Oracle Database 2 Day DBA 11g Release- P14

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Oracle Database 2 Day DBA 11g Release- P14

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Oracle Database 2 Day DBA 11g Release- P14:Oracle Database 2 Day DBA is a database administration quick start guide that teaches you how to perform day-to-day database administrative tasks. The goal of this guide is to help you understand the concepts behind Oracle Database. It teaches you how to perform all common administrative tasks needed to keep the database operational, including how to perform basic troubleshooting and performance monitoring activities.

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Nội dung Text: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA 11g Release- P14

  1. Backing Up ASM-Managed Files To drop one or more disks from a disk group: 1. Go to the ASM Home page. See "Accessing the Automatic Storage Management Home Page" on page A-4. 2. Click the Disk Groups link to display the Disk Groups subpage. 3. If the Automatic Storage Management Login page appears, log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSASM. Provide the SYS password that was set when the ASM instance was created. 4. Click a link in the Name column to select the disk group from which you want to drop disks. The Disk Group page appears. 5. Under the Member Disks heading, in the Select column, select the check boxes for the disks that you want to drop, and then click Remove. A confirmation page appears. 6. If you want to change rebalance power, or if you want set the FORCE option for dropping disks, do the following: a. Click Show Advanced Options. b. Optionally select the Force option or select a value for rebalance power in the Rebalance Power list. Note: You may need the FORCE option if ASM cannot read from or write to the disk. 7. Click Yes to drop the disks. The Disk Group page returns, and displays a state of DROPPING for each disk being dropped. 8. Refresh the page until the dropped disks no longer appear in the disk group. Caution: You cannot reuse or disconnect the dropped disks until the drop and rebalance operations are complete—that is, until the dropped disks no longer appear in the disk group. See Also: ■ "Overview of Disks, Disk Groups, and Failure Groups" on page A-3 ■ Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information about the FORCE option ■ Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information and for other caveats about dropping disks Backing Up ASM-Managed Files Oracle recommends that you use Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up files managed by ASM. See Chapter 9, "Performing Backup and Recovery" for the information about using RMAN for performing backups. Administering Automatic Storage Management A-11
  2. Automatic Storage Management: Oracle By Example Series See Also: ■ "About Automatic Storage Management" on page A-1 Automatic Storage Management: Oracle By Example Series Oracle By Example (OBE) has a series on the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA guide. This OBE steps you through the tasks in this appendix and includes annotated screenshots. To view the Automatic Storage Management OBE, in your browser, enter the following URL: http://www.oracle.com/technology/obe/10gr2_2day_dba/asm/asm.htm A-12 Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
  3. Index A findings, 10-2 modifying snapshot frequency and adding retention, 10-16 columns to a table, 8-12 overview, 10-2 disks to ASM disk groups, A-8 snapshots, 10-2 table constraints, 8-13 viewing performance analysis, 10-12 ADDM Automatic Diagnostic Repository, 11-1 See Automatic Database Diagnostics Monitor automatic memory management, 2-13, 5-13 administering enabling, 5-15 ASM, A-3 modifying settings, 5-16 users, 7-9 automatic PGA memory management administrative user accounts, 7-4 modifying settings, 5-20 SYS, 5-6, 7-4 automatic shared memory management, 2-13, 5-13 SYSTEM, 5-6 modifying settings, 5-18 advisors Automatic SQL Tuning Advisor Automatic Database Diagnostics Monitor about, 10-19 (ADDM), 10-17 configuring, 10-20 Buffer Cache Advisor, 10-18 viewing results, 10-23 description, 10-16 Automatic Storage Management (ASM), 2-4, A-1 Memory Advisor, 10-18 accessing the Home page, A-4 using, 10-27 administering, A-3 performance, 10-17 backing up files, A-11 PGA Advisor, 10-18 definition, A-1 repairing critical errors, 11-9 disk discovery, A-3 Segment Advisor, 10-18 failure groups, A-3 using, 6-19 installing, A-4 SGA Advisor, 10-18 mirroring, A-2 Shared Pool Advisor, 10-18 monitoring disk group space usage, A-5 SQL Access Advisor, 10-17 rebalancing, A-2 using, 10-19 Automatic Workload Repository, 10-7 SQL Tuning Advisor, 10-17 AWR using, 10-24 See Automatic Workload Repository Undo Advisor, 6-28, 10-18 alerts reviewing critical errors, 11-4 B ALTER SYSTEM statement, 5-12 background processes archived redo log files and database configuration, 2-13 advantages of using, 2-11 archiver (ARCn), 5-3 description, 2-11, 6-4 checkpoint, 5-3 ARCHIVELOG mode, 2-11 database writer (DBWn), 5-3 archiving, 2-11 description, 1-2, 5-3 ARCn processes, 5-3 log writer (LGWR), 5-3 ASM manageability monitor (MMON), 5-3 See Automatic Storage Management process monitor (PMON), 4-2, 5-3 Automatic Database Diagnostics Monitor (ADDM) system monitor (SMON), 5-3 description, 10-17 use by database instances, 5-1 Index-1
  4. backup connect descriptors available, 9-19 description, 4-2 backup pieces, 9-8 example, 4-2 channels, 9-8 CONNECT role, 7-3 consistent, 9-2 connect strings cross-checking, 9-19, 9-20 description, 4-2 deleting expired backups, 9-21 connection modes deleting obsolete backups, 9-22 configuring, 2-14 expired, 9-19 connection privileges files, 6-10 SYSASM, A-3 for Automatic Storage Management files, A-11 SYSDBA, 5-6 full backup of datafiles, 9-10 SYSOPER, 5-6 image copies, 9-7 constraints, 8-5 inconsistent, 9-2 adding, 8-13 incremental backup of datafiles, 9-10 deleting, 8-15 making unavailable, 9-21 modifying, 8-15 managing, 9-18 control files obsolete, 9-19 description, 6-3 Oracle suggested backup strategy, 9-14 multiplexing, 6-3 overview, 9-1 SQL*Loader, 8-16 sets, 9-7 creating settings, 9-7 databases tags, 9-11 overview, 2-1 unavailable, 9-19 steps, 2-5 validating, 9-16 using standalone DBCA, 2-8 whole database backup, 9-11 indexes, 8-21 backup and recovery area service requests, 11-6 specifying during database creation, 2-12 tables, 8-9 BasicFiles, 8-6 users, 7-11 blackouts customized repairs, 9-25 defining time periods, 3-8 description, 3-8 D block size configuring for the database, 2-13 data Buffer Cache Advisor loading, 8-16 description, 10-18 data blocks description of, 2-13, 6-5 data dictionary tables C access to as user SYS, 7-5 central database management data integrity, 8-5 configuring, 2-10 Data Recovery Advisor, 9-22 character sets data types defining, 2-14 CLOB, 8-4 description, 2-14 DATE, 8-4 checkpoint NUMBER, 8-4 of the database, 5-3 overview, 8-3 checkpoint process, 5-3 user-defined, 8-6 classes, Java, 8-27 VARCHAR2, 8-4 CLOB data type, 8-4 database administration code privileges required, 7-4 database-resident, 8-27 database checkpoint, 5-3 columns Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) adding, 8-12 configuring database options, 2-15 deleting, 8-13 deleting a databases, 2-15 comments managing database templates, 2-15 adding to problem activity logs, 11-8 using to create a database, 2-8 compiling schema objects, 8-27 Database Control compressed tables, 8-7 See Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control configuring database links Automatic SQL Tuning Advisor, 10-20 description, 8-30 Index-2
  5. database objects full backups, 9-10 naming, 8-1 image copies of, 9-10 Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) media recovery, 9-3 overview, 12-9 missing, 9-2 restrictions on versions, 12-10 recovering from the loss of, 9-31 starting, 12-11 recovery without restoration, 9-2 steps for upgrading, 12-12 restoring from consistent and inconsistent database-resident program code, 8-27 backups, 9-2 databases segments, 6-5 advisors SQL*Loader, 8-16 using, 10-16 tempfiles, 6-5 alerts, 10-1 validating backups of, 9-17 responding to alerts, 10-10 DATE data type, 8-4 setting metric thresholds, 10-8 DBA role, 7-4, 8-2 setting notification rules, 10-11 DBCA viewing metrics, 10-7 See Database Configuration Assistant backup DBUA description, 9-2 See Database Upgrade Assistant backup and recovery, 9-1 DBWn processes, 5-3 configuring options, 2-15 dedicated server mode, 2-14 creating with DBCA, 2-8 dedicated server processes, 5-4 deleting using DBCA, 2-15 deleting diagnosing performance problems, 10-12 constraints, 8-15 duplicating, 2-16 databases, 2-15 managing table columns, 8-13 roadmap, 3-1 tables, 8-18 with Oracle Enterprise Manager Database users, 7-18 Control, 3-1 views, 8-26 metric thresholds, 10-1 disk discovery monitoring in Automatic Storage Management, A-3 alert-based, 10-1 disk groups performance, 10-1 adding disks to, A-8 overview of creating, 2-1 creating, A-6 performance dropping, A-8 advisors, 10-17 dropping disks from, A-10 monitoring, 10-1 monitoring disk space usage, A-5 recovery overview, A-3 description, 9-2 dropping point-in-time, 9-3 disk groups, A-8 restoring disks from disk groups, A-10 description, 9-2 tablespaces, 6-18 starting and stopping on Microsoft Windows, 5-9 undoing with Flashback Drop, 9-28 steps for installing and creating, 2-5 duplicating storage structure databases, 2-16 logical structures, 6-1 users, 7-12 physical structures, 6-1 tuning, 10-1 E upgrading, 12-9, 12-12 users, 7-1 emctl, 3-3 using DBCA templates, 2-15 enabling datafiles automatic memory management, 5-15 and the Oracle Suggested Backup Strategy, 9-14 Enterprise Manager autoextend, 6-8, 6-15 See Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control autoextend and Oracle Flashback, 6-26 EXAMPLE tablespace, 6-6 backing up, 9-2 configuring, 2-12 backups of only used blocks, 9-8 expiring passwords data blocks, 6-5 reasons for, 7-17 description of, 6-5 extending example of corrupt block detection, 9-24 tablespaces, 6-8, 6-15 extents, 6-5 tablespaces and Oracle Flashback, 6-26 Index-3
  6. undo tablespaces, 6-25, 6-26 definition, 5-6 extents shutdown, 5-7 description of, 6-5 startup, 5-6 invalid schema objects, 8-27 F failure groups, A-3 J flash recovery area, 9-3 Java classes, 8-27 configuring, 9-6 Java source code, 8-27 retention policies, 9-5 specifying during database creation, 2-12 L Flashback Database, 9-30 Flashback Drop, 9-28 LGWR process, 5-3 flashback features listener.ora files, 4-2 Flashback Database, 9-30 listeners Flashback Drop, 9-28 See Oracle listeners Flashback Table, 9-26 Load Data wizard Flashback Table, 9-26, 9-27 using, 8-17 functions, PL/SQL, 8-27 loading data, 8-16 LOB columns, 8-6 local database management G configuring, 2-10 global database names, 2-3 locking and unlocking users, 7-17 global indexes, 8-20 log switch granting description, 2-11 privileges, 7-13 roles, 7-13 M grid control configuring, 2-10 managing memory, 5-12 media recovery, 9-3 I memory incidents configuring, 2-13 about, 11-2 management, 5-4, 5-12, 5-13 closed, viewing, 11-10 requirements, 2-2 closing, 11-9 structure of in an Oracle instance, 5-4 tracking, 11-2 Memory Advisors indexes description, 10-18 creating, 8-21 using, 10-27 description, 8-18 mirroring, A-2 global, 8-20 MMON process, 5-3 partitioned, 8-20 modifying viewing, 8-20 initialization parameters, 5-10 initialization parameters table attributes, 8-12 description, 5-2 table constraints, 8-15 server parameter files, 5-2 users, 7-16 viewing and modifying, 5-10 installation N checking prerequisites, 2-2 choices, 2-2 Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) of ASM, A-4 description, 4-3 overview, 2-1 NETCA steps, 2-5 See Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) storage options, 2-4 network configuration using DBCA for database, 2-8 connection requests, 4-1 instances description, 4-1 database instances, 5-1 notification of alerts management, 5-1 alert notification, 3-8 memory structure, 5-4 NUMBER data type, 8-4 Oracle instances, 5-1 PGA Index-4
  7. O required for database administration, 3-6, 7-4 revoking a system, 7-14 object privileges, 7-3 schema object management, 8-2 offline tablespaces, 6-17 SYSASM, A-3 Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control SYSDBA, 5-6, 9-4 accessing the ASM Home page, A-4 SYSOPER, 5-6 backup, 9-11 system, 7-3 backup and recovery, 9-4 taking tablespaces offline, 6-17 configuration information, 2-8 users, 7-3 description, 3-2 using roles to manage, 7-3 features, 3-2 problem activity logs granting administrative privileges to use, 3-6 adding comments to, 11-8 managing databases, 3-1 problems online help, 3-3 about, 11-1 starting and stopping, 3-3 adding comments to activity logs, 11-8 Oracle listeners problem key, 11-1 listener.ora file, 4-2 viewing, 11-9 starting viewing detail, 11-5 Oracle Net procedures, 8-27 description, 4-1 profiles, 7-19 listener configuration, 4-1 Program Global Area (PGA) mapping methods, 4-3 components, 5-6 directory naming, 4-3 definition, 5-6 easy connect naming, 4-3 description, 5-5 local naming, 4-3 target setting, 10-27 Oracle suggested repair, 9-22 Oracle system identifier, 2-3 ORACLE_BASE environment variable, 2-6, 2-7 Q ORACLE_HOME environment variable, 2-6, 4-6 quotas assigning for a tablespace, 7-15 P partitioned indexes, 8-20 R partitioned tables, 8-6 raw devices, 2-4 password files, 6-9 rebalancing, A-2 password policies recovery default, 7-19 complete, 9-3 description of, 7-19 configuration, 2-11 setting, 7-18 flash recovery area, 9-3 passwords incomplete, 9-3 expiring, 7-17 media, 9-3 patch sets, 12-1 overview, 9-1 patches, 12-1 whole database recovery, 9-30, 9-31 Patching wizard, 12-5 Recovery Manager (RMAN) PGA channels, 9-8 See Program Global Area control file use, 9-4 PGA Advisor overview, 9-1 description, 10-18 parallelism, 9-8 PMON process, 4-2, 5-3 recovery catalog, 9-4 predefined roles, 7-3 repository, 9-4 privileges recycle bins, 8-18 administrative, 7-4 redo log files and synonyms, 8-30 description, 2-11, 6-3 authenticating SYSDBA and SYSOPER users, 6-9 multiplexing, 6-3, 6-23 connection, 5-6 redo log groups for installation of Oracle Database sofware, 2-5 description, 2-11 granting, 7-13 reference collection, 10-5 granting to a Database Control administrative repairs user, 3-7 customized, 9-25 object, 7-3 Oracle suggested, 9-22 recommended, 7-1 Index-5
  8. RESOURCE role, 7-3, 8-2 SGA revalidating schema objects, 8-27 See System Global Area revoking Shared Pool Advisor roles, 7-14 description, 10-18 system privileges, 7-14 shared server mode, 2-14 roles shared server processes, 5-4 administering, 7-5 shutting down databases CONNECT, 7-3 Microsoft Windows, 5-9 DBA, 7-4, 8-2 SID, 2-3 granting, 7-13 SMON process, 5-3 predefined, 7-3 snapshots, 10-2 RESOURCE, 7-3, 8-2 source code, Java, 8-27 revoking, 7-14 SQL Access Advisor using to manage user privileges, 7-3 using, 10-19 viewing, 7-6 SQL Advisors rollback segments about, 10-18 description, 6-5 description, 10-17 SQL Profile, 10-20 SQL Response Time, 10-5 S SQL statements sample schemas about, 3-11 configuring, 2-12 SQL Tuning Advisor installation of, 2-3 about, 10-18 schema objects using, 10-24 compiling, 8-27 SQL Tuning Set, 10-5 database links, 8-30 SQL*Loader description of, 8-1 control file, 8-16 indexes, 8-18 starting databases creating, 8-21 Microsoft Windows, 5-9 viewing, 8-20 startup and shutdown invalid, 8-27 about, 5-6 privileges, 8-2 privileges required for, 5-6 sequences, 8-29 subprograms, 8-27 synonyms, 8-29 Support Workbench tables, 8-3 about, 11-1 constraints, 8-5 Custom Packaging process, 11-7 modifying, 8-12 home page, 11-2 validating, 8-27 Quick Packaging process, 11-7 views, 8-23 viewing problems, 11-9 schemas, 7-2 synonyms SecureFiles, 8-6 and privileges, 8-30 Segment Advisor description, 8-29 description, 10-18 SYS user, 5-6, 7-4 using, 6-19 SYSASM system privilege, A-3 segments SYSAUX tablespace, 6-6 description of, 6-5 SYSDBA system privilege, 5-6, 7-5 sequences authentication, 6-9 description, 8-29 SYSOPER system privilege, 7-5 server parameter files, 5-2 authentication, 6-9 server processes System Global Area (SGA) description, 5-4 components, 5-5 service requests description, 5-5 creating, 11-6 target setting, 10-27 tracking, 11-8 system identifier (SID), 2-3 services system privileges, 7-3 on Microsoft Windows, 5-9 SYSASM, A-3 session SYSDBA and SYSOPER, 7-5 description of, 5-5 SYSTEM tablespace, 6-6 setting SYSTEM user, 5-6, 7-4 password policies, 7-18 Index-6
  9. T with, 6-28 undo retention period tables setting with Undo Advisor, 6-28 adding columns to, 8-12 undo tablespaces adding constraints, 8-13 autoextend, 6-25, 6-26 compressed, 8-7 changing to fixed-size, 6-30 creating, 8-9 computing minimum size for fixed-size deleting, 8-18 tablespace, 6-28 deleting columns, 8-13 description of, 6-7, 6-25 deleting constraints, 8-15 UNDOTBS1 tablespace, 6-7 description, 8-3 Unicode loading data into, 8-16 description, 2-14 LOB columns, 8-6 upgrading a database, 12-12 modifying attributes, 8-12 user-defined data types, 8-6 modifying constraints, 8-15 users partitions, 8-6 accounts retrieving a dropped table, 9-29 administrative, 7-4 viewing data in, 8-8 description, 7-1 viewing information about, 8-7 administering, 7-9 tablespaces creating, 7-11 autoextend, 6-8, 6-15 creating by duplication, 7-12 autoextend and Oracle Flashback, 6-26 deleting, 7-18 creating, 6-12 duplicating, 7-12 description, 6-6 expiring passwords for, 7-17 dictionary-managed, 6-7 locking and unlocking, 7-17 dropping, 6-18 modifying, 7-16 EXAMPLE, 6-6 privileges, 7-3 extending undo tablespaces, 6-25, 6-26 SYSASM, A-3 locally managed, 6-7 viewing, 7-10 modifying, 6-15 USERS tablespace, 6-7 offline, 6-8, 6-17 quotas, 7-15 read only, 6-8 V read write, 6-8 validating schema objects, 8-27 Segment Advisor, 6-15 VARCHAR2 data type, 8-4 SYSAUX, 6-6 viewing SYSTEM, 6-6 indexes, 8-20 TEMP, 6-7 initialization parameters, 5-10 temporary, 6-8 table data, 8-8 types of, 6-7 table information, 8-7 UNDOTBS1, 6-7 users, 7-10 USERS, 6-7 views, 8-24 TEMP tablespace, 6-7 views templates deleting, 8-26 creating databases with, 2-10 description, 8-23 using with DBCA, 2-15 displaying, 8-24 triggers, 8-27 W U wizards undo ASM migration, A-2 about, 6-25 Create Blackout, 3-9 advisor, 6-28 database creation, 2-9 managing, 6-25, 6-26 incident reporting, 11-3, 11-7 tablespaces, 6-7 Load Data wizard, 8-16 viewing, 6-27 Patching, 12-5 Undo Advisor Quick Packaging, 11-7 computing minimum undo tablespace size Recovery, 9-3, 9-25, 9-30 with, 6-28 Schedule Customized Backup, 9-15 description, 10-18 SQL Access Advisor, 10-26 setting minimum undo retention period Index-7
  10. Index-8
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