Nguyên lý thiết kế cấu tạo các công trình kiến trúc 18

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  1. . I 6 B.f.CI 1 -- (* C6u H6-SOa, thang t r h ~ 6-40b- C ~ thang treo U k
  2. 2 mat i
  3. Chudng 10 CAU TAO SAN MAI NHA A - Ci'u tao d3c biet cba san nha 1 YCu C$UV$ phbng c hiy, c ich nhiet, giil nhiet, c ich i m , chong rung, chong thgm, d an hoi ... d$u 18 y tu c iu ciiu tao dac biet c6a shn. 1.- C au tao phong chay : (H4-39) Lh van d6 cdn d$c biet q uan t im d6i vdi shn go vh shn thdp. I/- Yeu cau chung : Tinh chong c hiy c ua shn go vh s in t htp n6i chung vC c a b6n phu thuoc k6t c&u vh vgt lieu chkn. Khi kho6ng trong gi3a c ic d im c 6 chkn c i c k6t c&u kh6ng c hiy ( t h bCt6ng cot thCp, tam g6m rong hoac dac, M t6ng nhe vh c i c loai gach d i k hic) vh c i c p hin n h6 ra c6a d im c 6 boc bCt6pg thi shn thuoc loai 8 n dinh chdng c hiy. Ngu kho6ng tr6ng giila c8c d im c 6 chkn n hmg k6t cgu d6 c hiy (tam 16t bang go, ddm di3 bang v in ...) duuc cgu tao chong boc c hiy bhng m et 1% t rit b M n dudi, b trCn c 6 t rit d&t sdt vh I@ ph6 thi sin thuoc loai k h6 c hiy - Tujl c ap hang c6ng trinh mh diing k6t cgu ki6u nhy ho$c ki6u kia. Ngohi ra d&d im b6o tinh chong c hiy c ho shn nhgt lh shn go thi c$n dhng g o dB duqc xir 19 chong c hiy bang c ich n gim t$m ho$c quCt h oi chat ch6ng c hiy hay bao boc g o mot I@ d a thach cao d i y 3cm hoac d a d&ts tt. 21- S n c 6 vi tri c 6 kh6 nang bat c hiy nhu bgp, It, subi, ong kh6i, khi b 6 tri dbm t rtn mat bang ph6i tuAn t he0 n h k g yeu cdu c a bin v$ ch6ng c hiy : - Kho6ng c ich ly duuc chkn t rim bang v+t lieu chju lira c ich nhiet d 6i vdi b e phgn g o lh 16 - 35cm, v8i thdp > 1l cm, vdi bb$t6ngc6t thCp > 7 cm. Tiit c i c i c b e phgn bhng g o cua shn ph6i d t ! c ich mat trong &a d u h g d n g kh6i - > 35cm. Ngu c i c d iu d im dudc c ich ly b ing v6i sqi tarn d a d&ts6t thi kho6ng c ich nay c 6 thk chon > 25cm. mat shn, b n hmg c h6 dat dilm 6 4 x iy n h6 ra 112 gach hoac 1 gach d&c ich - Trong
  4. 11.- Cgu tqo cach ilm : (H4-40) C$u tqo &ch A cho s i n n h i n hhm muc dich k h6ng dd lot n h h g t i6ng dong ma m d$ bn i o cGa n6 s6 qudy rAy s y lam viec b inh t h ~ u n va s y nghi ngdi cGa n hilng ng&i g B t rong c6c p bbng. TI? s y ph$n biet duqc cac ngubn cfia t i6ng dong n hu ti6'ng dong xudt h ien t rong mBi t rudng k h8ng k hi, ti6'ng dong x u& h ien k hi va cham t r6n k6't cc$u bao c he, t i6ng dong xudt h ien vi dao dong ma cac t hi6t b j gAy r a trong k6't c6u k hi lam viec t hi d6i vdi san, chG y6u l a c hdng tie"ng dong va chqm. Nguyen t&c x 1 cach A cho s i n 1 i chch ly m$t n &ns an, trAn s an vdi k6t cdu chju i? 9 m l qc cGa s i n , t rong t hgc t 6 t hudng d ung cac bien phAp kd s au : 11- Dling vat lieu c ich iim l i t m@t An : s T ren t ang k6t cc$uphG m6t ldp v at lieu dan hdi, s au d6 16t m at n &nlam c ho n h h g l uqng Am t ruy6n t di ldp d i n h6i giAm di mot phAn. Vat lieu dan h6i co thd d ung la g6 m&m,d sm bao 6p, cao su, gig3 dAu, sdi thGy t inh ... N huhg c6n 1 1 y k hi si? d ung lAu u1 ngay t hi v et lieu nAy c6 thd bi h u h 6ng va tinh dan h6i c ung s6 giAm ddn, d$c biet la vdi g6 m6m v i dam bao 6p c ang d6 bi muc nat, k h6ng duqc d ung ndi dm u dt. Ddng dem dAn h6i c ich dm : 21- L 6p d em c 6 thd l6t tohn b e shn n h i hoac d em thhnh gi6i hay dem thhnh didm (khi dem t h g miEng hoac l o xo d h hoi). YCu cLu l 6p dem ph6i c 6 d o b&n ldn d udi b$t k$ t6i trong nho ciing cdn ph6i c 6 tinh d i n h6i l dn nham b6o d i m t rb lai t r g g t hli binh t h u h g k hi t6i trong kh8ng c bn t ic d ong dEn. Diing dem dhn h 6i c lch $m c ho s h lh gi6i p hlp t umg d6i 1f t u h g nhung cdn luu f v$ m at kinh te" vi ki6u nhy sE t6n k t m gi6 thhnh cao, do d 6 chi nCn diing b n hihg nui c 6 yCu cdu c6ch dm dac biet c ao nhu phbng p hlt thanh ... 31 Tran cach a m : KEt h ap vdi viec c&u tao l 6p trLn p hikg dudi m at shn bhng gi6i p hlp trLn treo c 6 ke"t cgu t6ch riCng biet vh k hoing c lch ly giQa tran vh shn 18 tLng kh8ng k hi lien tuc hoac - chkn m ot I@ vgt lieu c lch Am. 1 1 C&utao dPn h6i : ( ~ 4 - 4 1 ) 1- K hi shn c 6 yCu cLu v$ tinh d i n h6i d ec biet n hu s8n s i n khgu thi tujr t n r h g h ap mh ta c 6 th6 6 p d ung c l c gi6i p hlp sau : 11- Dem bang go mem : D at b g 6i tua c l c dLm m ot miEng g o d em m$m c 6 kich t hudc : 2 0 x 2 0cm. K hoing
  5. c ach gida cac go'i t ga la 1,20m t r6n do gac dAm. Dung thanh g6 don ganh : 21- D ung cac t hanh g8 dai 1,20m b gida la di6m g6i t ga hai ddu v at tq do s6 chju m$t s an. Nhd th6' khi t 5ng tAi t rong, hai ddu tq do s6 s i n s inh tinh dan h8i cho m at s an. 3 - Dung he th6ng lo xo dan h6i : 1 Khi c6 y6u cAu kh; n ang dan h6i ldn, c6 t h6 dGng he t h6ng It, xo dd k hdng che"t inh dan hdi cho s an, cdu tao ndy t u m g tg n h u h$ t h6ng ~ nhipn rong cac loai xe 8t8. t 1 . Cgu tao ch6ng thgm : (H4-42) V- S i n n ha b k hu vqc t h u h g xuy6n dm d 6t vi tiQpx6c v$i n udc hogc cac c hdt 16ng c6 khA ni3ngxAm t hgc t ac h ai d6n v$t lieu, d u6ng Sng va ke"t cdu s i n n hu b k hu ve s inh, bgp, p hhng t h i nghiem ... cdn p hii dude c6u t ao c h6ng t hdm. Y6u c$u cdu t ao c hdng t hdm c h6 ye"u la b m st s i n v i chAn t udng, do d6 ma cac g iii p hap dudc gidi t hieu s6 a p dung chung c ho c ac loai s i n kg c i s an g8. 11- Dung vat lieu ch6ng th6m : P hd bign la ldp vita ximi3ng c at ddy 4cm c6 d st l ~ d tihhp, h osc ldp m attit n hga d ~ 6 n h ay dan gidy ddu, v ii sqi t h6y t inh n hi&uldp qubt m attit bitum. g Vdi v da ximang c at ti 1 e1: 3 hosc 1 : 2 ( theo t h6 t ich) c6 thd tang tinh c h6ng t hdm b ang c ach t uy t rudng h qp ma pha t ran th'6m t he0 t rong l udng c6a ximang n hdng c hdt phu gia chSng t hgm n hu n atri aluminat 3% hoac s 6t clorua hay t h6y t inh 16ng 2,596 vda xa p hbng ... dbng t hdi vdi viec ngGm nudc ximBng cho t di khi nao n u& k h6ng ng6m qua san xu6ng dudi dUgc. Dd t ranh nude thdm l6n t u h g , bAo dam c h6ng t hdm b v ung qua do g i3a s an va t udng t hi chn dgc b i$t c hu y de"n t inh an t oan k hi gia c 6 1udi t h6p b c h8 giao tidp c6a ldp chSng t h6m n5m n gang va t hhng diing b ang c ach cdu t ao ldp v da xirngng - c at ludi t h6p Bn sAu vSlo t udng v i w t l6n cao khbi m at s an td 1 5 - d 20cm, kidu cach nAy cGng a p dung chung cho c ac vgt lieu c h6ng t hgm &n ngoai. 21- BAo d im m$t s an k h8ng dong nude, lu6n lu8n k h8 r ao, b sng &ch b 6 t r i ddy d 6 m ieng t hu n udc va t d chQc t hoat n udc t dt. D8i vdi m$t s an l ang vda ximi3ng hay l at gach t hi c8n phAi t hgt p hing v i c6 66 d6c 1/100 - 1/50 vd h udng mi$ng t hu hoec m udng 3 - Tai vi t ri co cac d udng 6 ngxuyen qua s in, cdu t ao chdng t hgm bhng cach t hgc 1 h ien bb cdi bao 6 ng c ung qui c6ch ch6ng t hdm b vi t r i giao tigp gida san va tutmg. Dd d6 d ang s da c hda h ay thay d ubng 6 ng t hi n en d ung mo'i n6i d ang m6m 6 vi t r i ndy t dc la 18 chha s5n c6 d ang h inh ph6u va dugc chhn k he b ang m attit n hga d l~bng6o ( mattit d n hga d udng p hu gia 15 - 25% h5c i n) thay vi chkn bAng d a x imang host bet8ng (nbi
  6. citng). V - Cgu tao san thgu quang : (H4-43) . L i loai s i n dddc duc vdi loai gach thGy t inh d uc s i n c6 m st b 5ng t rbn h osc vubng thui 1 ; ( 10x10~6 1 2 x 1 2 ~ 8 1 5x15~10)h k hoing gida c ac vi6n gach dugc c hhn &a x imsng v ; cct c6 gia cd c dt t h6p dd c hiu s i n . Chi& d ii cGa s i n k h6ng n 6n v ugt q ua 3m, n6u cAn mot phb dign t ich ldn hcfn t hi phAi phAn s i n t hhnh 6 k hoing 3 x 3 m gdi t qa l6n c ac d i m d 6 c hiu s in. Vigc t hi c 6ng s i n c6 p h i n p hac tgp, do d6 chn phAi dugc t hqc h ien d 6ng qui cach v i t rinh t q t hi mdi d i m b io y6u chu. Loai san dugc t hyc h ien vdi c 6ng d ung dd ldy anh sang tq n hi6n td t r6n cao cho c ac c8ng t rinh ki6n true c6 b6 day d ang kd va chG y6u vice diing cho s i n mai n h i . qua] V1.- Cgu tao san 6 khe bi6n dang : (H4-44) cao 11- V tri khe bi6n dzjng d sAn : i 1.1- T ruhng h gp k6t c6u k hung c6 cot kbp, k he dd4c c6u t ao 5 g ida d i m kbp n6i toin c 6t. 1.2- T rudng h gp cot c6 vai d6 1 dhm c hju s i n gdi t qa 16n t r6n ldp gi6y 6p h osc tdm kim loqi ( bio d im t rugt tq do tai vi t r i gdi t ya) k he d w c cdu t ao 6 gida dAm chju s i n va dhm lien k6t c hju s in. 1.3- Khe d gt 6 k hoing g ida 2 dAm s i n c6 bAn s i n ddgc c6u t ao t he0 k6t c6u cdng son td d im d6n m6p h ai b6n k he (1k he cho t rudng h gp dAm t hbi d i u hay b i n t hbi dAu 1 h osc 2 k he cho t ruhng h gp b i n dAm g6i tq do). loai 21- Y&u 6u cdu tao : c Hi@ B io d im s y bi6n d ang c;a s i n t ai vi t ri k he dBng t hdi dlsgc c hdng thdm t dt gh61: vh k in, k h6ng cho nude v i bvi r dt x udng t$ng dudi, d i m b io vi$ s inh v i my quan. G iii p hap p h8 bi6n dugc diing 1 i d$t doc t he0 k he mot 16 dbng, dugc c hkn d6y v$t lieu d i n 2 h8i c hdng t h6m v i k he dduc che 6 m at t r6n vdi 2 tdm kim loai h inh c hd 2, V, h osc t 6n duuc d$p h inh b 5ng nhdm, d bng... c6 li6n k6t didm vao dAm d 2 m6p k he. Mgt dddi cGa s hn 6 vi t r i k he dude che b5ng n ep gB hogc ch6t deo. 6. - C&Utao san ban c Bng v a lo gia b 1.- V tri va y6u c$u : i dim cac C V tri : i I/- nhun B an cbng la mot p h i n cGa s i n gac d ugc l i m nhB r a kh6i t dhng ngoai n h i ,
  7. c 6 c ot d 6 bCn d ubi vh c 6 th6 k hong c 6 m i i c he bCn t rtn, ban c 6ng c 6 th6 d uqc 1hm trong pham vi mot phbng hoac doc t he0 nhh hay b g 6c nhh. - L 8 g ia ciing 18 m ot phan cba shn g6c nhung c 6 th6 lhm nho ra phia ngohi nhh hoac t8ng thut vho trong t u h g ngohi nhh. Khi 1hm n h8 ra thi tujr t r u h g h qp mh c 6 th6 bo t ri them 15ng c ot 66 b tn dubi vh cgu tao m i i c he bCn tren. L 6 g ia t h u h g d uqc 1hm r itng c ho t h g mot p hbng mot. chju 21- Yeu cau : cBch Bnh Ban c 8ng 18 16 gia d&uc 6 c 8ng d ung 1hm n ai h6ng m i t vui chai ngoan c6nh hoac 1hm viec g iat giii hong phai bCn ngohi nhh dong thbi ciing nham muc dich tao khoi tang them Lyu e' m y quan c ho m at d img ngoi nhh. Do d 6 k hi thigt k k c au t ao ban cong vh l o gia chng quan t2m c hng llic d i m b60 ket c au c hju l uc tot, dong thbi k6t cau b ao c he d at yCu cau c ao v-6 sir dung vh thdm my. 2.1 - Kkt c au c hju l uc : c 6 yCu cdu c hb yku 1h d6m b60 c u h g d o cao, kiCn c 6 vh an tohn. 2.2- Kkt c au b ao c he : D o vi t ri n&n shn cba ban c 8ng vh 16 gia chju t i c d ong t ruc tigp c ba birc x a m at t rai, m ua, g i6 n tn c$u t ao mat s i n c 6 yCu c au c ich nhiet, c ich nubc hosc c hong tham vh t hoit n udc tot. Bo phan kkt c au c he c hin n hu Ian c an c an t hong g i6 t6t vh , chju d6m b60 yCu c au n ghe thuat xir 19 m at dimg c 8ng trinh. (H4-45). 11.- K et cau chiu l uc : 11- V at lieu : Kkt c au c hiu l uc c ba ban c 8ng vh l o g ia t h u h g d uqc c au t ao c hng m ot loai vat l ieu c ba kgt c au chiu l uc c ba shn nhh, nhu g o, t htp, b ttong c ot t htp hoac dB, H ien n ay, p h8 bign ban c 6ng vh l o gia duqc 1hm bang b tt6ng c ot t htp tohn khoi hoac l ap g htp. ;m t 6t I. GiAi 21- K et cau chiu luc : ( H4-46) u dan 2.1- Ban c 8ng : Tujr t he0 vi tri, yCu c$u sir dung vh vat lieu x2y d ung mh ban cong sE $c t8n d uqc c au t ao t he0 c i c s a do kdt c&uc hiu l uc n hu sau : ia san a- B6n shn c hju d 6 bbi c 6ng son bang go, t htp, 6 6 h oac bCt8ng c ot t htp. Tujl t he0 vat lieu mh c 6ng x 8n d at cich kho6ng ti3 l m-2m vh d uqc lien kkt vh k hoi x2y hay khung s u h nhh. N hjp vuun ra cba ban c 6ng sE tujr t he0 khA n ang c hiu l uc c ba c 8ngx8n t h u h g 1,OOm. b- Kkt c au c hju l uc c ba ban c 8ng lh kkt c au b o p han shn nhh k t o dhi ra v6i c i c d $m m ot n hip c 6 p han c 8ng x on dua ra k h6i m at t u h g n gohi vh m ot d am biCn k i&ng c i c d au d am d ong t hai c hju 66 l an can. N hjp v uun c 6 t h6 r ong t he0 y t u c au sir dung n hung k h8ng nCn q u i 1 ,80m, kkt c au nhy t h u h g A d ung t r u h g h o n~ khung c hju p hh
  8. l uc bang go, thCp, b etang cot t htp. T r u h g h ap d$m s i n ghc 1Cn t u h g chju luc c 6 l o cira b d ud thi cdn gia cd lanh td hoac b o tri he d h dp:gdc 12n khodng t u i g girl'a cac lo cira. c- BAn c 6ng x6n liCn kgt ngAm vho k hdi x2y hoac dAm hay giang t u h g . T n h g h ap nhy c$n q uan tam dgn cA'u tao on djnh c h6ng lgt c ho ban cdng. Vat lieu 1hm bAn c 8ng 1 x 8n c 6 th&18 bang dh hoac bCt8ng c6t thCp vh nhip hep t h u h g k h8ng wqt quh 1,OOm. h cao t 2 - Lo gia : D o v j tri c ha lo gia duqc lhm b phia trong nhh hoac c 6 th6 n h8 ra khbi 1 I cAu t I t u h g ngohi v6i cot chju b d u6i mh k6t cgu shn sE giong n hu c$u tao s i n nhh - ngu phAn w n thCm ra k h8ng c 6 cot chiu thi c 6 th&hp d ung k6t c$u chju luc n hu c ha ban c6ng. a 111.- Ket cau bao che : - 11-Cau tao mat san : thCp D o viec mat shn ban c 6ng vh 18 gia chiu thc d ung truc tigp c ha nhng gi6, m ua nen n 6 c$n d uqc cfiu tao nhu m6i phhng, ngohi yCu cAu chch nhiet cbn c 6 yCu c8u chch nudc, c h6ng thA'm vh to chirc thoht nudc. mhi b L dp chch nhiet dat trCn l dp chju luc hoac treo vho l dp chju luc, vgt lieu chch nhiet t h u h g d hng 18 vgt lieu v8 c a rbi ( xi lb, f i n dh bot, tro nhi lira, bCt8ng bot ...). Chi& dhy c ha l dp chch nhiet sE tujr the0 tinh c6ch nhiet c ha l dp g i5 nhiet vh c 6ng d ung cha c an Sc phbng. L@ chch nhiet sE milt khA nang chch nhiet k hi bi dm do d 6 c$n bho ve phia trCn thuh bang l dp chch nudc ngan nudc mua, vh ir bCn d udi c 6 l dp c h6ng dm ( ldp t8n). cao ci L dp chch nudc t h u h g 18 vat lieu thAm cuon lien tuc (gifiy d3u quCt mattit nhiCu l dp kilm hoac vhi s qi thug tinh quCt mattit bitum). thhnh 11.- B Trong nhilng t r u h g h q l~ g i5 nhiet 1hm b ing xi hoac nhilng vat lieu kh6c d 8 b j dp bi6n d ang d u6i Anh h u h g c ha t ii trong tam t hai thi bCn trCn l dp g i5 nhiet 1hm m at l dp b etang c 6 tang c u h g ludi thCp d$y 3 - 5 cm d hng 1hm nCn clmg c ho ldp chch nudc. L dp g i5 nhiet vh vb bCt6ng lhrn d 6c v&phia mieng hoac mhng thu nu&. L dp b io ve d at trCn chng, ngohi viec bho ve thhm c6ch nudc, c h6ng nhilng x2m thuc c a hoc vgt lieu cA'u tao 1 cha n 6 c bn. tug thuoc vho yCu c$u sir dung, cfip nhh mh c 6 th6 chon the0 ki&u 1ht gach shn nh i g 6m, gach ximang hoac lhng Vila ximang. thfim, I Kg Mat shn c ha ban c 8ng vh l o gia nCn lhm thgp h m mat s in nhh 5-6cm dBng thdi p hii tua 1 n C luu y dgn cfiu tao c h6ng thA'm b vi tri ti6p gihp gi5a shn vh t u h g d ac biet 18 b b g phGn nhu shi ngach cira, dC phbng nudc mua, gi6 hat tir ngohi vho trong nhh, chch k hoing 10-15m c$n c 6 k he nhiet d o (H4-47). 1.2 l ip ght
  9. C / - Csu tao rnai bang 1 1 r > M i i bang d uqc xem 18 gibi ph6p cgu tao m6i ph8 bi6n c ho c ac c 8ng trinh k ith truc cao tang nham de? t rinh viec gi6 b io l im t6c m6i (m6i ddc), ddng thiri d i p img d uqc yCu c Quth6 hien khdi kien truc linh hoat v i d a dang. I n - D o doc ddl t hoit nudc m ua nhb 2% - 8%, d o d 6 c hju i p l uc c ua gio b i o it. - K6t cgu c hiu luc co the 1hm bang vat lieu g 8, thkp nhung chu yC'u 18 bCt8ng cot thCp vi bCn chdc vh k hb n5ng ch6ng chay cao. - M at shn c ua mai co the tan dung de sir dung 1 im san thuqng, sAn phai, nhung dd d ap img duuc yCu c iu nhy thi phan kgt cau bC trCn mat shn c ba rnai sE phhc tap h m vh bn c 6 yCu c au vi5 d o doc trong gi8i han tdi thie?u 0 ,01 - 0 ,05, d o do gia t hinh sE c ao h m 2)- Nhuqc didm : So vdi mai ddc, mai bang co nhuuc didm 18 sE 1hm thay d 8i che" d o nhiet, d o dm binh t h u h g c 6a c i c c8n phbng ir tang tren c ung nhgt 18 trong m ua nong. Do do c an p hii nhng 1 c ao c6c yCu cAu vi5 c ach rthiet vh ch6ng thgm c ho c ac v$t lieu d uqc dung, dong thbi phAi k ilm so6t c hat ch& c8ng tac thi c 8ng m ai. M i i bang co k6t cgu t u m g d oi nang va gia thhnh cao. Ngohi ra c8ng r6c s ha chila chong d ot sE phdc tap khi nhh bi lun n h . 11.- B o phan cau tao : Mai bang duac cgu tao vdt 2 bo phgn chinh g6m k6t c6u c h ~ uuc vh ket cgu b ao c he. l 1)- Ket cau chiu luc : 1.1- Hinh thdc : K et c hju luc mhi bang, c8n b in giong nhu k6t c&uchiu l uc ciia s i n nhh, nhung v chi ti6t thi c 6 s u khac biet r6 nkt u k6t cdu vikn m i i vh cgu tao chong C tham, thoat nu& mai. tua len trCn t u h g xay tgnl panen t u h g hoac khung s u h . Mat bang k et cgu d ugc b 6 t ri nhu s i n c o kgt h up vdi yCu c Quc6u tao thoat nu&, c hong dot, c hong thdm vh c ach nhiet. 1.2- V$t l ieu : K et cii.u c hju l uc b ang c 6 th6 lhm b ang bCt8ng c ot thCp t oin khbi, l ap g h6p h oac b an l i p ghkp. T ug t he0 tinh hinh v$t lieu m i ket cgu chiu lqc c bn c 6 th6
  10. lam b5ng g6, t hbp vdi cdu tao ldp Igrp b ang cach dgt s an van hay t6n p hhng hogc t611 dqn s6ng v i t ren c ung d6c b etang Iudi t hbp c h6ng thdm. 2)- K6t c6u bao che : DI$ miii c6 thd hoan thanh daqc c hdc n 5ng chch nudc va chch n hiet t hi ph&icdu r i h g va dugc d et nAm t he0 vj t r i xac tao nhi6u Idp, t rong d6 m8i Idp c6 mot nhiem djnh t he0 chi& t h h n g d h g bao g6m : ldp b&ove p hia t r6n c ung, ldp c hdng thdm (cach nu&), ldp dem, Idp k h6ng k hi t hdng g i6,ldp ciich n hiet, ldp cach hdi. (H7-32) 2.1- L 6p ch6ng thgm :La ldp b&ove cho s an miii k h6ng bi nuuc m aa nggm vao kdt cgu clia mhi. V$t lieu dugrc d ung ph6 bi6n l a gidy d i u va bet6ng chSng t hdm. - a-Gi6ycEtiu : a l- D@c i6m :Gidy ddu l a loai vet lieu c hdng thdm, d agc che" t ao bAng sgri t hgc d v$t, 16ng d ong v$t, v&isqi amigng... S au khi dii c an thanh tdm dai dudi d ang cuon, dugrc t &mn hqa d5u md hoac n hqa t han da va p hh t hem mot 1dp n hqa len mot h osc h ai mgt cbn duqc r5c l6n mgt mot ldp - b$t k hoing, c i t hogc mica d6 bho v$. Gidy d i u la v at lieu m&n, c6 k ha n 5ng c hdng th6m cao, it bj p h i hoai khi nha bi lun k h6ng deu, a p d ung cho mai n ha c6 66 d6c n h6. - Tuy nhi6n gidy ddu c6n t 6n t ai n huqc didm 1ii t hi c6ng p hdc tap, d6 bi muc n at (v$t lieu h du cd), k hbng chiu duqc n hiet do cao ( nhqa t rong gigy d i u se b i chay dudi t i c dong cua n hiet cao). D6ng t h6i gigy ddu 1& vat lieu d6 bi6n dgng dudi t ac d ung c ua t ai t r ~ n g t q mthW c6a I@ cach d i e t n9n dudi no phBi c b I@ d4m de" lam n6n mbng a z - Qui c dch :Khi diing gi$ dhu d6 l im 1% chdng t h h , cfin d$t c8c dHi vudng g6c vdi p humg dbng ch6y ciia n udc m a vB x6p c hdng phu len p hau mQt doqn 80 - - CQcldp gidy ddu dude d an l6n n hau bbng m ittit bltum n 6ng vbi so" ldp tiiy t he0 66 dbc clia mSli n h d sau : - 5 l6p vdi do d6c 1 = 3% - 7% 4 ldp vdi do d6c 3 - 15% 3 1dp vdi do d6c 7 - 2 1dp viri do d6c 15% Dbng t hai, dd b io d im ch6ng dot t6t khi s$ d ung gi6y dbu, c6n t u b theo c5c qui - CAc Idp gidy d i u ph&idgt phli chbng l6n n hau > 15cm t ai cac vi t r i d inh nbc, mhng n adc, m ang xdi, va mieng t hu nuuc t ai bng xubng. -
  11. - d c l c g6c tie"p giap giiin mai va tlrang phAi dhn gidy cao the0 chidu t h h g d img c6a t udng ti? 20 - 30cm, d inang nudc t hi mkp tdm gidy c6a mai p hii dk len mkp tdm gidy c 6a m ang > 15cm. (H7-33a) - T rudng h gp c6 d$t 6 ng n hb kh6i mai t hi thAn 6 ng p hii h ill 16 chhn va dgt 6 ng n bng 18 ngay trong khi d8 betbng mai, chiin 6 ng p hii ddgc cai bd v B h a t viia ximang cao 15cm. S au khi d an gidy d i u v i lam ldp bAo ve, phAi hiin n hp che n udc c6 h inh n 6n c ut bhng t an v io t han 6 ng dk che dhu m6i c 6a cac ldp gidy d i u (H7-33b) b-- Be^t6ng chdng t k i m : b l- £lac d i 6 m :betbng ch6ng t hdm la loai b etang da n h6 t rong d6 t hanh phdn ximang t u m g d6i nhidu, k h i n 5ng lien k6t c 6a betbng c hat khbng c6 16 r hng, dbng t hdi d6 t ang khA n ang c h6ng t hgm, betbng c6n dugc h6a t hem chdt phu gia n h u b i r udu s unfit, xa phbng, n hya thbng. Bd ddy c6a ldp betbng c h6ng thdin v io khoang 30 - 50mm, t rung b inh 40mm. b2- V i t r i : Ldp betbng ch6ng thdm c6 thk dgt the0 2 cach : - Ldp c h6ng t hdm va k6t cdu lien k6t c h@tch6 vdi nhau do do c6 t ac d ung tBng t hem 66 c dng cho mai. - Ldp c hdng t hdm v i ke"t cdu chiu lyc t ach rdi nhau, dugc chch ly bdi tdng cach n hiet hogc m at ldp bitum, chch nhy c6 rn didm khhc p huc dugc h ien t ugng 1dp ch6ng t hdm s6 k hang bi n dt do t ac dong c 6a s y c henh lech n hiet do t rong v i ngoai mai nha. B ienphap k hdcphuc h i8n trlqng nrit s inh d ot: Dk khAc p huc h ien t ugng n dt b3- s inh d ot c ha ldp b etang c h6ng t hdm khi k6t cdu bi6n h inh hoac c6 s y t hay ddi n hiet 66 t hi c6 t h6 a p dung cac bien p hap sau : - Tgng c udng khA nBng chju kko c 6a betbng c h6ng t hdm bgng c ach d$t t hem m at ldp llliri t hkp 4 4 , b vubng 20 - 25cm. - Chia m et bhng c ha 1dp c hdng t h6m t r6n mai t h i n h n h h g m ang n h6 ci3 2m x 2m, can c d v io E4 t r i mqt bgng k6t cdu, didu kien k hi h$u ma d$t cac k he c hia m ang - K inh qua t hyc te"t hi cbng Idp betbng c h6ng thdm c hua t hyc s y dam bho h oan t oan k in va dgc chhc. Do do c i n d ng d ung cac bien p hap b8 s ung n hu sail : -Bien phap chdn dong lai trong qua trinh d8 betbng bd t ang cudng do chdng thgm (60%) vdi thdi gian chdn dqng khoAng 40 giAy cho m6i ldn cach k hoing ti? 15 - 20 p h6t. -Bien p hap ngAm n udc khu& ximang dude t i& h anh s au khi dd betbng td 6 - 10
  12. gid viri ti le 5 kg ximgng cho l m 3 n udc (5kg/m.3)n gsm cho d6n k hi n i o nlrirc x imsng b it bl k in cac 18 r 6ng t rong b6tbng va n udc k hbng cbn t hdm xu6ng dudi la d at y6u cAu. (1ph41 15mm Ldp d$m : 2.2- D8 ldp a- M q d ich; Nhhm t ao n &nc dng, bdn va bhng p hhng dudi ldp c h6ng t hdm rc bitum ( (tru'dllg h dp d ung v at lieu c uan). DSng thtri t gng c ubng kh; n gng c ach n hiet, t ao do d6c cho mai khi tAng k6t cdu dudc c6u t ao bhng (mgt trAn nhm ngang), lam p hang m at t hng b2- day 4 - kdt cdu t ao d i&ukien t hi cbng t6t ldp c h6ng t hgm ir b6n t r6n n6. r a cbn b- V @ tlieu :V aa ximgng, b6tbng xi, b6tbng c at a tfan, v ii sdi t h6y t inh va n hqa cach nl F lintkete la n h h g v$t lieu t hudng dude d ung dd cdu tao l ap dem. T rudng h dp d ung ldp Flintko den1 dd l i m t hi c6 thk dhng ldp b6t6ng c at a tfan d ang tdm c6 c ~ d n go c hju n 6n > d hinh vc 8kg/cm2 va day 1 5 - 20mm, n6u k hbng c6 ldp khbng k hi va b an cach n hiet c dng, l ap b6tbng c at ximgng mac > 50 v i dAy 25 - 30mm c6 dgt luui c 6t thitp dem 4 g iaa vdi d u h g k inh c6t thitp 2 - 3mm n6u k hbng c6 ldp khbng khi va lirp cach n hiet x6p, c ac b an b6tbng c6t thitp 1Bp gh6p mac > 1 00 n6u c6 ldp khbng k hi. Ldp k h 6 n g k hi th6ng gio :NhAm muc dich dd t hoat n udc A t d t rong k6t m 2.3- cdu s an inai vh t ranh cho k h6ng k hi trong c ac p hbng t hugc t hng t r6n c ung k hbng b j n u i ~ g 6ng bdi t ac dong c 6a b dc xa mgt t rbi. n Ldp cach nhi$t : C6 n hiem vq bao dAm c ubng do t ruy&nn hiet cAn thi6't. 2.4- Cac v at lieu cach n hiet c6 thd la v$t lieu c dng hogc x6p. Dd lam v$t lieu cach n hiet c dug, c6 t h6 d ung b6tbng bot, b6tbng k hi, t h6y t inh bot, n h3ng tgm lam b hng k h o h g c hdt va v6 bao itp (c6 kid t rung) vdi b6 day t he0 yeu cAu. Dk lam v$t lieu cich n hiet I I xbp c6 t h6 d ung : xi b at, Kerain zit, da b ~ td,a v6 s6 vdi be dAy x ac d jnh t he0 t inh toAn. Ldp c h c h hdi : La ldp dude d$t dudi ldp c ich n hiet vh d hng dd b&ove c ho 2.5- ldp cach n hiet k hbng b j hdi n bng ciia k h6ng k hi xAm n hap vao trong c i c p hbng cfia tAng t r&nchng, vi 16 ldp cach n hiet c hi h oin t hhnh c hdc n gng c 6a n b khi l6p do kh6. Dbi vdi l ap c ach hdi v$t lieu dudc d ung 16 Ruberoit, Hydroizon vdi m at tit b itum nirng. 2.6- Lup b&ov$ : a- Mq dich ? L a ldp duqc cdu tqo 6 t r6n c hng cfia m i i c6 n hiem vq b i o ve ldp rc -u; c h6ng t hdm ir dudi kh6i b j t ac dong cd hgc c6 h ai, kh6i b j m gt t rbi c hi& n 6ng q u i m ac n5m nga v i khbi b / ti6p x uc t rqc ti6p vdi Oxy c 6a k hbng khi, bhi 16 k hi ti6p x uc viri k h6ng k hi, d6n kh6r ldp c hdng t hdm (v$t lieu c uan mdm) s6 bj p han hfiy dAn vdi cac c hdt d6 bay hdi va do -Nk do bi mAt t inh d i n h8i. s6 rdt dd; b- V Gt lieu uci phLcong ccich c&u tqo : chdng ch dem ( xi t
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