Modulation and coding course- lecture 9

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Modulation and coding course- lecture 9

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Channel coding:Transforming signals to improve communications performance by increasing the robustness against channel impairments (noise, interference, fading, ..)

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Nội dung Text: Modulation and coding course- lecture 9

  1. Digital Communications I: Modulation and Coding Course Period 3 - 2007 Catharina Logothetis Lecture 9
  2. Last time we talked about: Evaluating the average probability of symbol error for different bandpass modulation schemes Comparing different modulation schemes based on their error performances. Lecture 9 2
  3. Today, we are going to talk about: Channel coding Linear block codes The error detection and correction capability Encoding and decoding Hamming codes Cyclic codes Lecture 9 3
  4. Block diagram of a DCS Source Channel Pulse Bandpass Format encode encode modulate modulate Digital modulation Channel Digital demodulation Source Channel Demod. Format Detect decode decode Sample Lecture 9 4
  5. What is channel coding? Channel coding: Transforming signals to improve communications performance by increasing the robustness against channel impairments (noise, interference, fading, ..) Waveform coding: Transforming waveforms to better waveforms Structured sequences: Transforming data sequences into better sequences, having structured redundancy. -“Better” in the sense of making the decision process less subject to errors. Lecture 9 5
  6. Error control techniques Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) Full-duplex connection, error detection codes The receiver sends a feedback to the transmitter, saying that if any error is detected in the received packet or not (Not-Acknowledgement (NACK) and Acknowledgement (ACK), respectively). The transmitter retransmits the previously sent packet if it receives NACK. Forward Error Correction (FEC) Simplex connection, error correction codes The receiver tries to correct some errors Hybrid ARQ (ARQ+FEC) Full-duplex, error detection and correction codes Lecture 9 6
  7. Why using error correction coding? Error performance vs. bandwidth Power vs. bandwidth P Data rate vs. bandwidth B Capacity vs. bandwidth Coded A F Coding gain: For a given bit-error probability, C B the reduction in the Eb/N0 that can be realized through the use of code: D E ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎛ Eb ⎞ Uncoded G [dB] = ⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ [dB] − ⎜ N ⎟ [dB] ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠u ⎝ 0 ⎠c Eb / N 0 (dB) Lecture 9 7
  8. Channel models Discrete memory-less channels Discrete input, discrete output Binary Symmetric channels Binary input, binary output Gaussian channels Discrete input, continuous output Lecture 9 8
  9. Linear block codes Let us review some basic definitions first which are useful in understanding Linear block codes. Lecture 9 9
  10. Some definitions Binary field : The set {0,1}, under modulo 2 binary addition and multiplication forms a field. Addition Multiplication 0⊕0 = 0 0⋅0 = 0 0 ⊕1 = 1 0 ⋅1 = 0 1⊕ 0 = 1 1⋅ 0 = 0 1⊕1 = 0 1 ⋅1 = 1 Binary field is also called Galois field, GF(2). Lecture 9 10
  11. Some definitions… Fields : Let F be a set of objects on which two operations ‘+’ and ‘.’ are defined. F is said to be a field if and only if 1. F forms a commutative group under + operation. The additive identity element is labeled “0”. ∀a, b ∈ F ⇒ a + b = b + a ∈ F 1. F-{0} forms a commutative group under . Operation. The multiplicative identity element is labeled “1”. ∀a, b ∈ F ⇒ a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a ∈ F 1. The operations “+” and “.” distribute: a ⋅ (b + c) = (a ⋅ b) + (a ⋅ c) Lecture 9 11
  12. Some definitions… Vector space: Let V be a set of vectors and F a fields of elements called scalars. V forms a vector space over F if: 1. Commutative: ∀u, v ∈ V ⇒ u + v = v + u ∈ F 2. ∀a ∈ F , ∀v ∈ V ⇒ a ⋅ v = u ∈ V 3. Distributive: (a + b) ⋅ v = a ⋅ v + b ⋅ v and a ⋅ (u + v ) = a ⋅ u + a ⋅ v 1. Associative: ∀a, b ∈ F , ∀v ∈ V ⇒ (a ⋅ b) ⋅ v = a ⋅ (b ⋅ v ) 2. ∀v ∈ V, 1⋅ v = v Lecture 9 12
  13. Some definitions… Examples of vector spaces The set of binary n-tuples, denoted by Vn V4 = {(0000), (0001), (0010), (0011), (0100), (0101), (0111), (1000), (1001), (1010), (1011), (1100), (1101), (1111)} Vector subspace: A subset S of the vector space Vn is called a subspace if: The all-zero vector is in S. The sum of any two vectors in S is also in S. Example: {(0000), (0101), (1010), (1111)} is a subspace of V4 . Lecture 9 13
  14. Some definitions… Spanning set: A collection of vectors G = {v1 , v 2 , K , v n } , the linear combinations of which include all vectors in a vector space V, is said to be a spanning set for V or to span V. Example: {(1000), (0110), (1100), (0011), (1001)} spans V4 . Bases: A spanning set for V that has minimal cardinality is called a basis for V. Cardinality of a set is the number of objects in the set. Example: {(1000), (0100), (0010), (0001)} is a basis for V4 . Lecture 9 14
  15. Linear block codes Linear block code (n,k) A set C ⊂ Vn with cardinality 2 is called a k linear block code if, and only if, it is a subspace of the vector space Vn . Vk → C ⊂ Vn Members of C are called code-words. The all-zero codeword is a codeword. Any linear combination of code-words is a codeword. Lecture 9 15
  16. Linear block codes – cont’d mapping Vn Vk C Bases of C Lecture 9 16
  17. Linear block codes – cont’d The information bit stream is chopped into blocks of k bits. Each block is encoded to a larger block of n bits. The coded bits are modulated and sent over channel. The reverse procedure is done at the receiver. Channel Data block Codeword encoder k bits n bits n-k Redundant bits k Rc = Code rate n Lecture 9 17
  18. Linear block codes – cont’d The Hamming weight of vector U, denoted by w(U), is the number of non-zero elements in U. The Hamming distance between two vectors U and V, is the number of elements in which they differ. d (U, V ) = w(U ⊕ V ) The minimum distance of a block code is d min = min d (U i , U j ) = min w(U i ) i≠ j i Lecture 9 18
  19. Linear block codes – cont’d Error detection capability is given by e = d min − 1 Error correcting-capability t of a code, which is defined as the maximum number of guaranteed correctable errors per codeword, is ⎢ d min − 1⎥ t=⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎥ ⎦ Lecture 9 19
  20. Linear block codes – cont’d For memory less channels, the probability that the decoder commits an erroneous decoding is P ≤ n ⎛ n ⎞ p j (1 − p) n− j ⎜ ⎟ M ∑ ⎜ j⎟ j =t +1 ⎝ ⎠ p is the transition probability or bit error probability over channel. The decoded bit error probability is 1 n ⎛n⎞ j PB ≈ n ∑1 ⎜ j ⎟ j ⎜ ⎟ p (1 − p ) n − j j =t + ⎝ ⎠ Lecture 9 20
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