Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide P1

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Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide P1

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This is the first book dedicated solely to the subject of implementing Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control. It was only a matter of time before such a book was published. With the first release (10.1) of Grid Control roughly seven years ago, Oracle ushered in a true system management product. The latest release (10.2) of the product is enjoying large-scale adoption by companies looking to centrally manage their complete IT infrastructure—not just their Oracle systems, but non-Oracle ones as well....

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  1. ® Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide Michael New New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto
  2. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-07-159503-2 MHID: 0-07-159503-1 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-149275-1, MHID: 0-07-149275-5. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please visit the Contact Us page at www.mhprofessional.com. Information has been obtained by Publisher from sources believed to be reliable. However, because of the possibility of human or mechanical error by our sources, Publisher, or others, Publisher does not guarantee to the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of anyinformation included in this work and is not responsible for any errors or omissions or the results obtained from the use of such information. Oracle Corporation does not make any representations or warranties as to the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any informa- tion contained in this Work, and is not responsible for any errors or omissions. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior con- sent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, inci- dental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.
  3. I dedicate this book to my daughter, Leah, and to my late brother, Robbie.
  4. About the Author Michael New is a senior information systems architect with 17 years of experience in the software industry. After receiving his B.S. from M.I.T. in Aeronautics and Astronautics, he worked for six years as a software engineer, principally on the GPS satellite program at Rockwell. For the past 11 years, Michael has worked as an Oracle core and Oracle Applications DBA. He began as a full-time DBA, moved into consulting with an Oracle partner, then served as a Technical Manager for Oracle Consulting before launching his own firm, New DB Solutions. Michael has implemented the full array of Oracle products for clients in many industries, including the Oracle E-Business Suite, RAC, Data Guard, RMAN, Application Server, and Grid Control (in which he is a recognized authority). Michael has authored several white papers on database administration, has been a presenter at Oracle OpenWorld, and has been a technical editor for a McGraw-Hill Professional book on Oracle 10g. Michael lives in New York City with his five-year-old daughter, Leah. You can reach him at Michael@ NewDBsolutions.com or through his web site, www.newdbsolutions.com. About the Technical Editors Phil Choi worked at Oracle for several years documenting the Enterprise Manager suite of products. Before Oracle, he worked in a variety of industries, including consulting, software, and e-commerce. Phil has yet to put his Mechanical Engineering degree to good use, but the degree in Creative Writing has come in handy during his attempts to write short stories and essays for publication. Phil (and his dog Ajax) lives and works in San Francisco. Edward Whalen is the founder and Chief Technology Officer of Performance Tuning Corporation. During his career, he completed many complex consulting projects and continues to write books and technical papers on various Oracle and Microsoft technologies. Ed has published more than eight books on SQL Server and Oracle, most recently Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Administrator’s Companion and Oracle Database 10g Linux Administration. Ed is recognized as a leader in database design and performance optimization and provides critical services to companies worldwide.
  5. Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv PArT I Install Grid Control 1 Overview of the Grid Control Architecture .......................... 3 What Is Grid Computing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What Is Grid Control? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Grid Control Components .............................................. 10 Grid Control Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Oracle Management Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Oracle Management Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Oracle Management Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Data Flow Between Grid Control Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Grid Control, Database Control, and AS Control ............................. 22 Grid Control vs. Database Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Grid Control vs. AS Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Agents for Grid Control, Database Control, and AS Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Grid Control, Database Control, and AS Control: All Together Now . . . . . . . . . 26 2 Grid Control Preinstallation ...................................... 29 Key Architectural Design Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Decide How Many Grid Control Environments to Build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 How Many Regional Sites Are Required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Make Required Installation Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Network Configuration Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Set Up Host Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fully Qualify Host Name References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Host Name Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Use Static IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Connectivity Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 v
  6. vi Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Hardware Installation Requirements ................................ 56 Hardware Operating Requirements ................................. 57 Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Verify Certification Information .................................... 60 Create Required OS Groups and Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Create Required Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Stop Database Listeners Using Port 1521 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Synchronize OS Timestamps/Time Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Confirm Platform-Specific Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3 Grid Control Installation ........................................ 75 Gather Needed Installation Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Address Installation Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Initialize the Oracle User Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Set Up X Server (UNIX Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Set/Unset OS Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Running the Installer with Desired Options ................................. 87 Silent Installation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Static Ports Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Starting and Monitoring the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Install Grid Control Using a New Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Specify Installation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Specify Installation Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Language Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Specify Inventory Directory and Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Product-Specific Prerequisite Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Specify Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Specify Optional Configuration .................................... 95 Specify Security Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Oracle Configuration Manager Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Configuration Assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 End of Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Install Grid Control Using an Existing Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Steps to Install the OMR Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Run the Installer—GC Existing Database Option ....................... 111 Install Standalone Agents on Dedicated OMR Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Log in to the Web Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Install the Grid Control Security Certificate in Your Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Install an Additional OMS .............................................. 116
  7. Contents vii 4 Grid Control Post Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Patch Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Apply the Latest Grid Control Patch Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Apply Latest Database Patch Set Certified for OMR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Apply the Latest EM Critical Patch Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Apply Required Grid Control One-off Patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Oracle Management Service Configuration ................................. 129 Reduce Grid Control Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Set Up Oracle User Environment on OMS Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Modify the Default Console Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Configure OMS for Failover and Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Tune OMS Thread Pool Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Add OMR Alias to OMS tnsnames.ora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Back Up Critical OMS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Oracle Management Repository Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Set Up Oracle User Environment on OMR Nodes ...................... 141 Confirm That Listeners Load-Balance Across RAC Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Configure i SQL*Plus Access in Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Modify the Data Retention Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Modify Job Purge Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Secure the emkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Set Up Grid Control Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Configure and Tune the OMR Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Install Oracle Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 5 Preinstall Standalone Management Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 An Overview of Common Agent Preinstallation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Agent Key Installation Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Select Agent Installation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Use an Existing User or Create a Separate Agent User ................... 162 Install a Local or Cluster Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Configure a Server Load Balancer First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Use an LDAP or Local Agent User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Choose to Secure or Not Secure the Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Agent Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Agent Disk Space Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Agent CPU Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Agent RAM Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Summary of Agent Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Agent Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Initialize the oracle User Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Confirm No Existing Agent Is Installed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Change Response File if Using an SLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Prepare for Cross-Platform Agent Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Prepare Targets for Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Gather Needed Agent Installation Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
  8. viii Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide 6 Install Management Agents via Agent Deploy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Agent Deploy Installation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Install Required Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Configure SSH User Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Set Up SSH Server (SSHD) on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Back Up Current SSH Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Set ORACLE HOME on OMS Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Run sshConnectivity.sh Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Verify SSH User Equivalence Is Configured ........................... 184 Set Up Time Zone for SSH Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Validate All Command Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Modify Agent Deploy Properties File for SLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Choose Inventory Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Verify Agent User Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Prepare for Cross-Platform Agent Push . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Include Additional Files (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Run Agent Deploy Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Fresh Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 NFS Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Upgrade Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Agent Deploy Post-Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Non-NFS Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 NFS Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Troubleshoot Agent Deploy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 7 Install Management Agents Locally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 nfsagentinstall Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Configure Shared Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Install Master Agent on Shared Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Install NFS Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 agentDownload Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Prepare for agentDownload Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Copy agentDownload Script from OMS to Target Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Execute agentDownload on Target Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Agent Cloning Installation .............................................. 223 Silent Agent Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Interactive Agent Installation ............................................ 228 Install Required Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Run the Interactive Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Agent Post-Installation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Set Up Agent User Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Confirm Agent Is Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Refresh Host Configuration (If Needed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Run agentca for Cluster Agent (Windows Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Confirm Agent Restart on Reboot Is Configured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Back Up the Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
  9. Contents ix 8 Install Grid Control Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Install and Configure the EM Java Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Determine Whether You Need the EM Java Console .................... 245 Installation Steps for the EM Java Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Start the EM Java Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Configure Change Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Install Adobe SVG Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Install EM Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Install Oracle Configuration Manager Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 9 EM Login and Component Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Log in to EM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Web Console Login to Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 EM Java Console Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 AS Console Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 iSQL*Plus Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Metrics Browser Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Control EM Components ............................................... 278 Control iSQL*Plus Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Control the Management Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Control the AS Console .......................................... 279 Control the Management Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Control the Management Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Windows EM Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 EM Startup/Shutdown Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 PArT II Configure and Maintain Grid Control 10 General Console Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Tour of the Setup and Preferences Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Follow an Event from Trigger to Notification .......................... 303 Reasoning Behind this Chapter’s Menu Navigation Order ................ 305 Set Up Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Create Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Create Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Set Administrator Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Set Preferred Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Configure Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Define Notification Methods ...................................... 330 Set Notification Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Create and Subscribe to Notification Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Enable Patching Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Complete the Patching Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Schedule the RefreshFromMetalink Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
  10. x Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide 11 Configure Target Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Remove Targets from Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Ensure Agents Are Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Back Up targets.xml File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Confirm No Targets Are in Blackout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Remove Targets from Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Discover and Configure Targets for Monitoring .............................. 370 Three Paths to Discover/Configure a Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Agent Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 ASM Discovery and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Database Discovery and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Listener Discovery and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Host Additional Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 OracleAS Discovery and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Enter Target Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Grant Management Pack Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Management Options: Packs, Plug-ins, and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Schedule Blackouts for Planned Downtimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Set Blackouts in the Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Set Blackouts at the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 12 Configure Group and Service Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Group Configuration .................................................. 430 Create a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Group Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Service Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 SLA Objectives for Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Key Elements of Services ......................................... 441 Configure a Service ............................................. 445 13 Tune Metrics and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Change Default Metrics and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Change Default Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 Change Default Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Enable Metric Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Metric Baseline Concepts and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Create Metric Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Disabling Metric Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Add Corrective Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Create Corrective Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Add Corrective Actions to Metrics or Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Implement User-Defined Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Create an OS User-Defined Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Create a SQL User-Defined Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
  11. Contents xi Use Metric Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Create Metric Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 Apply Metric Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 Leverage Monitoring Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 Create Monitoring Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Maintain Custom Metrics when Applying Monitoring Templates . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Apply Monitoring Templates ...................................... 541 Compare Settings Between Targets and the Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 14 Backup and Recovery of Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Introduction to Grid Control B&R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Grid Control B&R Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Resetting Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Recommended Grid Control Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 OMR Database Backup and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Back Up the OMR Database in Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 Recover the OMR Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Leverage Flashback Technology for OMR Database Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 Manage OMR Database Backups in Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608 Grid Control Software Backup and Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 OMR Database Software Backup and Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 OMS Software Backup and Restoration .............................. 615 Agent Software Backup and Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 15 Configure Grid Control for High Availability and Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . 623 Grid Control High Availability Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 OMS HA Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 OMR Database HA Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Agent HA Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 Grid Control Disaster Recovery Recommendations ........................... 637 OMR Database DR Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 OMS DR Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Agent DR Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 16 Securing Grid Control Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Enable EM Framework Security .......................................... 656 Enable Framework Security Between Agents and OMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 Secure Repository Data Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 Secure Console Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 Enforce HTTPS Between the Browser and AS Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 Enforce HTTPS Between Browser and OHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 Security Considerations for Console Web Cache Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Limit GC Console Access to Certain Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
  12. xii Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide 17 Maintain and Tune Grid Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Perform Routine Grid Control Maintenance Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 Weekly Online Maintenance Tasks ................................. 687 Monthly Offline Maintenance Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693 Gather and Document Grid Control Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699 Types of Grid Control Metrics to Gather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699 Specific Grid Control Metrics to Gather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703 Procedure to Evaluate Grid Control Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 Tune Grid Control to Reduce Bottlenecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 Reduce High CPU Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710 Resolve Loader Backlog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715 Minimize Rollup Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Evaluate Job, Notification, and Alert Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 Tune I/O Bottlenecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723 Improve Poor Console Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Platform-Specific Tuning Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 Appendixes Online at www.OraclePressBooks.com A Agent Subsystems B Certification and Platform-Specific Installation Requirements C Configure and Tune a Database for the Management Repository D Set Up SSH User Equivalence E Configure Grid Control Automatic Startup F RMAN Scripts from Oracle-Suggested Backup Strategy in Grid Control G Configuring OAS Using Oracle Net Manager H Tools for Grid Control Performance Metrics I How to Install the Grid Control Security Certificate in Your Browser Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737
  13. Acknowledgments This book sprung from material for a Grid Control “Deep Dive” class that I developed and taught to Oracle Consulting personnel at the behest of Dennis Horton, a Senior Director at Oracle. Without his impetus, I would never have tackled this book. Thanks to the Oracle Press team at McGraw-Hill Professional: Lisa McClain, Mandy Canales, Jennifer Housh; the copyedit team, notably Vastavikta Sharma, Carolyn Welch, and Bill McManus; and the Illustration and Production departments for their work in producing this book. I am very grateful to Ed Whalen and Phil Choi for their roles as technical reviewers. Ed introduced me to the McGraw-Hill team by bringing me in as a technical editor for his book, Oracle Database 10g Linux Administration (Oracle Press, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005). Later, he told me about McGraw-Hill’s desire to publish a Grid Control book. After I signed up to write this book, Ed provided his company’s computer resources as a platform for most of the Grid Control installation and configuration steps shown in the book. I am also largely indebted to Phil Choi, formerly the lead editor at Oracle for Enterprise Manager products, for extensively editing the book’s first draft. Phil taught me a great deal about technical writing. I greatly appreciate Oracle’s help in supplying and validating technical content as needed. Thanks to Oracle Support in answering some tough questions along the way, particularly Mathieu Hornsperger for explaining the inner workings of Grid Control security. Narain Jagathesan and Anirban Chatterjee in the Enterprise Manager development group at Oracle provided much of the detailed information about the Management Agent given in Appendix A (available online at www.OraclePressBooks.com). xiii
  14. xiv Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide I’d also like to acknowledge my Oracle mentors: Howard Ostrow, a great all-around technical resource and RAC expert; Matthew Burke, a DBA master who tutored me for four years in DBA paths less traveled and encouraged me to present my first white paper; and Ashok Nagabothu, who took me, when a fledgling DBA, under his wing. I am grateful to my family and friends for seeing me through a trying time personally while writing this book. My brother Jon, his wife Gina, their son Daniel, my mother, and good friends Adam Bierman and Brad Stonberg were very supportive. I am indebted to Amy Seawright, erstwhile companion, who brought me back to life before my mistress, Oracle, reclaimed it. Finally, I thank my daughter, Leah, and my muse for resurrecting me yet again, once and for all.
  15. Introduction This is the first book dedicated solely to the subject of implementing Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control. It was only a matter of time before such a book was published. With the first release (10.1) of Grid Control roughly seven years ago, Oracle ushered in a true system management product. The latest release (10.2) of the product is enjoying large-scale adoption by companies looking to centrally manage their complete IT infrastructure—not just their Oracle systems, but non-Oracle ones as well. Firms around the world are significantly cutting IT expenditures by administering their data center components with Grid Control. As you would expect from such a capable software product, the Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control documentation library from Oracle Corporation is bulky, yet still does not contain solutions to certain common installation and configuration hurdles. Answers are found in supplemental material available on OracleMetaLink, the Oracle Technology Network (OTN), and elsewhere on the Web. (How much third-party material alone is out there? Google “Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control” and you’ll get 122,000 hits.) All in all, it’s a lot of material to digest, especially if you’re new to Grid Control. Contrast a Grid Control novice’s first installation using product and supplemental documentation with that of an expert who has performed many installations, having already waded through and assimilated the reference material and learned the bugs, workarounds, optimal installation order, shortcuts, tips, and tricks. The expert will likely implement Grid Control successfully, on time and under budget, whereas the novice may not be so fortunate. The aim of this book is to lend an expert hand to a DBA who is not intimately acquainted with Grid Control so that he or she can implement it according to best practices, as quickly and painlessly as possible. This book distills what I’ve learned from completing many Grid Control engagements over the past seven years. Each implementation was unique: many were large installations at Fortune 500 companies, while others were smaller, proof-of-concept assignments; the platforms were different, as were the high availability requirements. Yet, these engagements also shared many commonalities: I ran across same issues over and over again—some xv
  16. xvi Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control Implementation Guide generic, some platform-specific—and found myself returning to the same reference material for tried-and-true solutions. I documented the process for customers and gathered Grid Control collateral from colleagues. When I was with Oracle Consulting, I funneled this knowledge and experience into a week-long Grid Control “Deep Dive,” a hands-on laboratory course that I developed and taught to Oracle consultants. More than anything else, it was this trial by fire in teaching fellow consultants—the toughest students—that motivated me to want to share my methods with a wider audience. This book is a “best-of” compilation of all these Grid Control experiences, a how-to manual on which novice and aspiring expert can both rely. I provide step-by-step instructions on how to install, configure, maintain, and tune Grid Control releases 10.2.0.3 and 10.2.0.4 for all operating systems on which it is certified. The book does not cover how to upgrade an existing OEM 9.2 or 10.1 installation to the latest 10.2 version. I concentrate on how to implement Grid Control 10.2, not how to use it ad hoc (such as to tune managed targets). While configuring Grid Control is the book’s central focus, I use Grid Control to configure itself whenever possible to demonstrate its features. By turning Grid Control on itself, so to speak, you will learn how to use it. For example, the Chapter 14 material on backup and recovery of the Oracle Management Repository Database applies equally to target databases. The appendices for the book are available at www.OraclePressBooks.com on either the Downloads page or the book product page. The material there lends itself better to soft copy because you can copy the provided commands, scripts, etc. for setting up Grid Control to your clipboard. This book is intended primarily for Oracle DBAs with at least a few years of experience who want to install and configure Grid Control to administer their IT infrastructure, as well as for system and network administrators assisting in the process. In addition, the book is suitable for IT managers responsible for a Grid Control project or just interested in gaining insight into the product’s capabilities to administer both Oracle and non-Oracle products in their data centers. To effectively capitalize on the book, those in management roles should have at least a basic knowledge of Oracle technologies. Conventions Throughout the book, I refer to two main operating systems: Windows and UNIX. The term “UNIX” refers to all variants of that OS, including Linux. UNIX syntax is used unless the equivalent Windows syntax widely differs. The most prevalent difference is between the UNIX forward slash (/) and the Windows backslash (\) in directory specifications. Following are the conventions used throughout the book: Term Meaning Text in italicized angle brackets represents a variable. Substitute a value for the variable text and do not type the angle brackets. [ parameters ] Text in square brackets represents one or more optional parameters for commands. Enter any optional parameters and do not type the square brackets. \ In UNIX, the backslash continuation character at the end of a line permits entering a single command on multiple lines. Alternatively, on any platform, you can omit the backslash and type the entire command on a single line, provided it adheres to OS-specific restrictions on the maximum number of characters allowed per line. In this book, a backslash at the end of a line signifies to choose one of these methods to enter the command.
  17. Part I Install Grid Control
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  19. ChaPter 1 Overview of the Grid Control Architecture 3
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