# InDesign CS5 Bible- P6

Chia sẻ: Thanh Cong | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:50

0
76
lượt xem
30

## InDesign CS5 Bible- P6

Mô tả tài liệu

InDesign CS5 Bible- P6: InDesign is a powerful tool that serves as the standard program for professional layout and design. The latest version boasts a variety of updates and enhancements. Packed with real-world examples and written by industry expert Galen Gruman, this in-depth resource clearly explains how InDesign CS5 allows for better typography and transparency features, speedier performance, and more user control than any other layout program.

Chủ đề:

Bình luận(0)

Lưu

## Nội dung Text: InDesign CS5 Bible- P6

1. Chapter 7: Creating Layout Standards 3. Type the distance between grid lines in the Gridline Every field. If your basic mea- surement unit is an inch, you probably want to use the default value of 1 inch. 4. Type the number of divisions between grid lines in the Subdivisions field. If your basic measurement unit is an inch, you can specify a value of 6 to subdivide the grid into 1-pica squares. Or, if you prefer, you can type a value of 4, 8, 16, and so on to subdivide the grid into standard divisions of an inch. 5. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the document. Tip The Show/Hide Document Grid command (choose View ➪ Grids & Guides ➪ Show/Hide Document Grid or Ô+' [apostrophe] or Ctrl+' [apostrophe]) lets you display and hide the document grid. n Snapping to guides If the Snap to Guides command (choose View ➪ Grids & Guides ➪ Snap to Guides or press Shift+@cmd+; [semicolon] or Ctrl+Shift+; [semicolon]) is selected, object edges snap to guidelines and grids when you drag them in the snap zone. To specify the snap zone (the distance — in pixels — at which an object snaps to a guide), choose InDesign ➪ Preferences ➪ Guides & Pasteboard or press Ô+K on the Mac, or choose Edit ➪ Preferences ➪ Guides & Pasteboard or press Ctrl+K in Windows, and type a value in the Snap to Zone field in the Guide Options section of the dialog box. Setting the snap zone is just the first step. You must turn on the snap-to feature in InDesign as well for whichever elements you want to snap to: l For guidelines and baseline grids, be sure Snap to Guides is turned on. Choose View ➪ Guides & Grids ➪ Snap to Guides or press Shift+Ô+; (semicolon) or Ctrl+Shift+; (semicolon). Note that the guidelines must be visible for objects to snap to them; to make them visible, choose View ➪ Guides & Grids ➪ Show Guides or press Ô+; (semicolon) or Ctrl+; (semicolon), but the baseline grid need not be visible. l For document grids, be sure that Snap to Document Grid is turned on. Choose View ➪ Guides & Grids ➪ Snap to Document Grid or press Shift+Ô+' (apostrophe) or Ctrl+Shift+' (apostrophe). In both cases, if the menu option has a check mark to its left, it is turned on. Choosing it toggles between turning on and off the snap-to feature. Summary If you want to be a true InDesign expert, you must take advantage of four of its most powerful fea- tures: master pages, templates, libraries, and styles. All these features save time and ensure design 205
2. Part II: Document Fundamentals consistency across documents. A master page is a preformatted page design that you can apply to document pages in a multipage publication; a template is a preconstructed document that serves as the starting point when you need to create multiple versions of the same publication; a library is a storage file in which you can save any object you’ve created with InDesign for use in other publica- tions; and a style is a saved set of formatting that you can apply to items to guarantee consistency, both when you apply the style and when you modify the style to ensure all items with the style applied are updated automatically. To help you place and align objects, InDesign lets you create three types of guidelines: ruler guides, the baseline grid, and the document grid. You can also move the column guides that InDesign creates automatically for you. You can show or hide guidelines, and you have the option to snap object edges to guidelines when you click and drag them in the specified snap zone. 206
4. Part II: Document Fundamentals Cross-Reference Chapter 29 covers color matching and other high-end color-output issues in depth. This chapter concentrates on how to create and apply colors within InDesign. n Defining Color Terms Color is an expansive (and sometimes confusing and esoteric) concept in the world of publishing. The following definitions, however, should start you on your way to a clear understanding of the subject: l Build: Attempts to simulate a color-model color by combining the appropriate percent- ages of the four process colors. l CMYK: A standard that specifies colors as combinations of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. These four colors are known as process colors. l Color gamut: The range of colors that a device, such as a monitor or a color printer, can produce. Each color model has a different color gamut. l Color model: An industry standard for specifying a color, such as CMYK or Pantone. l Color separation: A set of four photographic negatives, one filtered for each process color, shot from a color photograph or image. When combined, the four negatives repro- duce that original image. l Color space: A method of representing color in terms of measurable values, such as the amount of red, yellow, and blue in a color image. The color space RGB represents the red, green, and blue colors on video screens. l Four-color printing: The use of the four process colors in combination to produce most other colors. l Lab: A standard that specifies colors by one lightness coordinate (indicating luminance, the intensity of the light) and two color coordinates, green-red and blue-yellow. The name refers to the mathematical approach used to describe the colors in a cubic arrangement: luminance, a-axis (green-red), and b-axis (blue-yellow); thus the term Lab. Note that you may see the term CIE Lab in other programs and in some design books; it’s the same thing as Lab; CIE means Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (International Committee on Illumination), the international standards group that created the Lab specification. l Process color: Any of the four primary colors in publishing — cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (known collectively as CMYK). l RGB: The standard used by monitors, and the abbreviation from the three colors in it: red, green, and blue. One of the biggest hurdles to producing color documents that look as you’d expect is that computers use RGB whereas printers use CMYK, and the two don’t always produce colors at the same hue. 208
5. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients l Spot color: A single color applied at one or more places on a page, such as for a screen or as part of an illustration. You can use more than one spot color per page. Spot colors can also be process colors. l Swatchbook: A table of colors collected together as a series of color samples. The printer uses premixed ink based on the color model identifier you specify; you look up the num- bers for various colors in the table of colors in a swatchbook. l Web-safe colors: A palette of 216 RGB colors that browsers display the same way on pretty much any color monitor, ensuring color fidelity. The Web-safe palette comes from an era when monitors displayed perhaps thousands of colors, not the millions of today, so there’s less of a reason to stick with Web-safe colors for HTML (Web) documents as there had been in the 1990s; but do note that if you use other RGB colors in Web pages, differ- ent browsers may display them slightly differently from each other, eliminating or distort- ing some of the subtleties you see on your screen when laying out the pages. Note Until 2008, Pantone offered a six-color, high-fidelity variant of CMYK called Hexachrome. InDesign never sup- ported this Pantone standard, but you may have files that use Hexachrome colors. Pantone used to sell soft- ware called HexWare that added Hexachrome output capability to Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator. If you import Hexachrome-containing color libraries from those programs into InDesign, those Hexachrome colors appear as InDesign color swatches. n Understanding Process and Spot Color This section briefly explores the differences between spot and process colors, the two primary ways of indicating color in print documents. Identifying methods of color printing Several forms of color are used in printing, but the two most prevalent ones are process color and spot color. Process color is the use of four basic colors — cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (known collectively as CMYK) — mixed to reproduce most color tones the human eye can see. A separate negative is produced for each of the four process colors. This method, often called four-color printing, is used for most color publishing. Note As with CMYK colors, RGB and Lab colors are created by mixing colors; however, InDesign refers to RGB and Lab colors as mixed colors, leaving the term process color for CMYK because that’s an industry-standard term for CMYK. n 209
7. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients Converting spot color to process color InDesign can convert spot colors to process colors. This handy capability lets designers specify the colors they want through a system with which they’re familiar, such as Pantone, without the added expense of special spot-color inks and extra negatives. Conversions are never an exact match, but guidebooks are available that can show you in advance the color that will be created. And with sev- eral Pantone and HKS variations, designers can pick a Pantone or HKS color that color-separates predictably. You can set InDesign to convert some spot colors in a document to process colors while leaving others alone: Just use the Color Mode pop-up menu in the Swatch Options dialog box, covered later in this chapter. (For example, you can keep a metallic silver as a spot color so it prints with a metallic ink, rather than be converted to a grayish color that is the closest the CMYK colors can produce to simulate a silver. However, you would convert common colors such as deep blue, pur- ple, and green to process colors, because the CMYK inks can combine fairly accurately to repro- duce them.) You can also leave all spot colors as spot colors or convert all spot colors to process colors. Caution Colors defined in one model and converted to another may not reproduce exactly the same because the phys- ics underlying each color model differ slightly. Each model was designed for use in a different medium, such as with paper or on a video monitor. n Working with Color Models Once you understand color terminology and the difference between process and spot colors, you can start thinking about the type of colors you create in InDesign. (You define colors in the Swatches panel, as described later in this chapter.) The color models fall into two broad classes: l Those that let you define a color by selecting a color from a color wheel (which represents a spectrum of available colors) or by entering specific values for the color’s constituent colors (the colors that make up the color), which include CMYK, RGB, Lab, and Multi-Ink. l Those that have a predefined set of colors, which you select from a palette of swatches. These swatches include ANPA (American Newspaper Publishers Association, now called the Newspaper Association of America, or NAA), DIC (Dainippon Ink & Chemical), Focoltone, Trumatch, 13 variants of Pantone, eight variants of HKS, and two variants of Toyo. There are also two sets of colors meant for use on computer displays and a third for use on the Web. Plus, you can add additional palette sets. Note Most North American publishers use Pantone color models, also known as the Pantone Matching System (PMS). Focoltone, HKS, and Trumatch tend to be used in Europe. DIC, Focoltone, and Toyo tend to be used in Asia. The NAA’s ANPA color model is used by North American newspapers. Everyone uses CMYK. n 211
8. Part II: Document Fundamentals Note Several of the swatch library names are in all uppercase in InDesign’s menus and dialog boxes. That’s because they’re trademarked names, which some people (such as those at Adobe) like to indicate by using all caps. That’s just a convention and means nothing per se. (Legally, the word need only be treated as a proper adjec- tive when used for marketing and sales purposes, although the owner needs to use the ® or ™ symbols in its own materials to assert ownership.) n Keep in mind that the colors shown are only on-screen representations; the actual colors may be different. The differences are particularly noticeable if your monitor is running in 8-bit (256 hues) color mode. Check the actual color in a color swatchbook for the model you are using. (Art and printing supply stores usually carry these swatchbooks. See the sidebar “Using Color Swatchbooks” for lists of other sources.) You can also calibrate your monitor display with tools from X-Rite (www.xrite.com) and X-Rite’s Pantone subsidiary (www.pantone.com); this keeps the colors as close as possible to actual output. Tip InDesign uses the same swatch format as Illustrator, so you can import color models into InDesign created in or for Illustrator. InDesign also supports the Adobe Swatch Exchange (.ase) format that all Adobe CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5 applications that have color libraries support for color exchange. n Using Color Swatchbooks Anyone who uses a lot of color should have a color swatchbook handy. You probably can get one at your local art supply store or from your commercial printer (prices typically range from $50 to$100, depending on the color model and the type of swatchbook). If you can’t find a swatchbook, here’s where to order the most popular ones: l Pantone: Several Pantone swatchbooks are available, including ones for coated and uncoated paper, and for spot-color output and process-color output. If you are converting (called build- ing in publishing parlance) Pantone colors to CMYK for four-color printing, I particularly rec- ommend the Pantone Formula Guide swatchbook series, which also indicates which colors reproduce well on RGB devices such as computer monitors. www.pantone.com. l Trumatch: Based on a CMYK color space, Trumatch suffers almost no matching problems when converted to CMYK. Variants of the swatchbooks for coated and uncoated paper are available. www.trumatch.com. l ANPA: Designed for reproduction on newsprint, these colors also are designed in the Lab color space. The NAA’s Web site (www.naa.org) unfortunately has no substantive informa- tion on these colors. l Focoltone: Like Trumatch, this color model is based on the CMYK color space. www.apmedia.com. l HKS: This color model is used mainly in Germany and other European countries, with vari- ants for industrial printing such as on plastics. It uses various combinations of cyan, magenta, and yellow with black overlays to achieve different shades. www.hks-farben.de. 212
9. Chapter 8: Defining Colors, Tints, and Gradients l Dainippon Ink & Chemical (DIC): Like Pantone, the DIC color set is a spot-color-based system. http://dicwww01.dic.co.jp/en/index.html. l Toyo: Similar to Pantone in that it is based on spot-color inks, this model is popular in Japan. www.toyoink.com. Understanding Paper Variation Models Both the Pantone and HKS color models recognize that the type of paper on which you print affects how a color appears, so their swatch libraries have variations based on popular paper types. Here’s how they work: l Pantone Process Coated: Use this variant when you color-separate Pantone colors and your printer uses the standard Pantone-brand process-color inks on coated paper. Colors in this variant have the code DS added before the numerals in their names and the code C after the numerals. l Pantone Process Uncoated: Use this variant when you color-separate Pantone colors and your printer uses the standard Pantone-brand process-color inks on coated paper. Colors in this variant have the code DS added before the numerals in their names and the code U after the numerals. Note The DS code stands for digital SWOP, or Specifications for Web Offset Publications, a prepress standard for the web-offset printing process used by magazines, catalog, and most high-run printing presses. n l Pantone Solid Coated: Use this variant when your printer uses actual Pantone-brand inks (as spot colors) when printing to coated paper stock. Colors in this variant have the code C appended to their names. l Pantone Solid Matte: This is the same as Pantone Coated but for paper with a matte finish. Colors in this variant have the code M appended to their names. l Pantone Solid Uncoated: This is the same as Pantone Solid Coated but for uncoated paper. Colors in this variant have the code U appended to their names. l Pantone Metallic Coated: This contains metallic colors designed for coated papers (which helps make them shine like metal). Colors in this variant have the code C appended to their names. l Pantone Pastel Coated: This contains pastel colors designed for coated papers (which helps make them more lustrous). Colors in this variant have the code C appended to their names. l Pantone Pastel Uncoated: This contains pastel colors designed for uncoated papers (which helps make them have the visual texture of eggshells). Colors in this variant have the code U appended to their names. l Pantone Color Bridge: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process col- ors, for use on coated paper. Colors in this variant have the code PC appended to their names. 213
10. Part II: Document Fundamentals l Pantone Color Bridge Uncoated: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors, for use on uncoated paper. Colors in this variant have the code U appended to their names. l Pantone Color Bridge Euro: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors on European printing presses, for use on any paper. Colors in this variant have the code EC appended to their names. l Pantone Solid to Process: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors, for use on any paper. Colors in this variant have the code PC appended to their names. l Pantone Solid to Process Euro: This contains Pantone solid colors that reproduce well with process colors on European printing presses, for use on any paper. Colors in this variant have the code EC appended to their names. l HKS E: Use this HKS variant for continuous-form stationery. Colors in this variant have the code E appended to their names. l HKS E Process: Use this HKS variant for continuous-form stationery printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code E appended to their names. l HKS K: Use this HKS variant for glossy art paper (highly coated). Colors in this variant have the code K appended to their names l HKS K Process: Use this HKS variant for glossy art paper (highly coated) printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code K appended to their names. l HKS N: Use this HKS variant for natural paper (uncoated). Colors in this variant have the code N appended to their names. l HKS N Process: Use this HKS variant for natural paper (uncoated) printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code N appended to their names. l HKS Z: Use this HKS variant for newsprint. Colors in this variant have the code Z appended to their names. l HKS Z Process: Use this HKS variant for newsprint printed with process colors. Colors in this variant have the code Z appended to their names. Note When printing on uncoated stock with any colors designed for use on coated stock, you usually get weaker, less-saturated color reproduction. n Defining Colors and Tints InDesign comes with a few predefined colors: [Black], [Registration] (black on each negative for the printing press), [Paper] (white), [None] (transparent), and six common colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, red, green, and blue. So you most likely want to add a few of your own. 214