Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering

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Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering

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  1. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Contents Overview 1 Defining Clustering Features 2 Introducing Application Architecture 4 Identifying Availability and Scalability Requirements 6 Introducing Microsoft Windows 2000 Clustering 13 Comparing Network Load Balancing to Cluster Service 18 Identifying the Application and Service Environments 19 Discussion: Evaluating Business Scenarios 21 Review 27
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  3. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering iii Instructor Notes Presentation: This module provides students with an overview of clustering technologies. The 90 Minutes module begins by defining the basic clustering features, introducing the application architecture and identifying clustering solutions. The students are then introduced to the Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Advanced Server clustering technologies. After completing this module, students will be able to: Define clustering features. Define application architecture. Identify clustering technologies that can improve availability and scalability in an enterprise system. Identify the available Microsoft clustering technologies. Identify the similarities and appropriate use of the clustering technologies. Identify the applications and services that can benefit from clustering technologies. Materials and Preparation This section provides the materials and preparation tasks that you need to teach this module. Required Materials To teach this module, you need the Microsoft PowerPoint® file 2087A.01.ppt Preparation Tasks To prepare for this module, you should: Read all of the materials for this module. Complete the labs. Study the review questions and prepare alternative answers to discuss. Anticipate questions that students may ask. Write out the questions and provide the answers.
  4. iv Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Module Strategy Use the following strategy to present this module: Defining Clustering Features • Review and discuss each of the clustering feature definitions and clarify any points of confusion for the students. • Be prepared to discuss the Mean Time Between Failure concepts that are presented in the topic Comparing Reliability and Availability. A white board representation of hardware dependencies would be appropriate. Introducing Application Architecture • This topic is an overview to the application architecture model. Find out how knowledgeable the students are in each of the technologies and identify whether students require more background information on a given technology. • Emphasize that the Application Architecture model is generic in nature. Organizations typically customize the model to suit their unique situations. Avoid spending time discussing implementation and management philosophies. • Be prepared to expand each level of the slide graphic and discuss the application architecture of each. Identifying Availability and Scalability Solutions • This topic describes how clustering can provide solutions for scalability and availability issues. • Discuss the importance of completing a risk assessment to determine if clustering is a viable solution. • Emphasize the importance of providing and maintaining a high levels of availability and scalability for applications and data. • Use the example provided to clearly demonstrate the concept of measuring high availability. Introducing Microsoft Windows 2000 Clustering • This topic provides a brief overview of each of the Windows 2000 Advanced Server clustering technologies. • Emphasize the feature sets for each of the clustering technologies. • Demonstrate where each technology can fit into the network architecture. Comparing Network Load Balancing to Cluster Service • This topic describes the benefits of both Cluster Service and Network Load Balancing. • Briefly review the benefits for each technology and how that applies to several different business scenarios.
  5. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering v Identifying the Application and Service Environments • This topic is an overview of the applications and services that are compatible with a clustering solution. • Emphasize the importance of identifying which applications and services are appropriate for a clustering solution. Discussion: Evaluating Business Scenarios • Review Scenario one and Scenario two with the students and have them complete both scenarios. • Although Scenario one is the simpler of the two scenarios, explain to the students that they are expected to recognize where problems exist in the scenario. • Scenario two is much more complex. Explain to the students that they are expected to consider: • Use of Network Load Balancing, Component Load Balancing and Cluster Service in both scenarios • How applications and development processes will influence the possible solutions • How fault tolerance would be implemented within the applications used • Students may not have experience at this level. Be expected to lead the discussion.
  6. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 1 Overview Topic Objective To provide an overview of the module topics and Defining Clustering Features objectives. Lead-in Introducing Application Architecture In this module, you will learn the central concepts of Identifying Availability and Scalability Requirements Windows 2000 Clustering Introducing Microsoft Windows 2000 Clustering technologies. Comparing Network Load Balancing to Cluster Service Identifying the Application and Service Environments *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** As your organization’s business needs grow, you must be able to expand your organization’s system capacity economically, avoid single points of failure and quickly restore failed services and applications for users. Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Clustering enables you to provide availability, scalability, and load balancing for applications and services. This module describes the central concepts of Cluster service and Network Load Balancing service, by providing a brief background of clustering technologies and explaining what Windows 2000 Clustering provides. In this course, a cluster is defined as a group of independent computers working together as a single system. Microsoft clustering technologies provide the functionality that is required to enable you to configure multiple computers as a single logical system. In this module, you will learn the key benefits of Microsoft Windows 2000 Clustering and how they apply within single and multiple tier application architectures. After completing this module, you will be able to: Define clustering features. Define application architectures. Identify clustering technologies that can improve availability and scalability in an enterprise system. Identify the available Microsoft clustering technologies. Identify the similarities and appropriate use of the clustering technologies. Identify the applications and services that can benefit from clustering technologies.
  7. 2 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Defining Clustering Features Topic Objective To define clustering concepts. High Availability and Fault Tolerance Lead-in A working knowledge of Manageability Cluster service begins by learning the definitions of Scalability clustering features. Comparing Reliability and Availability *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** A working knowledge of a clustering solution begins with the definitions of clustering features. Delivery Tip Emphasize the difference High Availability and Fault Tolerance between fault tolerance and high availability. High A system that is available whenever users want to use it and provides service availability does not ensure that meets a defined organizational standard is considered to have high that a system is fault availability. tolerant. When a system or component in a cluster fails, the cluster software responds by Carefully review the Mean reallocating the resources from the failed system to the remaining systems in Time Between Failure, use the cluster, thereby ensuring that the system is providing high availability to the example provided to client/server applications and services. demonstrate the concept. Be prepared for questions Throughout this process, client communications with applications or services from the students regarding usually continue with minimal interruption in service and Clustering provides a geographical high availability. For example, single, virtual image of the server to clients. Most client software applications there are two data centers, will automatically recover from the broken connections with little or no one in Houston, Texas and interruption to the user. the other in San Ramon, A fault tolerant solution is one that addresses performance by offering error- California. The students might want to know how free, nonstop availability, usually by keeping a backup of the primary system. availability is maintained This backup system remains idle and unused until a failure occurs, which between the two data makes this an expensive solution. centers if a catastrophic event occurred. Manageability Although manageability is not a key feature of clustering technologies, it allows system administrators to perform all of the necessary functions of maintaining the system by providing a single point of control. Administrators can access a single point of control remotely or run tools that provide a view of the system members, which allows control of the servers as a single logical entity.
  8. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 3 Scalability A system can be scaled up, scaled out, or scaled down. Scaling up. Achieved by adding more resources, such as memory, processors, and disk drives to a system. Scaling out. Achieved by adding additional computers to deliver high performance when the throughput requirements of an application exceed the capabilities of an individual system. Scaling down. Achieved by reducing resources. When the overall load exceeds the capabilities of the systems in a cluster, you may need to add additional systems. You will find that clusters are highly scalable; you can add CPU, input/output (I/O) storage, and application resources incrementally to efficiently expand or contract capacity by implementing one of the three types of scaling architectures. Comparing Reliability and Availability High availability and high reliability are at times used interchangeably, but when considering complex systems, each can have a different meaning. When designing products, for example a computer motherboard, there is a failure rate defined for each component. The reliability number may be expressed as Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), which shows the measured failure rate based on testing of the individual components. The testing regime is usually a large number of components being tested in a benign environment within their operating parameters, the aggregate run hours without failure are used to ascertain the MTBF. Given the reliability figures of all of the components, it is possible to calculate the probability of failure of the motherboard within a given time. This MTBF number is a measure of the reliability of the component and recognizes that all components will fail in time. For example, disk drives may have an MTBF of 1x106 power hours. A system with high availability is one where you expect that whenever you want to use it, it is available to provide service meeting your defined standard. So a computer system might be expected to be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year; in other words, it can never stop working. There is a distinct advantage to using high reliability components to build high availability systems, because the probability of a failure is lower. However, you can build high availability systems by using unreliable components, provided that you use some fault-tolerant mechanism to maintain operation.
  9. 4 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Introducing Application Architecture Topic Objective Two-Tier Two-Tier To introduce the Two-Tier Two-Tier Three-Tier N-Tier Three-Tier N-Tier Thin Client Fat Client Thin Client Fat Client fundamentals of application architecture. User Services User Interface User Interface User Interface User Interface User Services User Interface User Interface User Interface User Interface Microsoft Win32 Win32 Win32 Microsoft Win32 Win32 Win32 Lead-in Win32® Browser Win32® Browser Most Business Browser Application architecture Most Business Browser DHTML, XML DHTML, XML Logic Logic defines how pieces of the application interact with Business Services Business Logic User Interface Business Services Business Logic User Interface each other, and what COM Objects ASP COM Objects ASP functionality each piece is Business Logic Business Logic responsible for performing. COM Objects COM Objects Data Services Storage Storage Storage Storage Data Services Storage Storage Storage Storage RDBMS RDBMS RDBMS RDBMS RDBMS RDBMS RDBMS RDBMS All Business Min Business Min Business Min Business All Business Min Business Min Business Min Business Logic (SP) Logic (SP) Logic (SP) Logic (SP) Logic (SP) Logic (SP) Logic (SP) Logic (SP) *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** The application architecture defines how pieces of the application interact with Delivery Tip each other, and what functionality each piece is responsible for performing. Be prepared to expand all There are three main classes of application architecture that can be three tiers of the model and characterized by the number of layers between the user and the data. explain the applications and services in each of them. The three types of application architecture are two-tier, three-tier and n-tier, Key Point where n can be three or more. The table demonstrates the user, business, and One of the benefits of a data services layers in each of the application architectures. One of the benefits three-tier or n-tier model is of a three-tier or n-tier model is that applications are divided cleanly into that applications are divided presentation, business logic, and data layers. This division results in enhanced cleanly into presentation, scalability and manageability, which can be improved by Windows Clustering business logic, and data technologies. layers; the result will be enhanced scalability and Two-Tier manageability. In a thin client, two-tiered model, the business logic is server-based and typically consists of stored procedures in the database server. You must install client code on every client accessing the application; the client code is responsible for the user interface only. In a fat client, two-tiered model, you must install client code on every client accessing the application; the client code is responsible for the user interface and most of the business logic. The database can still have stored procedures, but the requirements for these procedures are reduced. This model requires that more resources are available on the client. Three-Tier In a three-tiered model, the business layer or application layer lies between data and client. This layer is responsible for both the application's business logic and the overall management of business transactions. Often the application layer will utilize object technologies.
  10. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 5 N-Tier In an n-tier model, the user-services tier or first tier handles presentation of information and interaction with the users. Some sources refer to this first tier as presentation services, because some of the services that are performed in the middle or business services tier of an application, such as authenticating users, are also user services. The business-services tier provides most of an application's functionality. This tier handles the bulk of application-specific processing and enforces an application's business rules. Business logic built into custom components bridges the client environments and the data-services tier. The data-services tier in an n-tier application can consist of data residing in several different kinds of stores. Although this split is conceptual, it can be mirrored in a real-world scenario by implementing the data tier on a number of computers running a high performance database, such as Microsoft SQL Server™; implementing the business tier on a set of separate computers; and implementing the presentation tier on yet another set of computers. When you complete the n-tier implementation, you achieve redundancy and if a single computer fails, the applications and services are available on the other computers. This environment also addresses the need for scalability by allowing users to incorporate different hardware. Application Architecture Development Strategies Developing applications for a Microsoft platform will typically use Microsoft development tools and strategies. Current applications use the Windows Distributed interNet Application Architecture (Windows DNA) strategies for development and future development extend this using Microsoft .NET Enterprise Servers. Windows DNA The Windows DNA model distributes an application in several layers, called tiers, which often reside physically on different machines, emphasizing logical distribution. Microsoft developed Windows DNA as a way to fully integrate the Web with the n-tier model of development. Windows DNA defines a framework for delivering solutions that meet the demanding requirements of corporate computing, the Internet, intranets, and global electronic commerce, while reducing overall development and deployment costs. Windows DNA architecture employs standard Windows-based services to address the requirements of each tier in the multitiered solution: user interface and navigation, business logic, and data storage. Microsoft .NET The core services of .NET are fulfilled by a set of strategies for the development Internet-based applications. These core services include services and development strategies for user identification, data storage, calendar management, messaging, database, and many other services.
  11. 6 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Identifying Availability and Scalability Requirements Topic Objective To identify how clustering is a solution for availability and Assessing Risks scalability issues. Lead-in Scalability As a system administrator planning to expand your High Availability system’s capacity, you may be required to make commitments to expensive high-end servers that provide space for additional CPUs, drives, and memory. *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** As a system administrator planning to expand your system’s capacity, you may Delivery Tip be required to make commitments to expensive high-end servers that provide This topic is meant to space for additional CPUs, drives, and memory. By using a clustering provide just an overview of technology solution, you will be able to incrementally add smaller, standard scalability and high systems as needed to meet overall processing power requirements. availability. Advise the students that each of these Clustering solutions are ideal when you need more system processing power or features will be covered in high availability. For example, you would consider using a clustering solution much more detail in the for an Internet server-based program supporting mission-critical applications, Server Cluster and Network such as financial transactions, database access, corporate intranets, and other Load Balancing cluster key functions that must run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. modules. Implementing a clustering solution makes it possible for you to share a computing load over several computer systems, without the users needing to know that more than one computer is involved. If any component in the system (hardware or software) fails, the user will not lose access to the service or application.
  12. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 7 Assessing Risks Topic Objective Performing a Risk Audit Performing a Risk Audit To identify possible points of failure before implementing a clustering solution. Client Lead-in Client Client A risk audit identifies Client Client Client network risk and helps to determine if clustering is an appropriate solution to Client Client reduce risk. Router Router Server Server Power Power *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** A risk audit helps you to identify system risk; it also helps to determine if Delivery Tip clustering is an appropriate solution to reduce the risk. More specifically it Emphasize the importance helps to identify where you can use clustering to eliminate single points of of identifying single points of failure and maintain availability. failure while doing a risk audit prior to installing the Identifying Risks Network Load Balancing driver. When you identify risks, you identify the possible failures that can interrupt access to resources. A single point of failure is any component in your environment that would block data or applications if it failed. A single point of failure can be caused by hardware, software, or external dependencies, such as power supplied by a utility company and dedicated wide area network (WAN) lines. In general, you provide improved reliability when you minimize the number of single points of failure in your environment. Maximum reliability is provided by mechanisms that maintain service when a failure occurs by providing fault tolerance.
  13. 8 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Performing a Risk Audit The following table lists some of the more commonly encountered points of failure. Point of failure Cluster service solution Possible other solutions Network component, such None Spare components or as a hub or router redundant routes Power failure None Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Server hardware, such as Failover process of taking None CPU, memory, or network resources offline on one card node and bringing them back online on another node Disk – non shared Failover None Disk – shared None Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) Server connection Failover None Sever software, such as the Failover None operating system, a service, or an application Note Clustering cannot eliminate all possible points of failure. It is designed to protect availability to data but it cannot protect the data itself. Therefore, it is still important to have a backup strategy.
  14. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 9 Scalability Topic Objective To identify the clustering technologies that provide Enhanced Symmetric Multiprocessing scalability. Lead-in Cluster Service Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides Network Load Balancing integrated system scalability through enhanced symmetric multiprocessing, in addition to the two Windows Clustering technologies, Cluster service and Network Load Balancing. *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides integrated system scalability through enhanced symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), in addition to the two Windows Clustering technologies, Cluster service and Network Load Balancing service. Combined with relatively inexpensive computer hardware, Windows 2000 Advanced Server gives organizations powerful and scalable alternatives to more expensive proprietary solutions. Enhanced Symmetric Multiprocessing Scalability SMP is a technology that allows software to use multiple processors on a single server to improve performance, a concept known as hardware scaling, or scaling up. Windows 2000 Advanced Server supports up to 8-way SMP. Improvements in the implementation of the SMP code allow for improved scaling linearity, making Windows 2000 Advanced Server an even more powerful platform for business-critical applications, databases, and Web services. In an SMP system, several processors share a global memory and I/O subsystem. At the hardware level, the major drawback to SMP systems is that they encounter physical limitations in bus and memory speed that are expensive to overcome. As microprocessor speeds increase, shared memory multiprocessors become increasingly expensive. There are large cost differences as customers increase their systems from one processor to 2 to 4 processors, and especially when implementing more than 8 processors. Cluster Service Cluster service is a feature of Windows 2000 Advanced Server that allows a pair of independent servers, referred to as nodes, to be managed as a single entity. The objective of Cluster service is to provide high levels of availability and scalability for applications and data.
  15. 10 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Network Load Balancing Network Load Balancing service enables organizations to cluster up to 32 servers running Windows 2000 Advanced Server to evenly distribute incoming traffic while also monitoring servers and the network. The dual benefits of simple, incremental scalability combined with high-availability make Network Load Balancing service ideal for use with business-critical e-commerce, Internet Service Provider hosting, and Terminal Services applications. Network Load Balancing service introduces the concept of software scaling; or scaling out, where system administrators can add capacity to their server farms by simply plugging in additional Network Load Balancing service-configured servers as needed.
  16. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 11 High Availability Topic Objective To identify the clustering technologies that provide Measuring High Availability high availability. Lead-in Cluster Service Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides system Network Load Balancing services for server clustering as a standard feature of the product. The objective of clustering is to provide very high levels of application and data availability. *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides system services for server clustering Delivery Tip as a standard feature of the product. The objective of clustering is to provide Use the example provided very high levels of application and data availability. that demonstrates availability expressed as a Availability refers to the percentage of time that a system is available for the percentage. users. Availability is increased by improving reliability and by reducing the Key Point amount of time that a system is down for various reasons, such as planned Ensure that the students maintenance or recovery from failure. understand that high availability does not imply Measuring High Availability fault tolerance. High availability is a measure of the time during which clients can successfully use a resource, application, or system within design specifications. Availability is normally expressed as a percentage. For example, a computer system that is required on a 24x365 basis that is unavailable for 24 hours would have an availability percentage of 99.62%. To achieve 99.99% availability this system can only be unavailable for 53 minutes per year. To achieve 99.999% availability this system can only be unavailable for 5.3 minutes a year. A computer system with high availability will optimally provide continuous service without interruptions that are caused by software or hardware failures.
  17. 12 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Comparing High Availability and Fault Tolerance It is important to note that high availability is not fault tolerance. Fault tolerant systems, such as those used for air traffic control applications, may be required to achieve greater than 99.999% availability. This is typically achieved by adding extensive redundancy to the system hardware, which instantly provide backup components in the event of primary component failure with no loss of process or data consistency. An example of a fault tolerant system is RAID technology. Logical disk data is written to an array of disks with additional information so that the loss of a single disk can be tolerated without preventing access to the data. There is no backup component in this case; the data is dynamically rebuilt from the information on the other drives in the array. You can remove and replace the failed disk drive with a new one, and the system is repaired, returning to the initial state before the failure. A fault tolerant system is designed to guarantee resource availability. A high- availability system is concerned with maximizing resource availability. Cluster Service The use of component hardware provides many advantages, including reduced purchase cost and greater standardization; these advantages can lead to reduce maintenance costs. But component hardware, like all hardware, is subject to periodic failure. Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides for high availability of these hardware components through the use of clustering. A cluster is a group of servers that appear to the client as a single entity. The nodes in a cluster access the same disk drives, so any single server in the cluster has access to the same set of data and programs. The servers in a cluster act as backups for each other, if any one server in the cluster stops working, its workload is automatically moved to another server in the cluster in a process called failover. Network Load Balancing Another way to improve availability is through the use of network load balancing. Network load balancing is a method where incoming requests for service are routed to one of several different computers. Network load balancing is provided by Network Load Balancing services in Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 Datacenter Server.
  18. Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering 13 Introducing Microsoft Windows 2000 Clustering Topic Objective Database Database To identify the available Messaging Web Messaging Web File Shares Host 1 Microsoft clustering File Shares Host 1 ethernet technologies. Lead-in Web Web Windows 2000 Advanced ethernet Host 2 Host 2 Server provides two clustering technologies that Web Web you can use independently Host 3 Host 3 or in combination, Network Customer Customer Internet Internet Load Balancing, Component Load Balancing (available Web Web with Application Center Host 4 Host 4 2000), and Cluster service. 2-node Cluster Service 2-node Cluster Service Network Load Balancing Network Load Balancing Component Load Balancing Component Load Balancing *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides two clustering technologies that can be used independently or in combination, Network Load Balancing service, Delivery Tip Component Load Balancing (available with Application Center 2000) and Explain to the students that Cluster service. These technologies provide a complete set of clustered this topic is just an overview solutions to choose from depending on your application or service. The of Windows 2000 clustering. preceding graphic is a graphical representation of both technologies. Don’t spend too much time on each slide because each Network Load Balancing. This service load balances incoming Internet of these technologies will be protocol (IP) traffic across clusters of up to 32 hosts. Network Load covered in detail in the Balancing service enhances both the availability and scalability of Internet following modules. server-based programs, such as Web servers, streaming media servers, and Terminal Services. By acting as the load balancing infrastructure and providing control information to management applications built on top of Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), Network Load Balancing service can seamlessly integrate into existing Web server farm infrastructures. Network Load Balancing service will also serve as an ideal load balancing architecture for use with the Microsoft release of Microsoft Windows 2000 Application Center 2000 in distributed Web farm environments. Cluster Service. This service is intended primarily to provide failover support for applications, such as databases, messaging systems, and file and print services. Cluster service supports 2-node failover clusters in Windows 2000 Advanced Server and 4-node clusters in Datacenter Server. Cluster service is ideal for ensuring the availability of critical line-of- business and other back-end systems, such as Microsoft Exchange Server or a database running Microsoft SQL Server version 7.0 that is acting as a data store for an e-commerce Web site. Component Load Balancing. This service will be a feature of Microsoft Application Center 2000. Component Load Balancing distributes workload across multiple servers running a site’s business logic components.
  19. 14 Module 1: Introduction to Windows Clustering Network Load Balancing Service Topic Objective Database Database To introduce the features Messaging Web Messaging Web File Shares Host 1 and benefits of Network File Shares Host 1 ethernet Load Balancing. Lead-in Web Web Windows 2000 Network ethernet Host 2 Host 2 Load Balancing service provides an integrated Web Web infrastructure for building Host 3 Host 3 your critical, in-demand Web Customer Customer Internet Internet sites in a distributed, load- balanced manner. Web Web Host 4 Host 4 Network Load Balancing Network Load Balancing *****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE****************************** Windows 2000 Network Load Balancing service provides an integrated infrastructure for creating a distributed load-balanced environment for your critical services, such as high-demand Web sites. Designed for use with a diverse array of applications and services, Network Load Balancing uses a statistical or manual load-balancing algorithm to distribute incoming IP requests across a cluster of up to 32 servers. As the system administrator deploying Network Load Balancing, you will be able to: Scale Web applications by quickly and incrementally adding additional servers. Ensure that your Web sites are always online for your customers. Network Load Balancing supports load balancing, which reduces poor customer experience that results from unplanned downtime. Note Network Load Balancing service combined with application monitoring tools that are included in Windows 2000 Resource Kit ensure that your Web site is always available to customers. Scale virtual private network (VPN), Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) servers to accommodate every user account with simplified access to a central IP address. Scale streaming media services for performance and scalability. Scale Terminal Services to support large user accounts by distributing connections across multiple servers.

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