Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P8

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Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P8

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Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P8: A better solution is to increase the number of computers available. Now that machines with fast processors, ample RAM, and massive hard disk space can be had for just a few hundred dollars, a multiple-machine setup is an affordable proposition for most homes.

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Nội dung Text: Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P8

  1. This page intentionally left blank Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  2. C H A P T E R 15 Implementing Wireless Security C omputer veterans may be familiar with the term war- ■ IN THIS CHAPTER Specifying a New dialing, a black-hat hacker technique that involves auto- Administrative Password matically calling thousands of telephone numbers to ■ Positioning the Access Point for look for any that have a modem attached. (You might also Maximum Security know this term from the 1983 movie War Games, now a classic ■ Encrypting Wireless Signals in computer cracking circles. In the movie a young cracker, Matthew Broderick, uses wardialing to look for games and bul- with WPA letin board systems. However, he inadvertently ends up with a ■ Disabling Network SSID direct connection to a high-level military computer that gives Broadcasting him control over the U.S. nuclear arsenal. Various things hit the ■ Changing the Default SSID fan after that.) Modems are becoming increasingly rare these ■ Enabling MAC Address Filtering days, so wardialing is less of a threat than it used to be. ■ From Here That doesn’t mean we’re any safer, however. Our houses and offices may no longer have modems, but many of them have a relatively recent bit of technology: a wireless network. So now wardialing has given way to wardriving, where a cracker drives through various neighborhoods with a portable computer or another device set up to look for available wireless networks. If the miscreant finds a nonsecured network, he uses it for free Internet access (such a person is called a piggybacker) or to cause mischief with shared network resources. The hacker may then do a little warchalking, using chalk to place a special sym- bol on the sidewalk or other surface that indicates there’s a nonsecure wireless network nearby. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  3. 336 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ Crackers engage in all these nefarious deeds for a simple reason: Wireless net- works are less secure than wired ones. tip The most effective tech- nique for securing your 15 wireless access point (AP) is also That’s because the wireless connection that the simplest: Turn it off if you enables you to access the network from the won’t be using it for an extended kitchen or the conference room can also period. If you’re going out of enable an intruder from outside your town for a few days, or if you’re going on vacation for a week or home or office to access the network. two, shut down the access point Fortunately, you can secure your wireless and you’re guaranteed that no network against these threats with a few wardriver will infiltrate your net- simple tweaks and techniques, as you’ll see work. in this chapter. Specifying a New Administrative Password By far the most important configuration chore for any new router is to change the default logon password (and username, if your router requires one). Note that I’m talking here about the administrative password, which is the pass- word you use to log on to the router’s setup pages. This password has nothing to do with the password you use to log on to your Internet service provider (ISP) or to your wireless network. Changing the default administrative password is particularly crucial if your router also includes a wireless AP because a nearby malicious hacker can see your router. This means that the intruder can easily access the setup pages just by navigating to one of the common router addresses—usually http://192.168.1.1 or http://192.168.0.1—and then entering the default pass- word, which for most routers is well known or easy to guess. The next few sec- tions show you how to modify the administrative password for various routers. Belkin Here are the steps to follow to change the administrative password on most Belkin routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Under the Utilities section, click the System Settings link to display the System Settings page, shown in Figure 15.1. 3. Use the Type In Current Password note On most Belkin routers, the default text box to type the existing admin- administrative password is blank. istrative password. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  4. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 337 15 FIGURE 15.1 On most Belkin routers, use the System Settings page to change the administrative password. 4. Use the Type In New Password and Conform New Password text boxes to specify the new administrative password. 5. Click Apply Changes. D-Link For most D-Link routers, follow these steps to change the administrative pass- word: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Tools tab. 3. Click Admin to display the Administrator Settings page, shown in Figure 15.2. 4. Use the Login Name text box to specify a new username. 5. Use the New Password and Confirm Password text box to specify the new password. 6. Click Save Settings. The router saves the new settings. 7. Click Continue. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  5. 338 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 15 FIGURE 15.2 On your D-Link router, use the Administrator Settings page to change the administrative pass- word. Linksys Here are the steps to follow to change the administrative password on most Linksys routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Administration tab. 3. Click the Management subtab to display the page shown in Figure 15.3. FIGURE 15.3 On most Linksys routers, use the Administration/Management page to change the adminis- trative password. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  6. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 339 4. Use the Password and Re-enter to Confirm text boxes to specify the new administrative password. 5. At the bottom of the page, click Save Settings. The router reports that 15 the Settings are successful. 6. Click Continue. Netgear Follow these steps to modify the administrative password on most Netgear routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. In the Maintenance section, click the Set Password link. The Set Password page appears, as shown in Figure 15.4. FIGURE 15.4 On most Netgear routers, use the Set Password page to change the administrative password. 3. Use the Old Password text box to type the current administrative pass- word. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. 340 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 4. Use the New Password and Repeat New Password text boxes to specify the new administrative password. note On most Netgear routers, the default 15 administrative password is pass- 5. Click Apply. word. Positioning the Access Point for Maximum Security Almost all wireless network security problems stem from a single cause: wire- less signals that extend outside of your home or office. This is called signal leakage, and if you can minimize the leakage, you’re well on your way to hav- ing a secure wireless network. Of course, this assumes that a wardriver is using a standard antenna to look for wireless signals. That may be true in some cases, but many wardrivers use super-powerful antennas that offer many times the range of a regular antenna. There is, unfortunately, nothing you can do to hide your signal from such hackers. However, it’s still worthwhile to reposition your access point to minimize signal leakage since this will help thwart those hackers using regular antennas. Unfortunately, minimizing signal leakage isn’t that easy because in most network setups there are a couple of constraints on the position of the wireless AP: ■ If you’re using the wireless AP as your network router, you need the device relatively close to your broadband modem so that you can run ethernet cable from the modem’s ethernet or LAN port to the router’s Internet or WAN port. ■ If you’re using the wireless AP as your network switch, you need the device relatively close to your computers with ethernet network inter- face cards (NICs) so that you can run ethernet cable from the NICs to the switch’s RJ-45 jacks. note You might think that your wireless net- work signals extend at most just a However, even working within these con- few feet outside of your home or straints, in almost all cases you can posi- office. I thought so too, but then tion the wireless AP away from a window. one day I was looking at Vista’s list Glass doesn’t obstruct radio frequency (RF) of available wireless networks, and I saw a network where the signals, so they’re a prime source for wire- service set identifier (SSID) was less leakage. If your wireless AP must reside the house address, and that in a particular room, try to position it as house was four houses down far away as possible from any windows in from us! that room. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  8. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 341 In an ideal world, you should position the wireless AP close to the center of your house or building. This will ensure that the tip If you find a more cen- tral location for your wireless AP, test for signal leak- 15 bulk of the signal stays in the building. If age. Unplug any wireless- your only concern is connecting the router enabled notebook and take it to a broadband modem, consider asking outside for a walk in the vicinity the phone or cable company to add a new of your house. View the available wireless networks as you go, and jack to a central room (assuming the room see whether your network shows doesn’t have one already). Then, if it’s fea- up in the list. sible, you could used wired connections for the computers and devices in that room, and wireless connections for all your other devices. Of course, if your office (or, less likely, your home) has ethernet wiring caution Many wire- less APs throughout, it should be easier to find a come with an option to extend the range of the wireless signal. central location for the wireless AP. Unless you really need the range extended to ensure some distant device can connect to the AP, you Encrypting Wireless Signals should disable this option. with WPA Wardrivers usually look for leaking wireless signals so that they can piggyback on the Internet access. They may just be freeloading on your connection, but they may also have darker aims, such as using your Internet connection to send spam or download pornography. However, some wardriving hackers are interested more in your data. They come equipped with packet sniffers that can pick up and read your network packets. Typically, these crackers are looking for sensitive data such as pass- words and credit card numbers. Therefore, it’s absolutely crucial that you enable encryption for wireless data so that an outside user who picks up your network packets can’t decipher them. Older wireless networks use a security protocol called Wired Equivalent Privacy, or WEP, that protects wireless communications with (usually) a 26- character security key. That sounds impregnable, but unfortunately there were serious weaknesses in the WEP encryption scheme, and now software exists that can crack any WEP key in minutes, if not seconds. In newer wireless networks, WEP has been superseded by Wi-Fi Protected Access, or WPA, which is vastly more secure than WEP. WPA uses most of the IEEE 802.11i wireless security standard, and WPA2 implements the full stan- dard. WPA2 Personal requires a simple pass phrase for access (so it’s suitable for homes and small offices), and WPA2 Enterprise requires a dedicated Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  9. 342 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ authentication server. Be sure to use the strongest encryption that your equipment supports. caution Unfortu- nately, 15 encryption is a “lowest common The next few sections show you how to denominator” game. That is, if you change the encryption properties in sev- want to use a strong encryption standard such as WPA2, all your eral popular wireless APs. wireless devices must support WPA2. If you have a device that Belkin only supports WEP, you either need to drop your encryption Here are the steps to follow to change the standard down to WEP, or you encryption settings on most Belkin routers: need to replace that device with 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. one that supports the stronger standard. (You might also be able 2. In the Wireless section, click the to upgrade the existing device; Security link to display the Security check with the manufacturer.) page. Note that some APs come with a setting that enables you to sup- 3. Select an encryption type. The setup port both WPA and WPA2 devices. page refreshes to show the encryp- tion options associated with the type you selected. For example, Figure 15.5 shows the options associated with the WPA2 Only type. FIGURE 15.5 On your Belkin router’s Security page, select an encryption type to see the associated encryp- tion settings. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  10. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 343 4. For WPA or WPA2, you should select Password (PSK) as the Authentication option, and note PSK is short for pre- shared key, which 15 refers in general to the sharing of Passphrase as the Password (PSK) some secret information with a option. person so that person can use the 5. Use the Password (PSK) text box to information later on (which is why specify the password or pass phrase this system is also sometimes called shared secret). In the case of required to connect to the AP. WPA, the shared secret is the 6. Click Apply Changes. password or pass phrase that you give to your users so that they can connect to the wireless AP. D-Link For most D-Link routers, follow these steps to change the encryption settings: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Setup tab. 3. Click Wireless Settings to display the Wireless Network page. 4. In the Wireless Security Mode section, use the Security Mode list to select an encryption type. The setup page refreshes to show the encryp- tion options associated with the type you selected. For example, Figure 15.6 shows the options that appear when you select Enable WPA2 Wireless Security. 5. In the Cipher Type list, select either TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) or AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). Note that AES is slightly stronger than TKIP, but either one is certainly good enough for a small network. 6. In the Personal/Enterprise list, select Personal. 7. Use the Passphrase and Confirm Passphrase text boxes to specify the password or pass phrase required to connect to the AP. 8. Click Save Settings. The router saves the new settings. 9. Click Continue. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  11. 344 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 15 FIGURE 15.6 On your D-Link router, use the Wireless Network page to change the encryption settings. Linksys Here are the steps to follow to change the encryption settings on most Linksys routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Wireless tab. 3. Click the Wireless Security subtab. 4. Use the Security Mode list to select an encryption type. The setup page refreshes to show the encryption options associated with the type you selected. For example, Figure 15.7 shows the options that appear when you select WPA2 Personal. 5. Select a WPA Algorithm (AES or TKIP+AES). 6. Use the WPA Shared Key text box to specify the password or pass phrase required to connect to the AP. 7. Click Save Settings. The router reports that the Settings are successful. 8. Click Continue. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  12. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 345 15 FIGURE 15.7 On most Linksys routers, use the Wireless Security page to change the encryption settings. Netgear Follow these steps to modify the encryption settings on most Netgear routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. In the Setup section, click the Wireless Settings link. The Wireless Settings page appears. 3. In the Security Options group, select an encryption type. The Wireless Settings page refreshes to show the encryption options associated with the type you selected. For example, Figure 15.8 shows the options that appear when you select WPA2-PSK (AES). 4. Use the Passphrase text box to specify the password or pass phrase required to connect to the AP. 5. Click Apply. Changing the Wireless Connection Security Properties If you change your wireless AP encryption method as described in the previ- ous sections, you also need to update each wireless Vista computer to use the same form of encryption. Here are the steps to follow to modify the security properties for a wireless connection: Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  13. 346 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 15 FIGURE 15.8 On most Netgear routers, use the Wireless Settings page to change the encryption settings. 1. Select Start, Control Panel to open the Control Panel window. 2. Under Network and Internet, click the View Network Status and Tasks link to open the Network and Sharing Center. 3. In the Tasks list, click Manage Wireless Network. Vista displays the Manage Wireless Networks window. 4. Double-click the network for which you modified the encryption. Vista opens the network’s Wireless Network Properties dialog box. 5. Select the Security tab, shown in Figure 15.9. 6. Change the following three settings, as needed: Security Type Select the encryption standard you’re now using on the wireless AP. Encryption Type Select the type of encryption used by the AP. Network Security Key Type your shared key. 7. Click OK. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  14. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 347 15 FIGURE 15.9 Use the Security tab to match the network connection’s security properties with the new encryption settings on the wireless AP. Disabling Network SSID Broadcasting Windows Vista sees your wireless network because the AP broadcasts the net- work’s SSID. However, Windows remembers the wireless networks that you have successfully connected to (as described in Chapter 7, “Managing Wireless Network Connections”). Therefore, after all of your computers have accessed the wireless network at least once, you no longer need to broadcast the net- work’s SSID. And so, you should use your AP setup program to disable broad- casting and prevent others from seeing your network. ➔ For more information about how Vista remembers wireless networks, see “Opening the Man- age Wireless Networks Window,” p. xxx. (Chapter 7) However, you should know that when previously authorized devices attempt to connect to a nonbroadcasting network, they include the network’s SSID as part of the probe requests they send out to see whether the network is within range. The SSID is sent in unencrypted text, so it would be easy for a snoop Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. 348 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ with the right software (easily obtained from the Internet) to learn the SSID. If the SSID is not broadcasting to try to hide a caution Okay, there is one scenario 15 where hiding your SSID can make network that is unsecure or uses an easily your wireless network less secure. breakable encryption protocol, such as If a cracker detects that you’ve WEP, hiding the SSID in this way actually disabled SSID broadcasting, he makes the network less secure. might think you’ve done it because you’ve got something Of course, you aren’t trying to hide an particularly important or sensitive unsecure network, right? From the previous to hide, so he might pull out all section, you should now have WPA or the stops to crack your network. WPA2 encryption enabled. So in your case, How likely is this? Not very. Most crackers want easy targets, and disabling SSID broadcasting either keeps most neighborhoods supply your security the same or improves it: them, so unless a snoop knows ■ If a cracker detects your nonbroad- that you’re hiding something casting SSID, you’re no worse off. juicy, he’ll almost certainly move on to a less-secure network. ■ If the snoop doesn’t have the neces- sary software to detect your nonbroad- casting SSID, he won’t see your network, so you’re more secure. So as long as your wireless signals are encrypted with WPA or WPA2, you should disable SSID broadcasting. The next few sections show you how to disable SSID broadcasting in several popular wireless APs. Belkin Here are the steps to follow to disable SSID broadcasting on most Belkin routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. In the Wireless section, click the Channel and SSID link to display the Channel and SSID page. 3. For the ESSID Broadcast option, select Disable, as shown in Figure 15.10. 4. Click Apply Changes. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 349 15 FIGURE 15.10 On most Belkin routers, use the Channel and SSID page to disable SSID broadcasting. D-Link For most D-Link routers, follow these steps to disable SSID broadcasting: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Setup tab. 3. Click Wireless Settings to display the Wireless Network page. 4. In the Wireless Network Settings group, activate the Enable Hidden Wireless check box, as shown in Figure 15.11. 5. Click Save Settings. The router saves the new settings. 6. Click Continue. Linksys Here are the steps to follow to disable SSID broadcasting on most Linksys routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Wireless tab. 3. Click the Basic Wireless Settings subtab. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. 350 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 15 FIGURE 15.11 On your D-Link router, use the Wireless Network page to disable SSID broadcasting. 4. For the Wireless SSID Broadcast setting, select Disable, as shown in Figure 15.12. FIGURE 15.12 On most Linksys routers, use the Basic Wireless Settings page to disable SSID broadcasting. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 351 5. Click Save Settings. The router reports that the Settings are successful. 6. Click Continue. 15 Netgear Follow these steps to disable SSID broadcasting on most Netgear routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. In the Advanced section, click the Wireless Settings link. The Advanced Wireless Settings page appears. 3. Click to deactivate the Enable SSID Broadcast check box, as shown in Figure 15.13. FIGURE 15.13 On most Netgear routers, use the Advanced Wireless Settings page to disable SSID broad- casting. 4. Use the Old Password text box to type the current administrative pass- word. 5. Use the New Password and Repeat New Password text boxes to specify the new administrative password. 6. Click Apply. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  19. 352 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ Changing the Default SSID Even if you disable broadcasting of your note Another good reason to change the 15 network’s SSID, users can still attempt to default SSID is to prevent confu- sion with other wireless networks connect to your network by guessing the in your area. If Vista’s list of avail- SSID. All wireless APs come with a prede- able wireless networks includes fined name, such as linksys, dlink, or two (or more) networks named, default, and a would-be intruder will say, linksys, how will you know attempt these standard names first. which one is yours? Therefore, you can increase the security of your network by changing the SSID to a new name that is difficult to guess. Even if you’re broadcasting your wireless network’s SSID, it’s still a good idea to change the default SSID. Because in most cases the default SSID includes the name of the manufacturer, the SSID gives a would-be intruder valuable information on the type of AP you’re using. In some cases, the default SSID offers not only the name of the manufacturer, but also information about the specific model (for example, belkin54g), which is of course even more useful to a cracker. Finally, changing the default SSID is at the very least a small sign that you know what you’re doing. One of the hallmarks of inexperienced users is that they don’t change default settings because they’re afraid of breaking some- thing. If a wardriver sees a wireless network that’s still using a default SSID, he’s likely to think that he’s dealing with an inexperienced user, so he’ll be more likely to try to infiltrate the network. The next few sections show you how to change the default SSID in several popular wireless APs. Belkin Here are the steps to follow to change the default SSID on most Belkin routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. In the Wireless section, click the Channel and SSID link to display the Channel and SSID page, shown in Figure 15.14. 3. Use the SSID text box to type the new SSID. 4. Click Apply Changes. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  20. CHAPTER 15 Implementing Wireless Security 353 15 FIGURE 15.14 On most Belkin routers, use the Channel and SSID page to change the default SSID. D-Link For most D-Link routers, follow these steps to change the default SSID: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Setup tab. 3. Click Wireless Settings to display the Wireless Network page, shown in Figure 15.15. 4. In the Wireless Network Settings group, edit the Wireless Network Name text box. 5. Click Save Settings. The router saves the new settings. 6. Click Continue. Linksys Here are the steps to follow to change the default SSID on most Linksys routers: 1. Log on to the router’s setup pages. 2. Click the Wireless tab. 3. Click the Basic Wireless Settings subtab to open the Basic Wireless Settings page, shown in Figure 15.16. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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