# Monte Carlo Inference Methods

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## Monte Carlo Inference Methods

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Enrico Fermi (1901–1954) took great delight in astonishing his colleagues with his remarkably accurate predictions of experimental results. . . his “guesses” were really derived from the statistical sampling techniques that he used to calculate with whenever insomnia struck!

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## Nội dung Text: Monte Carlo Inference Methods

Monte Carlo<br /> Inference Methods<br /> <br /> Iain Murray<br /> University of Edinburgh<br /> http://iainmurray.net<br /> <br /> Monte Carlo and Insomnia<br /> Enrico Fermi (1901–1954) took<br /> great delight in astonishing his<br /> colleagues with his remarkably<br /> accurate predictions of<br /> experimental results. . .<br /> . . . his “guesses” were really<br /> derived from the statistical<br /> sampling techniques that he used<br /> to calculate with whenever<br /> insomnia struck!<br /> —The beginning of the Monte Carlo method, N. Metropolis<br /> <br /> Overview<br /> Gaining insight from random samples<br /> Inference / Computation<br /> What does my data imply? What is still uncertain?<br /> Sampling methods:<br /> Importance, Rejection, Metropolis–Hastings, Gibbs, Slice<br /> Practical issues / Debugging<br /> <br /> Linear regression<br /> y = θ1 x + θ2 ,<br /> <br /> p(θ) = N (θ; 0, 0.42I)<br /> <br /> 4<br /> 2<br /> <br /> y<br /> <br /> 0<br /> -2<br /> -4<br /> <br /> Prior p(θ)<br /> <br /> -6<br /> -2<br /> <br /> 0<br /> <br /> 2<br /> <br /> x<br /> <br /> 4<br /> <br /> Linear regression<br /> y (n) = θ1x(n) + θ2 +<br /> <br /> (n)<br /> <br /> (n)<br /> <br /> ,<br /> <br /> ∼ N (0, 0.12)<br /> <br /> 4<br /> 2<br /> <br /> y<br /> <br /> 0<br /> -2<br /> -4<br /> -6<br /> <br /> p(θ | Data) ∝ p(Data | θ) p(θ)<br /> -2<br /> <br /> 0<br /> <br /> 2<br /> <br /> x<br /> <br /> 4<br /> <br />