Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản nhất - Nguyễn Đặng Hoàng Duy

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Tài liệu ôn tập Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản dùng để tham khảo ôn tập, củng cố kiến thức về các thì cơ bản trong tiếng anh.Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh là cấu trúc về ngữ pháp trong tiếng Anh chỉ sự đặt câu đúng trật tự, đúng quan hệ và hài hòa giữa các từ.

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  1. Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản nhất
  2. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ I- Hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V(s/es); S + am/is/are - Caâu phuû ñònh S + do/does + not + V; S + am/is/are + not - Caâu hoûi Do/Does + S + V?; Am/Is/Are + S? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi ñôn ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät thoùi quen, moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc laëp ñi laëp laïi thöôøng xuyeân. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely, every day/week/month … Ex: Mary often gets up early in the morning. 2.2 Moät söï thaät luùc naøo cuõng ñuùng, moät chaân lyù. Ex: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng trong töông lai ñaõ ñöôïc ñöa vaøo chöông trình,keá hoaïch. Ex: The last train leaves at 4.45. II- Hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + am/is/are + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + am/is/are + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn ra ôû hieän taïi (trong luùc noùi); sau caâu meänh leänh, ñeà nghò. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: now, right now, at the moment, at present, … Ex: What are you doing at the moment? - I’m writing a letter. Be quiet! My mother is sleeping. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ ñöôïc leân keá hoaïch thöïc hieän trong töông lai gaàn. Ex: What are you doing tonight? - I am going to the cinema with my father. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng nhaát thôøi khoâng keùo daøi laâu, thöôøng duøng vôùi today, this week, this month, these days, … Ex: What is your daughter doing these days? Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 1
  3. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - She is studying English at the foreign language center. 3) Nhöõng ñoäng töø khoâng ñöôïc duøng ôû thì HTTD: 3.1 Ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan: hear, see, smell, taste 3.2 Ñoäng töø chæ tình caûm, caûm xuùc: love, hate, like, dislike, want, wish 3.3 Ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi, söï lieân heä, sôû höõu: look, seem, appear, have, own, belong to, need, … 3.4 Ñoäng töø chæ sinh hoaït trí tueä: agree, understand, remember, know, … III- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh (Present Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has+ V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì HTHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng xaùc ñònh roõ thôøi ñieåm. Ex: Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù, coøn keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi. Ex: My friend Nam has lived in HCMC since 1998. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng vöøa môùi xaûy ra. Ex: I have just finished my homework. 2.4 Trong caáu truùc: Be + the first/second… time + S + have/has + V3/ed Be + the ss nhaát + N + S + have/has + V3/ed Ex: This is the first time I have been to Paris. She is the most honest person I have ever met. 3) Caùc traïng töø thöôøng duøng vôùi thì HTHT: just (vöøa môùi), recently/lately (gaàn ñaây), ever (ñaõ töøng), never (chöa bao giôø), yet (chöa), already (roài), since (töø khi – moác thôøi gian), for (khoaûng), so far/until now/up to now/up to the present (cho ñeán baây giôø) IV- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Present Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has+ been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + been + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + been + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 2
  4. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Thì HTHTTD ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: * Haønh ñoäng baét ñaàu trong quaù khöù vaø keùo daøi LIEÂN TUÏC ñeán hieän taïi vaø coøn tieáp dieãn ñeán töông lai, thöôøng duøng vôùi How long, since vaø for. Ex: How long have you been waiting for her? - I have been waiting for her for an hour. * HTHT: haønh ñoäng hoaøn taát HTHTTD: haønh ñoäng coøn tieáp tuïc V- Quaù khöù ñôn (Simple Past): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V2/ed; S + was/were - Caâu phuû ñònh S + did + not + V; S + was/were + not - Caâu hoûi Did + S + V?; Was/Were + S? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát trong quaù khöù vôùi thôøi gian ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Caùc traïng töø thöôøng ñi keøm: yesterday, ago, last week/month/year, in the past, in 1990, … Ex: Uncle Ho passed away in 1969. VI- Quaù khöù tieáp dieãn (Past Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + was/were + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + was/were + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Was/Were + S + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra (vaø keùo daøi) vaøo moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong quaù khöù. Ex: She was studying her lesson at 7 last night. What were you doing from 3pm to 6pm yesterday? - I was practising English at that time. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra (V-ing) ôû quaù khöù thì coù moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xen vaøo (V2/ed). Ex: He was sleeping when I came. While my mother was cooking dinner, the phone rang. 2.3 Hai haønh ñoäng dieãn ra song song cuøng luùc trong quaù khöù. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 3
  5. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: While I was doing my homework, my younger brother was playing video games. VII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh (Past Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + had + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had+ not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Had + S + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong quaù khöù (haønh ñoäng tröôùc duøng HAD + V3/ed, haønh ñoäng sau duøng V2/ed). Ex: We had had dinner before eight o’clock last night. Lucie had learned English before she came to England. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra nhöng chöa hoaøn thaønh, tính ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù trong quaù khöù. Ex: By the time I left that school, I had taught there for ten years. (Tôùi luùc toâi rôøi ngoâi tröôøng aáy, toâi ñaõ daïy ñöôïc 10 naêm.) 3) Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc töø, ngöõ sau ñaây: * After, before, when, as, once Ex: When I got to the station, the train had already left. * No sooner … than (vöøa môùi … thì) Hardly/Scarely … when (vöøa môùi … thì) Ex: He had no sooner returned from abroad than he fell ill. ---> No sooner had he returned from abroad than he fell ill. (Anh aáy vöøa môùi trôû veà töø nöôùc ngoaøi thì ñaâm ra beänh.) * It was not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) Not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) Ex: It was not until I had met her that I understood the problem. ---> Not until I had met her did I understand the problem. (Maõi tôùi khi toâi gaëp coâ ta, toâi môùi hieåu ñöôïc vaán ñeà.) VIII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Past Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + had + been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had + not + been + V-ing Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 4
  6. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - Caâu hoûi Had + S + been + not + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng cho ñeán khi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù. Ex: When she arrived, I had been waiting for three hours. IX- Töông lai ñôn (Simple Future): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + V - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + V - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + V? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra trong töông lai. Ex: I will call you tomorrow. 2.2 Moät quyeát ñònh ñöa ra vaøo luùc noùi. Ex: It’s cold. I’ll shut the window. 2.3 Moät quyeát taâm, lôøi höùa, ñeà nghò, yeâu caàu. Ex: I will lend you the money. Will you marry me? 2.4 Moät tieân ñoaùn, döï baùo trong töông lai. Ex: People will travel to Mars one day. 3) Moät soá traïng töø chæ thôøi gian thöôøng gaëp: tomorrow, tonight, next week/month/year, some day, in the future, … * LÖU YÙ: Caùch duøng cuûa be going to + V: + Dieãn taû yù ñònh (khoâng coù trong keá hoaïch) Ex: I have saved some money. I am going to buy a new computer. (Toâi ñaõ ñeå daønh ñöôïc moät ít tieàn. Toâi ñònh mua moät maùy vi tính môùi.) + Dieãn taû moät döï ñoaùn coù caên cöù Ex: Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. (Haõy nhìn nhöõng ñaùm maây ñoù kìa. Trôøi saép möa.) X- Töông lai tieáp dieãn (Future Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + be + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing? Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 5
  7. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ ñang dieãn ra ôû moät thôøi ñieåm hay moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai. Ex: This time next week I will be playing tennis. We’ll be working hard all day tomorrow. XI- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh (Future Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + have + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + have + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + have + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm trong töông lai. Ex: It’s now 7pm. I will have finished teaching this class by 8.30. (Baây giôø laø 7 giôø toái. Toâi seõ daïy xong lôùp naøy luùc 8g30.) 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai. Ex: By the time you come back, I will have written this letter. (Vaøo luùc anh trôû laïi, toâi seõ vieát xong laù thö naøy.) * Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng By + time (By then, By the time, By the end of this week/month/year). XII- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Future Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng so vôùi moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù hoaëc haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai. Ex: By next month, he will have been working in the office for ten years. When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford for four years. All things are difficult before they are easy. Vaïn söï khôûi ñaàu nan. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 6
  8. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG I- Caùc böôùc ñoåi caâu chuû ñoäng sang caâu bò ñoäng: 1) Xaùc ñònh S, V, O trong caâu chuû ñoäng (V coù theå laø ñôn hoaëc keùp. Neáu laø V keùp thì V cuoái cuøng-V chính- ñöôïc ñoåi thaønh V3/ed.) 2) Xaùc ñònh thì cuûa ñoäng töø 3) Ñem O trong caâu chuû ñoäng laøm S trong caâu bò ñoäng, ñem S trong caâu chuû ñoäng laøm O trong caâu bò ñoäng 4) Laáy V chính trong caâu chuû ñoäng ñoåi thaønh V3/ed roài theâm BE thích hôïp tröôùc V3/ed 5) Ñaët BY tröôùc O trong caâu bò ñoäng Ex: (A) The cat ate the mouse. ---> (P) The mouse was eaten by the cat. Trong (A), The cat laø S, ate laø V chính, the mouse laø O. Ñem the mouse laøm S vaø the cat laøm O trong (P). Laáy V chính ñoåi thaønh V3 laø eaten. Do V chính trong (A) ôû thì quaù khöù ñôn vaø The mouse trong (P) soá ít neân BE phaûi laø was. Ñaët by tröôùc the cat. * Caáu truùc cô baûn cuûa caâu bò ñoäng laø BE + V3/ed. Sau khi laøm xong, caàn kieåm tra laïi coù thieáu moät trong hai yeáu toá ñoù khoâng. II- Ñoäng töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng: Tenses Examples Simple Lan cleans the floor every morning. present --> The floor is cleaned by Lan every morning. Simple Nam broke the glasses. past --> The glasses were broken by Nam. Present The pupil is not doing some exercises. continuous --> Some exercises are not being done by the pupil. Past Mother was cooking dinner at 6 yesterday. continuous --> Dinner was being cooked by mother at 6 yesterday. Present The secretary has just finished the report. perfect --> The report has just been finished by the secretary. Past The boy had found the key before 9 yesterday. perfect --> The key had been found by the boy before 9 yesterday. Simple Mr. Brown will not teach our class. future --> Our class will not be taught by Mr. Brown. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 7
  9. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Future The students will have written many compositions. perfect --> Many compositions will have been written by the students. a) The students must do this exercise in class. Modal --> This exercise must be done in class by the students. verbs b) We ought to overcome these difficulties. --> These difficulties ought to be overcome. III- Moät soá ñieåm caàn löu yù: 1) Caâu hoûi chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng: (A) Did your father make this chair? ---> (P) Was this chair made by your father? (A) Who repaired your bicycle? ---> (P) Whom was your bicycle repaired by? (By whom was your bicycle repaired?) (A) What plays did Shakespeare write? ---> (P) What plays were written by Shakespeare? 2) Löôïc boû tuùc töø trong caâu bò ñoäng: Neáu chuû töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng KHOÂNG chæ roõ laø ngöôøi hay vaät cuï theå, roõ raøng (people, someone, every one, no one, any one, I, we, you, they, s/he, it) thì khi ñoåi sang caâu bò ñoäng (by people /someone / every one / no one / any one / me / us / you / them / her / him / it) coù theå ñöôïc boû ñi. Ex: (A) People built that bridge in 1998. ---> (P) That bridge was built in 1998. 3) Ñoäng töø coù hai tuùc töø: 3.1 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø TO: give, lend, send, show, … (A) John will give me this book. (=John will give this book to me.) ---> (P1) I will be given this book by John. ---> (P2) This book will be given to me by John. 3.2 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø FOR: buy, make, get, … (A) He bought her a rose. (=He bought a rose for her.) ---> (P1) She was bought a rose. ---> (P2) A rose was bought for her. 4) Moät soá daïng bò ñoäng khaùc: 4.1 Caáu truùc They/People say/think/believe… that … - (A) People say that Henry eats ten eggs a day. ---> (P1) It is said that Henry eats ten eggs a day. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 8
  10. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy ---> (P2) Henry is said to eat ten eggs a day. - (A) They thought that Mary had gone away. ---> (P1) It was thought that Mary had gone away. ---> (P2) Mary was thought to have gone away. 4.2 Caáu truùc HAVE / GET + something + V3/ed - (A) I had him repair my car. ---> (P) I had my car repaired (by him). - (A) I get her to make some coffee. ---> (P) I get some coffee made (by her). Time is gold. Thôøi gian laø vaøng. Baøi 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ I- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít: Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít. 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá ít hoaëc danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: - Mary lives in China. - Milk is my favorite drink. 2) Danh töø taän cuøng baèng “S” mang nghóa soá ít: news, mathematics (maths), economics, linguistics, politics, statistics, physics, phonetics, aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, measles, mumps, rickets, diabetes, the Philippines, the United States, … - The news is interesting. 3) Ñaïi töø baát ñònh: every/any/no/some + body/one/thing - Someone is kbocking at the door. 4) Meänh ñeà baét ñaàu baèng THAT/WHAT/WHERE/WHEN… hoaëc cuïm töø baét ñaàu baèng TO V/V-ing: - That you get high marks does not surprise me. - To master English is not easy. - Growing flowers was her hobby when she was young. 5) Töø chæ thôøi gian, khoaûng caùch, tieàn baïc, ño löôøng, theå tích: - Eight hours of sleep a day is enough. - Five kilometers is not a long distance. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 9
  11. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - Twenty dollars is too much to pay for that stuff. 6) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá ít: - Each of the children has a toy. - One of my friends is coming. II- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu: Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu. 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu: - Engineers are key figures in our life. 2) Caùc danh töø khaùc nhau keát hôïp baèng AND: - Scientists and engineers are very important. 3) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá nhieàu: - Most of the students here work very hard. - Some books I read last week are written by a famous writer. 4) Danh töø luoân ôû daïng soá nhieàu: people, police, cattle, poultry, military, goods, clothes, scissors, glasses,… - The police have arrested the robbers. - Sun glasses are used to protect your eyes from the sunlight. * Chuù yù: A pair of scissors is helpful in this case. 5) The + Adj chæ danh töø soá nhieàu: the rich/poor, the young/old/elderly, the homeless, the handicapped, the blind/deaf/mute, the English/Chinese/Vietnamese,… - The poor have many problems. III- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp caàn löu yù: 1) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi as well as, with, along with hoaëc together with, ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø thöù nhaát. - The students, as well as their teacher, have not come yet. - The teacher, as well as his students, has not come yet. 2) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi either … or, neither … nor, hoaëc not only … but also ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø gaàn nhaát. - Neither she nor her friends have arrived. - Not only the dogs but also the cat is mine. 3) A number of + N soá nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá nhieàu, The number of + N soá nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá ít: - A number of applicants have been interviewed. (Nhieàu) - The number of days in a week is seven. (Soá löôïng) Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 10
  12. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 4) Chuû töø laø danh töø taäp hôïp: family, class, crowd, group, club, association, company, team, … 4.1 Xem nhö MOÄT ÑÔN VÒ - ñoäng töø soá ít: - My family has three members. 4.2 Ñeà caäp ñeán TÖØNG CAÙ NHAÂN - ñoäng töø soá nhieàu: - My family were watching TV at 7 yesterday. Health is better than wealth. Söùc khoeû laø vaøng. Baøi 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP I- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai: Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì HIEÄN TAÏI hoaëc TÖÔNG LAI, ta chæ ñoåi NGOÂI nhö sau: 1) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù NHAÁT phuø hôïp vôùi CHUÛ TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính 2) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù HAI phuø hôïp vôùi TUÙC TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính 3) Ngoâi thöù BA khoâng ñoåi Ex: He says to me, “I and you will go with her father tomorrow.” ---> He tells me (that) he and I will go with her father tomorrow. * Chuù yù: say to ---> tell II- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù: Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù, ta ñoåi ba yeáu toá laø ngoâi, thì cuûa ñoäng töø vaø traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán. 1) Ngoâi: (nhö treân) 2) Thì cuûa ñoäng töø: V1 ---> V2/ed shall ---> should V2/ed ---> had + V3/ed may ---> might can ---> could must ---> had to will ---> would 3) Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán: today ---> that day next week ---> the week after tonight ---> that night tomorrow ---> the day after now ---> then this ---> that ago ---> before these ---> those yesterday ---> the day before here ---> there last week ---> the week before Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 11
  13. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: She said to me, “I met your brother yesterday.” ---> She told me that she had met my brother the day before. III- Caùc daïng caâu töôøng thuaät: 1) Caâu khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø said/told. Ex1: He said, “I have seen her today.” ---> He said (that) he had seen her that day. Ex2: The teacher said to Peter, “The prize was not given to you.” ---> The teacher told Peter (that) the prize had not been given to him. * Chuù yù: said to ---> told 2) Caâu hoûi: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø asked/wondered/wanted to know (hoûi/töï hoûi/muoán bieát). 2.1 Y/N: Ex1: She asked me, “Do you like him?” ---> She asked me if I liked him. Ex2: He said, “Can you speak English, Nam?” ---> He asked Nam whether he could speak English. 2.2 WH-: Ex1: He said, “What is her name?” ---> He asked what her name was. Ex2: She said to him, “Where do you live?” ---> She asked him where he lived. * Chuù yù traät töï cuûa S vaø V: Caâu hoûi tröïc tieáp ---> Caâu hoûi giaùn tieáp - Y/N: “V + S?” if/whether + S + V - WH-: “WH- + V + S?” WH- + S + V * said to ---> asked 3) Caâu meänh leänh: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø told/asked/ordered (baûo/yeâu caàu/ra leänh). 3.1 Khaúng ñònh: Ex: The teacher said, “Go to the board, John.” ---> The teacher told John to go to the board. 3.2 Phuû ñònh: Ex: Nam said to his friend, “Don’t shut the door.” Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 12
  14. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy ---> Nam asked his friend not to shut the door. Many a little makes a mickle. Goùp gioù thaønh baõo. Baøi 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC I- Caâu ñieàu kieän: 1) Ba loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän: 1.1 Loaïi moät: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. Ex: If it rains heavily, I will stay at home. 1.2 Loaïi hai: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. Ex1: I would buy a new bicycle if I had enough money. (Hieän taïi toâi khoâng coù ñuû tieàn.) Ex2: If I were a king, you would be a queen. (Toâi khoâng theå laø vua.) 1.3 Loaïi ba: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû quaù khöù. Ex: If John had worked harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam. (Söï thaät laø John ñaõ khoâng chaêm chæ vaø ñaõ thi rôùt.) 2) Toùm taét coâng thöùc: Loaïi IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE 1 V1(s/es) will/can/may… + V 2 V2/ed/WERE would/could/should… + V 3 had +V3/ed would/could/should…+ have + V3/ed 3) Nhöõng ñieåm caàn löu yù: 4.1 “If … not” coù theå ñöôïc thay baèng “UNLESS” (tröø phi): Ex: We will be late if we don’t hurry. ---> We will be late unless we hurry. Ex: If I have time, I’ll help you. ---> Unless I have time, I won’t help you. 4.2 Boû IF trong 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän (phaûi coù ñaûo ngöõ vôùi SHOULD/WERE/HAD): Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 13
  15. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: If it should be necessary, I will go. ---> Should it be necessary, I will go. Ex: If I were rich, I would buy a new car. ---> Were I rich, I would buy a new car. Ex: If you had asked me, I would have told you the answer. ---> Had you asked me, I would have told you the answer. 4.3 Moät soá töø/cuïm töø coù theå thay cho IF vôùi nghóa töông ñöông: provided that/so(as) long as (mieãn laø)/in case (trong tröôøng hôïp)/on condition that (vôùi ñieàu kieän) Ex: You can borrow my book provided that you bring it back. II- Caâu ao öôùc: WISH (öôùc)/IF ONLY(giaù maø) 1) Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: V2/ed/WERE - I wish Peter were here now. (He isn’t here now.) - If only I had more money. 2) Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai: WOULD + V - She wishes Tom would be here tomorrow. - If only Tom would be here tomorrow. 3) Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: HAD + V3/ed - We wish she had passed her exam last year. - If only you hadn’t told Peter about our plan. Where there’s a will there’s a way. Coù chí thì neân. Baøi 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ Moät soá töø/cuïm töø sau khi ñaët ñaàu caâu caàn ñaûo ngöõ: 1) Nhöõng traïng töø coù nghóa phuû ñònh hoaëc gaàn phuû ñònh: never, no longer, nowhere else, rarely, seldom, little, not until - He knows little about what she has done. ---> Little does he know about what she has done. - She is not only beautiful, but she is also very intelligent. ---> Not only is she beautiful, but she is also very intelligent. 2) Caùc cuïm töø baét ñaàu baèng AT, IN, ON, UNDER: - At no time was Tom aware of what was happening. - In no circumstances would I agree such a proposal. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 14
  16. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 3) Caâu dieàu kieän löôïc boû IF: (xem Baøi 5, I, 3.2) - If anyone asks me, please tell them I will be away for a few days. ---> Should anyone ask me, please tell them I will be away for a few days. - If I knew him better, I would give him advice. ---> Did I know him better, I would give him advice. 4) SO/SUCH: - I am a student, so is she. - The day was so hot that we had to stay indoors. ---> So hot was the day that we had to stay indoors. - It is such a good book that I can’t put it down. ---> Such a good book is it that I can’t put it down. 5) ONLY when/after/by/then/if … - Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work. - Only by working harder will you pass your final exam. 6) HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY … WHEN; NO SOONER … THAN: - Hardly had I arrived home when I had a new problem. - No sooner had she handed in her paper than she realized her careless mistakes. Necessity is the mother of invention. Caùi khoù loù caùi khoân. Baøi 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG VI- Töø chæ soá löôïng lôùn/nhoû: 1) A lot of, lots of, many, much: (nhieàu) - A lot of, lots of + danh töø soá nhieàu/danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc trong caâu khaúng ñònh Ex: He has a lot of / lots of friends here. We need a lot of / lots of time to learn a foreign language. - Many, much: duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán. MANY + danh töø soá nhieàu MUCH + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: There aren’t many people living here. Does the newspaper have much information? - Many, much sau VERY, SO, TOO, AS: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 15
  17. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: Very many crimes go unreported. We had so many exercises to do. There is too much salt in the soup. He hasn’t got as much patience as I thought. 2) A few, a little / few, little: (moät vaøi, moät ít / (raát) ít) - A few, a little: duøng vôùi nghóa xaùc ñònh A few + danh töø soá nhieàu A little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: We’ve got a little bacon and a few eggs. - Few, little: duøng vôùi nghóa phuû ñònh Few + danh töø soá nhieàu Little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: Few people can say that they always tell the truth. There is little sugar in my coffee. 3) A large number of, a great deal of/a large amount of: (soá löôïng lôùn) - A large numer of + danh töø soá nhieàu Ex: He has a large number of English books. * A number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá nhieàu The number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá ít (xem ví duï Baøi 3, III,3) - A great deal of + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: A dishwasher uses a great deal of electricity. VII- Töø chæ soá löôïng toaøn theå/boä phaän: 1) All, most, some, any, no: - Vôùi danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu vaø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Ex: All rabbits love green food. My brother likes all music. Most students love football. Most pollution can be avoided. I’ve just bought some books. Would you like some beer? She didn’t have any friends. Have you got any wood? We have no Sundays free. I have no time to talk to you. * SOME duøng trong caâu khaúng ñònh vaø caâu hoûi. ANY duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø caâu hoûi. - Vôùi caáu truùc OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N (ít/nhieàu) Ex: Most of my students like English. Some of the food is delicious. - Vôùi caáu truùc OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them/it) Ex: Some of you have made careless mistakes in your tests. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 16
  18. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * Khoâng duøng caáu truùc NO OF + … 2) Every, each, both, either, neither: - Every, each + N ñeám ñöôïc soá ít (haøm yù taát caû hoaëc moãi moät ngöôøi/vaät trong nhoùm) Ex: Every/Each room has a number. I go for walk every day. (moãi ngaøy) Each day seems to pass very slowly. (töøng ngaøy) - Each of + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu Ex: Each of the students has a personal computer. - Each of + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them) Ex: Each of us has our own desk. - Each ñöùng moät mình hoaëc ñi sau ñaïi töø Ex: They gave us each an English book. Each has an English book. - Both, either, neither + N (ñi vôùi hai ngöôøi hoaëc hai vaät) Ex: Both his parents are from Europe. You can read either book. (one of 2 books) Neither car is very economical to run. (2 cars) - Both, either, neither + OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu Ex: Both of his parents are from Europe. You can read either of the books. Neither of the cars is/are very economical to run. - Both, either, neither + OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them) Ex: Both of us were tired. Beauty is but skin-deep. Caùi neát ñaùnh cheát caùi ñeïp. Baøi 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ VI- Meänh ñeà tính töø: Meänh ñeà tính töø hay meänh ñeà quan heä ñöôïc ñaët sau danh töø noù phuï nghóa, ñöôïc noái baèng caùc töø quan heä: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, WHOSE, WHERE, WHY, WHEN. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 17
  19. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy DANH TÖØ CHUÛ TÖØ TUÙC TÖØ SÔÛ HÖÕU Ngöôøi WHO/THAT WHO(M)/THAT WHOSE Vaät/Ñ.vaät WHICH/THAT WHICH/THAT WHOSE/OF WHICH Nôi choán WHERE Lyù do WHY Thôøi gian WHEN Ex: - The woman who/that is standing over there is my sister. - I know the boy who(m)/that I spoke to. - She works for a company which/that makes cars. - The girl whose photo was in the paper lives in our street. - John found a cat whose leg/the leg of which was broken. - The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean. - Tell me the reason why you are so sad. - Do you remember the day when we first met? 1) Meänh ñeà quan heä haïn ñònh: Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc. Neáu boû ñi meänh ñeà chính seõ khoâng roõ nghóa. Ex: I saw the girl. She helped us last week. ---> I saw the girl who/that helped us last week. 2) Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh: Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc, laø phaàn giaûi thích theâm. Neáu boû ñi meänh ñeà chính vaãn roõ nghóa. Meänh ñeà naøy thöôøng ñöôïc taùch khoûi meänh ñeà chính baèng daáu phaåy “,”. Ta duøng meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh khi: - Tröôùc danh töø quan heä coù: this/that/these/those/my/her/his/… - Töø quan heä laø teân rieâng hoaëc danh töø rieâng. Ex: My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old. ---> My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor. Mr Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied English with him. ---> Mr Brown, who(m) we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT trong meänh ñeà naøy. Mr Brown, that we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. 3) Giôùi töø ñaët tröôùc meänh ñeà tính töø: (WHOM/WHICH) Ex: The man speaks English very fast. I talked to him last night. ---> The man to whom I last night speaks English very fast. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 18
  20. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy The house is for sale. I was born in it. ---> The house in which I was born is for sale. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT, WHO sau giôùi töø. The house in that I was born is for sale. 4) Ñaïi töø quan heä THAT: 1.1 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp thöôøng duøng THAT: - Sau cuïm töø quan heä vöøa chæ ngöôøi vaø vaät: Ex: He told me the places and people that he had seen in London. - Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh: Ex: I’ll tell you something that is very interesting. - Sau caùc tính töø so saùnh nhaát, ALL, EVERY, VERY, ONLY: Ex: This is the most beautiful dress that I have. All that is mine is yours. You are the only person that can help us. - Trong caáu truùc It + be + … + that … (chính laø …) Ex: It is my friend that wrote this sentence. (Chính laø baïn toâi ñaõ vieát caâu naøy.) 1.2 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp khoâng duøng THAT: - Trong meänh ñeà tính töø khoâng haïn ñònh (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 2)) - Sau giôùi töø (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 3)) 5) OF WHICH / OF WHOM: Ex: Daisy has three brothers. All of them are teachers. ---> Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers. He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them. ---> He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. 6) Ruùt goïn meänh ñeà tính töø thaønh cuïm tính töø: 1.1 Duøng V-ing hoaëc boû BE: Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå CHUÛ ÑOÄNG hoaëc laø BE. Ex: Those people who are taking photos over there come from Sweden. ---> Those people taking photos over there come from Sweden. Fans who want to buy tickets started queuing early. ---> Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early. The books which are on that shelf are mine. ---> The books on that shelf are mine. 1.2 Duøng V3/ed: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 19
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