Introduction to AutoCAD 2011- P13

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Introduction to AutoCAD 2011- P13

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Introduction to AutoCAD 2011- P13: The purpose of writing this book is to produce a text suitable for students in Further and/or Higher Education who are required to learn how to use the computer-aided design (CAD) software package AutoCAD 2011. Students taking examinations based on CAD will find the contents of the book of great assistance.

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  1. 364 Introduction to AutoCAD 2010 2011 Hole Ø20 Ø30 chapter 1 45 R3 R35 140 100 R20 Ø20 15 40 Fig. 17.42 Exercise 6 7. An orthographic projection of the parts of a lathe steady is given in Fig. 17.43. From the dimensions shown in the drawing, construct an assembled 3D model of the lathe steady. When the 3D model has been completed, add suitable lighting and materials and render the model (Fig. 17.44). chapter 17 Dimensions in millimetres DO NOT SCALE THIS DRAWING 6 26 5 3 A 45 90° 30 BOSS Ø16 30 80 TAPPED M8 5 2 80° R24 16 40 13 M8 12 30�Ø10 Ø16 45 10 3 10 1 M10 Ø20 123 10 HOLES Ø10 63 Ø20 40 10 4 A M10 Ø20 98 13 Name: Scale: Date: Title: A. Student 1:1 15/03/2008 LATHE STEADY Fig. 17.43 Exercise 7 – details
  2. Introducing AutoCADspace Three-dimensional 2010 365 chapter 1 Fig. 17.44 Exercise 7 – a rendering 8. Construct suitable polylines to sizes of your own discretion in order to form the two surfaces to form the box shape shown in Fig. 17.45 with the aid of the Rulesurf tool. Add lighting and a material and render the surfaces so formed. Construct another three edgesurf surfaces to form a lid for the box. Place the surface in a position above the box, add a material and render (Fig. 17.46). Fig. 17.45 Exercise 8 – the box Fig. 17.46 Exercise 8 – the box and its lid chapter 17 9. Fig. 17.47 shows a polyline for each of the 4 objects from which the surface shown in Fig. 17.48 was obtained. Construct the surface and shade in Shades of Gray. 20 20 80 80 80 80 Fig. 17.47 Exercise 9 – one of the polylines from which the surface was obtained
  3. chapter 1 366 Introduction to AutoCAD 2010 2011 Fig. 17.48 Exercise 9 10. The surface model for this exercise was constructed from three edgesurf surfaces working to the suggested objects for the surface as shown in Fig. 17.49. The sizes of the outlines of the objects in each case are left to your discretion. Fig. 17.50 shows the completed surface model. Fig. 17.51 shows the three surfaces of the model separated from each other. ct 1 Obje Obje ct 2 Object 3 Ob jec t4 Object 1 Object 1 from its Object 2 front Obje ct 4 chapter 17 Object 3 Ob from its jec t3 front Fig. 17.49 Outlines for the three surfaces Fig. 17.50 Exercise 10 Fig. 17.51 The three surfaces
  4. Introducing AutoCADspace Three-dimensional 2010 367 chapter 1 11. Fig. 17.52 shows in a View Block/isometric view a semicircle of radius 25 constructed in the View Cube/Top view on a layer of colour Magenta with a semicircle of radius 75 constructed on the View Block/Front view with its left-hand end centred on the semicircle. Fig. 17.53 shows a surface constructed from the two semicircles in a Visual Styles/Realistic mode. Fig. 17.52 Exercise 11 – the circle and semicircle Fig. 17.53 Exercise 11 chapter 17
  5. Chapter 18 Editing 3D solid models Aims of this chApter The aims of this chapter are: 1. To introduce the use of tools from the Solid Editing panel. 2. To show examples of a variety of 3D solid models. 369
  6. 370 Introduction to AutoCAD 2011 the solid editing tools The Solid Editing tools can be selected from the Home/Solid Editing panel (Fig. 18.1). Fig. 18.1 The Home/Solid Editing panel Examples of the results of using some of the Solid Editing tools are shown in this chapter. These tools are of value if the design of a 3D solid model requires to be changed (edited), although some have a value in constructing parts of 3D solids which cannot easily be constructed using other tools. chapter 18 First example – Extrude faces tool (Fig. 18.3) 1. Set ISOLINES to 24. 2. In a ViewCube/Right view, construct a cylinder of radius 30 and height 30 (Fig. 18.3). 3. In a ViewCube/Front view, construct the pline (Fig. 18.2). Mirror the pline to the other end of the cylinder. Original cylinder R40 After extruding faces along paths 40 R4 0 Fig. 18.3 First 40 45 70 example – Extrude faces tool Fig. 18.2 First example – Extrude faces tool – first stages
  7. Editing 3D solid models 371 4. In a ViewCube/Top view, move the pline to lie central to the cylinder. 5. Place the screen in a ViewCube/Isometric view. 6. Click the Extrude faces tool icon in the Home/Solid Editing panel (Fig. 18.1). The command line shows: Command: _solidedit Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1 Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/ Undo/eXit] : _face Enter a face editing option [Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/ coLor/mAterial/Undo/eXit] : _extrude Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: pick the cylinder 2 faces found. Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: enter r right- click Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: right-click Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: enter p (Path)right-click Select extrusion path: pick the left-hand path pline Solid validation started. Solid validation completed. Enter a face editing option [Extrude/Move/Rotate/ Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/mAterial/Undo/ eXit] : right-click Command: 7. Repeat the operation using the pline at the other end of the cylinder as a path. chapter 18 8. Add lights and a material and render the 3D model (Fig. 18.3). Note Path - Note the prompt line which includes the statement SOLIDCHECK=1. a pline If the variable SOLIDCHECK is set on (to 1) the prompt lines include the lines SOLIDCHECK=1, Solid validation started and Solid Extruded hexagon of height 1 unit validation completed. If set to 0 these two lines do not show. Fig. 18.4 Second Second example – Extrude faces tool (Fig. 18.5) example – Extrude faces tool – pline for 1. Construct a hexagonal extrusion just 1 unit high in the ViewCube/Top. path 2. Change to the ViewCube/Front and construct the curved pline (Fig. 18.4).
  8. 372 Introduction to AutoCAD 2011 3. Back in the Top view, move the pline to lie central to the extrusion. 4. Place in the ViewCube/Isometric view and extrude the top face of the extrusion along the path of the curved pline. 5. Add lighting and a material to the model and render (Fig. 18.5). Note This example shows that a face of a 3D solid model can be extruded along any suitable path curve. If the polygon on which the extrusion had been based had been turned into a region, no extrusion could have taken place. The polygon had to be extruded to give a face to a 3D solid. Third example – Move faces tool (Fig. 18.6) 1. Construct the 3D solid drawing shown in the left-hand drawing of Fig. 18.6 from three boxes which have been united using the Union tool. 2. Click on the Move faces tool in the Home/Solid Editing panel (see Fig. 18.1). The command line shows: Command: _solidedit [prompts] _face Enter a face editing option [prompts]: _move Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: pick the model face 4 face found. Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: right-click Specify a base point or displacement: pick Specify a second point of displacement: pick Fig. 18.5 Second [further prompts]: chapter 18 example – Extrude faces tool And the picked face is moved – right-hand drawing of Fig. 18.6. Before After Move Faces Move Faces Fig. 18.6 Third example – Solid, Move faces tool
  9. Editing 3D solid models 373 Fourth example – Offset faces (Fig. 18.7) 1. Construct the 3D solid drawing shown in the left-hand drawing of Fig. 18.7 from a hexagonal extrusion and a cylinder which have been united using the Union tool. Original model Upper Face Side Face Offset Offset Bottom Face Offset Fig. 18.7 Fourth example – Offset faces tool 2. Click on the Offset faces tool icon in the Home/Solid Editing panel (Fig. 18.1). The command line shows: Command:_solidedit [prompts]:_face [prompts] chapter 18 [prompts]:_offset Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: pick the bottom face of the 3D model 2 faces found. Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: enter r right- click Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: pick highlighted faces other than the bottom face 2 faces found, 1 removed Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: right-click Specify the offset distance: enter 30 right-click 3. Repeat, offsetting the upper face of the cylinder by 50 and the right- hand face of the lower extrusion by 15. The results are shown in Fig. 18.9.
  10. 374 Introduction to AutoCAD 2011 Fifth example – Taper faces tool (Fig. 18.8) 1. Construct the 3D model as in the left-hand drawing of Fig. 18.8. Place in ViewCube/Isometric view. Before Taper Faces After Taper Faces Fig. 18.8 Fifth example – Taper faces tool 2. Call Taper faces. The command line shows: Command:_solidedit [prompts]:_face [prompts] [prompts]:_taper Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: pick the upper face of the base 2 faces found. Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: enter r right- click chapter 18 Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: pick highlighted faces other than the upper face 2 faces found, 1 removed Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: right-click Specify the base point: pick a point on left-hand edge of the face Specify another point along the axis of tapering: pick a point on the right-hand edge of the face Specify the taper angle: enter 10 right-click And the selected face tapers as indicated in the right-hand drawing of Fig. 18.8.
  11. Editing 3D solid models 375 Sixth example – Copy faces tool (Fig. 18.10) 1. Construct a 3D model to the sizes as given in Fig. 18.9. 180 R20 130 90 R20 R15 Ø50 All offsets are 5 Ø60 R50 20 5 250 Fig. 18.9 Sixth example – Copy Faces tool – details of the 3D solid model 2. Click on the Copy faces tool in the Home/Solid Editing panel (Fig. 18.1). The command line shows: Command:_solidedit [prompts]:_face [prompts] [prompts]:_copy Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: pick the upper face chapter 18 of the solid model 2 faces found. Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: enter r right- click Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: pick highlighted face not to be copied 2 faces found, 1 removed Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: right-click Specify a base point or displacement: pick anywhere on the highlighted face Specify a second point of displacement: pick a point some 50 units above the face 3. Add lights and a material to the 3D model and its copied face and render (Fig. 18.10).
  12. 376 Introduction to AutoCAD 2011 Before Copy Faces After Copy Faces Fig. 18.10 Sixth example – Copy faces tool Seventh example – Color faces tool (Fig. 18.12) 1. Construct a 3D model of the wheel to the sizes as shown in Fig. 18.11. 5 10 R5 50 Ø220 R90 Ø210 R70 Ø200 chapter 18 Ø40 R35 Fig. 18.11 Seventh example – Color faces tool – details of the 3D model 2. Click the Color faces tool icon in the Home/Solid Editing panel (Fig. 18.1). The command line shows: Command:_solidedit [prompts]:_face
  13. Editing 3D solid models 377 [prompts] [prompts]:_color Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: pick the inner face of the wheel 2 faces found Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: enter r right- click Select faces or [Undo/Remove/All]: pick highlighted faces other than the required face 2 faces found, 1 removed Enter new color : enter 1 (which is red) right-click 3. Add lights and a material to the edited 3D model and render (Fig. 18.12). Fig. 18.12 Seventh example – Color faces tool examples of more 3D models chapter 18 The following 3D models can be constructed in the 3d acadiso.dwt screen. The descriptions of the stages needed to construct them have been reduced from those given in earlier pages, in the hope that readers have already acquired a reasonable skill in the construction of such drawings. First example (Fig. 18.14) 1. Front view. Construct the three extrusions for the back panel and the two extruding panels to the details given in Fig. 18.13.
  14. 378 Introduction to AutoCAD 2011 100 Ø50 20 5 Fillets are R5 20 Hole Ø40 R25 Holes Ø20 R20 Ø40 R15 40 200 110 70 10 Pin 7.5 180 Fig. 18.13 First example – 3D models – details of sizes and shapes 2. Top view. Move the two panels to the front of the body and union the three extrusions. Construct the extrusions for the projecting parts holding the pin. 3. Front view. Move the two extrusions into position and union them to the back. 4. Top view. Construct two cylinders for the pin and its head. 5. Top view. Move the head to the pin and union the two cylinders. 6. Front view. Move the pin into its position in the holder. Add lights and materials. 7. Isometric view. Render. Adjust lighting and materials as necessary Fig. 18.14 First (Fig. 18.14). example – 3D models chapter 18 Second example (Fig. 18.16) 1. Top. (Fig. 18.15) Construct polyline outlines for the body extrusion and the solids of revolution for the two end parts. Extrude the body and subtract its hole and using the Revolve tool form the two end solids of revolution. 2. Right. Move the two solids of revolution into their correct positions relative to the body and union the three parts. Construct a cylinder for the hole through the model. 3. Front. Move the cylinder to its correct position and subtract from the model. 4. Top. Add lighting and a material. 5. Isometric. Render (Fig. 18.16).
  15. Editing 3D solid models 379 10 160 20 25 25 60 5 25 10 60 Ø30 Ø40 Hole Ø60 R40 Hole Ø20 Ø40 Fig. 18.15 Second example – 3D models dimensions Fig. 18.16 Second example – 3D models Third example (Fig. 18.18) 1. Front. Construct the three plines needed for the extrusions of each part of the model (details Fig. 18.17). Extrude to the given heights. Subtract chapter 18 the hole from the 20 high extrusion. R40 Hole Ø20 R60 R10 80 40 25 10 60 20 10 60 70 90 Fig. 18.17 Third example – 3D models – details of shapes and sizes
  16. 380 Introduction to AutoCAD 2011 2. Top. Move the 60 extrusion and the 10 extrusion into their correct positions relative to the 20 extrusion. With Union form a single 3D model from the three extrusions. 3. Add suitable lighting and a material to the model. 4. Isometric. Render (Fig. 18.18). Fig. 18.18 Third example – 3D models Fourth example (Fig. 18.19) 1. Front. Construct the polyline – left-hand drawing of Fig. 18.19. 1 50 Detail at A A chapter 18 Axis 160 R500 15 5 5 Fig. 18.19 Fourth example – 3D models 2. With the Revolve tool from the Home/3D Modeling panel construct a solid of revolution from the pline. 3. Top. Add suitable lighting a coloured glass material. 4. Isometric. Render – right-hand illustration of Fig. 18.19.
  17. Introducing AutoCAD 2010 Editing 3D solid models 381 Exercises chapter 1 Methods of constructing answers to the following exercises can be found in the free website: http://books.elsevier.com/companions/978-0-08-096575-8 1. Working to the shapes and dimensions as 2. Working to the dimensions given in the given in the orthographic projection of Fig. orthographic projections of the three parts 18.20, construct the exploded 3D model as of this 3D model (Fig. 18.22), construct the shown in Fig. 18.21. When the model has assembled as shown in the rendered 3D been constructed add suitable lighting and model (Fig. 18.23). Add suitable lighting apply materials, followed by rendering. and materials, place in one of the isometric viewing position and render the model. 15 80 10 148 0.10" Hole Ø10 Ø1.65 Hole Ø50 R6.10" Holes Ø10 80 M0.70" 1.25" Ø0.70" 160 80 Ø1.05" 0.90" 10 70 Ø60 Ø30 75 Ø20 Ø40 230 Holes Ø10 R5 0.30" 2.20" 0.60" 0.40" R10 Ø1.05" Ø0.80" Ø125 Ø80 Ø50 3.50" 0.55" 245 5.25" 35 12.5 Fig. 18.20 Exercise 1 – orthographic projection Fig. 18.22 Exercise 2 – details of shapes and sizes chapter 18 Fig. 18.21 Exercise 1 – rendered 3D model Fig. 18.23 Exercise 2
  18. 382 Introduction to AutoCAD 2010 2011 3. Construct the 3D model shown in the rendering (Fig. 18.24) from the details given in the parts drawing chapter 1 (Fig. 18.25). 135 20 R10 10 30 Holes Ø10 ARM 10 Ø20 10 155 M15 BOLTS 60 5 10 Ø120 50 15 200 R15 200 Holes Ø15 UPRIGHT 140 R300 R5 Ø110 R15 R95 R105 BASE Tapped M15 Fig. 18.24 Exercise 3 Fig. 18.25 Exercise 3 – the parts drawing 4. A more difficult exercise. chapter 18 A rendered 3D model of the parts of an assembly is R20 12.5 shown in Fig. 18.26. 275 40 15 R105 Hole Ø50 R115 5 15 5 Holes Ø10 Ø70 112.5 SQ 150 Ø110 20 5 Fig. 18.26 Exercise 4 – first orthographic projection
  19. Introducing AutoCAD 2010 Editing 3D solid models 383 Working to the details given in the three orthographic projections (Figs 18.26–18.28), construct the two chapter 1 parts of the 3D model, place them in suitable positions relative to each other, add lighting and materials and render the model (Fig. 18.29). Fillets are R2 Hole Ø10 Ø15 10 10 15 85 65 Fig. 18.27 Exercise 4 – third orthographic projections Holes Ø30 Hole Ø40 R60 10 Fig. 18.29 Exercise 4 R5 50 55 50 27.5 R40 92.5 152.5 chapter 18 15 200 Ø50 15 Fig. 18.28 Exercise 4 – second orthographic projection
  20. Chapter 19 Other features of 3D modeling Aims of this chApter The aims of this chapter are: 1. To give a further example of placing raster images in an AutoCAD drawing. 2. To give examples of methods of printing or plotting not given in previous chapters. 3. To give examples of polygonal viewports. 385
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