Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P9

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Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P9

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Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P9: A better solution is to increase the number of computers available. Now that machines with fast processors, ample RAM, and massive hard disk space can be had for just a few hundred dollars, a multiple-machine setup is an affordable proposition for most homes.

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Nội dung Text: Networking with Microsoft Windows Vista- P9

  1. 384 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ ■ If the host computer connects directly to the Internet but your ISP supplies you with a dynamic IP tip Another way to deter- mine your router’s exter- nal IP address is to navigate to address each time you connect, use any of the free services for deter- the IPCONFIG utility to determine mining your current IP. Here are your current IP address. (That is, two: select Start, All Programs, WhatISMyIP (http:// Accessories, Command Prompt to www.whatismyip.com) 16 get to the command line, type DynDNS (http:// ipconfig, and press Enter.) Make checkip.dyndns.org) note of the IPv4 Address value returned by IPCONFIG (you might need to scroll the output up to see it) and use that address to connect to the Remote Desktop host. ■ If your network uses a router, determine that router’s external IP address by examining the router’s status page. See Chapter 3, “Configuring Your Router,” for the details. When you set up your Remote Desktop connection, you connect to the router, which will then forward your connection (thanks to your efforts in the next section) to the Remote Desktop host. ➔ To learn how to view the status page in some popular routers, see “Checking the Router Sta- tus,” p. 90. Setting Up Port Forwarding If your network uses a router, you need to configure it to forward data sent to the port specified in step 1 to the Remote Desktop host computer. This is port forwarding, and the steps you follow depend on the device. The next few sec- tions show you how to configure port forwarding on some popular routers. Belkin Here are the steps to follow to configure port forwarding on most Belkin routers: 1. Under Firewall, click the Virtual Servers link to display the Virtual Servers page. 2. In the first LAN IP Address text box, type the last three digits of the Remote Desktop host’s IP address. 3. In the Protocol Type list, select TCP. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  2. CHAPTER 16 Making Remote Network Connections 385 4. In LAN Port text box, type the Remote Desktop listening port you speci- fied earlier. 5. In Public Port text box, type the Remote Desktop listening port you specified earlier. 6. Activate the Enable check box. Figure 16.11 shows a Belkin router con- figured to forward port 12345 to the computer with the address 192.168.1.110. 16 FIGURE 16.11 On most Belkin routers, use the Virtual Servers page to configure port forwarding. 7. Click Set. The Belkin router applies the new setting. D-Link For most D-Link routers, follow these steps to configure port forwarding: 1. Click the Advanced tab. 2. Click Port Forwarding to open the Port Forwarding Rules page. 3. In the first rule, activate the check box. 4. In the Name text box, type a name for the rule, such as RDP or Remote Desktop. tip If the Remote Desktop host computer appears in the Computer Name list, select 5. In the IP Address text box, type the the computer and then click
  3. 386 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 6. In Port column, use the Start text box to type the Remote Desktop lis- tening port you specified earlier. 7. In Port column, use the End text box to type the Remote Desktop listen- ing port you specified earlier. 8. In the Traffic Type list, select TCP. Figure 16.12 shows a D-Link router configured to forward port 12345 to the computer with the address 192.168.1.110. 16 FIGURE 16.12 On your D-Link router, use the Port Forwarding Rules page to configure port forwarding. 9. Click Save Settings. The router saves the new settings. 10. Click Continue. Linksys Here are the steps to follow to configure port forwarding on most Linksys routers: 1. Click the Applications & Gaming tab. 2. Click the Port Range Forward subtab to display the Port Range Forward page. 3. In the Application text box, type a name for the rule, such as RDP or Remote Desktop. 4. Use the Start text box to type the Remote Desktop listening port you specified earlier. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  4. CHAPTER 16 Making Remote Network Connections 387 5. Use the End text box to type the Remote Desktop listening port you specified earlier. 6. In the Protocol list, select TCP. 7. In the IP Address text box, type the last three digits of the Remote Desktop host’s IP address. 8. Activate the Enable check box. Figure 16.13 shows a Linksys router configured to forward port 1235 to the computer with the address 192.168.1.110. 16 FIGURE 16.13 On most Linksys routers, use the Port Range Forward page to configure port forwarding. 9. At the bottom of the page, click Save Settings. The router reports that the Settings are successful. 10. Click Continue. Netgear Follow these steps to configure port forwarding on most Netgear routers: 1. In the Advanced section, click the Port Forwarding / Port Triggering link. The Port Forwarding / Port Triggering page appears. 2. Select the Port Forwarding option. 3. Click Add Custom Service to display the Ports - Custom Services page. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  5. 388 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 4. Use the Service Name text box to type a name for the rule, such as RDP. 5. In the Service Type list, select TCP. 6. Use the Starting Port text box to type the Remote Desktop listening port you specified earlier. 7. Use the Ending Port text box to type the Remote Desktop listening port you specified earlier. 8. Use the Server IP Address text boxes to enter the IP address of the 16 Remote Desktop host. Figure 16.14 shows a Netgear router configured to forward port 1235 to the computer with the address 192.168.1.110. FIGURE 16.14 On most Netgear routers, use the Port Forwarding / Port Triggering page to configure port for- warding. 9. Click Apply. The router adds the service to the Port Forwarding / Port Triggering page. Connecting Using the IP Address and New Port You’re now ready to make the connection to the Remote Desktop host via the Internet. Here are the steps to follow: Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  6. CHAPTER 16 Making Remote Network Connections 389 1. Connect to the Internet. 2. Select Start, All Programs, Accessories, Remote Desktop Connection. The Remote Desktop Connection dialog box appears. 3. In the Computer text box, type the external IP address of the router or remote computer and the alternative port you specified in step 1, sepa- rated by a colon. Figure 16.15 shows an example. 16 FIGURE 16.15 In the Remote Desktop Connection dialog box, type the external IP address, a colon, and then the new Remote Desktop listening port. 4. Set up your other Remote Desktop options as needed. For example, click Options, display the Experience tab, and then select the appropri- ate connection speed, such as Modem (28.8 Kbps), Modem (56 Kbps), or Broadband (128 Kbps–1.5 Mbps). 5. Click Connect. Using Dynamic DNS to Access Your Network If you want to use Remote Desktop via the Internet regularly, constantly mon- itoring your dynamic IP address can be a pain, particularly if you forget to check it before heading out of the office. A useful solution is to sign up with a dynamic DNS (DDNS) service, which supplies you with a static domain name. The service also installs a program on your computer that monitors your IP address and updates the service’s DDNS servers to point your domain name to your IP address. Here are some DDNS services to check out: DynDNS (http://www.dyndns.org) TZO (http://www.tzo.com) No-IP.com (http://www.no-ip.com) D-Link (http://www.dlinkddns.com) However, you may not want to rely on a program to keep your network exter- nal IP address and your domain name synchronized. For example, you may Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. 390 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ want to turn off the computer when you’re away from home or the office. In that case, most routers offer a DDNS feature that will tip If you use either D-Link DDNS service or DynDNS, select the appropriate handle this for you. You specify your DDNS service from the list and then provider, your domain name, and your click
  8. CHAPTER 16 Making Remote Network Connections 391 7. Click Save Settings. The router saves the new settings. 8. Click Continue. Linksys Here are the steps to follow to configure DDNS on most Linksys routers: 1. Click the Setup tab. 2. Click the DDNS subtab. 16 3. In the DDNS Service list, select either DynDNS.org or TZO.com. Note that how you proceed from here depends on the service you choose. The rest of these steps assume you’re using DynDNS.org. 4. Use the User Name and Password text boxes to type the logon data for your account. 5. Use the Host Name text box to type your domain name. Figure 16.17 shows a completed version of the DDNS page. FIGURE 16.17 On most Linksys routers, use the DDNS page to configure dynamic DNS. 6. Click Save Settings. The router reports that the Settings are successful. 7. Click Continue. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  9. 392 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ Netgear Follow these steps to configure dynamic note My Netgear router only supports DNS on most Netgear routers: DynDNS. Yours may support other services. 1. In the Advanced section, click the Dynamic DNS link. The Dynamic DNS page appears. 2. Activate the Use a Dynamic DNS Service check box. 16 3. Use the Service Provider to select a DDNS service. 4. Use the Host Name text box to type your domain name. 5. Use the Username and Password text boxes to type the logon data for your account with the DDNS provider. Figure 16.18 shows a completed version of the Dynamic DNS page. FIGURE 16.18 On most Netgear routers, use the Dynamic DNS page to configure dynamic DNS. 6. Click Apply. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  10. CHAPTER 16 Making Remote Network Connections 393 From Here ■ To learn how to view the status page in some popular routers, see “Checking the Router Status,” p. 90. ■ For the details on setting up a user account in Windows Vista, see “Creating User Accounts for Sharing,” p. 189. ■ To learn more about what constitutes a strong password, see “Building a Strong Password,” p. 292. ■ For other ethernet network security techniques, see Chapter 14, 16 “Implementing Network Security,” p. 313. ■ For other wireless network security techniques, see Chapter 15, “Implementing Wireless Security,” p. 335. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  12. C H A P T E R 17 Monitoring Your Network I f you’re the unofficial administrator of your home or small office network, I imagine you’re already saddled with a ■ IN THIS CHAPTER fairly long to-do list of network chores: adding and Monitoring Network upgrading network devices, configuring your router, adding Performance and maintaining users, creating passwords, adding shared ■ Monitoring Shared Folders folders, setting permissions, and on and on. The last thing ■ From Here you probably need is yet another set of chores tacked on to that list. Well, sorry, but I’m afraid I’m going to do just that in this chapter as I show you how to monitor three aspects of your network: performance, shared folders, and users. The good news is that none of the monitoring tasks you learn about in this chapter are activities you need to do very often. In all cases, in fact, you may need to perform the mon- itoring chores only once in a while, or on an as-needed basis. For example, you might want to check your network per- formance now to get a baseline for comparison, then you might want to check it again only if the network feels slow or if you upgrade your equipment. Remember, however, that even a network with just a few computers is still a fairly large and unwieldy beast that requires a certain amount of vigilance to keep things run- ning smoothly. Therefore, it’s worth it to keep an eye on the network to watch for things going awry. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  13. 396 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ Monitoring Network Performance By far the most important aspect of your network that you should monitor is the network’s performance. A network’s job is to transfer data, and if your data is getting transferred at a rate that’s substantially slower than it should be, you and your users won’t be happy or productive. The easiest way to check network performance is to check the current status of wired and wireless network connections (see Figure 17.1). I explained how to do this in Chapter 5, “Working with Vista’s Basic Network Tools and Tasks.” In particular, you want to look at the Speed value: If it says, for example, that you have a 100Mbps connection but you thought you were using Gigabit Ethernet equipment, you need to check that equipment. ➔ To learn how to view the status of a network connection, see “Viewing the Current Network Status,” p. 123. 17 Connection speed FIGURE 17.1 In the Status dialog box for your network connection, check the Speed value to ensure your connection is operating at the correct rate. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  14. CHAPTER 17 Monitoring Your Network 397 Monitoring Network Performance with Task Manager tip To bypass the security window, either press The Task Manager utility is excellent for Ctrl+Shift+Esc or right-click an empty section of the taskbar, and getting a quick overview of the current then click Task Manager. state of the system, and it offers a couple of tools that help you monitor your network. To get Task Manager onscreen, follow these steps: 1. Press Ctrl+Alt+Delete. Vista displays its security window. 2. Select Start Task Manager. If your network feels sluggish, it could be that the remote computer you’re working with is sharing data slowly or that network traffic is exceptionally high. To see whether the latter situation is the cause of the problem, you can check out the current network utilization value, which is the percent of avail- 17 able bandwidth that your network adapter is currently using. To check network utilization, display Task Manager’s Networking tab, shown in Figure 17.2. Use the graph or the Network Utilization column to monitor the current network utilization value. Notice that this value is a percentage. This means that the utilization is a percentage of the bandwidth shown in the Link Speed column. So, for example, if the current network utilization is 10% and the Link Speed value is 1Gbps, the network is currently using about 100Mbps bandwidth. The Network Utilization value combines the data sent by the computer and the data received by the computer. If the utilization is high, it’s often useful to break down the data stream into the separate sent and received components. To do that, select View, Network Adapter History, and then select Bytes Sent (which displays as a red line on the graph) or Bytes Received (which displays as a yellow line on the graph). If you’re feeling ambitious or curious, you can view much more information than what you see in the default Networking tab. Follow these steps to add one or more columns to the view: 1. Select the View, Select Columns command. Task Manager displays the Select Columns dialog box, as shown in Figure 17.3. This dialog box offers a long list of networking measures that you can monitor. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. 398 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ 17 FIGURE 17.2 Use Task Manager’s Networking tab to check the current network utilization percentage. FIGURE 17.3 Use the Select Columns dialog box to choose which values you want to monitor in the Networking tab. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. CHAPTER 17 Monitoring Your Network 399 2. Activate the check box of a value that you want to monitor. 3. Repeat step 2 for each value you tip By default, the Network- ing tab doesn’t collect data when you’re viewing some want to add to the networking tab. other Task Manager tab. If you prefer that the Networking tab 4. Click OK. always collect data, select Options, Tab Always Active. Here’s a summary of some of the more useful columns you can add: Adapter This column shows the description of the network adapter. Description Network This is the network utilization value. Utilization Link Speed This value shows the network adapter’s connection speed. State This column displays the general state of the adapter. 17 Bytes Sent This value shows the percentage of connection bandwidth Throughput used by traffic sent from Windows Vista. Bytes Received This value shows the percentage of connection bandwidth Throughput used by traffic received by Windows Vista. Bytes This value shows the percentage of connection bandwidth Throughput used by traffic both sent from and received by Windows Vista. Bytes Sent This column tells you the total number of bytes sent from Windows Vista over the network adapter during the current session (that is, since the last boot). Bytes Received This column tells you the total number of bytes received by Windows Vista over the network adapter during the current session. Bytes This column tells you the total number of bytes sent from and received by Windows Vista over the network adapter during the current session. Bytes Sent This value shows the total number of bytes sent from Per Interval Windows Vista over the network adapter during the most recent update interval. (For example, if the Update Speed value is set to Low, the display updates every 4 seconds, so the Bytes Sent Per Interval value is the number of bytes sent during the most recent 4-second interval.) Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. 400 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ Bytes Received This value shows the total number of bytes received by Per Interval Windows Vista over the network adapter during the most recent update interval. Bytes Per This value shows the total number of bytes sent from and Interval received by Windows Vista over the network adapter dur- ing the most recent update interval. On your small network, you can use these measures to watch out for extreme values. That is, with normal network traffic, the values should never be either really small or really large for long periods. If you notice small (or zero) val- ues for long periods, it could indicate that your computer isn’t able to send or receive data; if you notice high values (particularly on the various “Throughput” measures, where “high” means values near 100%) for an extended time, it could indicate a software problem where a rogue application 17 is bombarding your computer with data. Monitoring Network Performance with Performance Monitor For more advanced performance monitoring, Windows Vista offers the Performance Monitor tool, which you display by following these steps: 1. Select Start, Control Panel to open the Control Panel window. 2. Select System and Maintenance to open the System Maintenance window. 3. Select Administrative Tools to open the Administrative Tools window. 4. Double-click Reliability and Performance Monitor. The User Account Control dialog box appears. 5. Enter your UAC credentials to continue. Windows Vista displays the Reliability and Performance Monitor. The Reliability and Performance branch tip You can also open the Reliability and Perfor- mance Monitor by pressing Win- displays the Resource Monitor, which is dows Logo+R (or selecting Start, divided into six sections: All Programs, Accessories, Run) to open the Run dialog box, typing ■ Resource Overview. This section perfmon, clicking OK, and then shows graphs of the data in the entering your UAC credentials CPU, Disk, Network, and Memory when prompted. (Alternatively, sections. select Start, type perfmon in the Search box, and then click perf- ■ CPU. This section shows the per- mon in the search results.) centage of CPU resources that your Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. CHAPTER 17 Monitoring Your Network 401 system is using. Click anywhere on the CPU bar to expand the section and show the percentage of resources that each running process is using. ■ Disk. This section shows the total hard disk input/output transfer rate (disk reads and writes in kilobytes per second). Click anywhere on the Disk bar to expand the section to see the files involved in the current disk I/O operations. ■ Network. This section shows the total network data-transfer rate (data sent and received in kilobits per second). Click anywhere on the Network bar to expand the section to see the remote computers and other processes involved in the current network transfers, as shown in Figure 17.4. 17 FIGURE 17.4 The new Reliability and Performance Monitor enables you to monitor various aspects of your system. ■ Memory. This section shows the average number of hard memory faults per second and the percentage of physical memory used. Click anywhere on the Memory bar to expand the section to view the indi- vidual processes in memory. ■ Learn More. This section contains links to the Reliability and Performance Monitor help files. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  19. 402 Networking with Microsoft® Windows Vista™ For more detailed network performance monitoring, select the Reliability and Performance Monitor, Monitoring Tools, Performance Monitor branch. The Performance Monitor appears, as shown in Figure 17.5. Properties Add 17 FIGURE 17.5 You can use Performance Monitor to keep an eye on your network performance. Performance Monitor’s job is to provide you with real-time reports on how various system settings and components are performing. Each item is called a counter, and the displayed counters are listed at the bottom of the window. Windows Vista shows just one counter at first—the % Processor Time, which tells tip By default, Performance Monitor samples the performance data every second. you the percentage of time the processor is To change the sample interval, busy. However, as you see in the next sec- right-click Performance Monitor tion, you can add more counters to moni- and then select Properties. (You can also press Ctrl+Q or click the tor what you want. Each counter is Properties button in the toolbar, assigned a different colored line, and that pointed out in Figure 17.5.) In the color corresponds to the colored lines Performance Monitor Properties shown in the graph. Note, too, that you dialog box, display the General can get specific numbers for a counter— tab, and modify the value in the the most recent value, the average, the Sample Every X Seconds text box. Click OK to put the new sample minimum, and the maximum—by click- interval into effect. ing a counter and reading the boxes just below the graphs. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  20. CHAPTER 17 Monitoring Your Network 403 The idea is that you should configure Performance Monitor to show the processes you’re interested in (such as current network bandwidth) and then keep Performance Monitor running while you perform your normal chores. By examining the Performance Monitor readouts from time to time, you gain an appreciation of what is typical on your system. Then, if you run into perform- ance problems, you can check Performance Monitor to see whether you’ve run into any bottlenecks or anomalies. Adding Performance Counters To add another setting to the Performance Monitor window, follow these steps: 1. Right-click Performance Monitor and then click Add Counters. (You can also press Ctrl+I or click the Add button in the toolbar; see Figure 17.5.) The Add Counters dialog box appears 17 2. Double-click the counter category you want to work with. tip The graph is only useful if you can see the results properly. Unfortunately, some- 3. Select the counter you want. If you times the scale of the graph isn’t need more information about the appropriate for the numbers gen- object, activate the Show erated by a particular counter. Description check box. The default scale is from 0 to 100; so if a counter regularly gener- 4. If the counter has multiple instances ates numbers larger than 100, all (see Figure 17.6), select the instance you’ll see is a straight line across you want from the Instances of the top of the graph. Similarly, if a Selected Object List. (For example, if counter regularly generates very small numbers, the counter’s you choose Network Interface as the graph will be a straight line performance object and your system across the bottom of the graph. has multiple network interface To fix this, you can change the cards, you need to choose which scale used by the Performance NIC you want to monitor. You can Monitor graph. Right-click Perfor- also usually select mance Monitor, and then select to monitor the total of all the Properties. (You can also press Ctrl+Q or click the Properties but- instances.) ton in the toolbar.) In the Perfor- 5. Click Add. Performance Monitor mance Monitor Properties dialog places the counter in the Added box, display the Graph tab and Counters list. modify the values in the Maxi- mum and Minimum text boxes. I 6. Repeat steps 2–5 to add any other also find that activating the Hori- counters you want to monitor. zontal Grid check box helps you to interpret the graph. Click OK to 7. Click OK. put the new settings into effect. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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