Kiến thức và Công cụ quản lý trong năm 2007

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Kiến thức và Công cụ quản lý trong năm 2007

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For two decades now, executives have witnessed an explosion of managementtools, ranging from Knowledge Management to Strategic Alliances. That burstwas fueled by their need to successfully navigate an increasingly competitivemarketplace. With operations spanning the globe, companies have become morecomplex, adding to the challenging decisions corporate leaders face. Fortunately,they now have an expanded toolset at their fingertips, thanks to the emergenceof faster, less expensive information delivery systems. Executives must be more knowledgeable than ever as they sort through the optionsand select the right management tools for their companies. The selection processitself can be as complicated as the business issues they need...

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  1. Kiến thức và Công cụ quản lý trong năm 2007 (Management Tools 2007, An Executive's Guide) For two decades now, executives have witnessed an explosion of managementtools, ranging from Knowledge Management to Strategic Alliances. That burstwas fueled by their need to successfully navigate an increasingly competitivemarketplace. With operations spanning the globe, companies have become morecomplex, adding to the challenging decisions corporate leaders face. Fortunately,they now have an expanded toolset at their fingertips, thanks to the emergenceof faster, less expensive information delivery systems. Executives must be more knowledgeable than ever as they sort through the optionsand select the right management tools for their companies. The selection processitself can be as complicated as the business issues they need to solve. They mustchoose the tools that will best help them make business decisions that lead toenhanced processes, products and services—and result in superior performanceand profits.
  2. Successful use of such tools requires understanding the strengths and weaknessesof each tool, as well as an ability to creatively integrate the right tools, in the rightway, at the right time. The secret is not in discovering one magic device,but inlearning which mechanism to use, how to use it, and when. In the absenceofobjective data, groundless hype makes choosing and using management tools adangerous game of chance. To help inform managers about the tools available to them, in 1993 Bain & Company launched a multiyear research project to gatherfacts about the use and performance of management tools. Our objective was toprovide managers with: •An understanding of how their current application of these tools and subse-quent results compare with those of other organizations across industriesand around the globe; •The information they need to identify, select, implement and integrate theright tools to improve their company’s performance. Every year or two since, we’ve interviewed senior managers and conducted researchto identify 25 of the most popular and pertinent management tools. We’ve definedthe tools in this guide and, based on a
  3. detailed survey of managers, we explain howthe tools are being used. We determine the rate of success for each tool. We alsoconduct one-on-one follow-up interviews to learn the circumstances in which eachtool is most likely to produce the desired results. Balanced Scorecard Related topics •Management by Objectives and Vision Statements •Pay for Performance •Strategic Balance Sheet Description A Balanced Scorecard defines what management means by “performance” and measures whether management is achievingdesired results. The Balanced Scorecard translates Mission andVision Statements into a comprehensive set of objectives andperformance measures that can be quantified and appraised.Thesemeasures typically include the following categories of performance:
  4. •Financial performance (revenues, earnings, return oncapital, cash flow); •Customer value performance (market share, customersatisfaction measures, customer loyalty); •Internal business process performance (productivityrates, quality measures, timeliness); •Innovation performance (percent of revenue from newproducts, employee suggestions, rate of improvement index); •Employee performance (morale, knowledge, turnover,use of best demonstrated practices). Methodology To construct and implement a Balanced Scorecard,managers should: •Articulate the business’s vision and strategy; •Identify the performance categories that best linkthe business’s vision and strategy to its results (e.g., financial performance, operations, innovation,employee performance);
  5. •Establish objectives that support the business’svision and strategy; •Develop effective measures and meaningful standards,establishing both short-term milestones and long-term targets; •Ensure companywide acceptance of the measures; •Create appropriate budgeting, tracking, communication,and reward systems; •Collect and analyze performance data and compare actualresults with desired performance; •Take action to close unfavorable gaps. Common uses A Balanced Scorecard is used to: • Clarify or update a business’s strategy; • Link strategic objectives to long-term targets and annual budgets; • Track the key elements of the business strategy; • Incorporate strategic objectives into resource allocation processes; • Facilitate organizational change; • Compare performance of geographically diverse business units; Benchmarking
  6. Description Benchmarking improves performance by identifying andapplying best demonstrated practices to operations and sales.Managers compare the performance of their products orprocesses externally with those of competitors and best-in-classcompanies and internally with other operations within theirown firms that perform similar activities. The objective ofBenchmarking is to find examples of superior performanceand to understand the processes and practices driving thatperformance. Companies then improve their performance by tailoring and incorporating these best practices into theirown operations—not by imitating, but by innovating Methodology Benchmarking involves the following steps: •Select a product, service or process to benchmark; •Identify the key performance metrics; •Choose companies or internal areas to benchmark; •Collect data on performance and practices; •Analyze the data and identify opportunities for improvement;
  7. •Adapt and implement the best practices, setting reasonablegoals and ensuring company-wide acceptance. Common uses Companies use Benchmarking to: • Improve performance. Benchmarking identifies methods of improving operational efficiency and product design; •Understand relative cost position.Benchmarking reveals acompany’s relative cost position and identifies opportunitiesfor improvement; •Gain strategic advantage.Benchmarking helps companiesfocus on capabilities critical to building strategic advantage; •Increase the rate of organizational learning.Benchmarkingbrings new ideas into the company and facilitatesexperience sharing.
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