Megacities and Climate Change

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Megacities and Climate Change

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All rights reserved to LEAD International Nothing from this publication may be reproduced, stored in a computerised system or published in any form or in any manner, including electronic, mechanical, reprographic or photographic, without prior written permission from the publisher; LEAD International Sundial House 114 Kensington High Street London W8 4NP UK The individual contributions in this publication and any liabilities arising from them remain the responsibility of the authors. The publisher is not responsible for possible damages, which could be a result...

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  1. LEAD International 2008 Megacities and Climate Change Sustainable urban living in a changing world
  2. 1 Megacities and Climate Change Sustainableurbanlivinginachangingworld Contents Preface 2 All rights reserved to LEAD International Foreword 3 Nothing from this publication may be reproduced, stored in a computerised system or published in any form or in any manner, including electronic, mechanical, reprographic or photographic, without prior written Introduction 5 permission from the publisher; LEAD International Chapter 1Energy 8 Sundial House 114 Kensington High Street London W8 4NP UK Chapter 2TransportandUrbanMobility 20 The individual contributions in this publication and any liabilities arising from them remain Chapter 3WaterandSanitation 30 the responsibility of the authors. The publisher is not responsible for possible damages, which could be a result of content derived from this Chapter 4LanduseandUrbanPlanning 38 publication. This publication was prepared for LEAD with contributions from the following LEAD Fellows Key Messages 49 Patricia Avila LEAD Mexico Bharati Chaturvedi LEAD India Nick Harrison LEAD Europe Useful Links 50 Tiyok Prasetyoadi LEAD Indonesia Melita Rogelj LEAD Europe Theresa Subban LEAD South Eastern Africa Authors 53 Erin Silsbe LEAD Canada Edited by Fernando Monteiro, Boris Graizbord, Manuela Bucciarelliand Nick Harrison About LEAD 55
  3. 2 3 Foreword Thebirthofthe21stcenturyinauguratedthe firstageofcities,theUrbanAge.Withover halftheworld’spopulationnowlivinginan Megacities and Climate Change urbancentre,questionsabouthowwelive, work,andmoveareincreasinglyfocusedon thephysicalformofcitiesandtheirgreater Preface metropolitanregions.Ascentresfor knowledge,citiesareincubatorsforchange. For the first time in human history, more people are living in urban Theyarealsothetestinggroundforcultural areas than rural ones. This unprecedented and ongoing transition regenerationandsocialintegration, coincides with alarming degradation of the natural environment. providingjobs,accesstoeducationand healthcareforalargepercentageofthepoor thedevelopedanddevelopingworldpose With so many cities already experiencing the early impacts of andtheemergingmiddleclass.Asthe difficultquestionsabouthowtomanage climate change there is an urgent need for action. largestemitterofcarbonemissions,cities urbangrowthinthe21stcentury.Avoiding exertanenormousinfluenceon themistakesmadeinNorthAmericancities, As climate change becomes more apparent it will have massive environmentalpressuresresultingfrom whereurbanisationcoincidedwithalove climatechange.Andwiththeintuitive affairwiththecarisprovingtobeoneofthe implications for urban living across the world. Key urban services rural-urbanmigrationcontinuingunabated, mostcomplexchallenges.Foodshortages, like transport, water, energy and land use will all be adversely citiesarethebattlefieldonwhichthefuture naturaldisastersandwidespreadinequality affected. But while “business as usual” points to a disastrous future, ofhumanitywillbefought. poseevengreaterthreatstothe40percent there are opportunities to be had from a different approach. With oftheworld’spopulationlivingonlessthan Whichurbanformsbestaccommodatethe US$2aday.Themostvulnerableliveinthe the right leadership, cities offer the potential to be critical leverage increasinglydiverseconstituencieslivingin developingworld,wherethoseleastableto points for achieving a transition towards a more sustainable future. citiestoday?Andhowcantheruleoflaw protectthemselvescontributetheleastto If we can work towards making cities respond to the coming reconcilethetensionsbetweenspatialand theworldwidetotalemissionsof challenges in a radical and far sighted way, the implications for socialdisorder?UrbanAge,ajointinitiative greenhousegases.TheUN’sHuman oftheLondonSchoolofEconomicsand DevelopmentReportcitesthatonan sustainability could be deep and profound. PoliticalScienceandDeutscheBank’sAlfred averageannualbasis,onein19people HerrhausenSociety,isestablishinganew livinginthedevelopingworldwasaffected How can cities adapt to the coming changes? How can cities point agendaforthefutureofcitiesinorderto byaclimatedisasterinthefirstyearsofthe the way to a different kind of low-carbon future? What lessons promotethegrowthandsustainable 21stcentury. developmentofglobalcitiesinthe can be learnt from experiences in the South and North? What developedanddevelopingworld.This Temperatureincreasesanddepletionofthe kind of leadership is required to identify, promote and deliver agendaisbeingcreatedinpartnershipwith earth’snaturalcapitalwillonlyexacerbate the required changes? governmentagencies,researchinstitutions, theintensityandfrequencyofclimate privatecorporationsandcivilsociety disasters.Thatbetterlivingconditionscan organisationsattheinternational,central, beamelioratedbyadvancesinsustainable Building on the diversity of experience, which is the trademark regional,stateandlocallevels.By urbandevelopmentispoorlyunderstood. of the global LEAD network, this publication brings together LEAD integratingtransversalthemessuchas Toooftenpolicymakers,practitionersand Fellows who are working in the front line of efforts to promote housing,migration,transportinfrastructure, communityactivistslacktheknowledgeand sustainability and urban living in very different contexts around inequalityandviolence,includingthe skill-settocreatemoresociallyand impacttheseissueshaveonthecreation economicallycohesivecommunities.Thisis the world, to explore some of the challenges and potential solutions andmaintenanceofpublicspace,UrbanAge becauseofthedeepfragmentationthat to what needs to be done. ischartingthefutureofcitiesandclimate existswithintheprofessionsandbetween changeisattheforefrontofthisagenda. variouslevelsofgovernment,butalso Focussing on the importance of leadership, LEAD’s main aim is to becausetheplanningprocessand Urbangrowthpatternsandnetworksdefine developmentpoliciestypicallydonot contribute to the debate by promoting an exchange of views about theglobalpoliticaleconomy.UnitedNations adequatelyintegrateenvironmental the role leadership plays in addressing climate change in large cities projectionsforaworldpopulationofnine considerationsorprioritisesocial and urban areas. We hope we can inspire and inform stakeholders and billionby2050couldseeasmanyas75per infrastructureearlyenough.Ittakesa decision makers to rise to the leadership challenge and act to secure centlivingincities.AfricaandAsiaarethe multi-sectorapproach,onesynthesising maindriversofthisincreaseasLatin financialandsocialimperativesaswellas a sustainable future for our cities and the people who live in them. America,EuropeandNorthAmericahave theenvironmentandphysicalform,to beenover75percenturbanisedsince2000. respondtotheunpredictablechallenges LEAD International Evenso,bothsmallandlargecitiesacross causedbyclimatechange.
  4. 4 5 Policieswhichcombatsprawlandinstitute betterwatermanagementandlanduse lowerrates(typically2%to3%).These policiescancreatemorecohesiveurban countriesareusuallybetterfinanciallyand environmentsandimprovequalityoflife. organisationallyequippedtorespondtothe Sincebuildingsconsumeclosetohalfthe governanceandinfrastructurechallenges world’senergy,technologicalinnovations ofsuchgrowthandprovideserviceslike andmaterialapplications,aswellas transportation,water,energyandsecurity.2 Introduction increasedself-sufficiency,canhelp Inbothcases,publicadministrationsface reduceenergydemandsandeachcitizen’s considerablechallengesdue,notonlyto Megacities and Climate Change ecologicalfootprint.Butwedonothave lackofresources,butalsotolackofcapacity tostartfromscratch.Recyclingspaces, whereitmattersmost,atthelocalthelevel. materialsandinfrastructure,remediating brownfieldsandincreasingdensityare “Whenweseeverydarkcloudsupthehills,  Inthenext50years,whenglobalpopulation readilyavailabletoolswhichhelpretrofit weexpectheavyrainstocome.Soweget growthstabilisesduetoadrasticreduction oururbanenvironmentsforincreased ourselvespreparedbytransferringour inbothbirthanddeathrates,themost Coordinatedaction,pairedwithimmediate populationgrowthandbetterdesigned valuablethingsonourveryhighbedswhich denselypopulated,populousandsocially interventionsandlong-termgoals,offers environments.Recyclingincreasesthe arereachedbyclimbingladders.Also fragmentedoftheseurbanagglomerations convincingresultsabouttheeffectiveness wealthofallurbancitizens.Conservation Integratedplanning–allowingpeopleto childrenwhosleeponthefloorare willbelocatedinthedevelopingworld. ofintegrateddevelopmentplans.Evidence strategiesneednotbeacharacteristic liveclosertowheretheywork,providing transferredtothehighbeds.”  Alreadymorethanhalfoftheworld’s isfoundintheAlexandraRenewalPlan onlyofthepoor,bornoutofnecessity publictransportnearhousing,jobsand populationnowliveinurbanareasandat inJohannesburg,whereaccountabilityto orpublicmandate.Itcanbeacultural therequisitesocialinfrastructure–arevital MrsFatuTuray,KrooBaycommunity, thebeginningofthiscentury,almostonein jointadministrativeandpoliticalbodies valuesharedbyall. elementsforthecreationofsustainable Freetown,SierraLeone.1 tenofuswaslivinginoneof35megacities, recognisesthatregenerationfails cities.Compact,mixed-use,well-connected. 20ofwhicharelocatedinAsia,teninthe whenapproachestocitybuildingare Leadership,ofcourse,makesthedifference. Thesequalities,pairedwithashared Duringthepast50yearsmostlowand Americas,threeinEuropeandtwoinAfrica.3 uncoordinated.Congestionchargingin Bettergovernedcitiesarebetterequipped responsibilityamongmultiplegovernment middle-incomenationshaveexperienced Londonprovidesanexemplarymodel todealwiththethreatsofclimatechange agencies,businessleaders,policymakers, exceptionaldemographicgrowthwith Thisscenarioraisesconcerns,particularly forsustainableurbandevelopment,with sincethemostvulnerablecitiesarethose academicsandurbanpractitionersand somecitiesundergoingmassivephysical whenweconsidertheanticipatedimpact privatecarownershiptamedinfavourof inwhichdevelopmentdoesnotwork.Yet facilitatedbyintergenerationalexchange, expansion.Thisprocesshasbeen ofclimatechange.Climatechangewill increasedinvestmentinpublictransport thechallengeconfrontingpolicymakers willproducedynamicandrewardingresults accompaniedbyalargeincreasein requireadaptationsinthewaycitiesare andpublicspace.Furtherevidencecanbe andpractitionersisnottogetdevelopment intheworld’sfinancialandculturalnerve thenumberofurbandwellerslivingin managedinordertoensuretheymaintain foundinthecaseofBogotá’sTransMilenio rightfirst,andadjustfortheimpactof centres.Ourcommontaskistofulfilthe povertyandlackingprovisionofthebasic livingstandardsandremainattractivetothe busrapidtransitsystem,firstimplemented climatechangeafter.Policiesandagencies hopefulpromiseofurbanlife,andnotlet infrastructureandservicesthatshould investmentandhumanresourcesnecessary inthesmallerscaledCuritibaandthen mustbealignedandgovernmentleaders ourcitiesbecomehopelessfailures.The protectthemfrommostoftheearly tosupportsustainabledevelopment. adoptedinthemega-metropolisofMexico mustensurethatdevelopmentpriorities nextgenerationmustbebroughtintothis impactsofclimatechange.Morethanone Megacities,aswellasrapidgrowingcities City,whichcutcommutingtimesinhalf. areintegratedandmonitoredthroughout effortearly.Throughthepushandpull billionurbandwellersliveinpoor-quality, intheSoutharemorevulnerabletosuch Thisboldmovedemonstratedhowsocial allstagesofaproject.Ecologicallyand betweengovernmentsandcitizens,private overcrowdedhousingin‘slums’orinformal impactsandarelesswellequippedto andeconomicmobilitycanimprovequality economicallysustainablecommunities interestsandpublicintervention,public settlements,andahighproportionofthese adapt,bothorganisationallyandfinancially. oflifewhilealsoreducingtheimpactof canonlybecreatedthroughtheactive participationthroughallthestagesofcity settlementsareonsitesatriskfromflooding humanactivityontheearth. participationfromawiderangeof makingwilleasethechallengeofgetting orlandslides. Competitiveness and vulnerability communitystakeholdersfromthe thedetailsright. of Megacities Citiescontributeover80percentofthe beginning.Governmentsmustbe Manylowandmiddleincomecountries Twointerrelatedfactorswillaffecttheway world’scarbonemissions.Pollutionfrom willingtoshareinformationandideas, Urban Age Programme arenowundergoingrapidurbanisation,and megacitiesinthedevelopingworldmay London School of Economics and industrialactivityandtransport,inefficient andallowforcontinuousinvestmentin Political Sciences – Deutsche Bank’s duetotheirparticularsocialandeconomic respondtothechallengesposedbyclimate buildingperformanceorfuelefficiency aflexible,adaptiveurbaninfrastructure. Alfred Herrhausen Society developmentcharacteristics,thisprocess changeinthecomingyears.Ononehand, standards,andpoormanagementof posesdistinctivechallengestopolicy megacitiesaretheenginesofglobalisation, theearth’snaturalcapitalcanseemlike makers.Lowincomenationsarefacedwith drivingtheflowofpeople,goods, insurmountabletasks.Yetasrecentlyas urbanisationintheformofemergingcities knowledge,andmoneyaroundtheworld. 20yearsago,NewYorkCitydumpedthe whichhavehighpopulationgrowthratesin Ontheotherhandtheyalsoembodyhuge dumped the majority of the city’s raw human waste OppositeAs recently as 20 years ago, New York City majorityofthecity’srawhumanwaste largelyinformalsettlementsandareoften inequalitiesinthedistributionofwealth, directlyintoitsrivernetwork.Although unsupportedbyestablishedinfrastructure economicopportunityandexposureto thispracticecontinuesincitiesacrossthe orservices.Withgrowthratesbetween3% risks.Tenoftheworld’smosteconomically globe,localandinternationalenvironmental to6%peryear,theseemergingcitiesare importantcitiesareresponsiblefor20%of groups,recognisingtheirroleaswatch- typicallyfoundwithincountriesundergoing theglobalgrossdomesticproduct(GDP)and guard,arehelpingtochangebehaviour. demographictransitionfromruraltourban inseveralcountriesmegacitiescontribute directly into its river network. Civicparticipation,inamultitudeofforms, areas.Peoplelivinginthesecitiestendto toaconsiderableportionofthecountry’s isfundamentaltoeffectivegovernance. beyounger,predominatelymalewithlow output.Forexample,Tokyoishometo28% Participatorybudgetingandcommunity levelsofeducationandtheyexperience oftheJapanesepopulation,andaccountsfor advocacyfacilitateincreasedcommunication, considerableinequalitiesinwealth,health, 40%ofthecountry’sGDP.Inthedeveloping individualaccountabilityandcollective educationandpoliticalpower.Inmiddle world,Lagosishometo8%ofNigeria’s activismtosupportacultureofshared incomenations,establishedcitiesalso populationbutcontributes30%ofthe responsibility. facecontinuedpopulationgrowthbutat country’soutput.Consideringtheir
  5. Themajorityofdamagecausedby 6 7 havetoliveinsitesmoreexposedtodanger climatechangehashadfargreater importancefornationaleconomies andgrowth,megacitieshavetoremain fromclimatechangeimpacts.Theyare oftenunabletomovetolessdangerous impactonlowandmiddleincome competitiveinordertoattractinvestment. Toattractinvestment,thesecitiesneed areasasthemorevulnerablesitesare oftentheonlyplaceswheretheurbanpoor populations,largelyduetotheir modern,efficientinfrastructures.They requireeffectivetransportationsystems, canfindaffordablehousingorbuildtheir ownhomes.Majorchangesaretherefore increasedvulnerabilityfromliving moderninformationandcommunication technology(ICT)andprovisionofbasic urgentlyrequiredinhowgovernments (particularlythoseinlowandmiddle inhazardousconditions. servicessuchaswaterandsanitation,access incomecountries)improvetheresilience Megacities and Climate Change toqualityhousing,education oftheirinfrastructureandeconomiesto andelectricity.Equallyimportantisthe dealwiththescaleofanticipatedclimate availabilityofskilledlabourandgovernance changeimpacts.Nationalandcity systemsthatensureanenvironment governmentsneedtofocusnotonlyon attractivetoinvestors. How climate change will increase urban improvingtheirabilitytorespondtothe vulnerability and affect the poor earlyimpactsofclimatechange,butalso How Climate Change may affect Thevulnerabilityofurbanpopulationsto supportmeasureswhichreducetheir urban competitiveness extremeweathereventshasbeenvividly vulnerabilitytofuturerisks. Themostinfluentialdriverforurbanisationis highlightedinrecentyearsbytheincrease whereneworincreasingprivateinvestment incausalitiesandmajoreconomiclosses Leadership and climate change flows.Theflowofinvestmenthasastrong resultingfromhurricanes,stormsandfloods. in rapidly urbanising settings influenceonhowindividualurbanareas Scientificevidencepredictsthatsuchevents Leadershiptocopewiththechallenges develop,andtheircompetitivenesslargely willreoccurwithincreasingfrequency presentedbyclimatechangehavetotake dependsonhowattractivetheyareto andbeaccompaniedbyotherimpacts placeacrossallsectorsandlevels.Local investors.Urbanareasvulnerableto suchasheatwaves,reductionsinfreshwater authorities,businessesandcommunitiesall disruptionfromtheimpactsofclimate availabilityandsea-levelrise,whichisa haveacrucialroletoplayinthisprocessas What lies ahead: challenges and changewillclearlybelessattractiveas particularchallengeforcoastalcities.The adaptationtoclimatechangerequireslocal Equally,leadershipisrequiredfromthe constraints in addressing urban theyrepresentahigherinvestmentrisk. majorityofdamagecausedbysuchevents knowledge,localskillsandlocalcapacity privatesectorbecauseoftheimportant vulnerability to climate change Suchdisruptionalsoposesathreattourban hashadfargreaterimpactonlowand toensuresolutionsareassustainable contributionsthatbusinessesandinvestors Someinnovativepoliciesandpractices economiesasexistingbusinessesand middleincomepopulations,largelydue aspossible.Weneedhouseholdsand canmakeinenablingtheimplementation (largelydevelopedbycommunitybased investorsmaydecidetomoveelsewhere totheirincreasedvulnerabilityfrom communityorganisationswiththe ofadaptationmeasures.Thisincludesnot andurbanpovertyorganisations)have tomitigatedisruptiontotheiroperations livinginhazardousconditionswithpoor knowledge,capacityandwilltoactanda onlyadaptingtheirownoperationsand shownthatitispossibletoreduce andrisktotheirinvestments.Evenifsuch infrastructureandinadequatehousing. willingnessamonglocalauthoritiestopay infrastructurebutalsoindevelopinggoods vulnerabilitytotheimpactsofclimate operationsarenotdirectlyaffectedbyan AccordingtoSatterthwaite5,lowerincome specialattentiontothevulnerabilityof andservicesthatenableindividuals, changeatrelativelylowcost.Therearealso extremeweatherevent,theindirect groupswillbeaffectedhardestbecause lower-incomegroups.Tobesuccessfulin communitiesandgovernmentstoadapt. anincreasingnumberofexampleswhere impactsanddisruptiontoinfrastructure theyaremoreexposedtohazardsand adaptingtoclimatechange,aprofoundshift Extendingappropriatefinancialservices localgovernmentsworkinginpartnership andsupply-chainsorinconvenienceto possesslesscapacitytoadapt.Theyhave needstohappeninthewaylocalauthorities (particularlytolower-incomegroups)can withlow-incomegroupshavesuccessfully staffmayencouragemovementelsewhere lessstateprovisiontohelpthemcope,less engagewithlow-incomeurbandwellers, helphouseholdstoinvestinsaferhomes improvedinfrastructure,housingconditions, orthechoiceofnewlocationswhen legalprotectionandlessprotectionfrom whoaretheonesmostseverelyaffectedby andbuildbetterlivelihoodswhichinturn anddevelopednew,good-quality enterprisesexpand.4 insurance.Inurbanareas,suchgroupsoften itsimpacts. strengthenresilienceandtheabilityto settlements.Eventhoughclimatechange adapt.Insurancewhilstnotonlyprotecting oftencompeteswithotherdemandsplaced buildingsandinfrastructure–ifappropriately oncitygovernmentsandnationalministries, structured–canalsobeusedtoencourage liketheprovisionofbasicinfrastructure, riskreduction.6 servicesandadequatehousing,webelieve theseissuesshouldbeapproachedfroman 1 million inhabitants, new megacities with over 10 million people Finally,civilsocietyandcitizensorganisations integratedperspectiveandaddressedtaking While every region of the world has a number of cities with over are developing across Asia, Africa, Central and South America. haveanimportantroletoplay.Participation climatechangeintoconsideration. ©UrbanAge,LondonSchoolofEconomics,www.urban-age.net mustfullytakeintoaccount,andallowfor, theinvolvementofdiversecommunities Thispublicationexploreshowmegacities andthoserepresentingexcludedgroups andrapidlygrowingcitiesarerespondingto suchaswomen,theelderlyandtheyoung. theurbandevelopmentchallenges Newtechnologiesandmethodsof presentedbyclimatechange.Itprovides communicationcanencourageandsupport examplesandcasestudiesofsuccessful 1Douglas,Ian,KurshidAlam,MaryAnneMaghenda, moreinteractivepolicyenvironments; initiativeshighlightingtheleadership YasminMcdonnell,LouiseMcLeanandJackCampbell(2008), ‘Unjustwaters:climatechange,floodingandtheurbanpoor bringinggovernmentclosertothepeopleit requiredtotacklethisglobalproblem.The inAfrica’,EnvironmentandUrbanization,Vol.20,No.1. serves.Theinstitutionalandfinancial followingchaptersofferarangeofinsights 2Foracomprehensivedescriptionofmegacitiesarchetypes seethereport‘MegacitiesChallenges–astakeholderperspective’ arrangementsrequiredtocopewithclimate andexamplesofinnovativesolutionsto byGlobescanandMRCMcLeanHazel. 3Graizbord,B.‘Megacities,MetropolitanAreasandLocal changemustbedesignedtoensureahigha challengesinfourareasofurban Governments’LEADMexico,ElColegiodeMexico. degreeofequityandequalopportunity developmentthatwillbesignificantly 4Satterthwaite,D.etal‘AdaptingtoClimateChangeinUrbanAreas: Thepossibilitiesandconstraintsinlow-andmiddle-incomenations’ amongthediversesocialgroupswhich affectedbyclimatechange:waterand HumanSettlementsGroupandtheClimateChangeGroupatthe makeupurbanpopulations.Thiswillalso sanitation;energy;transportandurban InternationalInstituteforEnvironmentandDevelopment(IIED)2008. 5Satterthwaite,D.etalop.cit. requiregreaterpoolingofresources. mobility;landuseandurbanplanning. 6Satterthwaite,D.etalop.cit.
  6. Energy 1
  7. Apersonlivinginoneoftheworld’s 10 11 highestincomecountriesusesaround 22timesasmuchenergyassomeone livinginoneoftheworld’slowest incomecountries. Megacities and Climate Change Chapter1 Energy  However,ithasbecomeincreasingly apparentevenforthefortunateminority, thatthisfossilfuelpoweredapproachto developmentsuffersfromtwomajorflaws. Firstly,fossilfuelsarebecomingscarcer, moreexpensiveandwillsoonbeunable tosatisfytheincreasingenergydemands ofagrowingglobalpopulation.Secondly theprocessweusetotransformthese fuelsintoproductsandserviceswevalueis causingdestabilisationoftheglobalclimate makingpartsoftheplanetincreasingly inhospitableforhumanbeingstosurvive. Thesetwoflawsarecurrentlyamongthe Weuseenergyincitiesinamultitudeof mostdemandingdevelopmentchallenges ways.Someareobvioussuchasillumination, wefaceasaglobalcommunity.Weknow heatingandcooling,motivepower,and theenergysourceswe’veusedtoenable electricity.Andsomearelessobvioussuch economicandsocialdevelopmentare asenergywhichishiddenor‘embedded’ finiteandweknowthatusingtheminthe intheproductionofbuildings,infrastructure, wayswehave,andonthescalewehave,is food,clothingandalltheotherstuffwe causingdangerous(andpossiblyirreversible) Context usetosatisfyourneedsanddesiresfor imbalancesinglobalecosystems.Yetwe security,comfortandfulfilment.Ofallthese continuetogrowinnumber,andsotoo Nick Harrison and Melita Rogelj uses,providingelectricityandheatingis doesourthirstforenergy.3 responsibleforaroundonequarterofall Thesupplyandcontroloffossilfuelshas Ofallhumanactivityknowntocontribute human-inducedgreenhousegasemissions.1 playedadefiningroleinshapingthepolitical Ourcurrentpathisclearlyunsustainable toclimatechange,satisfyingourdemand andeconomiclandscapeoftheworldover andthisislargelybecausewearemaking within and by buildings and the relatively high initial cost of PreviouspageMost of the energy demanded in cities is used energy efficient buildings has historically acted as a strong forprimaryenergyisbyfarthegreatest. Itwillcomeaslittlesurprisethatthereis thepasttwocenturies.Manyoftoday’s amessofhowwemanageenergy.4 disincentive to widespread deployment. Tokyo, Japan. Generatingover70%ofthisenergyby considerablevariationintheintensitywith mosteconomicallyandpoliticallypowerful Therefore,amajorpartofhowwesolve burningfossilfueloil,coalandnatural whichenergyisusedacrosstheplanet. countriesconsumemoreenergyand theseproblemsmustinvolvechanging gas,1energygenerationofthiskindis Aswithgreenhousegasemissions,energy producemoregreenhousegasemissions howwemanageenergy.Inparticular Fortunatelymanysolutionstothese nowresponsibleforaround60%ofour usegenerallycorrelateswithacountry’s perpersonlargelybecauseharnessing howwemanageitinourcities.We problemsalreadyexist.Fordecades greenhousegasemissionsworldwide.2 incomeandlevelofdevelopment.For theenergyreleasedthroughburningfossil needpracticalsolutionsandweneed now,peopleacrosstheplanethavebeen Withthemajorityofour(fastgrowing) example,during2004apersonlivingin fuelsiswhatenabledthemtobecome toimplementthemveryquickly.We workingtodevelopandimplementthem. populationandenergydemandnow oneoftheworld’shighestincomecountries sopowerfulinthefirstplace.Thepivotal needtostopthereleaseofgreenhouse Newtechnologies,economicandpolicy concentratedinurbanareas,thewaywe usedaround22timesasmuchenergyas rolefossilfuelenergyhasplayed–through gasesfromburningfossilfuelsand toolsalongwithnewapproachesto useenergyinourcitiescurrentlyrepresents someonelivinginoneoftheworld’slowest industrialisation–inenablingtherapid switchtosuppliesofenergywhichare influenceandchangesocial,organisational oneofthesinglebiggestcausesofglobal incomecountries.Similarly,inthatsame economicandsocialdevelopmentofa environmentallybenignandsustainable. andindividualbehaviourallexistandhave ©NickHarrison climatechangetoday.Henceanyone year,someonelivinginahighincome fortunateminority,hasthereforeledto Weneedtoreducedemandforenergy demonstratedthattheycanwork.Sowhat consideringtheroleofcitiesinclimate countrywasresponsibleforemitting thewidespreadbeliefthatsuchsources byimprovingefficiencyinend-use arethechallengesweneedtoovercome changeneedstobeginbyconsidering around14timesasmuchcarbondioxide ofenergyareaprerequisiteforeconomic technology;5andweneedtodecentralise toimplementthesesolutionsincities howcitiesuseenergy. assomeonelivinginalowincomecountry.3 andsocialdevelopment. ourgenerationandsupplyinfrastructure.6 acrosstheworld?
  8. 12 13 Megacities and Climate Change Oneofthebiggestchallengestodeveloping thesupplyofsustainableenergyhas beentoovercomeitscostdisadvantage Challenges against(oftenheavily-subsidisedand Chapter1 Energy environmentallypolluting)fossilfuelenergy supplies.Establishing‘PowerPurchase Agreements’and‘Feed-inTariffs’which Acrosstheworld,mostcitiesalready placealegalobligationonutilitycompanies haveorareintheprocessofdeveloping tobuyelectricityfromsustainablesources strategies,policiesandplansaddressing atapremiumrateoveraguaranteed ©RyanPyle-CourtesyofUrbanAge,LondonSchool climatechangeandfutureenergyneeds. periodareapproacheswhichhaveproved to supply 10 per cent of its energy needs by 2020. China has recently surpassed the United States as the world’s biggest carbon dioxide emitter and it is developing renewable technologies expected Butimplementingthesemanyandvaried successfulinanumberofcountriesalready. frameworks–inwaysleadingtoactual Theymaketheinstallationofsustainable emissionsreductions–isstillgenerally energysystemsamoresecureandviable atanearlystage(EPC,2008).Clearlythe investmentandoftenleadtothecreation ofEconomics,www.urban-age.net scaleandtypeoftransformationdemanded ofwholenewdomesticindustries.In byourcurrentsituationrepresentshuge Germanyforexample,theintroductionof challengesbothorganisationallyand Feed-inTariffscatalysedthedevelopment politically.Challengessuchasthetendency ofitssolarindustryleadingthecountry toobfuscatethecausesandpotential tobecomeaworldleaderwith40,000 solutions;poorleadership;silo-working; nowemployedinthesector.9Withoutthe andabsentordysfunctionalincentives supportofsuchlegislation,whileinvestment mustallbeovercomeifwearetosucceed.7 maybeavailableforlargeprojectswith evidentprofitmargins,itisnotalways Intheremainderofthechapterwe easytosecuresuchinvestmentforearly examinesomespecificchallengesfaced projectdevelopment(suchascapacity inimplementingsolutionstomanaging measurements,communityassessments energybetterinourcities.Weillustrate orskillstraining)allofwhicharenecessary withexamplesdrawnfromtheworkof toenableequitabledeploymentof LEADFellowshowthesechallengesare renewableenergytechnology.Asa Asidefromchanginglegislation, beingsuccessfullyovercometoensure resultoflegislativechangessuchasthese, governmentsthemselvesalsooffergreat moresustainableenergyuseincities globalinvestmentinsustainableenergyis potentialtoleadthetake-upofrenewable aroundtheworld. growingrapidly.In2007theamountofnew energytechnologythroughchangesintheir investmentincreased60%ontheprevious ownprocurementpolicies.Forexample, Supplying Clean Sustainable Energy yearto$148.4billion10andrecentreports acrossEurope,anincreasingnumberof Wehaveatourdisposalmanymethodsof indicateanincreasingnumberofcountries governmentsarenowprogressinginthis supplyingenergy(inusefulformslikeheat arenowputtingtheminplace.11 waybyfinancingtheconstructionof andelectricity)whichwouldconsiderably renewableenergyprojectsusingpublic reduceourgreenhousegasemissions. Legislationcanalsobeachallengeto finance.Insomecases,citiesareworking Theyincludethosecommonlyreferred implementingsustainableenergyandone withlocalmunicipalutilitiestoconstruct toas‘renewables’(Biomass,Geothermal, suchexampleistheobligationoftenplaced windturbines.Inothercases,theyare Hydro,Ocean,SolarandWind)andNuclear onpublicauthoritiestodeliverservicesat workingwithprivatelyownedutilitiesand fission.Eachhasrelativeadvantages thelowestfinancialcosttothetax-payer. renewableenergydeveloperstoconstruct anddisadvantagesandallfacevarious Thisisoftencitedasabarriertoaction,but solararraysoncitybuildings,schools,and challengestoplayingalargerroleinthe canbeovercomethroughchangesinhow homes.Anumberofcitiesarebeginningto globalenergysupplymix.Carboncapture wevalueecosystemservices.Forexample, incorporaterenewableenergyrequirements andstoragealsohasasignificantand anapproachbeingtakenbyMexico’s intotheircontractrenewalswithprivately immediateroletoplayasatransition state-runelectricitycompanyCFE,isto ownedlocalutilities.PlaceslikeGüssingand technologyenablingustocontinueusing pursueprinciplesoffullcostaccounting LinzinAustria,ApeldoornintheNetherlands energyreleasedfromburningfossilfuelsin whichemphasisecosttothetax-payer andFreiburginGermany,areallexamples wayswhichcurtailemissionsofgreenhouse notonlyinfinancialtermsbutalsointerms ofwherecommunityandgovernmentled gasesintheprocess.8 ofcosttosocietyandtheenvironment.12 effortsarehavingconsiderablesuccess.
  9. 14 15 Megacities and Climate Change Case study 1 Lorem ipsum Case study Solar Cities Initiative Location Sao Paulo, Brazil Overview of problem and solution SãoPauloinBrazilintroducedmunicipal lawsin2008requiringtheinstallationand useofSolarWaterHeaters(SWH)inallnew buildings.Thelegislationisamajorstepto Leadership which made it possible encourageawidespreadshifttoa Thenewlawcameaboutasaresultofthe decentralised,sustainableenergysupplyin effortsoftheBrazilianSolarCitiesInitiative– oneofthelargestcitiesonearth. ajointprojectoftheVitaeCivilisInstitute, anon-governmentalorganisationmanaged Richinsolarresources,theentirecountry byLEADFellowRubensBornandthe receivesover2,200hoursofdirectsunlight BrazilianSWHmanufacturersassociation eachyear.However,electricityisstillused (DASOLAbrava).ThecreationofSãoPaulo’s considerablymorethanSWHtosupplyhot solarlawcoincidedwiththecreationof water.Showerheadsandwaterheaters otherlawstoboostSWHintheBrazilian currentlyrepresentaround6%ofBrazil’s citiesofPortoAlegre,BeloHorizonte, totalelectricityconsumptionandaround CampinaGrandeand12others.The 25%ofthesystem’speakdemand.The initiativehasalsobegundiscussionswith electricitytosupplythisconsumptionis manyotherBrazilianmunicipalitieswhoare generatedmainlybyhydroelectricfacilities, nowconsideringfollowingSaoPaulo’slead whichoftenputpressureonthe andintroducingsimilarlawsthatobligeor environmentandtraditionalcommunities createincentiveprogramsforinstallingSWH. re-locatedduringconstruction.The expansionofthecountry’sgeneration Theenvironmentalconcernsofcustomers systemhasrecentlyinvolvedinvestmentsin togetherwiththeintroductionofthesenew diesel,gasandcoal-firedthermoelectric municipallawsandspecialinstallationloans plantswhichincreasegreenhousegas haveledtoaboominthesalesofSWH emissions,contributingtoglobalwarming acrossBrazil.Asaconsequence,SWH andincreasingairpollution. manufacturersarebusypreparingtosupply thegrowingdemand,forecastinggrowthof Thenewlawswillhelptoovercomesomeof morethan30%thisyearwithsome encourage a widespread shift to a decentralised, requiring the installation and use of Solar Water OppositeIn Sao Paulo, Brazil, a new legislation thebarriersfacedintheimplementationof planningtodoubletheirproductionby2009. Heaters in all new buildings is a major step to sustainable energy supply. ©NickHarrison SWHtechnologysuchastherelativelyhigh initialcostofinstallation(comparedto TherapidgrowthinmembershipoftheSolar electricheaters)andthelackoflowinterest CitiesInitiativenetworkandthenumberof creditforfinancingsuchinstallations.Other projectsmotivatedbyitsworkisclear benefits(besidesreducingcarbon evidenceofitsimpactandimportance.The emissions)includebetteruseof initiativeaimstocontinuepromotingSWH hydroelectricityinBrazil’senergymatrix,the untilatleast2010whenithopestoseesolar creationofskilledjobsandthereductionof lawsinitiatedacross40Braziliancities. resourcesneededforbuildingelectrical generation,transmissionanddistribution Further information infrastructure. www.vitaecivilis.org.br
  10. Weneedtomakeatransitiontomore 16 17 decentralisedenergyinfrastructure andthisrequiresnewemphasisin thedevelopmentandregeneration ofourtownsandcities. Megacities and Climate Change Chapter1 Energy Decentralising Energy Supply Climatechangeisanenergyissue, Providingincentivestodothisisshownto energyisaninfrastructureissue,therefore beworkinginmanyplacesaswehaveseen climatechangeisaninfrastructureissue, withFeed-inTariffsmakingthedeployment  accordingtoenergyexpertWaltPatterson16 oflocalisedenergysupplyinfrastructure Whilstthisisbecominganincreasingly whoarguesthatchangingourenergy morefinancialviable.Anotherapproachis effectivemechanismtodrivedemand infrastructureiskeytotacklingclimate directsubsidiessuchasCalifornia’smillion andinnovation,ashortageofskills change.Conventionalenergyinfrastructure solarroofscampaign17whichhasdramatically andknowledge(inbuiltenvironment tendstogenerateelectricityinlarge increaseddemandandtake-upofsolar professions)neededtomeetthisdemand, centralisedpowerstations,transmitting poweredelectricgenerationtechnology remainsachallengeintheshort-term. Settingtoughefficiencystandardsfor itoverlongdistancestoitsend-useina byproviding$3bnstategovernmentsupport Whatisperhapsevenmorechallengingis manufacturersofend-usetechnology waywhichisnotonlyinefficientbutalso forinstallation.Otherapproachesfocuson howtoimprovetheefficiencyofexisting suchaslighting,computersandtelevisions lacksflexibilityandmakesusersdependent encouragingtheinclusionoflocaloron-site buildings.IntheCityofBerkeley,California alsoposesasignificantchallengefor andvulnerabletowidespreadpower-outs. generationinnewdevelopments.Agood thegovernmenthassuccessfullyusedits governments,particularlywhenresisting Soweneedtomakeatransitiontomore exampleofthisisanapproachpioneered legislativepowerstointroduceEnergy effortsbyindustrytolobbyforlower decentralisedenergyinfrastructureandthis bytheLondonBoroughofMertonintheUK. ConservationOrdinances13ensuringwhen (cheapertoimplement)standards. requiresnewemphasisinthedevelopment TheMertonRule18isaplanningpolicywhich apropertyissoldonitlegallyhastobe Japan’s‘Top-RunnerProgramme’15which andregenerationofourtownsandcities. statesthatallresidentialdevelopments refittedwithenergyconservationmeasures. wasintroducedin1998isanexampleofa Inplaceswherelittleornoexisting above1,000squaremetersareexpected Theseordinancesareprovingtobean practicalandeffectiveregulatorymechanism infrastructurecurrentlyexists,itmaysimply toincorporaterenewableenergytechnology excellentapproachtohousingstockrenewal, whichensuresmanufacturerscontinually beaquestionofensuringdevelopment togenerateatleast10%ofpredicted ensuringarapidtransitiontowidespread worktoimprovetheenergyefficiencyof followsadecentraliseddesign.What requirementson-site.Thepolicy,endorsed improvementsinenergyuseefficiency theirproducts.Ratherthanjustsetting maybemorechallengingisretrofitting bytheUKgovernmentin2006isnow inbuildingsacrossthecity. minimumefficiencyperformancestandards, adecentraliseddesigntoexisting seeingwidespreadadoptionincities thetop-runnerprogrammecontinually (centralised)infrastructures. acrosstheUK. Improving Energy Efficiency Butit’snotjustthebuildingsthemselves searchesforthemostefficientmodel & Reducing Demand whichuseenergyit’salsotheend-use currentlyonthemarketandstipulatesthat Mostoftheenergywedemandincitiesis technologieswithinbuildingswhichneed thisbecomethecountry’sindustrystandard usedwithinandbybuildingsandwhilemany improving.Manyinnovationsinend-use minimuminagivennumberofyears. innovativeexamplesofenergyefficient technologiessuchasairconditioningand Coveringproductsinover21categories, buildingsnowexist,theirrelativelyhigh refrigeratorsexistbuttheirhigherinitial theprogrammeisaworldleadingapproach initialcosthashistoricallyactedasastrong costisoftenabarriertowidespreadadoption. indrivingupefficiencystandards. disincentivetowidespreaddeployment. InMexicoCity,aprogrammeoperatedby Governmentshavebeguntoaddressthis agovernmentbackedtrustfund(FIDE) Anotherkeychallengetoreducingdemand challengebyimplementingstandardsand andthestate-runelectricitycompany(CFE) ispromotingbehaviourchangeamong targetsrequiringnewbuildingsbedesigned hasdemonstratedhowinnovativeuseof energyend-usersandinmanycountries andconstructedtouseenergymuchmore subsidiescanhelpovercomethischallenge considerableeffortsarebeingmade California Department of Transport building showcases cutting edge low-energy design efficiently(e.g.theUK’sgovernment’s makingsuchend-usetechnologiesmore toinfluenceuserbehaviourwithsome energyperformancecertificatesandtargets pricecompetitive.14Theapproachusesthe degreeofsuccess.Forexample,inTokyo forallnewbuildingstobezero-carbon costsavingsaccruedfromoperatingnew, morethan2millioncitizenshavevoluntarily by2016).Insomecasesgovernments energyefficienttechnologytopayoffa pledgedtoreducetheirpersonalenergy-use areusingtheirownbuildingstoshowcase loanprovidedtocovertheadditionalcostof throughanovelonlineschemewhichis goodpractice(e.g.theCaliforniaState purchasingthenewtechnology.Thescheme havingconsiderableimpact.Nonetheless ©2007NickHarrison DepartmentofWaterandPowerand coverslighting,insulation,refrigerationand changinguser’sbehaviourparticularlyin DepartmentofTransporthaveincorporated airconditioningandoverthepast15years, highincomecountrieswhereadoctrineof energyefficiencyandrenewableenergy hasfundedthereplacementofovereight highconsumptionprevailsisaformidable technologyintonewandexisting millionrefrigeratorswithnewenergy challengeandrelyingonvoluntary officebuildings). efficientversions. reductionsaloneisunlikelytosucceed.
  11. 18 19 Megacities and Climate Change Case study 2 Chapter1 Energy Case study Decentralising Urban Energy Supply Location Woking, UK Thechallengeshighlightedherearejusta fewamongmanythatneedtobeovercome Overview of the problem and solution ifwearetotackleclimatechangeand Tocombattheinefficienciesand ensuresustainableenergysupplyinour vulnerabilitiesofacentralisedenergy cities.Manyarenowdedicatedtothistask supplyinfrastructure,itisessentialwefind andrecenteconomicandpolicyshiftsare waystodecentralise.WokingintheUKis alsohelping.Thegrowingglobalpriceof anexcellentexampleofhowitispossible fossilfuelsismakingalternativeenergy tomakethetransitiontoadecentralised, sourcesandreductionstodemandallthe sustainableenergysupplysysteminan Leadership which made it possible morepoliticallyandeconomicallyattractive. urbansetting.Withapopulationofjust Themunicipalgovernment,drivenbythe Meanwhile,thegrowingstabilityofthe 100,000,ithasinstallednearly10%ofallUK leadershipofitschiefengineerAllenJones, carbonmarketsandprogresstowards solarphotovoltaiccapacityandishometo pioneeredthedevelopmentofanetwork morewidespreadlegislative‘caps’to Yetthescaleofthetaskbeforeusremains thefirstfuelcellcombinedheatandpower ofover60localgeneratorswhichincluded greenhousegasemissionsisdrivingmore hugeanditrequiresleadershipbothto 1WorldEnergyOutlook2006.InternationalEnergyAgency. www.worldenergyoutlook.org systeminthecountry. photovoltaicarraysandahydrogenfuelcell investmentin,anddemandfor,innovative initiatethesolutionsandtoovercomethe 2WorldGreenhousegasemissionsbysector.UNEP.http://maps. stationtopower,heatandcoolmunicipal renewableenergyandenergyefficiency challengesifwearetomakethetransition grida.no/go/graphic/world-greenhouse-gas-emissions-by-sector 3Fightingclimatechange:Humansolidarityinadividedworld. Partofthesolutionwastoestablisha buildingsandsocialhousing.Decentralising (‘greentech’)technologythaneverbefore.21 tocitiesofthefuturewhereenergyis UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgrammeHumanDevelopment Report2007/2008.http://hdr.undp.org/en/ networkofprivateelectricitywiresowned theirenergysupplyhasenabledWoking Sowheresomeseeachallenge,others generatedandusedlocally,efficiently 4 Patterson,W(2008).ManagingEnergyWrong.ChathamHouse. andoperatedbyalocalEnergyService counciltoslashtheirenergyusebynearly seeopportunity. andsustainably. www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/view/-/id/629/ 5 Froggett,A(2008).TheInternationalClimateAgenda: Company(ESCO)whichwasestablished half,andCO2emissionsbyover75%, OpportunitiesfortheG8.ChathamHouse. andmajorityownedbythelocal since1990. www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/view/-/id/620/ 6 Patterson,W.(2007).Transformingourenergywithina government,WokingBoroughCouncil. generation.ChathamHouse.www.chathamhouse.org.uk/ research/eedp/papers/view/-/id/496/ Theseprivatewiresconnecttogether Developingaprivate,locallyowned 7 Baserman,Max,H.(2006)ClimateChangeasaPredictable thedispersedgeneratorscreatingalocal electricitynetworkenabledtheESCO Surprise.Negotiation,OrganisationsandMarketsResearchPapers. HarvardUniversity.http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers. supplynetworkandby2003thecouncil’s toavoidchargesusuallyassociatedwith cfm?abstract_id=785990&rec=1&srcabs=869644 electricityinfrastructurebecameover theuseofthenationalelectricitygrid. 8 Nature(2008).ElectricitywithoutCarbon.Vol.454.p816-823 www.nature.com/news/2008/080813/pdf/454816a.pdf 99%independentofthenationalgrid. Bycircumventingthesecosts,ithasbeen 9 Lander,M(2008).GermanyDebatesSubsidiesforSolarIndustry. NewYorkTimes.http://tinyurl.com/3za69n Wokingwasabletoraisecapitalforenergy abletofundwiresandgenerationtodeliver 10 GlobalTrendsinSustainableEnergyInvestment2008Report.SEFI infrastructuredevelopmentinitiallythrough lowemissionelectricitywhichiscost /UNEP/BASE/UNF.http://sefi.unep.org/english/globaltrends.html 11 Renewables2007GlobalStatusReport.REN21.www.ren21.net/ energyefficiencysavings.Thiswasachieved competitivewithconventionalsuppliers. globalstatusreport/default.asp byestablishingafundintowhichsavings LocalESCOsofthiskindarecurrentlybeing 12 www.energypolicyclimate.org Mexico City demanded 17% of the country’s 13 ResidentialEnergyConservationOrdinances,Berkeley,USA. OppositeEnergy use in Mexico City: in 2000, (belowabenchmarkofexpectedenergy developedacrosstheUK,mostnotablyin total energy fuels output. ©NickHarrison www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/sustainable/residents/ResSidebar/RECO.html 14 TheElectricPowerSavingTrustFund,Mexico expenditure)accruedfromenergyefficiency LondonwhereWoking’spioneeringchief www.fide.org.mx/index2.html measureswerereinvested,yearonyear, engineerwassubsequentlyrecruitedby 15 TheTop-RunnerProgramme,Japan www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/index.html intofurtherenergy-savingmeasures. themayorofLondontoimplementthe 16 Patterson,W.(2007).Keepingthelightson:towards Thesubstantialfinancialsavingsaccrued, UKcapital’senergystrategy.20 sustainableelectricity.ChathamHouse/Earthscan. 17 MillionSolarRoofsCampaign.California,USA. allowedthecounciltoinvestmillionsin www.environmentcalifornia.org/energy/million-solar-roofs 18 TheMertonRule,UK.www.themertonrule.org energysupplyinnovation.TheESCO Further information 19 www.woking.gov.uk/environment/climate/Greeninitiatives/ (ThamesweyEnergy)19subsequently Examplesofmanyofthesystemsinstalled sustainablewoking/thamesweyenergy 20 Examplesofdecentralisingsupplyonalargerscalecan attractedinvestmentfrompension canbefoundontheWokingwebsite: befoundontheLondonClimateChangeAgency’swebsite: companieswhorecognisedthesteady www.woking.gov.uk/environment/ www.edfenergy.com/lesco 21 Carbon2008:Post-2012isnow.PointCarbon.www.pointcarbon. low-riskreturntheinitiativeoffers. Greeninitiatives/sustainablewoking com/research/carbonmarketresearch/analyst/1.912721
  12. Transport and Urban Mobility 2 Lorem ipsum 21
  13. By2030thereisexpectedtobemore 22 23 ascitiesgrow,averageincomestendto growwhichinturnleadstoincreasesin vehiclesinthedevelopingworldthan carownership–andurbandevelopment patterns.Megacities,mostcommoninthe indevelopedcountries.Thisrapidrisein developingworld,areoftencharacterised bysprawling,disconnected,low-density, vehicleownershipanduseisparticularly landusepatternswithrapidlygrowing populations.Thispatternoftenmakes predominantinemergingeconomies theprovisionofabalancedtransportation networktoocostlytomaintainand Adaptingtotheimpactsofclimatechange andislargelytheresultofrising Chapter2 Transport and urban mobility subsequentlyencouragestheuseofprivate caneitherbereactiveoranticipatory.Given vehicles.Bothofthesefactorscanalso thatinfrastructureandlandusedecisions incomelevels. Megacities and Climate Change contributetoweakeningdemandforpublic beingmadetodaycouldhaveanimpact transportandaconsequentdeclinein onthefootprintofaregionforthenext servicelevels,patronageandfinancial hundredormoreyears,incorporating viability.Infrastructureforpedestrianand climatechangeconsiderationsintodecision othernon-motorizedtransportalsosuffers makingprocessesisanurgentpriority. aspublicfundstendtobefocussedon Dependingonhowquicklyglobalemissions vehicles(motorcycle,truck,car).Road roadmaintenanceandexpansion. arestabilised,theclimateimpactswecould transportationisresponsibleformostofthe faceoverthecomingcenturycouldbe transportsector’simpactonhumanhealth Vehicleuseisalsoencouraged,either significant.Citiesthataredesignedandbuilt andtheenvironmentinOECDcountries directlyorindirectly,throughsuchthingsas toprovidemultipletransportationchoices andisattheheartoftwodailychallenges propertytaxes,fuelsubsidies,andnear-term Transportation & Adaptation foritscitizenssuchasplanningwhichallows beingfacedbycities:airpollutionandtraffic planninghorizons.Forexample,politicians Thetransportationsector,bothits peoplethechoicetowalk,bike,ortake congestion.Inmostcities,theimpactofthe tendtofocusonshorttermfixessuchas infrastructureandusers,arehighly transit,tomeettheirbasicneedswillenable transportationsectoronclimatechange expandingroadwaystoalleviatetraffic vulnerabletoclimatechange.5Changes thatcitytobemoreresilientinthefaceof (andviceversa)isgenerallynotthegreatest congestioneventhoughthisisabattlethat inprecipitationpatternsforexample,may newchallengesassociatedwiththe concerngiventheseotherseeminglymore cannotbewongiventherapiddevelopment leadtoincreasederosion,landslides,and changingclimate.Thistypeofholisticurban Context pressingissues.However,strategiesto ofcities.ArecentstudyintheUnitedStates floodingwhichcaninturncausedamageto planningstrategywillhelplocal reducegreenhousegasemissionsoften foundthatthroughtheimplementationof roadways,bridgesandseawalls.Incoastal governmentsdefinemoresustainable Erin Silsbe and Tiyok Prasetyoadi havemanyotherco-benefitsincluding sustainablelandusepolicyalone(i.e.policy regions,portactivitywillbeaffectedby pathwaysfortheirfuturegrowthandin improvingairquality. thatfocusesoncompactdevelopment risingsealevels,stormsurgesandflooding. doingsofacilitateahostofotherbenefits AccordingtotheUnitedNations,virtually featuringamixoflanduses,interconnection Airportsareoftendisruptedbysevere likeimprovedairquality,improved allpopulationgrowthfromnowuntil2030 Thischapterwillfocusontheconnections ofstreets,pedestrianandtransit-oriented stormsandfloodingespeciallyinlow-lying liveabilityandenergysavings.Specific willbeconcentratedintheurbanareas betweentransportationandclimatechange design)totalUStransportationrelatedCO2 areas.Floodingofurbanundergroundrail transportationadaptationstrategiesthat oftheworld;mostoccurringintheleast andsomeofthechallengesbeingfacedby emissionscouldbereducedby7–10percent systemshasalreadycausedseriousdamage maybeincorporatedintoanoverall developedregions.1Thisdevelopment citiesinimplementingsustainable by2050.3GiventhattheUSisamongstthe anddisruptiontoserviceincitiesaroundthe sustainabilityplanmightinclude:storm trendhassignificantimplicationsfor transportationpolicy. world’stopgreenhousegasemitter,this worldincludingPrague,Boston,NewYork, waterretentionponds;highercapacity climatechangepolicy.Citygovernments analysishighlightsthecriticalimportance Seoul,andTaipei.Onwarmerdays,non drainage;perviouspavingmaterial;building areresponsibleforawealthofpublic Transportation and Mitigation oftraveldemandmeasures,suchas‘Smart air-conditionedpublictransportationcan standardsthatoptimizenaturalheatingand policydecisionscoveringareasasdiverse Thetransportationsectoraloneisresponsible growth’,inthefightagainstclimatechange. beunbearableformanyandcaninturn cooling;coolingcentres;information asemergencymanagement,landuse for14%oftheworld’sgreenhousegas beanincentivefordriving.Warmer campaignsandfloodwarningsystems. andbuildingscodes,energysupply,public emissions,10%ofwhichcomefrom Transit-orienteddevelopmentisagood temperaturesalsoleadtothecreation healthandsafety,waste,water,public roadtransportation(theremainingfrom exampleofsustainablelanduseplanning. ofmoresmog,asignificantpublichealth Giventhatadaptationisarelativelynew transportationandtransportinfrastructure. air,ship,andrail).2Emissionsfromroad Thisisaregionalplanningconceptdeveloped concern,whichisfurtherexacerbated conceptformostlocalgovernments,the Decisionsaroundtheselocalgovernance transportationaregovernedbythree byPeterCalthorpe,about15yearsago byincreasedvehicleusage. developmentofnewmodels,tools,and issuescanhavesignificantimpactsona factors:vehicleefficiency,fuelefficiency, duringthestartofthe‘newurbanism’ dataaboutthepotentialimpactsand region’scarbonfootprintaswellasits andvehiclekilometrestravelled(VKT). movementintheUnitedStates.Itchannels AstudycarriedoutintheGulfCoastof vulnerabilitiesfromclimatechangeonthe abilitytorespondtoclimaterelatedevents. Todate,muchoftheclimatepolicy growthintodiscretenodesalonglight-rail theUnitedStatesontheimpactsofclimate transportationsector,areurgentlyneeded. 1,000 people in Mexico City’s Federal District, a proportion that drops by almost half in the greater Metropolitan area. discussionandmitigationactivityinthe andbusnetworksandexploitsabasic changeandvariabilityontransportation Infactseverallocalgovernments8around PreviouspageThere are an estimated 400 private cars per ©DanteBusquets–CourtesyofUrbanAge,LondonSchool Ascitiesgrowandbecomemoreinvolved transportationsectorhasfocusedon relationshipbetweentransportationand systemsandinfrastructure,foundthatthe theworldareleadingthewayonthis inglobaltrade,theefficientmovement improvingfuelefficiencyandpromoting landuse:putmoreoriginanddestination region’sentiretransportationnetwork emergingissue(seeToronto,Canadacase ofpeopleandgoodsiscriticaltoits cleanerfuels.Whilethesearenecessary pointswithinaneasywalkofatransit wouldbeexposedtopotentiallydevastating study).Withcriticalinformationinhand economicwell-being.Transportation steps,theemissionsresultingfromthe stopandmorepeoplewillusetransit4 consequencesifanysignificantsealevel includingnewlydevelopedbestpractices, systemsareseenasoneofthebiggest steepgrowthinVKT,especiallyinthe (SeeJakarta,Indonesiacasestudy). riseweretooccur.Impactsincluded:75% urbangovernmentswillbeinabetter challengesinaccommodatingthe developingworld,willfaroutstripany oftheportfacilitieswouldbevulnerable; positiontobuildtheirresiliencyinadvance ofEconomics,www.urban-age.net growthofcitiesastheyprovidethe reductionsgainedbythesetwomeasures. Coupledwithothertransportationmitigation eightmajorairportswouldbeinundated; ofanymajororenduringclimaterelated fundamentalinfrastructurewhichenables strategiessuchasfuelandvehicleefficiency, and25%oftheinterstatehighwaywould events.Whileavailabilityofinformationisa competitiveness.Transportationmodes By2030thereisexpectedtobemore roadtolls,congestionpricing,establishing beflooded.6Thestudyconcludedthat significantchallenge,itisonlyoneofmany canbedividedintotwomajorsystems; vehiclesinthedevelopingworldthanin no-drivedaysorno-drivezones,other practicalstepsneededtobetakento beingfacedbylocalgovernments publicandprivate.Publictransportationin developedcountries.Thisrapidrisein feesandtaxesondrivingorparking,the buildtheresiliencyofthetransportation attemptingtoimplementmoresustainable citiesincludestrains(subway,elevated), vehicleownershipanduseisparticularly transportationsectorcanandmustplay systemsuchashardening,raising,or policyoptions.Thefollowingsection busesandtaxis,whileprivatetransportation predominantinemergingeconomiesand asignificantroleinclimatechange evenrelocatingstructuresandexpanding outlinesinmoredetailsomeoftheother modesincludecycling,walkingandmotor islargelytheresultofrisingincomelevels– mitigationstrategies. redundantsystems.7 keychallenges.
  14. Growingthemodeshareofpublic 24 25 transportationandnon-motorisedmodes aswellasmeetingthenewchallenges associatedwiththechangingclimatewill placeincreasingstrainonalreadylimited resources.Sustainablelanduseplanning, Chapter2 Transport and urban mobility whichincludestraveldemandmeasures, Megacities and Climate Change andstrategiestoaddressclimatechange arenotmutuallyexclusive. Challenges Growthoftheworld’smegacitiesseems inevitableandasaresult,transportation networkswillhavetoexpandtomeet growingdemand.Livinginthecityoffers acompromisedqualityoflifeinmany countries.Citizenshavetocopewith congestion,airpollutionandlackof Themainchallengeforacityisdetermining openspacealongwiththeincreasingly howitslimitedresourcescanbeshared apparentimpactsfromclimatechange equallyandfairlyamongcitizens.Inthe includingflooding,intenseheat,severe Governmentsneedtoencouragepeopleto transportationsector,managingcongestion, andunpredictableweather.Asignificant usepublictransportbyprovidingan safety,airquality,maintenanceand challengeforlocalgovernmentsisto efficient,safeandreliablepublic expansionofinfrastructureisalready balancetheavailabilityofamenitiesin transportationsystem.Thebasicdifference asignificantchallenge.Growingthe thecity,ensuringitisnotonlyaplacefor betweenprivateandpublictransportationis modeshareofpublictransportationand economicactivities,butalsohasamenities willingnesstoshare.Also,whilstpublic non-motorisedmodesaswellasmeeting toenablecitizenstoenjoyagoodqualityof transportationgetspeoplealmosttotheir thenewchallengesassociatedwiththe life.Sustainablelanduseplanning,including destination,privatevehiclesgetpeople changingclimatewillplaceincreasing traveldemandmeasures,isessential. exactlytowheretheywanttogo(doorto strainonalreadylimitedresources. door).Tosuccessfullyencouragepeopleto healthissues.Clearly,theuseofpublic Sustainablelanduseplanning,which Withincreasingdemandformorehomes changetheirtransportationmodefrom transportationoverprivatevehicleswillhelp includestraveldemandmeasures, andofficespace,citiestendtosprawlas privatetopublictransport,asafe,reliable, reduceairpollution.Thefossilfuelsneeded andstrategiestoaddressclimatechange developerssearchforcheaperlandtobuild andconvenientpublictransportationsystem formostautomobilesalsocompetewith arenotmutuallyexclusive. affordableresidentialhousing.Development isneeded.Thisreliesheavilyonpatternsof otherenergyneeds.Privatevehiclesalso shouldbeconcentratedinthecitycentresto landuse,governmentvision,strategic wastevastlandresourcesforroadand encourageareductionintraveltoandfrom planningandregulation. parkingspaceseventhoughformostofthe economicandrecreationalactivities.The day,a(private)carwilleitherbeparkedon cityhastogrowanddensityhastobe Anotherbarriertopublictransportation thestreetorinaparkingbuilding.People controlled.Itisachallengetointegrate canalsobepublicperception.Busesfor willtypicallyonlyuseacarfor2–4hoursa transportationnetworkswithcitylanduse example,areoftenseenasonlyforthose day.Thispublicproperty(road)couldbetter activities because of the sharp rise in fossil fuel prices. policy,existingdevelopmentandzoning whocannotaffordtheirownvehicle.The beusedas(green)openspace. Cycling is also a growing trend in many urban areas. regulationsforexample,canbeasignificant convenienceofdrivingaprivatemotorised People have started to use bicycles for their daily barriertoneworinnovativepolicies.Transit vehicleisalsoveryhardtochallenge.Since Anotherchallengeisdevelopingadequate orienteddevelopmentisoneapproachthat themassproductionoftheautomobileand pedestrianareasinthecity.Aspeopleget canhelpaddressthischallenge. theincreaseinaverageincome,people offthepublictransportsystemthereneeds seemtofallinlovewithdrivingtheirown tobeapedestriannetworkthatissafe, Coordinationbetweenvariousstakeholders car.Drivingisalsooftenapparentlycheaper comfortable,andeasytonavigateinorder isalsoasignificantchallenge.Citiesare comparedtotravelusingpublic toencouragewalking.Pedestrianactivity oftensubdividedintomultiplejurisdictions. transportation.However,likemany isalsoaffectedbytheclimate.Whilethe Overlaythiswithmultipleprivateandpublic environmentalproblems,thereisahidden provisionofapedestriannetworkwillbe sectortransportationoperatingagencies (public)costthatisoftennotaccountedfor differentfromonecitytoanother,intropical ©ErinSilsbe. andthedegreeofdifficultyindeveloping byvehicleownershipanduse.Theair areasforexample,itisdesirabletohave andimplementingasustainablelanduse pollutionfromvehiclesforexample, apedestriannetworkwhichisshaded plan,canbecomeparticularlycomplex. contributestoahostofenvironmentaland fromthesun.
  15. 26 Megacities and Climate Change Improvingpedestrianandpublic transportaccessibilityisanimportant partofreducingprivatecaruseandthe greenhousegasemissionswhichcause climatechange.InJakarta,provisionof pedestrianthoroughfaresisverylimited aspavementsareoftensharedwithother infrastructuresuchaselectricitypoles, bridgecolumns,telephoneboothsandother modesoftransportationincluding motorcycles(usingthepavementto beatthetraffic),pushcarts;andstreet hawkers.Withlimitedpavementspaceand lackofmaintenance,pedestriansareoften Case study 1 forcedtowalkontheroad,notonlyin traditionalmarketplacesbutalsoinbusy mainroads.Thismakescaruseamore desirableandsafemodeoftransportand thereforeachallengetoreducing Case study Integrating pedestrian greenhousegasemissionsandimproving corridors with Bus Rapid Transit pedestrianhealth,safetyandqualityoflife. Location Jakarta, Indonesia Althoughthesechallengesneedtobe Overview of problem and solution addressedthroughdesignimprovements, JakartaisthecapitalcityofIndonesia, theattitudeofpavementusersandeffective withanofficialpopulationofaround lawenforcementarealsokeyissueswhich 8.5millionpeople.Theactualpopulation needtobeaddressed.Someofthekey isestimatedtobeasmuchas12million challengestoprovidingadequatepedestrian asmanycommuteintothecityduring facilitiesinJakartainclude: theday,fromthesurroundingarea,also ©RyanPyle-CourtesyofUrbanAge,LondonSchoolofEconomics, knownasJabodetabek(Jakarta-Bogor- 1 nadequatespaceforpedestriansto I OppositeFragments of informal economic exchange in cities Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi).Jakartaisacity walk(pavementsoftentoonarrow) ofdramaticallycontrastingimagesand 2  oprovisionforpeoplewithdifferent N buildingstandards,whichtothewestern physicalability(i.e.disabledpeople) eyemayappearirrationalandchaotic. 3  ncoordinatedinfrastructurein U Suchconflictsappearnotonlyinthebuilt pedestrianareas environmentbutalsointhetransport 4 nappropriateuseofthepavement I system,utilitiesandbasicurbanservices. byothermodesoftransport Varioustypesoftransportareincommon (e.g.motorbikes) useacrossthecity,rangingfromthree- 5 nformalsectors(e.g.Hawkers) I wheeledBajaj(motorisedpassenger/ reclaimingpedestrianspace www.urban-age.net goodscarriers),totrainsandprivateluxury 6 Pedestriansecurity automobiles.Thesevehiclescompete 7 Lackofshadefromthesun witheachother,withpedestrians,cyclists 8  ackofconnectionstoother L androad-sidehawkers(goodssellers)for pedestriannetworks increasinglylimitedroadspace.9 9 Inconsistentpavementwidth
  16. 28 29 Releasedin2008,Toronto’sfirstadaptation report‘AheadoftheStorm–Preparing TorontoforClimateChange’11focuseson short-termadaptationstrategiesincluding thosethatthecityisalreadyundertaking, alongwithotherplannedandpotential short-termactions.Thereportalsodiscusses Chapter2 Transport and urban mobility itslongertermadaptationstrategyby outliningkeystepsthecitywilltakeover Megacities and Climate Change thenextfewyearswhichinclude: 1  reatingtheinternalmechanisms C andprocessesforthedevelopment Leadership which made it possible ofacomprehensive,multi-year Governmentleadershiphasprovento adaptationprocess Case study 2 becrucialtoavoidpitfallspreviouslyfaced 2  ngagingthepublic,businesses E insimilarprojectsinJakarta.Widening andotherstakeholdergroups thepedestrianareadrewstrongresistance 3 ncorporatingclimatechangeadaptation I frombuildingownersandakeyelement intocitypoliciesandhighlevelplans ofsuccesswiththisprojecthasbeenthe 4  sebestavailablesciencetoanalyse U effectivenegotiationwithprivateland Case study A Strategy for Building andforecasthowtheclimateis owners.Lackofadequatefinancewasalso Resilience to the Impacts of changinglocally aprobleminthepast,particularlywhen Climate Change 5  sethisanalysistoidentifyToronto’s U thefinancialcrisishitIndonesia.Lastlyand 1 www.unpopulation.org Location Toronto, Canada vulnerabilitiestoclimatechange perhapsmostimportantlywasthestrong 2 WorldResourcesInstitute(2006)ClimateAnalysisIndicators 6  onductariskassessmentto C Tool(CAIT)on-linedatabaseversion3.0.,Washington,DC: supportfromthecityGovernorinbacking WorldResourcesInstitute,availableathttp://cait.wri.org Summary identifypriorityimpactsrequiring uptheagencyresponsiblefortheproject. 3 www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/growingcoolerCH1.pdf 4 Calthorpe,Peter.(1993)TheNextAmericanMetropolis: In2007,theCityofTorontoadoptedits adaptationaction Ecology,CommunityandtheAmericanDream.NewYork: ClimateChangeActionPlanwhichincludesa 7 dentifyandassessadaptation I PrincetonArchitecturalPress. Further information 5 Onlyahandfulofreportshavebeendoneontheimpactof targetedreductioningreenhousegas optionstoreducetherisk Projectwebsite: climatechangeonthetransportationsector,theUKDepartment emissionsof80%by2050.Inadoptingthe 8  evelopandimplementclimate D ofTransportationisone:www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/scienceresearch/ http://pertamanan.jakarta.go.id/ key/thechangingclimateitsimpacto1909?page=7#a1007 plan,theCityCouncilalsocalledforthe changeadaptationstrategies (inIndonesian) 6 http://climate.dot.gov/publications/impact_of_climate_change 7 http://climate.dot.gov/publications/impact_of_climate_change/ developmentofacomprehensiveclimate 9  onitoringclimatechangeand M Theprojectaimedtoaddressmanyof html/chapter_06.html changeadaptationstrategyandisoneofthe evaluatingtheeffectivenessof 8 CCAP’sUrbanLeadersAdaptationInitiative: theseissuesthroughprovidingimproved Projectpublication/ urtherresearch f www.ccap.org/index.php?component=programs&id=6 firstcitiesintheworldtodoso.In2008,the adaptationinitiativestoprotect pedestrianaccessalongthelengthof orcasestudies: 9 GilesT.R.Clarke,(1985)PlanningtoSolveUrbanConflicts– CityofTorontoreleased‘AheadoftheStorm thecityfromcontinuingchanges, Jakarta,Indonesia.CitiesinConflictStudiesinthePlanning Jakarta’snewrapidbustransitsystem. www.thejakartapost.com/news/2003/ andManagementofAsianCitieseditedbyJohnP.Lea –PreparingTorontoforClimateChange’,a adjustingstrategieswhennecessary. Themainobjectivewastointroduce 01/30/city-plans-widen-jl-thamrin039s- JohnM.CourtneyTHEWORLDBANKWashington,D.C.,U.S.A. 10 www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/transport/jakarta_bus.jsp documentdesignedtoengagestakeholders pedestriancorridorswhichencourage sidewalks.html 11 www.toronto.ca/teo/pdf/ahead_of_the_storm.pdf inunderstandingwhatcanbedoneto Thiscomprehensiveapproachwillinvolve peopletowalkinatropicalclimateand prepareforclimatechangeinorderto stakeholdersfromacrossthegovernment, toprovidelinksconnectingthemto minimizeitsimpactonToronto’s theprivatesectoraswellasthegeneral otherpedestriannetworksandmodes environment,healthandeconomy.Toronto’s publicandwillensurethatclimatechange oftransportacrossthecity.Aswellas leadingeffortstoaddressadapation considerationsareincorporatedintoallof improvingkeytransportinfrastructure, alongsidemitigationwillprovideauseful Toronto’spoliciesandprogramsinfuture. thislargepublicprojectalsopromised casestudyforothercitiesaroundtheworld. InrecognitionofToronto’sroleasaworld- toattractinvestmentandincreased leadingenvironmentalcity,MayorDavid commercialactivityalongthenewly Detail MillerwasappointedchairoftheC40Cities constructedpedestrianareas.Costing TorontoCityCouncilhascommittedoverone ClimateLeadersGroupwhichisaglobal aroundUS$1mandcoveringbothsides billiondollarsoverthenextfiveyearsto partnershipofmajorinternationalcities ofa1.4kmstretchofroad,theproject fundprojectsthatwillhelpreduce committedtotacklingclimatechange. coversanareaofapproximately2,800 greenhousegasemissions.Its squaremetresaroundamajorthoroughfare comprehensivestrategytorespondto Further information whereapproximately10,000people climatechange,knownasthe‘Climate DavidMacLeod, liveandwork. Change,CleanAirandSustainableEnergy Sr.EnvironmentalSpecialist ActionPlan’,focusesonactivitiesthatreduce (LEADCanadaCohort12) Pedestrian Corridor, Jakarta IntegratingwithJakarta’snew‘Transjakarta’ greenhousegasemissionsandhelpprepare TorontoEnvironmentOffice busrapidtransit(BRT)service(whichwas forclimatechange(mitigationand email:dmacleo2@toronto.ca recognisedbytheC40ClimateLeaders adaptation).Torontounderstandsthat TiyokPrasetyoadi Group)10wasalsoacatalystcontributing mitigationandadaptationstrategiesare Toronto’sAdaptationStrategyWebsite, totheproject’ssuccess.Bothcomplement oftencomplementaryandshouldbe www.toronto.ca/teo/adaptation.htm eachotherasimprovingthepavementarea developedintandeminordertobestutilise LiveGreenToronto,www.toronto.ca/ increasesuseoftheBRTandviceversa. resourcesandachievemaximumbenefit. livegreen/
  17. Water and Sanitation 3 Lorem ipsum 31
  18. 32 33 Megacities and Climate Change Chapter3 Water and sanitation averagedifficultiesexperiencedinAfrica andAsia(figure1).Inmostdeveloping countries,waterandsanitationcrisisis consideredaboveall,acrisisforthepoor. Almosttwooutofthreepeoplewholack accesstocleanwatergloballyhaveto surviveonincomesoflessthanUS$2per People with no access to an improved People with no access to improved day,withoneinthreelivingonlessthan water source water in 2004 (millions) US$1aday.Morethan660millionpeople wholacksanitationliveonlessthanUS$2 Sub- Saharan East Asia and South Asia Arab States Latin America World aday,and385millionliveonlessthan Africa Pacific and the Caribbean US$1aday.2Incities,thelackofwaterfor drinkingandsanitationlargelyaffectsthe poorwhoareforcedtoliveinsettlements wherewatersupplyisintermittentor unavailable.Thisforcesmanytobuy 52 bottledwaterathighrelativecost,placing 44.8 additionalfinancialburdenonalready limitedincomes.2 27.3 27.1 24.1 21.4 Inadditiontothissituation,inthe1990s, 14.4 14.9 13.5 16.2 15.7 Context internationalinitiativesintroducedbythe 8.7 2004 WorldBankandotherintergovernmental 1990 Patricia Avila agenciesadvocatednewformsof Share of total population (%) watermanagementencouraginggreater Duringthe20thCentury,manycities participationfromtheprivatesector. developedinplaceswithlimitedavailability Asaconsequence,socialtensionsand ofwaterandinordertosatisfytheneeds civicmovementsemerged,opposing People with no access to improved People with no access to improved ofagrowingpopulation,theyhadtoexploit theprivatisationofwaterandthe sanitation sanitation in 2004 (millions) surfacesources(e.g.spring,rivers,lakes), participationoftransnationalbusinesses subterraneansources(e.g.aquifers)and initsmanagement.Oneexampleisthe insomecases(e.g.themiddleeast)to WaterWarinCochabambainBolivia,where desalinateseawater.Thisresultedin protestsaroundhighcostsandinadequate ongoingwatercrisesinsomecitieswhere serviceledtocivilunrestanddemands 80.1 119.4 attimes,supplywasn’tavailabletomeet fortheprivateoperatortoleave.Another PreviouspageAreal view of Florianopolis – Brazil demand.Suchcitiesarereferredtoas similarexamplecanbefoundinUruguay 436.7 “thirstycities”1andtheyinclude:Mexico wherewidespreadprotestledtoparliament 958.2 City,LosAngeles,andCairo,whichhave passinganamendmenttotheconstitution allsufferedhighwaterstressduetolimited preventingfutureprivatesectorparticipation East Asia and the Pacific ©LuisCarlosTorres/iStockPhoto availabilityandhighdemand. inthewatersector. South Asia  Sub-Saharan Africa AccordingtotheUN2theproblemsof Nevertheless,thecurrenttrendremains 925.9 Arab States inadequatewaterandsanitationaremost towardagreaterpresenceoftheprivate acuteindevelopingcountries.In2004 sectorintheurbanmanagementofwater, Latin America and the Caribbean reportssuggestthataround1.1billion atrendwhichisofconcerntomanycivic Total: 2.6 billion peoplehadinadequateaccesstowater initiativeswhichmaintainthatfairaccessto and2.6billionlackedsanitationwithabove watershouldbeconsideredahumanright. Source United Nations (2006), Human Development Report 40
  19. Ingeneral,vulnerabilitytoclimatechangeimpacts 34 willlargelydependonthecapacityofeachcityor countryatthetechnological,social,political,and economiclevelstomitigatetheirexposuretorisk. Megacities and Climate Change private)andcivicparticipationindecision Challenges makingtoensureequitableaccessto increasinglystrainedresources.Effective appraisalofecosystemserviceswillalso berequiredincityplanning(suchasthe Asurbanpopulationsgrowoverthe provisionandtheregulationofwater) comingdecades,sotoowilldemand toensureabalanceisstruckbetween forwaterandwheresuppliesarelimited, environmentalconservation(e.g.of thiswillleadtoincreasedwaterstress. forests,mangroveswamps,lakes)and Growingpopulationswillalsoincrease thedemandforadequatewatersupply. thevolumeofsewageproducedwhich, ifnotappropriatelymanaged,could Overthecomingyears,itwillbenecessary leadtoincreasedcontaminationofrivers, tomovebeyondthecurrentapproachto lakes,aquifersandoceans.Socialconflicts satisfyinggrowingwaterdemandthrough willalsoemergeandintensifyincities technologicalapproachessuchasexploiting whereeconomicdifficultiespreventthe deeperaquifers;buildinglargerstorage developmentofadequatewaterand facilities,divertingandchannellingwater sanitationservices.3 frommoredistantsources.Instead,the challengewillbetoensuremoreefficient Thechallengeofprovidingcleanwater andsustainableuseofexistingwater andsanitationincitiesbecomesmore supplies.Thismaybeachievedthrough complexstillwhenwealsoconsiderthe improvingdistributionnetworks(toreduce impactsofclimatechange.4Citieswillbe lossesfromleaks),introducingwatersaving moreexposedtoriskfromtheincreasing devices,enhancingwaterre-cyclingsystems frequencyofextremeweatherevents andprocessingmoreurbanwastewith causingdroughtsandfloods.Risingsea lesswater.Ratherthanfocusonincreasing levelswillpresentparticularchallenges supply,itisfundamentalthatwefocusour forcoastalcitiesthreatenedbyfloodingand effortsonreducingwaterdemandinour salinecontaminationoftheaquifersrelied citiesandadoptingacultureofcareand onforwatersupply.Climatechangewillalso protectionofwaterresources,aturban affecttheavailabilityofwaterinmanycities anddomesticlevel. whichrelyonriversformedbytheglacial 1 Anton,Danilo(1996),Ciudadessedientas:aguayambientes meltwaterinmountainousregionslike urbanosenAméricaLatina,UNESCOCIID-Nordan,Otawa theHimalayasandtheAndes.Ingeneral, 2UnitedNations(2006),HumanDevelopmentReport: Beyondscarcity:power,povertyandglobalwatercrisis,UNDP. vulnerabilitytoclimatechangeimpacts 3 UNESCO(2006),UrbanWaterConflicts,International HydrologicalProgram. willlargelydependonthecapacityofeach 4 IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.(2008) cityorcountryatthetechnological,social, Climatechangeandwater,WMO-UNEP. 5 Marañon,Boris.(2004).‘Participacióndelsectorprivado political,andeconomiclevelstomitigate enlagestiondelaguaenelDistritoFederal’inTortajada, theirexposuretorisk.Capacitytomitigate Ceciliaetal,HaciaunagestiónintegraldelaguaenMéxico: retosyalternativas,MiguelAngelPorrúa,México. Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong, China. riskandrecoverfromdisasterscausedby 6 CNA,Statisticsonwater2005:waterofthevalleyofMexico andtheCutzamalaSystem:regionXIII,Semarnat,Mexico,2006. climatechangewillthereforedifferbetween OppositeAreal view of Fish Pounds in 7 Avila,Patricia.(2007)“Lacuestióndelaguaenlasciudades developedanddevelopingcountries. mexicanas”inCiudades,núm.73,enero-marzo,RedNacional deInvestigaciónUrbana,Mexico. ©MartinHarvey/StillPictures 8 Castelan,Enrique.(2002)Elmanejodelaguaenlazona Effectivegovernanceofwaterresources metropolitanadelaciudaddeMéxico,Researchreport, ThirdWorldCentreforWater,Mexico. willrequiretheintroductionofnewforms 9 Magaña,VíctoryCarlosGayGarcía.(2002)‘Vulnerabilidad yadaptaciónregionalanteelcambioclimáticoysusimpactos ofurbanmanagementwhichensurethe ambientales,socialesyeconómicos’enGacetaecológica, humanrighttowaterismaintainedfor núm.65,México. 10 Ávila,Patricia.(2008)Elmanejodelaguaenterritoriosindígenas all.Sustainablewatermanagementwill enMéxico,SeriedelAguaenMéxico,vol.4,WorldBank,México. requirelongtermvision,effectiveconflict 11 TheauthorwasamemberofthejuryoftheLatinAmerican WaterTribunalinMarchof2006,inwhich13casesofwater resolution,jointmanagement(public,social, conflictsinLatinAmericawereanalyzed.
  20. Solutionsmustconsidersocialand 36 37 environmentalimpactandstrike abalancebetweentheneedsof urbanandruralareas. Leadership which made it possible Socialmobilisationhasbeensupported throughthecollectiveleadershipofan indigenouswomen’smovement.The Today,theMAMCconsumesover62 womenhavedemandedmoreequitable cubicmetresofwatereverysecond(m3/s), accesstodrinkingwater,alongwith 42m3/sofwhichcomesfromthedeepwell compensationfordamagecausedby Megacities and Climate Change Chapter3 Water and sanitation network(withinthebasin)and20m3/s 30yearsofhavingtheirwatersupply importedfromtheLermaandBalsasriver diminishedtofeedthegrowingthirst basins.8However,almostonequarter(13 ofMexicoCity.Theyhavealsobeen m3/s)islostthroughleakageinthedrinking demandingbetterecologicalprotection waterdistributionnetwork5andlessthan ofthebasinthroughtheregeneration Case study 1 5%ofthewaterconsumedintheMAMC offorestswhicharethemainwater isreused.6 rechargeareas.Despitetheeffortsofthe TheMAMCishighlyvulnerabletothe Mazahuawomen’smovementwhohave Intermsofwaterstress,theMAMCranks impactsofclimatechange.Decreased proposedtheimplementationofaprogram veryhigh,demandingmorewater(108%) rainfallcanexacerbatewatersupply forsustainableregionaldevelopment, Case study Resolving water crisis thanisactuallyavailablewithinitsown shortagesbothwithinitsown,andin economicsupportprovidedbytheState and conflict between Mexico City basin.WateravailabilityintheMAMCis neighbouringbasins.9Extremeclimatic hasbeenminimal.Thislackofsupport and its rural surroundings. around84m3/inhabitant/yearcompared events,suchasstormsandextraordinary islargelyduetotheabsenceofapolicy Location Mexico City, Mexico toaround4,505m3/inhabitant/year precipitationcouldpotentiallycausethe forcompensationandalackofaformal nationally.6Toremedythisstress,the collapseofdeepdrainagesystemsand systemforvaluingtheecosystemservices Overview of the problem and solution amountofwaterimportedfromother resultindramaticfloodingtocriticallevel– providedbysupplyingwaterfrom ThemetropolitanareaofMexicoCity basinsisincreasing. asituationaggravatedbythefactthatthe indigenouspeople’sterritory.Inarecent (MAMC)isthelargesturbansettlementin MAMCissettledinazonethatwaspartof WorldBankevaluationofpublicpolicies thecountryanddatesbacktopre-Hispanic Thehydraulicmodelimplementedin alakesystemuntiljustacenturyago.The inindigenousregions,theMazahuaregion times.SettledintheMexicoValleyina theMAMCishavingserioussocialand MAMCisalsovulnerabletoenergycrisis wasreportedtohavereceivedUS$5per closedbasin,thecitywasestablishedin environmentalimplicationsbothwithin asitdependsonthenationalelectricity inhabitant,peryear,fordrinkingwater anareawhichincludedseverallakessuch andoutsidethebasin.Aquifersarebeing network,suppliedbyhydroelectricdams andsanitationinfrastructure,anamount aslakeTexcoco.Inthe17thCentury,in overexploited(morewaterisextracted (whicharethemselvesvulnerabletoclimate thatisinsufficientforsolvingthe ordertopreventflooding,thecity’sSpanish fromdeepwellsthanisbeingreplacedby change)andthermoelectricplantswhich currentproblems.10 Ontheirowninitiative,theMazahua inhabitantsbegantodesiccatethelakes rainfall)andthisiscontributingtothecity’s aredependentonfossilfuels.Likewise, womenhavepromotedanumberof withtheconstructionoftheNochistongo subsidence(7.5min100years).8Importing theMAMCisvulnerabletochangesinland Facedwithlackofrecognitionforthehuman projectsaspartofaplanforsustainable TajocanaltodrainwaterfromtheMexico waterfromoutsideofthebasinisleading useandincreaseddeforestationinside righttowaterandtheabsenceofapolicy regionaldevelopment.Theseinclude Valley.Duringthe19thCentury,other toecologicaldamageofwetlandsand andoutsidethebasin,whichcanleadto forcompensatingtheMazahuaregionfor projectssupportingwaterinfrastructure projectswereundertakentodrainthe increasingpovertyamongtheindigenous decreasedinfiltrationandincreasedrunoff. thebenefitsithasprovidedtoMexicoCity, development,theintroductionoffirewood lakesandchannelandexportresidual population.Muchofthewastewater themovementturnedtotheLatinAmerican savingstoves,greenhouses,organic waterstotheCuautitlan-Tulariver.5Thisnew (49m3/s)fromtheMAMCisdrainedinto Thecurrentproblemswithwaterarecritical WaterTribunalwhichwhilstnotlegally agricultureandreforestation.Through infrastructurealteredthehydrological theCuatitlan-Tulariver(inthePánucoriver andincreasinglybecomingthesourceof binding,isanethicstribunalestablished theseinitiatives,Mazahuawomenare characteristicsbothwithinandoutsidethe basin)andishighlypollutedbyurbanand conflictasinhabitantsoftheMAMCandits toresolvewaterconflictsandsupport demonstratingtheirlocalcapacityand basinandgeneratednumeroussocialand industrialwaste.Thiscausesdamageto surroundingbasinshavediminishingaccess environmentalandhumanrights. theimportanceofmoreinclusivepublic environmentalchangesincludingtheloss ecosystems,agriculturalproduction,and towater,whichhampersdevelopmentand DuringthefirstsessionoftheTribunalin policieswhichbenefitruralaswellas ofwetlandsandbiodiversity. publichealthandrequiresaconsiderable increasespoverty.Asaconsequence,water 2006,representativesoftheMazahua urbanpopulations.Theireffortsemphasise amountofenergytopumpthewastewater conflictshavearisen,largelyasaresultof women’smovementpresentedtheircase, theimportanceoftakinglonger-term FollowingtheMexicanRevolutionof towardsthePánucoriverbasin. thetransferanddrainageofwaterbetween documentinghowhumanrightshadbeen perspectiveswhichguaranteewater 1910,thecityexperiencedunprecedented basins.Forexample,inrecentyears violatedbyfederalandstategovernments security,forestconservation,and demographicandurbangrowtheventually ThetransferofwaterfromtheBalsasriver theCutzamalasystemhasbeenasource intheCutzamalasystem.Membersofthe organicagriculturalproduction. coveringmuchoftheformerlakebasin.In basintoMAMCdemandsaconsiderable ofsocialconflictwiththeindigenous jury11analysedthecaseandreachedafinal thelate20thcenturytheMAMChadspread amountofenergyforpumpingand populationoftheMazahuaregion.With verdictemphasisingtheneedtorespectthe Insummary,whendealingwithwater tocoveranareaofover5000km2,with re-pumpingwater.Forexample,inthe springsandriversincreasinglypolluted, humanrighttowaterandrecommending problemssuchastheMAMC’s,itis 35municipalitiesand20millioninhabitants, Cutzamalasystemwhichisoneofthe theMazahuaaresufferingwaterstress, thecancellationofprojectexpansionsof importanttotakeintoaccountnotonlythe becomingtheworld’smostpopulatedcity.6 largestpumpingsystemsintheworld, withagriculturalwaterusebeingrestricted theCutzamalasystemandtheawarding likelyimpactsofclimatechangebutalsothe Tosupplywatertothisgrowingpopulation, waterneedstobepumpedover140km tojustrainwater.10Asaresult,theMazahua ofcompensationtoindigenousinhabitants widersocialandenvironmentalimpactsof thecityadoptedahydraulicmodelthat andraisedover1100mtosupplytheMAMC. havemobilisedandconfrontedbothFederal forthedamagesincurredbythetransfer sourcingwaterforexpandingurban madeuseofnewtechnologytoextract Toachievethis,102pumpingstationsuse andStategovernmentinMexicothrough ofwatertoMexicoCity.Thisverdictlends populations.Individualandcollective groundwaterfromthedeepwellsinthe nearly4,000millionKwh/year.8Energy collectiveactionwhichhasincludedthe strongsupporttotheMazahua’sproposals leadershipisessentialandsolutionsmust ValleyofMexicoandtoimportitfromthe useintheCutzamalasystemcostUS$130m occupationofoffices,foodandwaterstrikes, forenvironmentaljustice,mayassistfuture considersocialandenvironmentalimpact nearbyLermaandBalsasriverbasinusing in20046,representingaround86%of streetdemonstrationsandpermanent negotiationsanddrawswiderinternational andstrikeabalancebetweentheneedsof dams,channelsandpumpingnetworks.7 thesystem’stotaloperatingcost. protestcampsatwatersystemfacilities. attentiontotheirworseningsituation. urbanandruralareas.
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