Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User’s Guide

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Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User’s Guide

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  1. Oracle® Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User’s Guide 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10734-01 December 2003
  2. Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User’s Guide, 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10734-01 Copyright © 2003 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Antonio Romero Contributing Author: Lance Ashdown Contributors: Beldalker Anand, Tammy Bednar, Senad Dizdar, Muthu Olagappan, Francisco Sanchez, Steve Wertheimer Graphic Artist: Valarie Moore The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information of Oracle Corporation; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent and other intellectual and industrial property laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly or decompilation of the Programs, except to the extent required to obtain interoperability with other independently created software or as specified by law, is prohibited. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error-free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Oracle Corporation. If the Programs are delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing or using the programs on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable: Restricted Rights Notice Programs delivered subject to the DOD FAR Supplement are "commercial computer software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs, including documentation, shall be subject to the licensing restrictions set forth in the applicable Oracle license agreement. Otherwise, Programs delivered subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulations are "restricted computer software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs shall be subject to the restrictions in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software - Restricted Rights (June, 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065. The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently dangerous applications. It shall be the licensee's responsibility to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications if the Programs are used for such purposes, and Oracle Corporation disclaims liability for any damages caused by such use of the Programs. Oracle is a registered trademark, and Oracle Store, Oracle7, Oracle8, Oracle9i, PL/SQL, and SQL*Plus are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.
  3. Contents Send Us Your Comments ................................................................................................................. xxi Preface........................................................................................................................................................ xxiii Audience ............................................................................................................................................. xxiv Organization....................................................................................................................................... xxiv Related Documentation .................................................................................................................... xxvi Conventions....................................................................................................................................... xxvii Documentation Accessibility ............................................................................................................ xxx What’s New in Backup and Recovery? ................................................................................ xxxiii Oracle Database Release 10g New Features in Backup and Recovery..................................... xxxiv Part I Recovery Manager Advanced Architecture and Concepts 1 Recovery Manager Architecture About the RMAN Environment....................................................................................................... 1-2 RMAN Session Architecture ....................................................................................................... 1-3 RMAN Command Line Client ......................................................................................................... 1-3 How RMAN Compiles and Executes Commands................................................................... 1-3 Issuing RMAN Commands......................................................................................................... 1-4 RMAN Pipe Interface................................................................................................................... 1-6 RMAN Repository .............................................................................................................................. 1-7 Storage of the RMAN Repository in the Recovery Catalog ................................................... 1-7 Storage of the RMAN Repository in the Control File ........................................................... 1-10 iii
  4. Media Management.......................................................................................................................... 1-11 Performing Backup and Restore with a Media Manager ..................................................... 1-11 Backup Solutions Program ........................................................................................................ 1-12 2 RMAN Backups Concepts About RMAN Channels .................................................................................................................... 2-2 Automatic and Manual Channel Allocation............................................................................. 2-3 Automatic Channel Device Configuration and Parallelism................................................... 2-4 Automatic Channel Default Device Types................................................................................ 2-5 Automatic Channel Naming Conventions................................................................................ 2-6 Automatic Channel Generic Configurations ............................................................................ 2-7 Automatic Channel-Specific Configurations ............................................................................ 2-8 Clearing Automatic Channel Settings ....................................................................................... 2-8 Determining Channel Parallelism to Match Hardware Devices ........................................... 2-9 Channel Control Options for Manual and Automatic Channels......................................... 2-10 Channel Failover ......................................................................................................................... 2-11 About RMAN Backups .................................................................................................................... 2-12 About Image Copies................................................................................................................... 2-12 About Proxy Copies ................................................................................................................... 2-14 Storage of Backups on Disk and Tape ..................................................................................... 2-15 Backups of Archived Logs......................................................................................................... 2-15 Multiplexed Backup Sets ........................................................................................................... 2-16 Multiplexing by the Media Manager ....................................................................................... 2-18 Manual Parallelization of Backups........................................................................................... 2-18 Multiple Copies of RMAN Backups ............................................................................................. 2-20 Duplexed Backup Sets................................................................................................................ 2-20 Backups of Backup Sets.............................................................................................................. 2-22 Backups of Image Copies........................................................................................................... 2-24 RMAN Backup Options: Naming, Sizing, and Speed............................................................... 2-25 Filenames for Backup Pieces ..................................................................................................... 2-25 Filenames for Image Copies ...................................................................................................... 2-26 Tags for RMAN Backups ........................................................................................................... 2-26 Size of Backup Pieces ................................................................................................................. 2-28 Number and Size of Backup Sets.............................................................................................. 2-30 I/O Read Rate of Backups ......................................................................................................... 2-31 iv
  5. RMAN Backup Types ...................................................................................................................... 2-32 Incremental Backups .................................................................................................................. 2-33 Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackups .............................................................. 2-38 How RMAN Performs Control File Autobackups ................................................................ 2-39 When RMAN Performs Control File Autobackups............................................................... 2-40 Backup Retention Policies .............................................................................................................. 2-41 Recovery Window ...................................................................................................................... 2-43 Backup Redundancy .................................................................................................................. 2-45 Batch Deletes of Obsolete Backups .......................................................................................... 2-46 Exempting Backups from the Retention Policy...................................................................... 2-47 Relationship Between Retention Policy and Flash Recovery Area Rules .......................... 2-48 Backup Optimization....................................................................................................................... 2-49 Backup Optimization Algorithm.............................................................................................. 2-49 Requirements for Enabling and Disabling Backup Optimization....................................... 2-51 Effect of Retention Policies on Backup Optimization ........................................................... 2-52 Restartable Backups ......................................................................................................................... 2-54 Managing Backup Windows and Performance: BACKUP... DURATION............................. 2-55 Controlling RMAN Behavior when Backup Window Ends with PARTIAL..................... 2-55 Managing Backup Performance with MINIMIZE TIME and MINIMIZE LOAD ............ 2-56 RMAN Backup Errors ...................................................................................................................... 2-57 Tests and Integrity Checks for Backups ....................................................................................... 2-58 Detecting Physical and Logical Block Corruption................................................................. 2-59 Detection of Logical Block Corruption.................................................................................... 2-59 Detection of Fractured Blocks During Open Backups .......................................................... 2-60 Backup Validation with RMAN ............................................................................................... 2-60 3 RMAN Recovery Concepts Restoring Files with RMAN ............................................................................................................. 3-2 Mechanics of Restore Operations............................................................................................... 3-2 File Selection in Restore Operations .......................................................................................... 3-3 Restore Failover ............................................................................................................................ 3-4 Restore Optimization ................................................................................................................... 3-5 Datafile Media Recovery with RMAN ........................................................................................... 3-5 RMAN Media Recovery: Basic Steps......................................................................................... 3-5 Mechanics of Recovery: Incremental Backups and Redo Logs.............................................. 3-7 v
  6. Incomplete Recovery .................................................................................................................... 3-9 Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery......................................................................................... 3-10 Block Media Recovery with RMAN.............................................................................................. 3-10 When Block Media Recovery Should Be Used ....................................................................... 3-11 Block Media Recovery When Redo Is Missing....................................................................... 3-12 Database Duplication with RMAN............................................................................................... 3-13 Physical Standby Database Creation with RMAN .................................................................... 3-15 4 RMAN Maintenance Concepts RMAN Reporting................................................................................................................................ 4-2 Using the RMAN LIST Command ............................................................................................. 4-2 RMAN Reports.............................................................................................................................. 4-3 SHOW Command Output........................................................................................................... 4-7 Crosschecks of RMAN Backups ...................................................................................................... 4-7 Monitoring RMAN Through V$ Views.......................................................................................... 4-9 Correlating Server Sessions with RMAN Channels .............................................................. 4-10 Monitoring RMAN Job Progress .............................................................................................. 4-13 Monitoring RMAN Interaction with the Media Manager .................................................... 4-16 Monitoring RMAN Job Performance....................................................................................... 4-17 Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery ................................................................... 4-17 Deletion of RMAN Backups........................................................................................................... 4-18 Summary of RMAN Deletion Methods................................................................................... 4-19 Removal of Backups with the DELETE Command ............................................................... 4-20 Behavior of DELETE Command When the Repository and Media Do Not Correspond 4-22 Removal of Backups with the BACKUP ... DELETE INPUT Command............................ 4-23 CHANGE AVAILABLE and CHANGE UNAVAILABLE with RMAN Backups .................. 4-24 Changing Retention Policy Status of RMAN Backups ............................................................. 4-24 Part II Performing Advanced RMAN Backup and Recovery 5 Connecting to Databases with RMAN Starting RMAN Without Connecting to a Database .................................................................... 5-2 Connecting to a Target Database and a Recovery Catalog.......................................................... 5-2 Connecting to the Target Database and Recovery Catalog from the Command Line ....... 5-3 vi
  7. Connecting to the Target Database and Recovery Catalog from the RMAN Prompt ....... 5-3 Connecting to an Auxiliary Database ............................................................................................. 5-4 Connecting to an Auxiliary Database from the Command Line ........................................... 5-4 Connecting to an Auxiliary Database from the RMAN Prompt ........................................... 5-4 Diagnosing Connection Problems................................................................................................... 5-5 Diagnosing Target and Auxiliary Database Connection Problems ...................................... 5-5 Diagnosing Recovery Catalog Connection Problems ............................................................. 5-5 Hiding Passwords When Connecting to Databases..................................................................... 5-5 Sending RMAN Output Simultaneously to the Terminal and a Log File ............................... 5-7 Executing RMAN Commands Through a Pipe............................................................................. 5-7 Executing Multiple RMAN Commands In Succession Through a Pipe: Example......... 5-8 Executing RMAN Commands In a Single Job Through a Pipe: Example........................ 5-8 6 Configuring the RMAN Environment: Advanced Topics Configuring the Flash Recovery Area: Advanced Topics............................................................ 6-2 Configuring Online Redo Log Creation in the Flash Recovery Area ................................... 6-2 Configuring Control File Creation in the Flash Recovery Area ............................................ 6-2 Archived Redo Log Creation in the Flash Recovery Area...................................................... 6-3 RMAN File Creation in the Flash Recovery Area.................................................................... 6-4 Configuring RMAN to Make Backups to a Media Manager...................................................... 6-5 Prerequisites for Using a Media Manager with RMAN ......................................................... 6-5 Locating the Media Management Library: The SBT_LIBRARY Parameter ......................... 6-6 Testing Whether the Media Manager Library Is Integrated Correctly................................. 6-7 Configuring Automatic Channels for Use with a Media Manager..................................... 6-11 Configuring Automatic Channels.................................................................................................. 6-12 Configuring Parallelism for Automatic Channels ................................................................. 6-12 Configuring a Generic Automatic Channel for a Device Type............................................ 6-13 Showing the Automatic Channel Configuration Settings .................................................... 6-14 Configuring a Specific Channel for a Device Type................................................................ 6-16 Clearing Channel and Device Settings .................................................................................... 6-19 Configuring the Maximum Size of Backup Sets and Pieces .................................................... 6-20 Configuring Backup Optimization................................................................................................ 6-21 Configuring Backup Duplexing: CONFIGURE... BACKUP COPIES .................................... 6-22 Configuring Tablespaces for Exclusion from Whole Database Backups............................... 6-24 Configuring Auxiliary Instance Datafile Names: CONFIGURE AUXNAME ...................... 6-25 vii
  8. Setting the Snapshot Control File Location................................................................................. 6-26 Default Location of the Snapshot Control File ....................................................................... 6-27 Viewing the Configured Location of the Snapshot Control File ......................................... 6-27 Setting the Location of the Snapshot Control File.................................................................. 6-28 Showing the Current Snapshot Control File Name ............................................................... 6-28 Setting Up RMAN for Use with a Shared Server ....................................................................... 6-29 7 Making Backups with RMAN: Advanced Topics Configuring and Allocating Channels for Use in Backups ........................................................ 7-2 Configuring the Default Backup Type for Disk............................................................................ 7-3 Duplexing Backup Sets...................................................................................................................... 7-3 Duplexing Backup Sets with CONFIGURE BACKUP COPIES............................................. 7-3 Duplexing Backupsets with BACKUP... COPIES .................................................................... 7-4 Making Split Mirror Backups with RMAN................................................................................... 7-5 Backing Up Backup Sets with RMAN ............................................................................................ 7-7 Backing Up Image Copies with RMAN ......................................................................................... 7-8 Restarting and Optimizing RMAN Backups................................................................................. 7-8 Backing Up Files Using Backup Optimization ......................................................................... 7-9 Restarting a Backup After It Partially Completes .................................................................... 7-9 Validating Backups with RMAN ................................................................................................... 7-10 RMAN Backup Examples................................................................................................................ 7-11 Specifying the Device Type on the BACKUP Command: Example.................................... 7-12 Skipping Tablespaces when Backing Up a Database: Example........................................... 7-12 Restarting a Backup: Example .................................................................................................. 7-13 Spreading a Backup Across Multiple Disk Drives: Example ............................................... 7-13 Backing Up a Large Database to Multiple File Systems: Example ...................................... 7-14 Specifying the Size of Backup Sets: Example.......................................................................... 7-15 Limiting the Size of Backup Pieces: Example ......................................................................... 7-16 Backing Up Archived Redo Logs in a Failover Scenario: Example..................................... 7-17 Backing Up Archived Logs Needed to Recover an Online Backup: Example................... 7-17 Backing Up and Deleting Multiple Copies of an Archived Redo Log: Example .............. 7-18 Performing Differential Incremental Backups: Example ...................................................... 7-19 Performing Cumulative Incremental Backups: Example ..................................................... 7-19 Determining How Channels Distribute a Backup Workload: Example............................. 7-20 Backing Up in NOARCHIVELOG Mode: Example............................................................... 7-20 viii
  9. Cataloging User-Managed Datafile Copies: Example........................................................... 7-21 Keeping a Long-Term Backup: Example ................................................................................ 7-22 Optimizing Backups: Examples ............................................................................................... 7-23 Handling Errors During Backups: Example........................................................................... 7-26 8 Advanced RMAN Recovery Techniques Performing Database Point-In-Time Recovery............................................................................. 8-2 Performing Point-in-Time Recovery with a Current Control File......................................... 8-3 Point-in-Time Recovery to a Previous Incarnation.................................................................. 8-4 Performing Recovery with a Backup Control File ....................................................................... 8-6 Performing Recovery with a Backup Control File and a Recovery Catalog........................ 8-7 Performing Recovery with a Backup Control File and No Recovery Catalog .................... 8-8 Restoring the Database to a New Host ......................................................................................... 8-11 Specifying Filenames When Restoring to a New Host ......................................................... 8-12 Determining the SCN for Incomplete Recovery After Restore............................................ 8-13 Testing the Restore of a Database to a New Host: Scenario................................................. 8-13 Performing Disaster Recovery ...................................................................................................... 8-18 Performing Block Media Recovery with RMAN........................................................................ 8-21 Recovering Datablocks By Using All Available Backups..................................................... 8-21 Recovering Datablocks By Using Selected Backups.............................................................. 8-22 Recovering Blocks Listed in V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION ............................. 8-23 RMAN Restore and Recovery Examples...................................................................................... 8-24 Restoring Datafile Copies to a New Host: Example.............................................................. 8-24 Restoring When Multiple Databases in the Catalog Share the Same Name: Example .... 8-25 Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode: Example........................................... 8-27 Recovering a Lost Datafile Without a Backup: Example ...................................................... 8-28 Transporting a Tablespace to a Different Database on the Same Platform: Example ...... 8-29 9 Flashback Technology: Recovering from Logical Corruptions Oracle Flashback Technology: Overview....................................................................................... 9-2 Oracle Flashback Query: Recovering at the Row Level .............................................................. 9-3 Oracle Flashback Table: Returning Individual Tables to Past States....................................... 9-4 Oracle Flashback Drop: Undo a DROP TABLE Operation ........................................................ 9-6 What is the Recycle Bin? .............................................................................................................. 9-6 How Tables and Other Objects Are Placed in the Recycle Bin .............................................. 9-6 ix
  10. Naming Convention for Objects in the Recycle Bin ................................................................ 9-7 Viewing and Querying Objects in the Recycle Bin .................................................................. 9-8 Recycle Bin Capacity and Space Pressure ................................................................................. 9-9 Performing Flashback Drop on Tables in the Recycle Bin.................................................... 9-10 Purging Objects from the Recycle Bin ..................................................................................... 9-12 Privileges and Security............................................................................................................... 9-14 Limitations and Restrictions on Flashback Drop ................................................................... 9-15 Oracle Flashback Database: Alternative to Point-In-Time Recovery .................................... 9-15 Limitations of Flashback Database........................................................................................... 9-16 Requirements for Flashback Database..................................................................................... 9-17 Enabling Flashback Database.................................................................................................... 9-17 Sizing the Flash Recovery Area for Flashback Logs .............................................................. 9-18 Determining the Current Flashback Database Window ....................................................... 9-19 Performance Tuning for Flashback Database......................................................................... 9-19 Monitoring Flashback Database ............................................................................................... 9-20 Running the FLASHBACK DATABASE Command from RMAN...................................... 9-21 Running the FLASHBACK DATABASE Command from SQL*Plus.................................. 9-22 Using Oracle Flashback Features Together in Data Recovery: Scenario................................ 9-23 10 RMAN Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery (TSPITR) Understanding RMAN TSPITR .................................................................................................... 10-1 RMAN TSPITR Concepts........................................................................................................... 10-2 Deciding When to Use TSPITR ................................................................................................. 10-4 Planning and Preparing for TSPITR ............................................................................................. 10-6 Choosing the Right Target Time for TSPITR ......................................................................... 10-7 Determining the Recovery Set: Analyzing Data Relationships ........................................... 10-7 Identifying and Preserving Objects That Will Be Lost After TSPITR ................................. 10-9 Performing Basic RMAN TSPITR ............................................................................................... 10-10 Fully Automated RMAN TSPITR........................................................................................... 10-11 Performing Customized RMAN TSPITR with an RMAN-Managed Auxiliary Instance 10-13 Renaming TSPITR Recovery Set Datafiles with SET NEWNAME.................................... 10-14 Renaming TSPITR Auxiliary Set Datafiles............................................................................ 10-15 Using Image Copies for Faster TSPITR Performance.......................................................... 10-18 Customizing Initialization Parameters for the Automatic Auxiliary Instance................ 10-21 Performing RMAN TSPITR Using Your Own Auxiliary Instance ....................................... 10-22 x
  11. Preparing Your Own Auxiliary Instance for RMAN TSPITR............................................ 10-22 Preparing RMAN Commands for TSPITR with Your Own Auxiliary Instance ............. 10-25 Executing TSPITR with Your Own Auxiliary Instance....................................................... 10-26 Executing TSPITR With Your Own Auxiliary Instance: Scenario ..................................... 10-27 Troubleshooting RMAN TSPITR ................................................................................................ 10-29 Troubleshooting TSPITR Example: Filename Conflicts...................................................... 10-29 Troubleshooting TSPITR Example: Insufficient Sort Space during Export ..................... 10-29 Troubleshooting: Restarting Manual Auxiliary Instance After TSPITR Failure ............. 10-30 11 Duplicating a Database with Recovery Manager Creating a Duplicate Database: Overview................................................................................... 11-2 How Recovery Manager Duplicates a Database.................................................................... 11-2 Database Duplication Options.................................................................................................. 11-4 Duplicating a Database: Prerequisites and Restrictions ....................................................... 11-5 Generating Files for the Duplicate Database .............................................................................. 11-5 Creating the Duplicate Control Files ....................................................................................... 11-5 Creating the Duplicate Online Redo Logs .............................................................................. 11-5 Renaming Datafiles When Duplicating a Database .............................................................. 11-6 Skipping Read-Only Tablespaces When Duplicating a Database....................................... 11-7 Skipping OFFLINE NORMAL Tablespaces When Duplicating a Database ..................... 11-8 Preparing the Auxiliary Instance for Duplication: Basic Steps ............................................... 11-9 Task 1: Create an Oracle Password File for the Auxiliary Instance .................................... 11-9 Task 2: Ensure Oracle Net Connectivity to the Auxiliary Instance..................................... 11-9 Task 3: Create an Initialization Parameter File for the Auxiliary Instance ........................ 11-9 Task 4: Start the Auxiliary Instance ....................................................................................... 11-11 Task 5: Mount or Open the Target Database ........................................................................ 11-11 Task 6: Make Sure You Have the Necessary Backups and Archived Redo Logs ........... 11-12 Task 7: Allocate Auxiliary Channels if Automatic Channels Are Not Configured ........ 11-12 Creating a Duplicate Database on a Local or Remote Host.................................................... 11-13 Duplicating a Database on a Remote Host with the Same Directory Structure.............. 11-13 Duplicating a Database on a Remote Host with a Different Directory Structure ........... 11-14 Creating a Duplicate Database on the Local Host ............................................................... 11-19 Duplicating a Database to an Automatic Storage Management Environment ............... 11-20 Database Duplication Examples.................................................................................................. 11-20 Duplicating When the Datafiles Use Inconsistent Paths: Example ................................... 11-20 xi
  12. Resynchronizing the Duplicate Database with the Target Database: Example .............. 11-21 Creating Duplicate of the Database at a Past Point in Time: Example ............................. 11-23 Duplicating with a Client-Side Parameter File: Example ................................................... 11-23 12 Migrating Databases To and From ASM with Recovery Manager Migrating a Database into ASM .................................................................................................... 12-2 Limitation on ASM Migration with Transportable Tablespaces ......................................... 12-2 Preparing to Migrate a Database to ASM................................................................................ 12-2 Disk-Based Migration of a Database to ASM ......................................................................... 12-3 Using Tape Backups to Migrate a Database to ASM............................................................. 12-6 Migrating the Flash Recovery Area to ASM................................................................................ 12-9 Migrating a Database from ASM to Non-ASM Storage.......................................................... 12-11 PL/SQL Scripts Used in Migrating to ASM Storage ................................................................ 12-14 Generating ASM-to-Non-ASM Storage Migration Script................................................... 12-14 Migrating Online Redo Logs to ASM Storage ...................................................................... 12-15 Migrating Standby Online Redo Log Files to ASM Storage............................................... 12-16 13 Managing the Recovery Catalog Creating a Recovery Catalog........................................................................................................... 13-2 Configuring the Recovery Catalog Database.......................................................................... 13-2 Creating the Recovery Catalog Owner.................................................................................... 13-3 Creating the Recovery Catalog ................................................................................................. 13-4 Managing Target Database Records in the Recovery Catalog.................................................. 13-5 Registering a Database in the Recovery Catalog.................................................................... 13-5 Unregistering a Target Database from the Recovery Catalog.............................................. 13-8 Resetting a Database Incarnation in the Recovery Catalog .................................................. 13-9 Removing Recovery Catalog Records with Status DELETED ........................................... 13-11 Resynchronizing the Recovery Catalog...................................................................................... 13-11 Types of Records That Are Resynchronized......................................................................... 13-12 Full and Partial Resynchronization........................................................................................ 13-12 When Should You Resynchronize? ........................................................................................ 13-13 Forcing a Full Resynchronization of the Recovery Catalog ............................................... 13-14 Resynchronizing the Recovery Catalog and CONTROLFILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME 13-15 Working with RMAN Stored Scripts in the Recovery Catalog.............................................. 13-15 Creating Stored Scripts: CREATE SCRIPT............................................................................ 13-16 xii
  13. Running Stored Scripts: EXECUTE SCRIPT......................................................................... 13-16 Displaying a Stored Script: PRINT SCRIPT.......................................................................... 13-17 Listing Stored Scripts: LIST SCRIPT NAMES ...................................................................... 13-18 Updating Stored Scripts: REPLACE SCRIPT ....................................................................... 13-18 Deleting Stored Scripts: DELETE SCRIPT ............................................................................ 13-19 Starting the RMAN Client and Running a Stored Script.................................................... 13-20 Restrictions on Stored Script Names ..................................................................................... 13-20 Managing the Control File When You Use a Recovery Catalog ............................................ 13-21 Backing Up and Recovering the Recovery Catalog.................................................................. 13-22 Backing Up the Recovery Catalog.......................................................................................... 13-22 Restoring and Recovering the Recovery Catalog from Backup......................................... 13-25 Re-Creating the Recovery Catalog ......................................................................................... 13-25 Exporting and Importing the Recovery Catalog ....................................................................... 13-26 Considerations When Moving Catalog Data........................................................................ 13-26 Exporting the Recovery Catalog............................................................................................. 13-27 Importing the Recovery Catalog ............................................................................................ 13-28 Increasing Availability of the Recovery Catalog ...................................................................... 13-28 Querying the Recovery Catalog Views....................................................................................... 13-29 Querying Catalog Views for the Target DB_KEY or DBID Values ................................... 13-31 Determining the Schema Version of the Recovery Catalog ................................................... 13-32 Upgrading the Recovery Catalog................................................................................................. 13-33 Dropping the Recovery Catalog................................................................................................... 13-34 14 Tuning Backup and Recovery Tuning Recovery Manager: Overview .......................................................................................... 14-2 I/O Buffer Allocation................................................................................................................. 14-2 Synchronous and Asynchronous I/O ..................................................................................... 14-4 Factors Affecting Backup Speed to Tape................................................................................. 14-6 Features and Options Used to Tune RMAN Performance........................................................ 14-8 Using the RATE Parameter to Control Disk Bandwidth Usage .......................................... 14-8 Tuning RMAN Backup Performance: Examples ........................................................................ 14-8 Step 1: Remove RATE Parameters from Configured and Allocated Channels................. 14-8 Step 2: If You Use Synchronous Disk I/O, Set DBWR_IO_SLAVES .................................. 14-9 Step 3: If You Fail to Allocate Shared Memory, Set LARGE_POOL_SIZE ........................ 14-9 Step 4: Determine Whether Files Are Empty or Contain Few Changes........................... 14-10 xiii
  14. Step 5: Query V$ Views to Identify Bottlenecks................................................................... 14-11 Instance Recovery Performance Tuning: FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET......................... 14-12 Understanding Instance Recovery ......................................................................................... 14-12 Checkpointing and Cache Recovery ...................................................................................... 14-13 Configuring the Duration of Cache Recovery: FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET............ 14-14 Tuning FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET and Using MTTR Advisor ................................ 14-17 15 Recovery Manager Troubleshooting Interpreting RMAN Message Output........................................................................................... 15-2 Identifying Types of Message Output ..................................................................................... 15-2 Recognizing RMAN Error Message Stacks............................................................................. 15-3 Identifying Error Codes ............................................................................................................. 15-3 Interpreting RMAN Error Stacks.............................................................................................. 15-7 Identifying RMAN Return Codes .......................................................................................... 15-10 Testing the Media Management API........................................................................................... 15-10 Obtaining the sbttest Utility .................................................................................................... 15-10 Obtaining Online Documentation for the sbttest Utility .................................................... 15-11 Using the sbttest Utility ........................................................................................................... 15-11 Terminating an RMAN Command .............................................................................................. 15-13 Terminating the Session with ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION ....................................... 15-13 Terminating the Session at the Operating System Level .................................................... 15-14 Terminating an RMAN Session That Is Hung in the Media Manager ............................. 15-14 RMAN Troubleshooting Scenarios ............................................................................................. 15-16 After Installation of Media Manager, RMAN Channel Allocation Fails: Scenario ......... 15-17 Backup Job Is Hanging: Scenario............................................................................................ 15-19 RMAN Fails to Start RPC Call: Scenario ............................................................................... 15-20 Backup Fails with Invalid RECID Error: Scenario ............................................................... 15-21 Backup Fails Because of Control File Enqueue: Scenario ................................................... 15-25 RMAN Fails to Delete All Archived Logs: Scenario............................................................ 15-27 Backup Fails Because RMAN Cannot Locate an Archived Log: Scenario ....................... 15-27 RMAN Does Not Recognize Character Set Name: Scenario .............................................. 15-28 RMAN Denies Logon to Target Database: Scenario............................................................ 15-29 Database Duplication Fails Because of Missing Log: Scenario .......................................... 15-30 Duplication Fails with Multiple RMAN-06023 Errors: Scenario ....................................... 15-31 UNKNOWN Database Name Appears in Recovery Catalog: Scenario ........................... 15-32 xiv
  15. Part III Performing User-Managed Backup and Recovery 16 Making User-Managed Backups Querying V$ Views to Obtain Backup Information.................................................................. 16-2 Listing Database Files Before a Backup................................................................................... 16-2 Determining Datafile Status for Online Tablespace Backups .............................................. 16-3 Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database ......................................................... 16-4 Making Consistent Whole Database Backups........................................................................ 16-4 Making User-Managed Backups of Offline Tablespaces and Datafiles................................. 16-5 Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles ................................. 16-6 Making User-Managed Backups of Online Read/Write Tablespaces................................ 16-6 Making Multiple User-Managed Backups of Online Read/Write Tablespaces................ 16-8 Ending a Backup After an Instance Failure or SHUTDOWN ABORT ............................. 16-10 Making User-Managed Backups of Read-Only Tablespaces ............................................. 16-12 Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File ............................................................... 16-14 Backing Up the Control File to a Binary File ........................................................................ 16-14 Backing Up the Control File to a Trace File .......................................................................... 16-14 Making User-Managed Backups of Archived Redo Logs....................................................... 16-17 Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND Mode ............................................................ 16-17 About the Suspend/Resume Feature .................................................................................... 16-18 Making Backups in a Suspended Database .......................................................................... 16-18 Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices .................................................................... 16-20 Backing Up to Raw Devices on UNIX ................................................................................... 16-21 Backing Up to Raw Devices on Windows ............................................................................ 16-23 Verifying User-Managed Backups............................................................................................... 16-25 Testing the Restore of Backups............................................................................................... 16-25 Running the DBVERIFY Utility.............................................................................................. 16-25 Making Logical Backups with Oracle Export Utilities............................................................ 16-26 Making User-Managed Backups of Miscellaneous Oracle Files........................................... 16-27 Keeping Records of Current and Backup Database Files....................................................... 16-27 Recording the Locations of Datafiles, Control Files, and Online Redo Logs................... 16-28 Recording the Locations of Archived Redo Logs ................................................................ 16-28 Recording the Locations and Dates of Backup Files ........................................................... 16-28 xv
  16. 17 Performing User-Managed Database Flashback and Recovery User-Managed Backup and Flashback Features of Oracle ....................................................... 17-1 Performing Flashback Database with SQL*Plus .................................................................... 17-2 About User-Managed Restore Operations ................................................................................... 17-3 Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery ....................................................................... 17-4 Restoring Datafiles and Archived Redo Logs.............................................................................. 17-5 Restoring Datafiles with Operating System Utilities............................................................. 17-6 Restoring Archived Redo Logs with Operating System Utilities ........................................ 17-6 Restoring Control Files .................................................................................................................... 17-8 Losing a Member of a Multiplexed Control File .................................................................... 17-8 Losing All Current Control Files When a Backup Is Available ........................................... 17-9 Losing All Current and Backup Control Files ...................................................................... 17-12 About User-Managed Media Recovery ...................................................................................... 17-14 Preconditions of Performing User-Managed Recovery ...................................................... 17-14 Applying Logs Automatically with the RECOVER Command......................................... 17-15 Recovering When Archived Logs Are in the Default Location ......................................... 17-17 Recovering When Archived Logs Are in a Nondefault Location...................................... 17-18 Resetting the Archived Log Destination ............................................................................... 17-18 Overriding the Archived Log Destination ............................................................................ 17-19 Responding to Unsuccessful Application of Redo Logs..................................................... 17-20 Interrupting User-Managed Media Recovery ...................................................................... 17-20 Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery .......................................................... 17-21 Performing Closed Database Recovery ................................................................................. 17-21 Performing Datafile Recovery in an Open Database........................................................... 17-24 Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery ....................................................... 17-27 Preparing for Incomplete Recovery ....................................................................................... 17-28 Restoring Datafiles Before Performing Incomplete Recovery............................................ 17-28 Performing Cancel-Based Incomplete Recovery.................................................................. 17-30 Performing Time-Based or Change-Based Incomplete Recovery...................................... 17-32 Opening the Database with the RESETLOGS Option............................................................ 17-33 About Opening with the RESETLOGS Option..................................................................... 17-33 Executing the ALTER DATABASE OPEN Statements ....................................................... 17-35 Checking the Alert Log After a RESETLOGS Operation .................................................... 17-36 Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode .............................................................. 17-37 Restoring a NOARCHIVELOG Database to its Default Location ..................................... 17-37 xvi
  17. Restoring a NOARCHIVELOG Database to a New Location............................................ 17-37 Performing Media Recovery in Parallel ..................................................................................... 17-39 18 Advanced User-Managed Recovery Scenarios Recovering After the Loss of Datafiles: Scenarios...................................................................... 18-2 Losing Datafiles in NOARCHIVELOG Mode........................................................................ 18-2 Losing Datafiles in ARCHIVELOG Mode .............................................................................. 18-2 Recovering Through an Added Datafile with a Backup Control File: Scenario .................. 18-3 Re-Creating Datafiles When Backups Are Unavailable: Scenario .......................................... 18-4 Recovering Through RESETLOGS with Created Control File: Scenario.............................. 18-5 Recovering NOLOGGING Tables and Indexes: Scenario........................................................ 18-6 Recovering Read-Only Tablespaces with a Backup Control File: Scenario .......................... 18-6 Recovery of Read-Only or Slow Media with a Backup Control File................................... 18-7 Recovery of Read-Only Files with a Re-Created Control File.............................................. 18-7 Recovering Transportable Tablespaces: Scenario....................................................................... 18-8 Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios............................................. 18-9 Recovering After Losing a Member of a Multiplexed Online Redo Log Group............. 18-10 Recovering After the Loss of All Members of an Online Redo Log Group ..................... 18-11 Recovering After the Loss of Archived Redo Log Files: Scenario......................................... 18-15 Recovering from a Dropped Table: Scenario............................................................................. 18-16 Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario................................ 18-17 Coordinating Time-Based and Change-Based Distributed Database Recovery ............. 18-18 Dropping a Database with SQL*Plus ......................................................................................... 18-19 19 Performing User-Managed TSPITR Introduction to User-Managed Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery .................................... 19-2 TSPITR Terminology.................................................................................................................. 19-2 TSPITR Methods ......................................................................................................................... 19-3 Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps ............................................. 19-4 Step 1: Review TSPITR Requirements ..................................................................................... 19-5 Step 2: Identify All of the Files in the Recovery and Auxiliary Set Tablespaces............... 19-5 Step 3: Determine Whether Objects Will Be Lost................................................................... 19-6 Step 4: Choose a Method for Connecting to the Auxiliary Instance ................................... 19-7 Step 5: Create an Oracle Password File for the Auxiliary Instance..................................... 19-7 Step 6: Create the Initialization Parameter File for the Auxiliary Instance........................ 19-7 xvii
  18. Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps............................................ 19-10 Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database on the Same Host ............................. 19-10 Restoring the Auxiliary Database on a Different Host with the Same Path Names....... 19-12 Restoring the Auxiliary Database on a Different Host with Different Path Names ....... 19-14 Performing TSPITR with Transportable Tablespaces ............................................................. 19-14 Step 1: Unplugging the Tablespaces from the Auxiliary Database ................................... 19-14 Step 2: Transporting the Tablespaces into the Primary Database ..................................... 19-15 Performing Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tables ................................................................... 19-16 Step 1: Create a Table on the Primary Database for Each Partition Being Recovered.... 19-17 Step 2: Drop the Indexes on the Partition Being Recovered............................................... 19-17 Step 3: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables ........................................................... 19-17 Step 4: Drop the Recovery Set Tablespace ............................................................................ 19-18 Step 5: Create Tables at Auxiliary Database ......................................................................... 19-18 Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered .......................................................... 19-18 Step 7: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables on the Auxiliary Database............ 19-18 Step 8: Transport the Recovery Set Tablespaces .................................................................. 19-19 Step 9: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables on the Primary Database .............. 19-19 Step 10: Back Up the Recovered Tablespaces in the Primary Database ........................... 19-19 Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Been Dropped ............. 19-19 Step 1: Find the Low and High Range of the Partition that Was Dropped...................... 19-20 Step 2: Create a Temporary Table .......................................................................................... 19-20 Step 3: Delete Records From the Partitioned Table ............................................................. 19-20 Step 4: Drop the Recovery Set Tablespace ............................................................................ 19-20 Step 5: Create Tables at the Auxiliary Database................................................................... 19-20 Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered .......................................................... 19-21 Step 7: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables ........................................................... 19-21 Step 8: Transport the Recovery Set Tablespaces .................................................................. 19-21 Step 9: Insert Standalone Tables into Partitioned Tables .................................................... 19-21 Step 10: Back Up the Recovered Tablespaces in the Primary Database ........................... 19-22 Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Split ............................... 19-22 Step 1: Drop the Lower of the Two Partitions at the Primary Database........................... 19-22 Steps 2: Follow Same Procedure as for Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tablespaces ....... 19-23 20 Troubleshooting User-Managed Media Recovery About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems ...................................................................... 20-2 xviii
  19. Investigating the Media Recovery Problem: Phase 1 ................................................................ 20-4 Trying to Fix the Recovery Problem Without Corrupting Blocks: Phase 2............................ 20-5 Deciding Whether to Allow Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 3 ......................................... 20-7 Allowing Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 4 .......................................................................... 20-8 Performing Trial Recovery .............................................................................................................. 20-9 How Trial Recovery Works....................................................................................................... 20-9 Executing the RECOVER ... TEST Statement........................................................................ 20-10 Index xix
  20. xx
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