and change the value in the Tint field of the Swatches panel, or use its pop-up menu’s predefined tint values. n Mixing color swatches to create more colors InDesign offers another type of color: mixed-ink color. Essentially, a mixed-ink color combines a spot color with the default process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) to create new color swatches. For example, you can combine 38 percent black with 100 percent Pantone 130C to get a darker version of Pantone 130C (called a duotone, though InDesign doesn’t limit you to mixing spot colors with just black, as traditional duotones do). To create a mixed-ink swatch, select the spot color you want to begin with and then choose New Mixed Ink Swatch from the Swatches panel’s flyout menu. (If you have no spot colors defined, you won’t be able to choose this menu option.) You get the dialog box shown in Figure 8.5, in which you select the percentages of the spot color and any or all of the default process colors you want to mix. You also give the new color a name. Click Add to add another mixed-ink swatch based on the current spot color and then click Done when you’re finished. If you’re creating just one color, click OK instead of Add (if you do click Add, the OK button becomes Done). You can click Cancel to abort the current mixed-ink color definition. Tip Be sure to test such mixes by creating a color proof first. They may not look as you expect when actually printed because of how printing presses handle a color overlapping other colors. n 222
  19. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients FIGURE 8.5 The New Mixed Ink Swatch dialog box lets you mix one or more spot colors with any or all of the default process colors to create new shades and variations. There’s more to mixed-ink colors than creating them one by one. InDesign lets you create mixed- ink groups, which are a series of colors based on a spot color and one or more default process col- ors. Figure 8.6 shows the New Mixed Ink Group dialog box, in which you select the colors to mix as you do in the New Mixed Ink Swatch dialog box. This feature is handy to create a palette of col- ors within a color range by mixing several colors in different amounts, as well as to create color combinations known as duotones (a spot color traditionally mixed with black) and tritones (two spot colors traditionally mixed with black). However, you do more than simply mix the colors. In this dialog box, you specify an initial tint for each color you want to mix, then how many times you want to create a color using it, as well as the increment of color for each creation. This can be confusing, so I walk you through the options in Figure 8.6. The spot color Fire Orange is chosen with an Initial value of 50 percent, a Repeat setting of 3, and an Increment of 20 percent. Also chosen is the Process Black swatch, with an Initial value of 0 per- cent, a Repeat setting of 3, and an Increment of 10 percent. This combination creates 16 mixed-ink swatches, as shown in the Swatch Preview section (click Preview Swatches to display the preview colors in the Swatch Preview section of the dialog box). InDesign uses the settings and first mixes 50 percent of Fire Orange with 0 percent Process Black. That’s one swatch. Then it mixes 50 percent of Fire Orange with 10 percent of Process Black (add- ing the increment of 10 percent). It does so two more times, for 20 and 30 percent of Process Black mixed with the 50 percent of Fire Orange because there was a Repeat setting of 3. (Note that InDesign stops at 100 percent saturation even if the Increment results in a higher number.) So that’s four mixed-ink swatches based on 50 percent of Fire Orange. InDesign now repeats this pro- cess three more times, starting with the next increment for Fire Orange: The result is one set of four swatches using 70 percent Fire Orange, one set using 90 percent Fire Orange, and the final set using 100 percent Fire Orange (in addition to the first set using 50 percent Fire Orange) — note that a color’s 223
  20. Part II: Document Fundamentals value can’t exceed 100 percent, so even though the math would make Fire Orange be 110 percent for this final set of swatches, InDesign caps the value to 100 percent. So that’s a total of 16 swatches. FIGURE 8.6 The New Mixed Ink Group dialog box lets you mix a selected spot color with any or all of the default pro- cess colors in user-defined increments to create a range of new shades and variations. Tip To figure out how many swatches you can create using this feature, add 1 to the number in each of the Repeat fields and then multiply the values. In the preceding example, you get 16 this way: (3+1) × (3+1), or 4 × 4, or 16. That’s because the Repeat setting indicates how many more variations to create in addition to those with the base (Initial) value. n Creating colors the risky way: Using the Color panel Many people may try to use the Color panel (choose Window ➪ Color ➪ Color or press F6) to define colors, but that can be a mistake. At first, you may not realize you can create colors from the Color panel. It shows a gradation of the last color used and lets you change the tint for that color on the current object, but if you go to the flyout menu and choose a color model (RGB, CMYK, or Lab), you get a set of mixing controls (see Figure 8.7). So what’s the problem? Colors created through the Color panel don’t appear in your Swatches panel and so can’t be used for other objects. Called unnamed colors because they don’t appear any- where, these can be dangerous for publishers to use. (Adobe added them to InDesign to be consis- tent with how Illustrator defines colors — a foolish consistency.) 224
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