OCA Oracle Database 11g Administration I Exam Guide P1

Chia sẻ: Vong Phat | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:40

0
127
lượt xem
41
download

OCA Oracle Database 11g Administration I Exam Guide P1

Mô tả tài liệu
  Download Vui lòng tải xuống để xem tài liệu đầy đủ

There is an ever increasing demand for staff with IT industry certification. The benefits to employers are significant—they can be certain that staff have a certain level of competence—and the benefits to the individuals, in terms of demand for their services are equally great. Many employers are now requiring technical staff to have certifications and many IT purchasers will not buy from firms that do not have certified staff.

Chủ đề:
Lưu

Nội dung Text: OCA Oracle Database 11g Administration I Exam Guide P1

  1. ® OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide (Exam 1Z0-052) John Watson This publication and CD may be used in assisting students to prepare for the OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I exam. Neither Oracle Corporation nor The McGraw-Hill Companies warrant that use of this publication and CD will ensure passing the relevant exam. New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto
  2. Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-159103-6 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-159102-8. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071591028
  3. I want to thank Silvia for looking after me (and our house, garden, cats, and dogs) while I was working on this. She works much harder than me.
  4. ABOUT THE AUTHOR John Watson (Oxford, UK) works for BPLC Management Consultants, teaching and consulting throughout Europe and Africa. He was with Oracle University for several years in South Africa, and before that worked for a number of companies, government departments, and NGOs in England and Europe. He is OCP qualified in both database and Application Server administration. John is the author of several books and numerous articles on technology and has twenty-five years of experience in IT. About the Technical Editor April Wells (Austin, TX) is an experienced Oracle DBA who holds multiple DBA OCP certifications. She currently manages Oracle databases and Oracle data warehouses at NetSpend corporation in Austin, Texas. Previously, April has worked for Oracle Corporation in Austin, Texas as on-site support at Dell, at Corporate Systems in Amarillo, Texas, and at U.S. Steel in Pennsylvania and Minnesota. Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
  5. CONTENTS AT A GLANCE 1 Introduction to the Oracle Server Technologies .................. 2 2 Exploring the Database Architecture .......................... 31 3 Preparing the Database Environment .......................... 85 4 Creating an Oracle Database ................................. 123 5 Managing the Oracle Instance ................................ 151 6 Configuring the Oracle Network Environment .................. 193 7 Managing Database Storage Structures ......................... 239 8 Administering User Security ................................. 281 9 Managing Schema Objects .................................. 329 10 Managing Data and Concurrency ............................. 375 11 Managing Undo Data ....................................... 415 12 Implementing Oracle Database Security ........................ 443 13 Database Maintenance ...................................... 471 14 Performance Management ................................... 515 15 Backup and Recovery Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 16 Performing Database Backups ................................ 581 17 Performing Database Recovery ............................... 615 v
  6. vi OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide 18 Moving Data ............................................. 635 19 Intelligent Infrastructure Enhancements ........................ 663 Appendix ................................................ 685 Glossary ................................................. 689 Index .................................................... 705
  7. For more information about this title, click here CONTENTS Introduction ........................................ xxi 1 Introduction to the Oracle Server Technologies . . . . . . 1 Position the Oracle Product Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Server Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Development Tools and Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Oracle Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Exercise 1-1: Investigate DBMSs in Your Environment . . . 13 Explain Relational Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Rows and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Data Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Understand the SQL Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appreciate the DBA’s Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2 Exploring the Database Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Describe the Single-Instance Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Single-Instance Database Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Distributed Systems Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Exercise 2-1: Determine if the Database Is Single Instance or Part of a Distributed System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Explain the Memory Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 The Database Buffer Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Log Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Shared Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The Large Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 The Java Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 vii
  8. viii OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide The Streams Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Exercise 2-2: Investigate the Memory Structures of the Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Describe the Process Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 SMON, the System Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 PMON, the Process Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 DBWn, the Database Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 LGWR, the Log Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 CKPT, the Checkpoint Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 MMON, the Manageability Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 MMNL, the Manageability Monitor Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 MMAN, the Memory Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 ARCn, the Archiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 RECO, the Recoverer Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Some Other Background Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Exercise 2-3: Investigate the Processes Running in Your Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Summarize the Storage Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 The Physical Database Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 The Logical Database Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 The Data Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Exercise 2-4: Investigate the Storage Structures in Your Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3 Preparing the Database Environment .............. 85 Identify the Tools for Administering an Oracle Database . . . . . . . . . . . 86 The Oracle Universal Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Database Creation and Upgrade Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Tools for Issuing Ad Hoc SQL: SQL*Plus and SQL Developer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Exercise 3-1: Install SQL Developer on Windows . . . . . . . 97 Oracle Enterprise Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Other Administration Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
  9. Contents ix Plan an Oracle Database Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Choice of Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Hardware and Operating System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Exercise 3-2: Confirm Available Hardware Resources . . . . 104 Optimal Flexible Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Install the Oracle Software by Using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Exercise 3-3: Install the Oracle Home ................ 111 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 4 Creating an Oracle Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Create a Database by Using the Database Configuration Assistant . . . 124 The Instance, the Database, and the Data Dictionary . . . . . . 125 Using the DBCA to Create a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Exercise 4-1: Use the DBCA to Create a Database ...... 129 The Scripts and Other Files Created by the DBCA . . . . . . . . 133 The DBCA’s Other Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 5 Managing the Oracle Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Describe the Stages of Database Startup and Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Starting and Connecting to Database Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Starting the Database Listener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Starting SQL*Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Database Startup and Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Exercise 5-1: Conduct a Startup and a Shutdown ....... 166 Set Database Initialization Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Static and Dynamic Parameters, and the Initialization Parameter File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
  10. x OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide The Basic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Exercise 5-2: Query and Set Initialization Parameters . . . . 174 Use the Alert Log and Trace Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Exercise 5-3: Use the Alert Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Use Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance Views . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 The Data Dictionary Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 The Dynamic Performance Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Exercise 5-4: Query Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 6 Configuring the Oracle Network Environment . . . . . . 193 Configure and Manage the Oracle Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Oracle Net and the Client-Server Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 A Word on Oracle Net and Communication Protocols . . . . . 196 Establishing a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Creating a Listener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Database Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Techniques for Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 The Listener Control Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Configuring Service Aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 File Names and the TNSADMIN Environment Variable . . . . 213 Database Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Exercise 6-1: Configure Oracle Net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Use the Oracle Shared Server Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 The Limitations of Dedicated Server Architecture . . . . . . . . . 220 The Shared Server Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Configuring Shared Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 When to Use the Shared Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Exercise 6-2 (optional): Set Up a Shared Server Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
  11. Contents xi Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 7 Managing Database Storage Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Understand Tablespaces and Dataf iles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 The Oracle Data Storage Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Segments, Extents, Blocks, and Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Automatic Storage Management (ASM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Exercise 7-1: Investigate the Database’s Data Storage Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Create and Manage Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Tablespace Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Altering Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Dropping Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Oracle-Managed Files (OMF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Exercise 7-2: Create, Alter, and Drop Tablespaces . . . . . . . 264 Manage Space in Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Extent Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Segment Space Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Exercise 7-3: Change Tablespace Characteristics . . . . . . . . 269 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 8 Administering User Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Create and Manage Database User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 User Account Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Creating Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Exercise 8-1: Create Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Grant and Revoke Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 System Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Object Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Exercise 8-2: Grant Direct Privileges ................. 303
  12. xii OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide Create and Manage Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Creating and Granting Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Predefined Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Enabling Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Exercise 8-3: Create and Grant Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Create and Manage Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Password Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Resource Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Creating and Assigning Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Exercise 8-4: Create and Use Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 9 Managing Schema Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Create and Modify Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Users, User Accounts, Schemas, and Schema Objects . . . . . . 331 Naming Schema Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Object Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Creating Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Exercise 9-1: Create and Modify Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Manage Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 The Types of Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Defining Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Constraint State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Constraint Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Exercise 9-2: Manage Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Create Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Why Indexes Are Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Types of Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Creating and Using Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Modifying and Dropping Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Exercise 9-3: Create Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Create and Use Temporary Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Exercise 9-4: Create and Use Temporary Tables . . . . . . . . . 365
  13. Contents xiii ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 10 Managing Data and Concurrency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Manage Data Using DML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Database Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Executing SQL Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Transaction Control: COMMIT, ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Exercise 10-1: Manage Data Using DML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Identify and Administer PL/SQL Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 SQL and Procedural Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Stored and Anonymous PL/SQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 PL/SQL Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Exercise 10-2: Create PL/SQL Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Monitor and Resolve Locking Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Shared and Exclusive Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 The Enqueue Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Lock Contention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Deadlocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Exercise 10-3: Detect and Resolve Lock Contention . . . . . 406 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 11 Managing Undo Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Explain the Purpose of Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Exercise 11-1: Use Undo Data ...................... 418 Understand How Transactions Generate Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Exercise 11-2: Work with Transactions and Flashback Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
  14. xiv OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide Manage Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Error Conditions Related to Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Parameters for Undo Management, and Retention Guarantee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Sizing and Monitoring the Undo Tablespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Flashback Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Creating and Managing Undo Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Exercise 11-3: Work with Undo Tablespaces . . . . . . . . . . . 431 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 12 Implementing Oracle Database Security . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Database Security and Principle of Least Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Public Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Security-Critical Instance Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Exercise 12-1: Remove Some Potentially Dangerous Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Work with Standard Database Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Auditing SYSDBA Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Database Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Value-Based Auditing with Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Fine-Grained Auditing (FGA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Exercise 12-2: Use Standard Database Auditing . . . . . . . . . 461 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 13 Database Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Use and Manage Optimizer Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Object Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Gathering Statistics Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 The STATISTICS_LEVEL Instance Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 478
  15. Contents xv Exercise 13-1: Gather Optimizer Statistics with Various Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Use and Manage the Automatic Workload Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Gathering AWR Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Managing the AWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 Statistics, Metrics, and Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 The DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY Package . . . . . . . 485 Exercise 13-2: Monitor the Automatic Workload Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Use the Advisory Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 The Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 The Advisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Automatic Maintenance Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Exercise 13-3: Generate an ADDM Report . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 Manage Alerts and Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Alert Condition Monitoring and Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Setting Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 The Notification System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Exercise 13-4: Configure Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 14 Performance Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Use Automatic Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 PGA Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 SGA Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 Automatic Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Exercise 14-1: Set the Memory Management Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Use Memory Advisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Exercise 14-2: Use the Memory Advisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Troubleshoot Invalid and Unusable Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 Invalid Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Unusable Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Exercise 14-3: Repair Invalid Objects and Unusable Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
  16. xvi OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 15 Backup and Recovery Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Identify the Types of Failure That Can Occur in an Oracle Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Statement Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 User Process Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 User Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Media Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Instance Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Exercise 15-1: Correct Statement Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Describe Ways to Tune Instance Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 The Mechanics of Instance Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 The Impossibility of Database Corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Tuning Instance Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 The MTTR Advisor and Checkpoint Auto-Tuning . . . . . . . . 555 Exercise 15-2: Monitor Instance Recovery Times . . . . . . . . 557 Identify the Importance of Checkpoints, Redo Log Files, and Archived Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 Checkpointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 Protecting the Online Redo Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Archivelog Mode and the Archiver Process(es) . . . . . . . . . . . 563 Exercise 15-3: Investigate the Redo Log Configuration . . . 565 Overview of Flash Recovery Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Exercise 15-4: Investigate the Flash Recovery Area Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Configure ARCHIVELOG Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Exercise 15-5: Enable Archivelog Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
  17. Contents xvii 16 Performing Database Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Create Consistent Database Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 User-Managed Consistent Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 Server-Managed Consistent Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Exercise 16-1: Managing Consistent User- and Server-Managed Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 Back Up Your Database Without Shutting It Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 User-Managed Open Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 Server-Managed Open Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 Exercise 16-2: Perform Server-Managed and User-Managed Open Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593 Create Incremental Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 Exercise 16-3: Make an Incremental Backup . . . . . . . . . . . 596 Automate Database Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Exercise 16-4: Define an Automatic Backup Job . . . . . . . . 597 Manage Backups, View Backup Reports, and Monitor the Flash Recovery Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 The RMAN Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Reports on Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Managing Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Monitoring the Flash Recovery Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 Exercise 16-5: Manage RMAN Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 17 Performing Database Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Overview of Data Recovery Advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 Recovery from Loss of the Controlfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 Recovery from Loss of an Online Redo Log File Member . . . . 618 Loss of Any Datafile in Noarchivelog Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 Loss of a Datafile in Archivelog Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 The Health Monitor and the ADR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 The Capabilities and Limitations of the DRA . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
  18. xviii OCA Oracle Database 11g: Administration I Exam Guide Exercise 17-1:Use the DRA to Diagnose and Advise Upon Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Use Data Recovery Advisor to Perform Recovery (Control File, Redo Log File, and Data File) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 Exercise 17-2: Repair a Fault with the DRA . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 18 Moving Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Describe and Use Methods to Move Data (SQL Loader, Directory Objects, External Tables) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 SQL*Loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 Directory Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 External Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 Exercise 18-1: Use SQL*Loader and External Tables . . . . . 644 Explain the General Architecture of Oracle Data Pump . . . . . . . . . . . 647 Data Pump and Export/Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 Data Pump Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 Directories and File Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649 Direct Path or External Table Path? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 Exercise 18-2: Perform a Data Pump Export . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Use Data Pump Export and Import to Move Data Between Oracle Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 Using Data Pump with the Command-Line Utilities . . . . . . . 653 Using Data Pump with Database Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 Exercise 18-3: Use Data Pump in Network Mode . . . . . . . . 655 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
  19. Contents xix 19 Intelligent Infrastructure Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . 663 Use the Enterprise Manager Support Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 The Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Problems and Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666 The ADR Command-Line Interface (ADRCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . 666 The Support Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666 Exercise 19-1: Use the Support Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . 669 Manage Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Types of Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Integration with MetaLink and the Patch Advisor . . . . . . . . . 671 Applying Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 Exercise 19-2: Download and Apply a Patch . . . . . . . . . . . 677 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680 Lab Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 Lab Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 About the CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 Installing and Running MasterExam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 MasterExam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 Electronic Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 Removing Installation(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 LearnKey Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

CÓ THỂ BẠN MUỐN DOWNLOAD

Đồng bộ tài khoản